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Oral-language and reading

What are the components of oral-language and reading? What are the brain structures involved in oral-language and reading? How does oral-language and reading break down after brain damage?

Connectionist model of oral-language and reading

Semantics Written Output Speech Output

Orthography

Phonology

Print Input Apple

Sound Input

Incomplete neuro-cognitive model of language

AG PA B FG EX W AA

Projection of arcuate fasciculus

Neural components of reading and oral-language


Extrastriate (EX) - visual analysis Fusiform gyrus (FG) - orthographic representations Primary auditory (PA) - auditory analysis Auditory association (AA) - phonological representations Wernickes and angular gyrus (W,AG) - hetermodal area for
integration of orthography, phonology, and semantics

Brocas (B) - hetermodal area for covert and overt articulatory


processing, syntactic analysis

Language on left - music on right

Stimuli for hierarchical visual word experiment

Real words ANT RAZOR DUST

Pseudo words GEEL RELD BLERCE

Letter strings VSFFHT TBBL JBTT

False Fonts

PET - visual word processing

PET - viewing versus listening to words


Viewing words

Listening to words

PET - speaking versus generating verbs


Speaking words

Generating verbs to nouns

Summary of PET findings

Lesions affecting persons, animals, and tools

PET activation during person, animals, and tools

Semantic anomaly effect in ERPs to sentences

Syntactic anomaly effect in ERPs to sentences

Interview 6.1

Interview 7.1

Brocas, expressive, or agrammatic aphasia

AG PA B FG EX W AA

Anterior temporal in syntactic processing?

AG PA B FG EX W AA

Interview 8.1

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Interview 9.1

Wernickes, receptive aphasia (semantic paraphasia)

AG PA B FG EX W AA

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Conduction aphasia - damage to arcuate fasciculus

Interview 10.1

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Anomia

AG PA B FG EX W AA

Sagittal view of pediatric patients

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Sound wave for object relative sentences

Sound wave for subject relative sentences

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Syntax structure for subject relative sentences


S NP NP S V VP NP PP

Comp

NP

VP

NP

The nurse

that

called

the dentist discovered

the error in the bill

Syntax structure for object relative sentences


S NP NP S V VP NP PP

Comp

NP

VP

NP

The waiter that

the manager

blamed

carried

the suitcase up the stairs

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Sentence activation in adults, children, and patients

Developmental and lesion differences


Bilateral in adults - recruitment Occipital in children -imagery Lesion associated with homologous organization

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Relationship of activation to response accuracy


Object relative sentences with lower accuracy levels produce more activation in adults than subject relative with higher accuracy levels Children with incorrect local attachment or correct strategy produce equal activation, but children at chance produce little activation

Hypometabolism after left hemisphere stroke

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Language activation after left tempo-parietal stroke

Reading activation after left tempo-parietal stroke

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Interview 12.1

Alexia without agraphia

AG PA B FG EX W AA

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