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ENERGY AUDIT OF IIT-BOMBAY CAMPUS

Final Report

Ist Year M.Tech Students of the Department of Energy Science and Engineering

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BOMBAY POWAI, MUMBAI 400 076.

JULY, 2008

This report has been prepared by:

Chikku Abraham (T.A. for the project) Mel George Victor Jose and Sharath Deshpande

with the support and cooperation of the following students of the Department of Energy Science and Engineering.

Manoj Kumar Mahendra Rane Ms. Debasmita Panda Ms. Ragini Agarwal B. Kiran Kumar Hrushikesh Patade Hardik Patel A. Senthil Kumar Ms. Harathi Nanda Deepak Yadav Chinmay Kinjavdekar Anand Upadhyay Yajnavalkya K. Nookala Ravindra Narkhede S. Nagaraja Rao Anoop S. Prasad Wani Kalpesh Karnik Shiva Kumar D. Surendranath Vineet P. Ms. Riddhi Panse Vikrant Bhalerao
under the guidance of

Prof. Rangan Banerjee


as a part of the course work for the subject EN 607: Energy Management

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Disclaimer

The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and may not represent or reflect the views of IIT - Bombay.

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PREFACE

An energy audit is a study of a plant or facility to determine how and where energy is used and to identify methods for energy savings. There is now a universal recognition of the fact that new technologies and much greater use of some that already exist provide the most hopeful prospects for the future. The opportunities lie in the use of existing renewable energy technologies, greater efforts at energy efficiency and the dissemination of these technologies and options.

This energy audit of the IIT-B academic area and the hostels was carried out by the students of the Department of Energy Science and Engineering as a part of the course work for the project EN 607. This report is just one step, a mere mile marker towards our destination of achieving energy efficiency and we would like to emphasise that an energy audit is a continuous process. We have compiled a list of possible actions to conserve and efficiently utilize our scarce resources and identified their savings potential. The next step would be to prioritize their implementation. We look forward with optimism that the institute authorities, staff and students shall ensure the maximum execution of the recommendations and the success of this work.

To all of you, we hope that the ideas and pages that follow will give as much enjoyment and challenge as they have given us in their development, synthesis and writing. Any suggestions to further enhance the quality of this work are always welcome. Kindly email your comments and suggestions to melgeorge@iitb.ac.in or melgeorge.v@gmail.com by 25th July, 2008.

- Authors

TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of figures List of tables

1. Introduction 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Objective of the energy audit IIT present energy scenario Specific Energy Consumption (SEC) Segmentation

2. Energy Audit 2.1 2.2 Methodology Grouping and strategy

3. Quantification by end use 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 Departments, library, main building Hostels Gulmohar and guest houses Street lighting Water pumping Energy consumption in hostel kitchens Central air conditioning for library

4. Measurements performed 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Room air conditioners Lighting and fan loads Energy usage in hostels-washing rooms and geysers Computers/printers Water pumping

5. Benchmarking 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Energy performance of various departments Per unit area energy consumption Per capita energy consumption Per capita electrical energy consumption in hostels ECBC standards and comparison

6. Energy conservation and efficiency 6.1 Implementation measures 6.2 Energy management structure

Appendix A List of instruments used Appendix B Distribution of room ACs Appendix C BEE thumb rules for air conditioning loads Appendix D Calculations for Solar Water Heating Systems (SWHS) in hostels Appendix E Calculations for power savings in computers Appendix F Operating schedule of pumps at main pump house Appendix G General recommendations Appendix H Summary of hostel electricity bills Appendix I Details of library central air conditioning Bibliography and websites Acknowledgements

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure no. 1.1 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Title Recorded monthly peak demands at IIT-B during the year 2007 Distribution of connected load by end use in IIT-B Room air conditioning load (ton per unit of total floor area) for different departments Room air conditioning load (ton/ air conditioned sq.m) for offices in Main Building Distribution of connected load in hostels (excluding computers) Connection diagram of Main Pumping Station Per capita consumption of energy (as LPG) for different hostels AC Load curve for the day without the energy saver for ACs (on 12 th May, 2008) AC Load curve for the day with the energy saver for ACs (on 7th May, 2008) Power consumption in H5 washroom for 5 hrs. on 5th April 2008 Power consumption of 2 kW Bajaj geyser in Hostel 5 on 6th April 2008 Efficiency-discharge for various pumps at Main Pump House Total annual energy consumption of different departments Normalized per unit area energy consumption (kWh/sq.m/year) for departments Normalized per capita electrical energy consumption (kWh/person/yr.) for departments Annual electricity consumption in hostels over the years 2005-2007 Annual electricity bills for hostels: student and institute contributions

LIST OF TABLES
Table no. 1.1 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 5.1 5.2 6.1 Title Time of Day Tariff as per MSEDCL Tariff Order for HT-I category AC loads in various departments Computers and printers in departments and Main Building Connected loads (excluding computers) in hostels Connected Load in kW for Gulmohar and Guest Houses Common area lighting loads Ratings of pumps in IIT-B Capacity of water storage tanks Details of energy consumption and food wastage in hostel kitchens and staff canteen Energy savings achieved by installation of the energy saver for a 1.5 ton AC Measurements for lighting in hostels Lux meter readings for departments Lux level measurements for common area lighting Sample measurements on fans in hostels Measured power consumption for computers and printers in different operating modes Details of pumps for departments and residential complexes Details of pumps in some hostels ECBC recommended levels for lighting power density Measured values of lighting power density at select locations in IIT-Bombay Implementation Measures

1. INTRODUCTION
The Indian Institute of Technology - Bombay (IIT-B), set up by an Act of Parliament, was established in 1958, at Powai, a northern suburb of Mumbai. Today, the Institute is recognised as one of the centres of academic excellence in the country. Over the years, there has been significant progress at IIT Bombay in all academic and research activities, and a parallel improvement in facilities and infrastructure, to keep it on par with the best institutions in the world. Institutes in positions of excellence grow with time. As on date, it has 14 Departments, 10 Centers, 3 Schools and 4 Interdisciplinary programs. The student strength of the institute is about 5300, with faculty strength of about 450 and supporting staff of about 1500 over an area of about 500 acres.

1.1 Energy audit objective This energy audit assumes significance due to the fact that the IIT-B electricity bill had crossed Rs. 10 crores during 2007, and it was aimed at obtaining a detailed idea about the various end use energy consumption activities and identifying, enumerating and evaluating the possible energy savings opportunities. The target is to achieve savings in the electrical energy consumption to the extent of 20%. The audit was also aimed at giving the students a feel of the practical problems and difficulties in carrying out energy audits. As energy engineers, the students of the department enthusiastically participated in the endeavour.

1.2 IIT present energy scenario The energy consumption on campus is mainly in the form of electricity, apart from the use of LPG as cooking fuel in the hostels. The campus had a connected electrical load of 5.3 MW as on April 2008 and a contract demand of 4.5 MVA. The monthly recorded peak demand for the year 2007 is given in Fig. 1.1. The IITB energy bill for the year 2007 was Rs. 10.2 crores. The electricity bill comprises two parts: one related to the energy consumed (per kWh or per unit energy consumed) and the other is the maximum demand charge (per kVA of maximum demand during the month). There also exists a penalty for low power factor. Furthermore, the energy charge includes a component based on time of use. The Time of Day (TOD) tariff as per the MSEDCL

(Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution Company Ltd.) for category HT-I is as given in Table 1.1. The existing tariff rate is Rs. 300/kVA for maximum demand and Rs. 4.3 /kWh on an average. The maximum demand in April 2008 was 4168 kVA and corresponding power factor was 0.97. The energy charges during the month were Rs. 3.1 per unit for industrial use, Rs. 2.6 p.u. for residential users and Rs. 4.5 p.u. for commercial activities. The average power factor for the year 2007 was 0.98 which was achieved by means of power factor correction units. The contract demand in the year 2001-02 was 3000 kVA, which was increased to 3708 kVA and then finally to 4500 kVA in 2005-06. Before the last extension, the institute was paying a penalty to MSEDCL (Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution Company Ltd.) for drawing more than the contract demand. Recently, IIT-B had again applied for extension of present contract demand to 5000 kVA, which was not granted by MSEDCL/ Tata Power Supply Company.

Monthly maximum demand for IIT-B in 2007


4500

4000

3500

Max demand in kVA

3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Months

Fig. 1.1: Recorded monthly peak demands at IIT-B during the year 2007

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Table 1.1 Time of Day Tariff as per MSEDCL Tariff Order for HT-I category (since December 2003) Consumption during following hours of the day 2200hrs-0600 hrs 0600hrs-0900 hrs 0900hrs-1200 hrs 1200hrs-1800 hrs 1800hrs-2200 hrs Energy Charge (p/u) (-)85 0 60 0 100

1.3 Specific Energy Consumption (SEC) The Specific Energy Consumption (SEC) is defined as the energy consumption per unit of product output. The specific energy consumption considering students, faculty and staff members were calculated which forms the institute SEC and was taken as reference for comparison. The SEC was calculated to be 1384 kWh/person/annum (for 2007) for the academic area and Rs. 5950 per person per annum.

1.4 Segmentation This energy audit report has segmented the energy consumption patterns both by departments/ hostels/ offices and by end use activities (lighting, cooling, pumping, washing etc.). The details are provided in the subsequent chapters.

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2. ENERGY AUDIT
2.1 Energy audit methodology The methodology adopted for this audit was Formation of audit groups for specific areas and end use Visual inspection and data collection Observations on the general condition of the facility and equipment and quantification Identification / verification of energy consumption and other parameters by measurements Detailed calculations, analyses and assumptions Validation Potential energy saving opportunities Implementation As a first step in this regard, 13 teams of total 27 students from the department were formed and each group was assigned a particular area or application of energy in the campus. The activity was organized as a Graded Course Project for the course EN 607 (Energy Management) during January-April 2008. 2.2 Grouping and strategy The following groups were formed with specific target areas and end uses assigned. Group 1: Lighting and fans in Main building, Library and staff canteen Group 2: Lighting and fans in Departments (all departments, offices, class rooms and labs) Group 3: Lighting common area Covering street lights, corridors, grounds Group 4: Lighting and fans in Hostels (Hostel 1 to 7) Group 5: Lighting and fans in Hostels (Hostel 8 to 13) Group 6: Electric water heating and washroom/ironing loads in all Hostels (Hostel 1-13) Group 7: Total energy audit of Gulmohar, old guest house and new guest house

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Group 8: Energy use in Kitchen Hostels (1-13) and staff canteen Group 9: Room air conditioners in main building, departments and labs. Group 10: Central air conditioning (library) Group 11: Computers/printers All departments, labs, library and main building Group 12: Water Pumps in the entire campus Group 13: Benchmarking of electricity consumption The groups were allowed the use of various measuring instruments like Power demand analyzers and Lux meters to assist in the auditing activity. Also, cooperation of the Electrical Maintenance Section was sought to collect past data and for taking measurements.

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3. QUANTIFICATION BY END USE


The loads were segregated based on the end use as lighting and fans, air conditioning, Computer/printers, water pumping, hostel mess cooking loads, washing machines and irons. Quantification, types and necessary measurements were carried out. The details are given here.

Airconditioning 11% 4% 6% 40% 7% 6% Common area lighting 26% Hostel-geysers and washrooms Lights and fans-hostels and academic area Gulmohar and guest house Computers and printers in depts. Water pumping

Fig. 3.1 Distribution of connected load by end use in IIT-B

3.1 Electricity use in departments, library, main building 3.1.1 Lighting and fans The Institute has about 14,000 Fluorescent tube lights in different departments and labs. Out of which about 3,500 tube lights are fitted with electronic ballast and rest are with electromagnetic ballast. The Institute is having 3,670 fans in different departments and labs. Out of which about 3,000 fans are fitted with resistance type regulator and rest are with electronic regulator. The library and Main Building together have a total of 2,480 lights and 880 fans (including table fans and exhaust fans). The total lighting load from the above is 501 kW and the connected fan load is 307 kW.

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3.1.2 Air Conditioners On using the rated capacity details supplied by the manufacturers, the total room AC load is about 1.991 or 2 MW. The total AC load (rated) is about 1,450 tons of refrigeration. The distribution of ACs in different departments is as shown below in Table 3.3.

Table 3.1 AC loads in various departments


Deptt/capacity Aerospace ASC Bio school CDEEP CFDVS Chemical Chemistry Civil Comp. Sc. Earth Sc. Electrical Gaitonde bldg Electrical Main+annex Energy Science and Engg. Humanities IDC IRCC KReSIT Main Bldg. Mathematics Mechanical Metallurgy Physics SOM Total 10% excess assumed for unaccounted areas 1 ton 0 0 7 0 0 5 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 22 1020 1.5 ton 62 3 25 0 4 93 65 34 43 12 18 93 6 19 14 9 105 37 13 27 73 57 15 827 2 ton 2 1 0 12 0 0 2 0 10 0 0 3 0 0 0 6 0 21 3 4 1 2 1 68 3 ton 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 others 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 6

This is 44.3% of the contract demand at unity pf and 63.2% at 0.7 pf lag. But the whole demand is not usually at one time due to a diversity factor. The kW/ton based on the rated values was found to be 1.375. As air conditioning load is about 50% of the campus contract demand, any savings achieved in this field would be significantly important. The tonnage of AC per unit of total area for different departments is shown below in Fig. 3.2. A wide variation in the values can be seen in this plot, but the numbers of labs in the department which are air conditioned have a clear influence on this.

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0.03
AC tonnage per sq.m.

0.025 0.02 0.015 0.01 0.005 0

departments
Fig. 3.2 Room air conditioning load (ton per unit of total floor area) for different departments A study of the AC tonnage per unit air conditioned area for the Main Building was done and it was found that the average is about 0.08 T/m2 which is fine by the standards specified [Please refer to Appendix C]. Few areas exceed the limits specified and resizing in future could be an option. In many cases, the utilisation of the area has changed when compared with the building plans.

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0.16

0.14

0.12
AC tonnage ton/sq.m

0.1

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

Fig. 3.3 Room air conditioning load (ton/ air conditioned sq.m) for offices in Main Building

3.1.3 Computers/printers Computers and monitors account for 30%-40% of the energy used by office equipment. Their energy consumption is second only to office lighting. It is estimated that a power managed computer consumes less than half the energy of a computer without power management. The total number of computers and printers in different departments in the campus is as shown below. The computers in hostels and residential area are not included here.

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Table 3.2 Computers and printers in departments and Main Building

S No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

Computer Department/Building CRT Aerospace CESE Bio-school SOM Chemical/Chemistry HSS Metallurgy Earth Science IDC KRESIT Electrical Civil Main Building Mechanical CSRE Physics Energy Systems Central Library SYSCON CFILT CFDVS CDEEP Mathematics CSE IEOR CTARA Faculty Monitor 77 41 38 104 194 32 63 39 42 160 226 90 171 76 71 90 24 31 27 8 18 20 39 20 3 288

Printer LCD Monitor 12 4 8 11 44 1 24 8 33 81 170 36 92 36 11 23 3 7 11 5 17 22 24 126 8 1 145 Laser Jet 8 5 7 9 29 1 11 7 8 15 33 10 83 13 9 8 4 3 4 1 2 7 3 3 3 371 DeskJet 3 4 1 3 4 1 2 1 8 1 4 5 2 1 1 3 1 1 62

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S No 1

Computer Department/Building CRT Aerospace Total Monitor 77 1992

Printer LCD Monitor 12 963 Laser Jet 8 657 DeskJet 3 108

Thus there are a total of about 3,000 computers and about 800 printers in the departments. 3.2 Hostels There are 14 hostels in IIT Bombay, having an aggregate connected load of 1.25MW. The loads are analyzed after segregating them into lighting, fan, geyser and wash room loads. Here, the personal computers or laptops of individual students in their rooms or in hostel computer rooms are not included. Table 3.3 Connected loads (excluding computers) in hostels
Connected Hostel Load of Light & Fan in kW H1 H2 H3 H4 H5 H6 H7 H8 H9 H10 H11 H12 H13 Tansa Total 42.5 46.6 46.3 52.1 40.3 49.8 34.9 37.64 38.47 19.74 38.4 97.28 97.28 15.72 657 Connected Load of Geysers in kW 18 24 28 24 12 16 40 19 39 36 42 108 108 32 546 Connected Load of Wash Room in kW 4.42 1.76 2.52 2.31 1.76 5.9 2.52 2.02 2.05 3.72 3.38 4 4.6 2.32 43 Total Connected Load of Light, Fan, Geysers & Wash Room in kW 64.92 72.36 76.82 78.41 54.06 71.7 77.42 58.66 79.52 59.46 83.78 209.28 209.88 50.04 1246 Average Load of the Hostel in 2007 in kW 30.7 26.22 38.25 44.55 32.64 37.72 39.73 37.93 24.75 21.8 33.35 77.03 80.87 29.29 555

Fig. 3.4 Distribution of connected load in hostels (excluding computers)

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3.3 Gulmohar and guest houses Gulmohar is the alumni building of the campus in which a cafeteria, a banquet hall, a bank and the placement office are situated. There are two guest houses in the campus. The first one is the Jal Vihar, also called old guest house with 25 rooms and two suit rooms. The second is Vanvihar with 51 rooms. The connected load details are as shown below. Table 3.4 Connected Load in kW for Gulmohar and Guest Houses Jal Vihar Van Vihar Gulmohar Lighting 7.6 34.26 1.68 Air Conditioners 19.05 35.19 43.2 Others 52.67 112.05 1.21 Total 79.32 181.5 46.09 The cumulative connected load of these buildings comes to 307 kW. 3.4 Street lighting and common area lighting All street lights and garden lights in the campus, corridor lights, and lights on gymkhana grounds were accounted. The connected load is 193.7 kW, and about 60% of this includes the illumination in the Gymkhana grounds, and these lights are normally operational only in the evenings. The quantification is as follows.

Table 3.5 Common area lighting loads


A. Street & Corridor Lighting

No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Fitting Filament Lamp Compact Fluorescent Lamp Fluorescent Lamp Fluorescent Lamp Sodium Vapour Lamp Sodium Vapour Lamp Sodium Vapour Lamp Mercury Vapour Lamp Metal Halide Lamp

Rating (W) 100 18 40 80 70 150 250 150 400

Number of Fittings 16 10 33 52 511 99 14 146 2

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B. Gymkhana Grounds Rating No 1 2 3 4 5 Ground/Court Football Hockey Basketball Volleyball Badminton Fitting Metal Halide Metal Halide Metal Halide Metal Halide Metal Halide (W) 2000 800 800 800 250 Nos. 24 16 24 32 16

The total number of lighting fixtures in common area is 985.

3.5 Water pumping The water supply to the institute is taken from the BMC (Brihan-mumbai Municipal Corporation) lines which pass just outside the campus. The connection diagram of the main pumping station is as in the following Figure 3.5. There are two water tanks which store water coming from the BMC lines. One of the tanks stores water which is supplied to all departments and residential complexes. Water from this tank is pumped on to an overhead tank which is located next to ANANTA building. Water from this overhead tank gets distributed to various pumps by the effect of gravity. The second tank stores water for supplying the same to all hostels and Tansa house. The ratings of the pumps are as shown in table 3.6, and it comes to a connected load of 343.2 kW. The motors are operated in a daily pattern as shown in Appendix F. Table 3.6 Ratings of pumps in IIT-B Serial no 1 2 3 4 5 6 Motor capacity 160 HP 75 HP (new) 75 HP (old) 60 HP 30 HP - 1 30 HP 2 Electrical loading 0.71 0.68 0.70 0.89 0.94 0.94 Flow rates in m3 / hour 308.7 227.67 212.23 208.37 92.61 92.61

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Fig. 3.5 Connection diagram of Main Pumping Station . The water storage tanks in the campus are as shown in Table 3.7 and the total storage capacity is about three times the average daily water consumption of the campus. Table 3.7 Capacity of water storage tanks No. Tank 1 Tank 1 2 Tank 2 3 Overhead Capacity ( m3) 500 500 900

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3.6 Energy usage in hostel kitchens Each of the hostels in the campus is equipped with a kitchen, except hostel 7, where it is under re-construction. The staff canteen in the campus is also having an associated kitchen. The connected load and LPG usage pattern in these hostels is shown below. Table 3.8 Details of energy consumption and food wastage in hostel kitchens and staff canteen No
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Kitchen
H1 H2 H3 H4 H5 H6 H8 H9 H 10 H 11 H 12 & 13 Staff Canteen Total

Connected Electrical Load (kW)


11.49 8.5 6.58 7.75 10.7 10.9 10.7 10 5.3 10.7 10.7 3.2 106.5

LPG Usage per day (kg)


67 57 43 50 36 50 43 57 28 50 133 57 671

Food Wastage per day (kg)


20 20 20 20 25 20 20 20 10 15 128 10 328

Assuming the calorific value of LPG as 46.4 MJ/kg, the daily energy consumption in LPG is 31 GJ. Thus the major energy consumption is from LPG only. LPG consumed per student in different hostel kitchens is as shown below.

Fig. 3.6 Per capita per day consumption of energy (as LPG) for different hostels (red line indicates Institute average)

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3.7 Central air conditioning for library The system has a rating of 110 ton refrigeration capacity and mostly operates at part load. It has been discussed in Appendix I. The savings could not be quantified due to difficulties in taking measurements. However, considerable potential for energy savings may exist as the efficiency of the system will be lower at part loads.

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4. MEASUREMENTS PERFORMED
Data obtained based on measurements are included in this chapter. 4.1 Room air conditioners A commercially available energy saver for room ACs was procured * and measurements were carried out for over 60 hrs, with and without the saver, for a typical 1.5 ton Voltas Vertis AC in the DESE Urja Computational Lab from 7th- 12th May, 2008.
2500 2000
Power (watts)

1500 1000 500 0 900

1100

1300 Time (hrs.)

1500

1700

Fig. 4.1 AC Load curve for the day without the energy saver for ACs (on 12th May, 2008)
2500 2000
power (watts)

1500 1000 500 0 900

1100

1300 Time (hrs.)

1500

1700

Fig. 4.2 AC Load curve for the day with the energy saver for ACs (on 7th May, 2008) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------* The Aircosaver was procured from M/s Ecopower Ltd., Mumbai. These measurements are purely
from a study point of view and are applicable only in the specific context. They should not be construed as an endorsement of the merits or deficiencies of the said product(s) by IIT-Bombay.

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Table 4.1 Energy savings achieved by installation of energy saver for a 1.5 ton AC

Time hrs.

Energy consumed without saver (in Watt hrs.) 2532 1886 372 1900 1650 14880

Energy consumed with saver % savings installed(in Watt hrs.) 1368 1086 334 1050 1544 8887

1000-1110 1140-1230 1250-1310 1340-1430 1530-1650 Whole working

46 42.4 10.2 44.7 41.7 40.3

day (7.5 hrs) Thus savings of the order of 35-40% was seen when the energy saver was fitted with some deterioration in comfort conditions. It can be inferred that the apparatus provides better savings when used for oversized ACs with a higher duty cycle. 4.2 Lighting and fan loads The energy consumption of FTLs (Fluorescent Tube Lights) which are commonly used in the campus is shown below. The energy consumption of the FTLs used in hostels is found to be high compared to 28W T5 FTL. 4.2.1 Lighting in Hostels Table 4.2 Measurements for lighting in hostels FTL with Electronic Ballast [Room No.48, H5 (3rd April 2008) V(volts) I(Amp) P(W) P.F. 226.5 0.54 38 0.522 FTL with Magnetic choke [Room No. 49,H5](3rd April 2008) V(volts) I(Amp) P(W) P.F. 224.3 0.532 42.5 0.5813 Few of the lux measurements taken in the campus are as shown below. Hostels Room No Day without Fl. lamp Day with Fl. lamp Night Study Table Hostel 5 #48-FTL #49-FTL 31 133 95 31 38 150.6 105 55 Hostel 3 #289 87 107 78 98

#52-FTL 85 170 75 70

#49-14W CFL

64 52 10

The lux levels are found to be far less than the standard values in hostel rooms.

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4.2.2 Lux meter Readings for Departments: Table 4.3: Lux meter readings for departments Mechanical Engg. location With daylight+lights Only daylight Nuclear Engg Lab 180,162 110,120 Refrigeration lab 183,156 120 Metal Forming lab 119,104 44,32,22 Testing of material 91,87,61 Robotics Lab 112,126 30 Fracture Mechanics 119,130 31 CAM 481,400 220,120 Room no. 303 134,113 78 323 188 128 301 193 CFDL 198 65 IEOR 178 62 308 193 80 309 193 82 311 144,136 88 201 150 81 202 136 79 217 136 77 104 122 65 Electrical Engg. Machine Lab: 185,180,170 110,105 Field computation lab: 210,200 150,155 Power electronics research lab 190,185,180 130,140 power electronics hardware 200,210,195 65,120 lab power system computation lab 250,225 105,110 Micro electronics lab 360,400 110,105 Gaitonde Building: R-001 340,300 127,120 R-002 350 180 Library 436,446 250,285

Only lights 135 155 101 90 100 102 395,400

140,150 170,175 155 140,160 170,180 220,200 221 282,234 379,300

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4.2.3 General Lighting Table 4.4: Lux level measurements for common area lighting

Here: Average Horizontal Illumination- AH Variation in Horizontal Illumination- VH Average Vertical Illumination- AV 4.2.4 Fans From the power consumption of ceiling fans with resistance and electromagnetic regulators, it was seen that the latter consumes less power at lower speeds of the fan. Table 4.5 Sample measurements on fans in hostels Sample reading [Room No 49, H5] (4th April 2008) Ceiling Fan Resistance regulator FanSpeed V(volts) I(Amp) P(W) P.F. 1 224.7 0.43 41 0.791 2 225.6 0.43 56 0.9 3 223.81 0.453 63 0.956 4 223.4 0.45 66 0.984 ON 223.3 0.452 70 0.996 Sample Reading [H5 Mess] (4th April 2008) Electronic Regulator Ceiling Fan Fan Tab V(volts) I(Amp) P(W) P.F. 1 233.7 0.26 13 0.385 2 233.6 0.396 37 0.66 3 233.7 0.382 49 0.815 ON 233.18 0.405 68 0.997

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4.3 Energy consumption in Hostels: Wash Room & Geysers The power consumption of H5 wash room for 5 hours is shown in Fig. 4.3. The measurements were taken at 15 minute intervals.

Fig. 4.3 Power consumption in H5 washroom for 5 hrs. on 5th April 2008 The typical power consumption of geysers installed in Hostel 5 is shown below in Fig. 4.4.

Fig. 4.4 Power consumption of 2 kW Bajaj geyser in Hostel 5 on 6th April 2008 29

4.4 Computers & Printers The power consumption by the computer and printer under different modes of operation are shown below. Table 4.6: Measured power consumption for computers and printers in different operating modes Mode of Power S No System Equipment Power (W) Operation factor 1 LCD Monitor On 29.8 0.596 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Jwala Jwala Vayu Prithvi Urja Urja Urja Urja CPU Monitor CPU CPU Monitor CPU System Monitor System Laser Printer On & On On On On Hibernate On Sleep Mode On 56.0 105.5 60.0 53.4 48.0 2.5 55.0 3.0 3.0 0.620 0.650 0.650 0.620 0.560 0.200 0.634 0.225 0.360

4.5 Pumping The power consumption and efficiency of the pumps used in the campus are as shown below. 4.5.1 Pumps for Department and Residential complexes Table 4.7: Details of pumps for departments and residential complexes Electrical Power Hydraulic Power Overall system Pump Consumption (kW) Efficiency (kW) 160HP 75HP NEW 75HP OLD 60HP 37.0 24.3 22.2 21.7 78.6 37.7 38.6 33.2 0.47 0.65 0.58 0.65

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Fig. 4.5 Efficiency-discharge for various pumps at Main Pump House It is observed that the 75HP (new) pump set is giving the best performance among all, since it has high discharge as well as high efficiency. 4.5.2 Hostel Pumps Table 4.8 Details of pumps in some hostels Overall Hydraulic Electrical Power system Power Consumption Efficiency 13.5 13.5 21.2 21.2 0.64 0.64

Pump 30HP 30HP

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5. BENCHMARKING
Energy benchmarking involves the development of quantitative and qualitative indicators through the collection and analysis of energy-related data and energy management practices. Benchmarking in simplistic terms is the process of comparing the performance of a given process with that of the best possible process and to try to improve the standard of the process to improve quality of the system, product, services etc. It allows organizations to develop plans on how to adopt such best practices, usually with the aim of increasing some aspect of performance. Benchmarking may be a one-off event, but is often treated as a continuous process in which organizations continually seek to challenge their practices. Benchmarking is a method which should be used on a continual basis as best practices are always evolving. Benchmarking of energy consumption is a powerful tool for performance assessment and logical evolution of avenues for improvement. Historical data, well documented, helps to bring out energy consumption and cost trends month-wise / daily. Trend analysis of energy consumption, cost, relevant production features, specific energy consumption, help to understand effects of capacity utilization on energy use efficiency and costs on a broader scale. The basis for benchmarking the energy consumption at IIT-B is energy consumed per person (includes teaching staff and students). The benchmarking parameters here are, Departmental energy performance kWh consumed per sq.m of area and kWh consumed per capita

5.1 Departmental energy performance The details of the annual energy consumption in various departments are as shown here in Fig. 5.1.

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1400000

1200000

1000000

kWh energy consumption

800000

600000

400000

200000

departments

Fig. 5.1 Total annual energy consumption of different departments in 2007

5.2 Per unit area energy consumption The energy consumption per sq. m for each department is determined and it is normalized with respect to average value of per sq. m energy consumption of the institute, which was set as the basis. For normalizing, the Institute average of 75 kWh/sq.m./year is taken as the denominator. The results are shown in Fig. 5.2.

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Fig. 5.2 Normalized per unit area energy consumption (kWh/sq.m/year) for departments From the above graph it can be observed that Chemistry, KReSIT, Electrical, Mathematics, Mechanical and Bioscience departments are above the base line of per sq. m energy consumption as their values are greater than one.

5.3 Per capita energy consumption for departments The per capita (student + faculty) consumption for each department is determined and it is normalized with respect to the average value of the per capita consumption for the institute. Basis for 2007: 1384 kWh/person/year. From the graph (Fig. 5.3) it can be observed that Chemistry, KReSIT, IDC, Mathematics, Bio-science, CSRE are above the base line of the per capita consumption as their values are greater than one.

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Fig. 5.3 Normalized per capita electrical energy consumption (kWh/person/yr.) for departments

5.4 Per capita electrical energy consumption in hostels The general trend of electricity consumption in the hostels for last three years is as shown below in Fig. 5.4. The average tariff for the hostels is about Rs. 5.13 per kWh** of electrical energy consumed. For the year 2007, the average electricity cost for hostels on per student basis is calculated to be Rs. 4,300 per annum. The actual amount paid by the students during 2007-08 as the fee contribution (electricity, fan and water charges) was Rs. 600 per annum. This amount has since been raised by Rs. 2000 and so the subsidy has been eliminated.

** Please refer to Appendix H for the hostel bills. There seems to be some discrepancy in the way the Electrical Maintenance Section calculates the amounts as hostels should come under residential tariff which is Rs. 2.6 per kWh (basic charge).

35

A graph showing the present institute subsidy and the student fee contribution to the annual hostel electricity bills in 2007 is shown below (Fig. 5.5). The institute subsidy is to the extent of 85% of the bills. So, any savings achieved in the hostel bills is directly beneficial to the institute and can be used for other works.

Electricity consumption in hostels (2005-2007)


800000

700000

600000
units of electricity consumed

500000 2005 2006 2007

400000

300000

200000

100000

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 hostel no. 8 9 10 11 12 13

Fig. 5.4: Annual electricity consumption in hostels over the years 2005-2007

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electricty bill in hostels: student and institute contributions


4000000

3500000

3000000
annual amount paid in Rs.

2500000

2000000

institute subsidy student fee contribution

1500000

1000000

500000

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 hostel no. 8 9 10 11 12 13

Fig. 5.5: Annual electricity bills for hostels: student and institute contributions during the year 2007 5.5 ECBC Standards and comparison As per the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) 2006, published by the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE), Govt. of India, the recommended levels of lighting power density are as given below in Table 5.1. Table 5.1: ECBC recommended levels for lighting power density Space/ application Enclosed offices Offices-open plan Conferences/meeting rooms/ multipurpose Classrooms/ lecture theatres Lounge Dining area Food preparation Library stacks Library reading area Workshops Cafeteria Lighting power density in W/sq.m. 11.8 11.8 14.0 15.1 12.9 09.7 12.9 18.3 12.9 15.1 15.1

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The measured values for locations at IIT-Bombay are as follows. Table 5.2 Measured values of lighting power density at select locations in IITBombay Space/ application Main Building office Conference room Classrooms in Main Building Library reading area Hostel Lounge (Hostel 5) Hostel mess (Hostel 13) Hostel mess (Hostel 5) Staff Canteen Hostel rooms (Hostel 13, Room B 108) Hostel rooms (Hostel 5, Room 52) Hostel rooms (Hostel 5, Room 49) Lighting power density in W/sq.m. 07.8 14.8 13.5 07.3 08.1 07.6 10.7 05.2 04.5 05.6 03.8

It can be seen that the lighting power density values in the Institute are not higher than the ECBC standards.

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6. ENERGY CONSERVATION AND EFFICIENCY


6.1 Implementation Measures Energy savings per year 7400 kWh 6,95,500 kWh 1,18,800 kWh 1,11,000 kWh 59,300 kWh 72,100 kWh 15,600 kWh 10,35,000 kWh 15,700 kWh 1825 LPG cylinders of 14.2 kg 900 LPG cylinders of 14.2 kg 4,38,000 3.1 lakhs 21.9 lakhs 95,000 13 lakhs 4 months 8 months Savings in Rs. Per year 38,000 Capital Investment in Rs 10,000 Simple Pay Back Period 4 months

No

Recommended Measure Replacing Electromagnetic ballast by Electronic

ballast in FTL in study room and using 18W CFLs in staff canteen Replacing Electromagnetic FTLs by T5 in Departments (10500 Fittings) Replacing common area lighting in departments with T5 FTL /CFL Replacing 1970 FTLs used in student rooms in H1 to H7 with 28W ballast FTLs. Replacing rheostatic speed regulators of 1950 fans in the student rooms (H1 to H7) with electronic speed regulators Replacing 1700 FTLs used in student rooms in H8 to H11 with 28W ballast FTLs. Replacing rheostatic speed regulators of 1045 fans in the student rooms (H8 to H11) with electronic speed regulator Installing solar water heaters in all hostels [For calculations, refer Appendix D] Solar Water Heater for Guest Houses (a)NISARGUNA biogas plant for food waste processing (300 kg capacity)

2 3 4

34.8 lakhs 2.7 lakhs 5.4.lakhs

63 lakhs 4.32 lakhs 2.56 lakhs

19 months 17 months 6 months

2.8 lakhs

2.7 lakhs

1 year

3.4 lakhs

3.4 lakhs

1 year

79,300

1.57 lakhs

2 years

8 9

49.68 lakhs 80,000

182 lakhs 2.6 lakhs

3.7 years 3.3 years

6.41akhs

6.54 lakhs

13 months

10 (b)ARTI biogas

OR plant for food waste

processing(300 kg capacity) 11 Installing 200 Aircon savers for 1.5 Ton ACs with

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12

a higher duty cycle (> 8 hrs./day) If 300 AC users can be made to switch of the ACs 15 mins. prior to leaving the office. Adopting a normal energy saving power setting for computers [For calculations, refer Appendix E] Rescheduling the pump operating pattern [New pattern is given in Appendix F] Replacing faulty non-return valves of pumps,

kWh 51,300 kWh 6,20,000 kWh 50,420 kWh 49,100 kWh 1,07,300 kWh 34,46,500 kWh and

2.5 lakhs

nil

nil

13

31.1 lakhs

nil

nil

14

2.42 lakhs

nil

nil

15

replacing 75 hp motors with 55 hp and 160 hp motor with 90 hp motor Replacing 160HP motors with an energy efficient

2.4 lakhs

1 lakh

4 months

16

55 kW motor and changing its piping with diameter of 250 mm.

5.3 lakhs

23 lakhs

4 .2 years

Total savings

1825 / 900 LPG cylinders

1.75 crores

3.05 crores

1.7 years

Implementation of all the above measures can bring about a total saving of around Rs. 1.75 crores per year, i.e. 17% of the present electricity bill. The total investment required would be to the extent of Rs. 3.05 crores and an average simple payback period of around 1.75 years. In addition to the above, a set of general recommendations is provided in Appendix G.

6.2 Energy Management Structure In order to streamline the use of energy in the IIT-B campus and to ensure its efficient utilization, we propose three possible energy management structures. A final decision on the type of energy management structure suitable for the institute should be taken by the Institute management.

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I.

Appointment of an Energy Manager for the institute, with suitable experience and a proven track record. The person shall be responsible for the day to day energy conservation activities. New staff should be allotted to the Energy Manager or some staff members from Electrical Maintenance Section be made responsible to him/her. An annual review of the energy performance of the institute is to be performed and a certain percentage of the quantified savings be shared with the Energy Manager.

II.

The Executive Engineer (Electrical) should himself take over the responsibility of ensuring efficient energy use on the campus. This will ensure prompt implementation of measures. This system may also require additional staff. A performance related incentive in the form of a bonus can be provided to the Electrical Maintenance staff based on savings achieved.

III.

Formation of an Institute level committee headed by the Dy. Director to review the implementation of energy conservation measures. All departments and section heads should submit a bi-annual report of compliance for review and action. Sections/ departments not achieving savings to be penalized and suitable incentives may be given to the performing departments.

An annual review of the implementation of the energy saving measures should be taken up and performance should be monitored. A report of the same should be sent to the Director. Electrical energy consumption should be made a subject in the Institute budget with separate heads for departments and hostels. Energy performance can be a basis for providing incentives to hostels and departments.

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APPENDIX A LIST OF MEASURING INSTRUMENTS USED


1. Power analyzer (measures active, reactive, apparent power, power factor, energy consumed) 2. Lux meters (to measure lighting levels in lux or lumens per sq.m.) 3. Thermometers digital 4. Thermocouples

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APPENDIX B DISTRIBUTION OF ROOM ACs


The distribution of the room air conditioners by type and utilization location is as shown below in Fig. B.1 and B.2 respectively.

29%

window split

71%

Fig. B.1: Distribution of room air conditioners by type

24%

labs rooms offices 57%

19%

Fig. B.2: Distribution of room air conditioners by utilization areas

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APPENDIX C BEE THUMB RULES FOR AIR CONDITIONING LOADS


The recommended levels for comfort air conditioning loads as per the BEE (Bureau of Energy Efficiency) thumb rules are as given below in Table C.1.

Table C.1: BEE thumb rules for comfort AC loads Type of office Small office cabins Medium size offices (seating 10-30 people) Large multi-storied office buildings with centralized air conditioning Heat load in ton rating per sq.m. 0.10 0.06 0.04

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APPENDIX D CALCULATIONS FOR SOLAR WATER HEATING SYSTEMS (SWHS) FOR HOSTELS
A sample calculation for the storage tank volume, collector area requirement and payback period for the hostel no. 5 has been done below. Total no. of hot water users in hostel = 329 Assume that amount of hot water used per student = 20 litres / day. Total amount of water used per day in the hostel = 6580 litres. Now typically 2 m2 of collector gives 125 Litres per day of hot water output at 60 C Normal tolerable hot water temperature by measurement we found to be 40 C. However, assuming that the end user consumes hot water at 60 C (since piping losses are also involved) the collector area required for the hostel is 106 m2. The option is either to go for forced circulation or natural circulation. Forced circulation requires various accessories and proper control of the pump. Hence selecting natural circulation system and considering three wings in hostel, the collector area required on each wing is 37 m2. Cost of collector = Rs. 10,000 / m2. Total capital cost required for installation of solar water heater in the hostel = 10,000*106 = Rs 10,60,000 The total energy consumption in the hostel considering 12 hours of geyser operation is found to be 6*1.5*12=108 kWh/day Total energy consumption in a year = 27,000 kWh (assuming 250 days operation) Assuming the cost of electricity as Rs. 4.8 / kWh, Total electricity bill due to geysers in the hostel = 27000*4.8 = Rs. 1, 29,600 /Simple Payback period (SPP) = (capital cost of SWHS / Electricity bill per year) = 8 years. This is a bit on the higher side due to the lower number of geysers in Hostel 5.

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The same calculations are done for each hostel in which, capital required and payback period are calculated and are listed below. Table D.1: Calculations for SWHS in hostels
Sr. no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Hostel Numbers of geysers 9 12 12 12 6 8 18 8 18 18 21 36 36 16 Energy consumed (kWh) 40500 54000 54000 54000 27000 36000 81000 36000 81000 81000 94500 162000 162000 72000 Energy Cost (Rs.) 202500 270000 270000 270000 135000 180000 405000 180000 405000 405000 472500 810000 810000 360000 No. of students 315 396 414 512 329 432 279 416 485 437 430 514 530 200 Water requirement per day 6300 7920 8280 10240 6580 8640 5580 8320 9700 8740 8600 10280 10600 4000 Collector Area reqd. 100.8 126.72 132.48 163.84 105.28 138.24 89.28 133.12 155.2 139.84 137.6 164.48 169.6 64 Cost of collectors 1008000 1267200 1324800 1638400 1052800 1382400 892800 1331200 1552000 1398400 1376000 1644800 1696000 640000 SPP in years 5 4.7 5 6 8 7.6 2 7 3.8 3.5 2.9 2 2.1 1.8

H-1 H-2 H-3 H-4 H-5 H-6 H-7 H-8 H-9 H-10 H-11 H-12 H-13 Tansa

Comments: 1. The pay back periods of the hostels are found to be in between 1.8 to 8 years. 2. The discrepancy in the payback period can be attributed to the variation in no. of students per geyser as reported earlier. 3. Solar heater option is looking quite attractive but, some efforts are needed for synchronization of output of solar heater system and geyser. 4. Natural circulation system is recommended.

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APPENDIX E CALCULATIONS FOR POWER SAVINGS IN COMPUTERS

Formula used: Total energy consumed for each setting = No of computers x Duty cycle x 24 x Average power x No of operating days in a year.

The table below shows the existing settings for monitors on the campus. There are 1992 CRT monitors and 963 LCD screens. The CRT monitor consumes 66 W and LCD monitors consume 30 W. We have assumed 6.5 hrs of monitor ON (i.e. in use) and 17.5 hrs when it is not being used and 300 days operation in a year.

Table E.1 Present annual energy consumption for computer monitors on campus Turn off Monitor Never 20 min 30 min 40 min Percentage of existing monitors 16 54 16 14
Energy Consumed (kWh)

S No

1 2 3 4

184737 181551 55053 49274

In addition, the CPUs consume 40 W. Using a similar assumption as given above, the annual energy consumption is as tabulated in Table E.2.

Table E.2: Present annual energy consumption for CPUs S No 1 2 System Standby Never 10 min Percentage 83 17 Energy Consumed (kWh) 706363 45255

Now, using the recommended settings for all the computers, the energy consumption would be as per Table E.3.

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Table E.3: Annual energy consumption for all computers with recommended power settings Item Monitors CPUs Turn off Monitor 10 min 20 min Percentage 100 100 Energy Consumed (kWh) 328796 271455

The annual energy savings thus obtained is about 6, 20,000 kWh, i.e. about Rs.31.1 lakhs (assuming Rs. 5 per kWh).

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APPENDIX F OPERATING SCHEDULE OF PUMPS AT MAIN PUMP HOUSE


160 HP: This pump is operated in the peak hours, when water is required the most. On the whole, this pump operates for 8 hrs every day. 75 HP AND 60 HP PUMPS: The two 75 hp and the 60 hp pump are set into operation for four hours alternatively. 30 HP PUMPS The 30 hp pumps are in operation from 0500 to 0100 hours everyday. Hence, the pumps are in operation for 20 hours in a day and each pumps alternatively works for 4 hrs. There fore, each of these pumps is on for ten hours in a day. The prevailing operating schedule and a new proposed schedule are shown in Fig. F.1.

Fig. F.1: Comparison of the existing and proposed loading of pumps at Main Pump House

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An annual saving of Rs. 2.42 Lakhs can be achieved using the modified schedule. In order for this proposal to work, the pumps at various buildings have to run after 22:00 hrs so that the water demand is lowered during peak hours. This will also bring in savings due to time of usage tariff for those smaller pumps.

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APPENDIX G GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS


In addition to the recommendations given in section 6.1, a few more general ones are presented here. The savings due to their implementation could not be easily quantified, but their importance cannot be understated. Implementing all these measures, a total saving of 20-25% can be achieved without compromising much on the existing facilities and comforts.

G.1 Lighting Photo sensors to be installed in central library to utilize optimum day lighting. A scheme for the same has been proposed here. Proposed areas: 1) Central Library Ground Floor Reading room near window:

Currently 10 FTL are controlled with one switch. Since it is near to window, sufficient day lighting is available. So if we use photo sensor to control this lights we can reduce the duty cycle and energy consumption. 2) Central Library G Floor Reference section near window:

Presently 5 FTL are controlled with one switch. By slight modification in the circuit we can use photo sensor to control 5 lamps. 3) Second Floor Journal reading room near window:

Presently 5 FTL are controlled with one switch .photo sensor can be installed to control lights in the alternate row. Currently, approximately 50% of the street lights are controlled by timers. It is recommended that all the lights be taken under this control scheme to reduce chances of over-usage due to human error. The existing split switching system to be further enhanced/improved in inside corridors of Hostels 12 and 13 Hostels 12 and 13: Natural lighting can be considered for corridors. Split switching: In the internal corridors of H13, the present arrangement is that alternate lights are clubbed together in one switch. Yet, the distance of them is 7 m and seems to be too close to each other. As such the tubes are at a distance of approx 3.5 m

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So, the split switching may be such that far off ie., may be the first and fourth tubes may be included in one switch. Alternatively, the alternate tubes may be removed form the installation.

G.2 Geysers It is advisable to have manual switching of the geyser in peak periods, as most of the geysers were ON for 24 hours.

G.3 Room Air Conditioners It was found that in many cases, the utility type of the area has changed and the AC may no longer be required there. This can save expenses on procurement of new ACs. Proper maintenance of ACs is not being done. Many of the older ACs could be replaced. About 20-22 % of all installed ACs suffer from some or the other defect. In a large number of cases, the filters were found to be dirty (3%), thermostats not working (7%), ice formation/ water leakage (1%), rusting (3%), fans not working (4%), swing problems (3%) etc. were observed. The heating load can also be reduced by reducing the consumption by other sources like lights, computers etc. and the occupancy needs to be considered. Explore the possibility of occupancy sensors.

G.4 Pumping Rescheduling of small pumps at individual buildings to late night timings Installation of water meters at every building to make sub-sections inside IIT accountable to the water being used.

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APPENDIX H SUMMARY OF HOSTEL ELECTRICITY BILLS


Table H.1 Hostels electricity consumption during 2007 and amounts paid in rupees
Mon th Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Hostel 1 Units Amount 21223 95003 22235 129776 20342 117234 23221 113851 19745 111762 22330 108491 23312 99835 25260 134141 26122 129655 23960 127205 22526 113905 18968 91793 Hostel 2 Units Amount 22591 101114 23398 136558 18116 104418 16676 81803 12775 72350 5608 27364 9162 39351 33606 178421 30638 152046 10692 56838 24830 125540 21638 104692 Hostel 3 Units Amount 30025 134326 34762 202827 31399 180895 37105 181834 18700 105834 23816 115700 17698 75838 29356 155872 32337 160469 31343 166360 28529 144220 19977 96668 Hostel 4 Units Amount 33277 149254 37734 220558 34536 199356 40468 199773 25127 142594 26274 128025 24408 104920 35810 190514 36879 183389 35859 190711 34212 173319 25633 124392 Hostel 5 Units Amount 23106 103415 27064 157936 25474 146782 29364 143930 18382 104055 21161 102819 18123 77654 26145 138836 27519 136582 26597 141190 26512 134034 16489 79817 Hostel 6 Units Amount 26613 119083 29601 172730 28106 161935 29013 142211 28391 160651 27932 135669 27042 115779 28896 153432 26828 133156 29354 155812 27757 140321 20912 101185 Hostel 7 Units Amount 30576 1369897 38112 222562 33209 191516 41076 201478 22057 125035 24575 119582 21256 91246 35164 186887 39668 197076 27385 145569 20736 105065 14259 69244

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Hostel 8 Units Amount 27600 123692 31340 183071 28618 165083 32763 160773 21673 122864 22937 111635 21100 90580 30652 162948 32832 163124 31034 164922 30005 151874 21684 105114

Hostel 9 Units Amount 17047 76347 20005 116771 18377 105921 22407 109865 12862 72842 13522 65759 12703 54487 20537 109083 22403 111217 20986 111432 21621 109334 14340 69435

Hostel 10 Units Amount 15541 69594 17396 101532 16743 96488 20953 102721 11794 66778 12311 59858 10893 46725 18428 97869 19772 98147 18254 96918 17647 89241 11227 54371

Hostel 11 Units Amount 22078 98798 24913 145367 23452 135115 27094 132790 21508 121706 25485 123772 24512 104939 26287 139565 27214 135044 27505 145981 22391 113198 19690 95256

Hostel 12 Units Amount 49154 220385 48990 286397 46299 261282 55314 271594 47395 268709 43894 213708 47526 203938 47412 252268 46705 232306 47757 254012 40644 206001 41432 200917

Hostel 13 Units Amount 57995 259882 62446 364866 56947 328587 71551 351099 44981 255059 40381 202017 38988 167442 55301 294123 57864 287632 58700 312048 49809 252284 41534 201410

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APPENDIX I DETAILS OF LIBRARY CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONING


The schematic is as shown in the following figure.

Fig. I.1: Schematic of central air conditioning system for library The refrigerant used is R-22 and water. The total rating is 110 tonnes, comprising two compressors, three condensers (including one on standby) and an air handling unit. The following procedure is proposed for auditing: Thermocouples should be installed at each inlet and outlet to measure temperatures. Install flow meters/pressure gauges to obtain the flow rate of refrigerant, water. Using temperatures & flow rates obtained, apply energy balance equation for each component. Identify losses.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY AND WEBSITES


1. S.P. Sukhatme, Solar Energy, Tata McGraw Hill Publ., New Delhi, 1996. 2. L.C.Witte, P.S.Schmidt, D.R.Brown, Industrial Energy Management and Utilisation, Hemisphere Publ, Washington, 1988. 3. W.C.Turner, Energy Management Handbook, Wiley, New York, 1982. 4. Guide Books for the National Certificate Examination for Energy Managers and Energy Auditors (set of four books, available at http://www.energymanagertraining.com/new_course.php) 5. J.C. Andreas, Energy Efficient Motors, Marcel Dekker Publ., New York, 1992. 6. Nisarguna Biogas Plant by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, details available at www.barc.ernet.in/webpages/technologies/kitchen/kitchen_br 7. Compact biogas plant by Appropriate Rural Technology Institute, Pune, details available at http://www.arti-india.org/content/view/46/43/ 8. US Governments Energy Star page for fluorescent bulbs, http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm 9. Explanatory video on various types of lamps, www.commoncraft.com/cfl 10. Typical lumen outputs and energy costs for outdoor lighting, www.nofs.navy.mil/about_NoFs/staff/cbl/lumentab.html 11. General Electric and lighting products, www.gelighting.com/na/home_lighting/products/energy_smart 12. Information on energy saver for room air conditioners, www.aircosaver.com 13. Official website of the Bureau of Energy Efficiency, Govt. of India, www.beeindia.nic.in 14. Detailed information and case studies on energy audits, www.energymanagertraining.com 15. www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_audit 16. Website of the Ministry of Power, http://powermin.nic.in/distribution/energy_audit 17. The Energy Conservation Act, 2001, http://powermin.nic.in/acts_notification/energy_conservation_act/index.htm

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We would like to express our heartfelt gratitude to the following persons for the support and cooperation they rendered during the course of this energy audit.

The Dean and Associate Dean (Planning) and other Institute functionaries Mr. B.K. Sahoo (Executive Engineer), Ms. Y. Naik, Mr. Yadav, Mr. Mohandas, Mr. Adhare, Mr. Kishor Mali and other staff members of Electrical Maintenance Section Prof. B.G. Fernandes, Prof. K. Chatterjee (Dept. of Electrical Engg.), Prof. C.S. Solanki (Energy Science) and Prof. Anand B. Rao (CTARA) Mr. K.G. Kale, Mr. Kharte, Mr. Ajay, Mr. V. Chaudhari (all of DESE) Mr. Sawant and other staff members (Estate Maintenance Section)

56