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PathologyII Systemspathology Pathologyoftheplacentaandfoetus Introduction Functionalanatomyoftheplacentaisastudyofformandfunctionthathighlightsgreatdiversity amongstthespecies;thefundamentalpurposeoftheplacentaistoprovideforthefetus Thethreemainlayersofthefetalmembranesare 1.

sare 1. Chorion layer that contacts the mother and in most species it is fused with the allantois chorioallantois 2. Allantois containsfetalurineandotherfluidsarisingfromthemembraneitself 3. Amnion smooth translucent membrane that surrounds the fetus and holds amniotic fluid;thefetalsidecanusuallybeidentifiedbypresenceofasamnioticplaques Amniotic fluid is swallowed by the fetus and post partum sampling of amniotic fluid is possible bycollectingstomachcontents Foetuses probably do not inhale amniotic fluid past the larynx unless they are distressed; likewise, meconium is not normally present in the amniotic fluid unless the fetus is distressed anddefecates The final part of the placenta is the umbilical cord it contains 2 umbilical arteries, an umbilical vein andaurachalspace,whichemptiesintotheallantois

Factorsaffectingtheplacentaand/orfoetus Microbialagents Themostusualrouteforpathogenentry(bacteria,virus,protozoaandfungi)isviamaternalcirculation Inhorses,thecervicalbarrierislesseffectiveandascendinginfectionstendtobemorecommon Toxicagents A wide range of toxins are able to reach the placenta and the foetus through maternal circulation and eitherkillthefoetusorinduceabnormalitiesinorganogenesis Mineraldeficiencies Maternal deficiencies of specific trace elements can have substantial effects on the developing foetus (Se,Cu,Mn,I)

EMBRYONICMORTALITYANDFOETALDEATH Embryos become foetuses at the time when organogenesis has taken place and they have developedfeaturesthatallowtheirspeciesandsextobedeterminedphenotypically Early embryonic losses/ mortalities occur during this early stage and except for some infectious causes of infertility, it appears that chromosomal abnormalities account for many of these losses Foetaldeathlaterindevelopmentwillleadtoabortion,mummificationormaceration Mummified foetuses may be retained indefinitely if there is the only one foetus; maceration requiresbacterialinfectionofthefoetus o Foetalmummificationoccursperiodicallyinanimalsandmayhaveacommoncausefor eachspeciesasfollows Horse Twinning CattleBVDvirusinfection Dog Canineherpesvirus Cat Torsionofauterinehorn Sow Parvoviralinfection Stillbirth is the death of the foetus in the last part of gestation during the period where it is independently viable; an abortion is defined as the expulsion of a foetus prior to the time of expectedviability

Diagnosisofabortion In spite of current knowledge and the use of comprehensive laboratory diagnostic techniques, thecauseofabortionisnotreadilyestablishedinasignificantproportionofcases Based on examination of samples submitted to veterinary laboratories throughout the world, thediagnosticrateonthecausesofabortionvariesfrom5to50% Investigation of an abortion outbreak requires epidemiological data, examination of the placenta(s) and the aborted foetus(es), collection of the appropriate specimens for laboratory testing and if possible, an approximate determination of the time of foetal death (antepartum, intrapartumorpostpartum) Acompletecasehistoryisacriticalcomponentofeveryabortioninvestigation Examinationoftheplacentaandtheabortedfoetus Asageneralrule,theplacentausuallyprovidesmoreinformationontheetiologyofanabortion than the foetus itself; detailed examination of the whole placenta and adequate sampling for histopathologicalandmicrobialexaminationsarerequired(someofthelackofsuccessisdueto thefailuretosubmittheappropriatespecimens!!!) Examination of the placenta is primarily focused on identifying lesions that are caused by infectiousagentsandbasicobservationsshouldinclude 9 Placentalweight(comparedtofoetalweight) 9 Freshnessofthetissue 9 Distributionoflesions,bothwithineachmembraneandbetweenmembranes Someexamplesofabnormalitiesoftheplacentaseenindiseaseinclude

Necrosisandinfarction Fibrinexudation Edema Cuppingofthecotyledon Fibrosisandthickening Exudationontotheplacentalsurface Mineralization Vasculitis

Examinationofthefoetusshouldinclude Weightoffoetus Size(crownrumplength) Degreeofdevelopmentforgestationlength(ie.maturityofhaircoat) Degreeofautolysis Presenceofmeconiumstaining Presenceofdehydration Evidenceofdystocia(localizedswellings,suchasswollentongueandfacewithsubcutaneous edemaorrupturedliver) Otherobviousabnormalities Determiningthetimeoffoetaldeath This information may help establish if there is a problem with abortions or with perinatal mortalities Observing the relative state of preservation of the foetus may contribute information about the cause In general, acute infections usually result in the discharge of a severely autolysed foetus as the foetusiskilledrapidly
TimesincedeathChange 12hourscloudycornea,bloodtingedamnioticfluid 24hoursfluidinbodycavities 36hoursgelatinousfluidinsubcutis 72hourseyesdehydrated 144hourscarcassdehydrated,noabomasalcontents

Samples 9 Thedam,placentaandfoetusshouldbeexaminedandsampled 9 Samples should include serum from the dam and herd (flock, or kennel), swabs or samples fromtheuterus(thecaruncleincattle),placentaandfoetus 9 If the placenta and foetus cannot be quickly and suitably transported in their entirety, samples may be removed and one portion placed in fixative and another in plastic bags on iceforculture 9 Inaddition,tissuesmaybekeptfrozenforfuturecultureorfurthertesting 9 Samples from the foetus for culture should include placenta, stomach contents, lung and kidney 9 Tissues essential for histology are the endometrium (caruncle), placenta, brain, eyelid (with conjunctiva), thymus, lung, heart, liver, spleen, kidney, adrenal, and intestine. Tissues for histology must be properly fixed or chilled (not frozen!!!) if transport is to exceed three hours

Abortogenicagentscommontovariousanimalspecies Thereareagroupofabortogenicagentsthatoccurinalmostallspeciesandinclude
Brucellaspp. Chlamydophilaabortus Coxiellaburnetii Leptospiraspp. Listeriamonocytogenes Salmonellaspp. MycoplasmaandUreaplasma Neosporacaninum Toxoplasmagondii Herpesviruses Pestiviruses

Miscellaneousconditions Placentalinsufficiency Particularlyimportantinthemare;itleadstofetaldeath,mummificationorabortion.Itisseenincases of:

9 9 9 9 9 Twinning Endometrialfibrosis Prematureplacentalseparation Bodypregnancy Torsionoftheumbilicalcord

AdventitialPlacentation The development of intercotyledonary placentation in cattle is a mechanism of compensation for inadequatedevelopmentofplacentomes HydramniosandHydrallantois Excessiveaccumulationoffluidintheamnioticandallantoicsacs;theyoccurmostoftenincattle Hydramnios(hydropsoftheamnion) A variety of inherited diseases can cause hydramnios; usually associated with malformation ofthefoetus(ie.facialanomalies) Hydrallantois Most often associated with uterine disease with inadequate numbers of caruncles and the development of adventitial placentation in cattle; may lead to dystocia (may also lead to ventralherniasorruptureoftheprepubictendon) Fetalanomalies Cantakevariousformsdependingontheteratogenandstageoffetaldevelopment Incidentalfindings AmnioticPlaquesandPlacentalMineralization Amniotic plaques are foci of squamous epithelium on the internal surface of the amnion; they are commonlypresentonthebovineamnionduringthemiddletrimester

The deposition of mineral occurs in many species from about the end of the first to the middle of the secondtrimester Hippomanes Present in virtually all equine placentae and are proteinaceous soft calculi, aggregated mineral and organicallantoicconcrements Yolksacremnantsandallantoicpouchesarealsocommonlyobservedinmares PREGNANCYFAILUREINCATTLE Basicconceptsconcerningabortionincattle Therearesomecriteriaforsubmissionofabortedbovinefoetusesfordiagnosticevaluation 1)Whentheabortionrateexceeds3%(maximumtolerableabortionrate) 2)Whenanumberofanimalsabortoverashortperiodoftime There are regional differences in the most common causes of abortion, so one must be familiar with what to expect in the area that one practices. The following table shows the most common causes of bovineabortion(specimenssubmittedtodiagnosticlaboratories)
Cause Nodiagnosis Noninfectious Infectious Bacteria Viral Protozoal Fungal CVDLS 57 6 37 18 3 15 1 PEI 52 2 46 24 6 2 7 AHL 58 1 42 17 3 16 4 Dakota 67 3 30 16 5 0 4

Importantbacterialpathogensassociatedwithbovineabortionsinclude 9 Brucellaabortus(inendemicareas) 9 Campylobacterspp. 9 Listeriamonocytogenes 9 Leptospiraspp. LESIONSOFSPECIFICDIAGNOSTICSIGNIFICANCE Severallesionsmaybefoundinfoetusesthatmaycarrydiagnosticsignificance o Heart failure as a cause of abortion is associated with BVD myocarditis, Neospora myocarditis,ornutritionalmyopathy(VitaminE/Seleniumdeficiency) o Dermatitisisoftenassociatedwithmycoticabortions o AmnionitisisseeninUreaplasmaabortion o Focalnecrosisintheliverorothertissuessuggestsherpesviralinfection(IBP/IPV)

Embryoniclossincattle Campylobacterfoetussubsp.venerealis Causesatruegenitalinfection(venerealdisease)andisanimportantcauseofinfertilityincattle This agent causes embryonic death at 34 weeks (rarely late term abortions) and infected cows mayhaveashorttermmucoidvaginaldischargeandirregularreturnstoservice Isolationoftheagentcanbedonethroughpreputialwashesorvaginalmucusofcowsreturning toestrus Gross placental lesions are those of intercotyledonary placentitis and necrosis of the cotyledons (similartoB.abortus) Tritrichomonasfoetus Embryonicdeathorovertabortioncanoccurandpyometracanbeacomplication Protozoa can be found in preputial washes, vaginal mucus and in cases of abortion, in the stomachcontentsofthefoetus Abortionincattle Brucellaabortus Abortionsaremorecommonat79months Grosslesionsintheplacentaarecharacteristicbutnotpathognomonic(necrotisingplacentitis) Typically, in the intercotyledonary area there is abundant exudate that is odorless, yellow, slightly viscid and slimy, and contains greyyellow, pulpy floccules of detritus; the placental lesions are not uniform; some cotyledons may appear moreorless normal and others will be extensivelynecrotic Thefoetusisusuallyedematouswithbloodtingedsubcutaneousfluid;mostfoetusesabortedin thelasthalfofpregnancywillshowevidenceofpneumonia Listeriosis Abortions in both cattle and sheep due to L. monocytogenes occur during the last trimester of pregnancy Ifuterineinfectiondevelopsduringtheearlypartofthelasttrimester,theorganisminvadesthe placenta, and the foetus dies as a result of septicemia; if the foetus is near term when the infectiondevelops,dystociaistherulefollowedbyseveremetritisandsepticemia Gross lesions consist of exudative intercotyledonary placentitis and in the foetus there may be tiny pinpoint yellow foci in the liver the lung, myocardium, kidney, adrenal, spleen and brain (necrosis) Leptospiralabortion Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona and hardjo are recognized as causes of embryonic loss andabortionincattle;mostoftheabortionsoccurinthelasttrimesterofpregnancy Leptospiresinvadeandkillthefoetuswhichrapidlybecomesautolysedbeforebeingaborted There are no placental or foetal characteristic lesions so diagnosis is dependent on demonstratingraisingantibodytitresinpairedserafromthedam The organism may be demonstrated in foetal aqueous humor by the indirect fluorescent antibodytest

Ureaplasmadiversuminfections Important cause of reproductive failure in cattle; virulent strains may produce vulvitis, embryonicdeath,abortion,orthebirthofdeadorweakcalvesatterm Abortion usually occurs in the last trimester of gestation; on gross examination, the amnion is the most severely affected portion of the placenta; it has patchy thickening with fibrosis and mayhavefociofnecrosis,haemorrhage,fibrinexudationandmineralization The foetus is usually well preserved and may be stained with meconium; the lungs are firm and poorlyaerated;theremaybeanerosiveconjunctivitisofthepalpebralconjunctiva Arcanobacteriumpyogenes Commonly isolated from aborted foetuses and it is believed to be a primary pathogen in the causeofabortion Mycoticabortionincattle Sporadic cases of bovine abortion occur due to infection with variety of fungal species, with Aspergillus fumigatus the most frequent isolate; the zygomycetes (Absidia, Mortierella, Rhizomucor,Rhizopus)arealsocommonlyresponsible Dermatitisintheabortedfoetusisoftenassociatedwithmycoticabortions Neosporacaninum Most Neosporainduced abortions occur at 56 months of gestation; this midgestation abortion frequencyisdistinctivefromotherkindsofabortionindairycattle On necropsy, there are often no useful identifying gross lesions; bovine foetuses may be fresh, autolysed,orinearlystagesofmummification Neospora tachyzoites may be identified in focal brain lesions (focal nonsuppurative encephalitis) however, free protozoa are difficult to recognise and are most easily identified usingimmunohistochemistry Otherlesscommonlesionsincludenonsuppurativemyocarditis,placentitisandmyositis N.caninumhasalsobeenidentifiedasacauseofabortioninsheepandpossiblyingoats Viralabortionincattle BovineviraldiarrheavirusandAkabanevirus(AKAV)areprobablythemostimportantviralpathogensof thebovinefoetus,lesscommonlyBoHV1andBluetonguevirus Bovineviraldiarrheavirus(BVDV) Reproductive disease in cattle induced by BVDV includes oophoritis, fertilization failure, embryonic death, abortion, mummification, stillbirth, birth of small calves or with congenital defects,andpersistentlyinfected(PI)withnoncytopathicstrainsofBVDV BovineembryosorfoetusesexposedtoBVDVfollowingviremiainthedambetween40and120 daysofpregnancy(or50100days)maydieandbeabsorbed,abortedormummified CNS malformations attributed to BVDV include microencephaly, cerebellar hypoplasia, hydranencephaly, hydrocephalus, hypomyelinogenesis, myelination defects, microphthalmia, cataracts, retinal degeneration, optic neuritis, brachygnathism, thymic aplasia, hypotrichosis, alopecia,pulmonaryhypoplasia,andgrowthretardationwithgrowtharrestlinesinlongbones

BoHV1(Infectiousbovinerhinotracheitisvirus,IBRV;Infectiouspustularvulvovaginitisvirus,IPVV) MostcowsinfectedwithBoHV1donotabortuntil36weeksfollowingtheinitialinfection,and asignificantlygreaternumberofcowsabortbetween58monthsofgestation Gross lesions in the foetus are usually absent or masked by autolysis, but when visible include whitetotan13mmdiameterfociofnecrosisunderthelivercapsule InfectionswithAKAVbefore30daysingestationcanproducemultiplecongenitalabnormalitiesandcan resultinnormalormalformedfoetusesthatmay be aborted,mummified,ordeliveredaliveorstillborn, eitherearly,onduedate,orlate Infections with Bluetongue virus during pregnancy, can cause heavy losses due to early in utero death and absorption, abortion, mummification, or stillbirth with severe fetal growth retardation and multiple congenitalanomalies PREGNANCYFAILUREINSHEEP Examination of the ovine placenta and foetus is similar to that of the cow. The same principles apply, however the infectious agents differ. The variety of causes of placentitis and abortion in sheep is probablygreaterthanforanyotherspecies;commoncausesofabortionareasfollows:
Cause Nodiagnosis Noninfectious Infectious Placentitis Campylobacter Toxoplasma Chlamydophila Coxiella Dakota 56 5 39 25 10 11 5 0.1 AHL 48 2 50 9 4 19 17 5

Otherimportantcausesinclude: 9 Brucellaovis 9 Salmonellaspp 9 Listeriamonocytogenes 9 Leptospiraspp 9 Bluetonguevirus 9 Wesselsbronvirus 9 RiftValleyfever 9 CacheValleyvirus 9 Iodinedeficiency Campylobacterspp. Campylobacterfoetussubsp.foetusisacommonresidentoftheovineand bovineintestine and cancauseabortioninbothspeciesbutdoessomorecommonlyinsheep The chief manifestations of Campylobacter infections in sheep are intercotyledonary placentitis leadingtolateabortion,prematurebirth,andthebirthofweaklambs Transmissionmostoftenoccursbytheoralroute,andthroughfecalcontamination Aborted foetuses may have only nonspecific edematous changes, however, some have specific

hepatic lesions; affected livers have few or many randomly distributed light tan areas, from 12 mm up to 12 cm in diameter; frequently they have a "target pattern" with a distinct, slightly raised white outer rim and a depressed tan inner zone, the lesion is a multifocal necrotizing hepatitis

C. jejuni is a common inhabitant of the intestinal tract in sheep and cattle and may cause enteritis in people and occasionally animals. It frequently causes abortion in sheep and less oftenincattle,althoughheavylossesinindividualcattleherdsdooccur

Chlamydophilaabortus(ovineenzooticabortionandenzooticabortionofewes) Importantcauseofinuteroinfectionsinsheepandgoatsresultinginabortion,stillbirth,andthe birth of weak offspring; can cause abortion in women in close contact with these aborting ruminants Naive animals (newly introduced sheep and females pregnant for the first time), are most vulnerable;abortionusuallyoccursinthefinaltrimesterofpregnancy Ewesareinfected through mucousmembranes;thesourceofthe agentisabortedfoetuses and uterine discharge of carrier ewes at estrus or there may be spread through the prepuce and semenoframs(atleasttemporarily) If a ewe is infected early in gestation, she will abort in the same gestation; if infection occurs in late gestation she will abort during the next pregnancy. In general, once a ewe aborts, she will notabortasecondtime Placental lesions resemble those seen in bovine brucellosis and there is patchy, almost equal, involvement of cotyledons and intercotyledonary regions (acute suppurative to chronic placentitis); the foetus is usually well preserved but may have few gross lesions (focal areas of coagulationnecrosisintheliverandspleen) In order to establish Chlamydophila as the cause of an abortion in cattle or sheep, the organism should be demonstrated in a smear (placenta) stained by a modified ZN, Gimenez, or Giemsa method Brucellaovis The primary presenting condition is epididymitis of rams but B. ovis also causes placentitis and abortionsinpregnantewes The placenta is grossly edematous, being thickened to 25 cm by gelatinous fluid; the intercotyledonary areas show plaquelike thickenings; periarteritis and arteritis are distinctive features;thefoetusshowslittlehistologicalevidenceofsystemicinfection Toxoplasmagondii Toxoplasmosiscanplayamajorroleinovineabortion;thesourceofinfectionisusuallyinfected cats Naive ewes will develop a protective immunity but if they are pregnant, infection of the cotyledonwillresultinabortion Aborted lambs and kids show no significant gross lesions; protozoal organisms may be demonstrablehistologicallyinmyocardium,lungandbrain The foetal placenta bears what are probably characteristic lesions; the cotyledons are bright to dark red and have numerous white flecks or small soft white nodules 13 mm in diameter (strawberrylikelesions)

Viralabortioninsheep Borderdisease(hairyshakerdisease) Border disease is the result of in utero infection of pregnant sheep or goats by BDV; prevalence isvariableinsheepandrareingoats Infection can result in embryonic or foetal death, abortion, mummification, dysmorphogenesis, earlypostnataldeath,andbirthofweakorclinicallynormalyoung Infectionatlessthan65daysofgestationresultsinearlyembryonicdeath;infectionat65to85 daysofgestationcanresultinthebirthofapersistentlyinfectedlambthatmaybeweak,havea hairy coat and shake ("hairy shaker"); ewes infected after 85 days of gestation will give birth to normallambswithtitrestoBDV Diseasecontrolrevolvesaroundreducingexposureofnaiveindividualsduringpregnancy Persistentlyinfectedsheepprovideasourceofinfectionsoidentifyingandremovingthemfrom theflockisessential;theycanbeidentifiedbyvirusisolationfromblood(buffycoat) PREGNANCYFAILUREINGOATS Abortion in goats is very similar to that of sheep, except that Coxiella burnetti, trauma and stress are more common causes of abortion (does maintain their corpus luteum for the entire pregnancy and are more prone to luteolysis following stress and or trauma). Other important causes include Brucella melitensis,Slamonellaspp.andIodinedeficiency Brucellamelitensis Abortionmaybetheonlysignobservedandittendstooccurlateinpregnancy Coxiellaburnetii(Qfever) Very important disease, not only of goats and sheep, but especially of people (significant zoonoticrisk) C. burnetii is in the family Rickettsiaceae; it is highly resistant to physical and chemical degradation,andisinfectiveinverylowdoses(aslowasoneinfectiousparticle) Nave animals are infected by aerosol or from infected milk; after primary replication in local lymph nodes, they become bacteremic and organisms colonize the mammary gland and pregnant uterus and can be found in large numbers in amniotic fluid and in the placental membranes,especiallyintrophoblasts.Someanimalsbecomecarriersandshedtheorganismin milkandinuterinefluids.Sheddingintheperiparturientperiodisespeciallycommon Abortion tends to occur late in gestation and weak lambs and kids may be born during an outbreak The aborted foetus may be well preserved or autolysed; gross lesions are confined to the placenta which is thickened and leathery, with multifocal to confluent areas of mineralization; the exudate is copious, offwhite and most obvious in the intercotyledonary region (acute diffuse suppurative placentitis); smears of the placental exudate contain large numbers of organisms,whichcanbestainedbythemodifiedZiehlNeelsenorMacchiavello'sstain In the foetus, granulomatous hepatitis and nonsuppurative pneumonia with occasional focal lymphoidaccumulationsaroundbronchioleshavebeendescribed

PREGNANCYFAILUREINMARES EQUINEABORTION The common causes of abortion in horses are listed below. In horses, about one half of the abortions canbedeterminedbydirectexaminationoftheplacentaand/ortheumbilicalcord
Cause Nodiagnosis Noninfectious Dystocia Congenitaldefects Placentalseparation Twins Cordabnormality Bodypregnancy Infectious Placentitis EHV Bacterial Leptospiral Fungal Nocardia Kentucky(%) 16 50 19 10 7 6 3 2 34 10 4 2 2 1 MSU(%) 33 19 5 4 5 31 13 9 0 1 1 VLS/AHL(%) 42 20 4 0 12 37 13 12 10 1 0 0

Results obtained in a more recent study carried out in the United Kingdom indicated that problems associated with the umbilical cord (umbilical cord torsion and long cord/cervical pole ischemia disorder), werethemostcommondiagnoses.Othercausesincludedtwinning,intrapartumstillbirth,andplacentitis (E. coli and Streptococcus zooepidemicus more commonly isolated). Neonatal infections not associated withplacentitisandinfectionswithEHV1orEHV4werecommontoo. Theumbilicalcord 9 The equine umbilical cord is prone to develop abnormalities; the cord should be between 3683 cmlong(thefactorsthatcontrolthelengthofthecordarenotknownalthoughincreasedfoetal movementandpaternalgeneticfactorsareinvolved) 9 Longer cords are associated with strangulation of the cord around the foetus, torsion and necrosisofthecervicalpoleoftheplacenta 9 Acordthatislessthan36cmisexcessivelyshortandmaybeassociatedwithprematurerupture inlabourorwithprematureseparationoftheplacentaatthesiteofattachment Marereproductivelosssyndromeandlatetermabortions(MRLS) A syndrome of abortion that reached epidemic proportions in the spring of 2001 and to a lesser extentin2002(mainlyinKentucky);hasbeenaconsistentcauseofabortioninthisarea Experiments revealed that the setae (hairs) of the eastern tent caterpillar (ETC) embed into the submucosa of the alimentary tract of the mare creating microgranulomatous lesions the alimentary tract lesions allow bacteria from the alimentary tract of the mare (streptococci, actinobacilli, and enterococci) to invade the circulatory system the bacteria then establishes infections in tissues where the immune surveillance is reduced, such as the fetus and placenta fetalandplacentalfluidbacterialinfectionsleadtofetaldeathandabortioncharacteristicofMRLS Primary pathological findings in lateterm MRLS fetuses were funisitis of the amniotic umbilical cord,pneumonia,bacterialinfections,andhemorrhages

Miscellaneousinfectionscausingabortioninmares Equineherpesvirusabortioninhorses Equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV1, equine abortion virus) is widespread throughout the world and causes respiratory,neurologicandgeneralizedneonataldisease,aswellasabortion The majority of the herpesvirus infections associated with abortion typically occur during the last 3 monthsofgestationandtheremaybeprominentchangesinthefoetus 9 Fibrincastinthetrachea 9 Interstitialpneumonia 9 Focalnecrosisintheliver 9 Prominentlymphoidfolliclesinthespleen Foals infected with this virus in utero may be born alive at, or near, term. Many of them die in the first fewdayswithsevereinterstitialpneumoniaandsecondarybacterialsepticemia Equineherpesvirus4andequineviralarteritisvirusmayalsoinduceabortioninmares Bacterialinfectionshemolyticstreptococci,E.coli,Pseudomonas,Staphylococcusaureus,Klebsiella pneumoniae,andActinobacillusequulitheseorganismsmayoccasionallyreachthechorionbywayof thebloodstreamofthedam,butmostascendthroughapatentcervix Fungal infections frequently have the same pathogenesis and produce a similar placental lesion with a sticky brown exudate covering the surface of the affected areas of the chorion Aspergillus fumigatus is the most commonly isolated fungus, but Absidia corymbifera and other Aspergillus species havebeenrecovered PREGNANCYFAILUREINPIGS It is suggested that some 3040 % of porcine abortions are primarily infectious, leaving the rest to non infectiouscausessuchas: 9 Husbandry(standardsofstockmanshipandhygiene) 9 Managementpolicies(agestructureoftheherd) 9 Environment(seasonautumnabortionsyndrome,heatstress) 9 Geneticfactors(parentalandprogenygenetics) 9 Nutrition(deficiencies vitaminsAandE) 9 Toxicagents(drugs,chemicals,dietarycontaminants) Intrapartumdeaths It is suggested that at least 80% of stillborn piglets will have been alive at the start of farrowing; thus, intrapartumdeathisusuallyduetononinfectiouscauses,suchas: 9 Increaseddurationoffarrowing 9 Increasedlittersize 9 Older,overweighand/oremaciatedsows 9 Elevatedfarrowinghousetemperatures 9 Stress

Infectiouscauses 9 Opportunistic infections are those associated with ubiquitous microorganisms that occur as commensals in the environment Actinomyces pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureusandAspergillus,Erysipelothrix,Pasteurella,SalmonellaandStreptococcussp. 9 Usually such organisms only cause disease if the sow's health has been compromised. Poor hygiene predisposes to ascending bacterial infection of the reproductive tract. Apart from effectsonthereproductivetract,thesowisnotnormallyotherwiseaffected Brucellasuis 9 Infectioncanoccurbythesamevarietyofroutes,but,inswine,brucellosisistransmittedchiefly bycoitus 9 Articular lesions caused by B. suis are quite common they begin as a synovitis and affect chieflythecompoundandlargejointsofthelimbs(reactionispurulentorfibrinopurulent) 9 Abortion usually occurs between the 23 month of pregnancy, but the incidence of abortion is relatively less than in the bovine disease; there is also a high incidence of stillborn and weak pigletsbornatterm Stillbirths,mummification,embryonicdeathandinfertilitycomplex(SMEDI) 9 A range of conditions such as stillbirths, mummification, embryonic death and infertility are producedbyviralinfectionsthatarepresentinahighproportionofpigherds,andtowhichpigs usuallydevelopastrongimmunity 9 The majority of SMEDItype problems are caused by porcine parvovirus; less frequently enteroviruses(ofwhichthereareatleast10separategroups) 9 The classical signofSMEDIinfectionsisafullterm litter consistingofsmall mummifiedfoetuses ranging up to fullgrown stillborn or live weakly piglets, due to progressive infection in utero; abortion,infact,rarelyoccurs Specificpathogens Viral or bacterial infections such as swine influenza, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS),Porcinecircovirustype2(PCV2),Aujeszky'sdisease,Africanswinefever,classicalswinefeverand leptospirosismaybeassociatedwithseverereproductivedisease PREGNANCYFAILUREINDOGSANDCATS There is little published information about the major causes of abortion in dogs and cats and the identification of the cause of abortion in a cattery or kennel requires considerable and often expensive investigation. Most veterinarians concentrate on the infectious diseases because they are often easier to confirm than some of the other causes. Of the infectious diseases, infection with Salmonella spp is oftenoverlooked. Investigationoffailureofpregnancyindogsandcats 9 Hematology 9 Serumbiochemistry 9 Urinalysis 9 Vaginalcytology 9 Cranialvaginalculture 9 Bacteria

9 Serumprogesteroneconcentration Brucellacanis Pregnantbitchesmayabortafter30days,butmostabortionsoccurafter50days;thereisoften prolongedvaginaldischargeafterabortion Thereisplacentitisandcommonfetallesionsincludebronchopneumonia,myocarditisandrenal haemorrhages Testicular degeneration and epididymitis are the usual manifestations of the disease in male dogs Commoncausesofpregnancyfailureindogs
Bacteria Brucellacanis Salmonella Campylobacter Mycoplasma/Ureaplasma Other Viruses Canineherpesvirus Caninedistemper Protozoa Toxoplasma Neospora Endocrine Progesteronedeficiency Hypothyroidism

Commoncausesofpregnancyfailureincats Viruses Felineherpesvirus Felinecalicivirus Felineimmunodeficiencyvirus Felineleukemiavirus Bacteria Salmonella References PathologicBasisofVeterinaryDiseaseMcGavin&Zachary,4thed.,2007 Pathology of Domestic Animals, eds. Jubb KVF, Kennedy PC, Palmer NC, 5th ed. Elsevier, Philadelphia,PA,2007