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Sohail Aftab Qureshi Sr.# 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. List of experiments Page # To verify Thevenins theorem in a simple dc circuit. To verify maximum power transfer theorem. To examine frequency response of a parallel RC circuit. To examine the step and pulse response of a series RC circuit. To examine the sinusoidal frequency response of a series RL circuit. To examine the pulse response of a series RL circuit. To examine the series resonance and to measure the resonant frequency of a RLC circuit. 8. To prove the superposition theorem in circuits. 9. The magnitude and phase response of a low pass filter. 10. The magnitude and phase response of a high pass filter. 11. Frequency characteristics of a band pass filter. 12. Frequency characteristics of a band stop filter. Experiment#1: To verify thevenins theorem in a simple d.c. circuit. Equipment: DC power supply (0 - 10 V) DVM or VOM Resistors (1/4 watt) 1k 3k 6.2k 5 percent Procedure: 1. For the circuit shown in the figure, use thevenins theorem to calculate the values of Vth and Rth and record them in the observations table. 2. Measure the open circuit voltage VAB and record this as Vth under the measured column of the observations table. 3. Replace the source with a short circuit and measure the resistance between the terminals A and B. Record this as Rth under the measured column. 4. Calculate the voltage across and current through a 3k load that is to be placed across the terminals A and B. Perform the calculations for both the actual circuit and its thevenin equivalent. The results should be identical. Record the results in the column headed calculated. 5. Connect a 3k load to the terminals A and B of the circuit in the figure. Measure the resulting load current and voltage. 6. Construct the circuit of figure B with the calculated values of Vth and Rth. Connect a 3k load to the terminals A and B. Measure the resulting load current and voltage, and record them in the table. They should agree closely with those in the adjacent columns.

Circuit diagram:

A R1= 3k R3= 1k

Vd.c.=8.94V R2=6.2k 3k

Vth

Rth

Rth = R3 + [R1R2/R1 + R2] = 3.022k Thevenin parameters Calculated Vth 6.025V Vth Rth 3.022k Rth Loaded circuit parameters

Measured

5.431k Vd.c.=8.94V

Rth = 3.022k

Vth = 6.025V

RL = 3k

Calculated

IL 1.646mA VL 3.0015V Experiment#2: To verify maximum power transfer theorem. Equipment: DC power supply (0 - 10 V) DVM or VOM Resistors (1/4 watt) 4.3k 5.6k 7.5k 1k 1.5k 2k 2.7k 3k 3.3k 10k 5% (two) Procedure: 1. Given VS = 10V and RS = 3k , calculate the load voltage VL, load current IL and load power PL for each value of RL given in the table. 2. Setup the source with VS = 10V and RS = 3k . For each value of RL, measure and record the load voltage VL and the load current IL. From this calculate the power PL. Complete the table for measured data. 3. Plot a graph of load power PL versus load resistance RL from measured data. Determine where is the load power a maximum and its value. Calculated data 1 1.5 2 2.7 3 3.3 4.3 5.6 7.5 10 RL (k ) VL (V) 2.5 3.3 4.2 4.7 5 5.1 5.8 6.5 7.3 7.6 IL (mA) 2.5 2.2 1.9 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.3 1.16 0.88 0.7 PL (mW) 6.2 7.3 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.3 8.01 7.55 6.4 5.8 5 1 RL (k ) VL (V) IL (mA) PL (mW) Circuit diagram: 1.5 2 Measured data 2.7 3 3.3 4.3 5.6 7.5 10

IL VS = 10V

RL = 3k

12

10

10

8 PL (mwatt) 2 6 1

9 8 9 8 10 Series1 Series2

4 4 5 6

2 1 0 1 2

3 2

9 10

RL (kilo ohm)

Experiment#3: To examine the sinusoidal frequency response of a series RL circuit. Equipment: Signal generator Oscilloscope and time 1X probes

DVM Inductor 0.5-32H (as resistance < 500 at 1kHz) Resistor 36k 5%

Circuit diagram:

R VR Vin L VL

Procedure: 1. Setup the apparatus as shown in the figure. 2. Set f = 10 kHz and note I, VR and Vcoil. By increasing and decreasing f above and below 10 kHz, find out the variational effects on all the above three quantities. 3. Now vary the frequency from 2 kHz to 40 kHz and record VR and Vcoil for all the values of f in the table. 4. Complete the table by calculating I, Zt and Zcoil. Freq. EFFECTS f I VR Vcoil f I VR Vcoil R = 36 k Vcoil (volts) IR = VR/R

FREQ VR (volts) (kHz) 2 5 10 20 30 40 From the figure, I = Vin/R + j L I = Vin/ (R)2 + ( L)2 VR = I R

Zt = Vin/I

Zcoil = Vcoil/I

45

40

40

35

30

30

25 Series1 Series2 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 VR 15 10

10

5 2 0 1 2

Frequency

Frequency VS Vcoil

Vcoil

frequency

Experiment#4: To examine frequency response of a parallel RC circuit. Equipment: Signal generator Oscilloscope and two 1X probes High impedance voltmeter Capacitors, 0.001 F 10% Resistors (1/4W): 16 k 10%, three 100 precision Procedure: 1. Construct the circuit shown. 2. With the aid of oscilloscope, adjust the source to provide a convenient terminal voltage at 10 kHz. 3. Use the oscilloscope to monitor the voltages V1 and V2. By observing the oscilloscope traces, note any variations in V1 and V2 as you vary the frequency around 10 kHz. A decade below and above 10 kHz is a good range. Recall that IR is proportional to V1 and Ic is proportional to V2. Observations & calculations: Freq. V1 V2 IR IC Z XC I V 2 5 10 20 Circuit diagram: R IR V1 I V2 IC C

A.C.

Freq. f

IR

VARIATIONAL EFFECTS IC

IR

IC

Experiment#5: To examine the pulse response of a series RL ciorcuit. Equipment: Signal generator Oscilloscope and time 1X probes DVM Inductor: 73.8 mH (ac resistance < 500 at 1 kHz) Resistor: 30 k 5% Procedure: 1. Calculate and record quantities Zcoil, Z, I, VR and Vcoil for a terminal voltage of 5V and frequency of 1 kHz. 2. Use the DVM to measure voltages Vcoil and VR. 3. Calculate and sketch the following. Circuit diagram: R

VR L I Vcoil

Theory: Q: A voltage pulse of magnitude 6 volts and duration 3 seconds extending from t = 3 seconds to t = 6 seconds is applied to a series R-L circuit consisting of R = 6 and L = 2H. Obtain the current i(t). Also calculate the voltage across L and R. Solution: R

L i(t)

v(t)

v(t)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Application of kirchhoffs voltage law to the circuit yields, Ldi/dt + Ri = 6[u(t - 3) u(t - 6)] On Laplace transformation, we get L[s.I(s) i(0+)] + R.I(s) = 6[e-3s/s e-6s/s] But i(0+) = 0. Hence L[s.I(s)] + R.I(s) = 6[e-3s/s e-6s/s] I(s)[Ls + R] = (6/s)[e-3s e-6s] I(s) = (6/s)[e-3s e-6s]/[Ls + R] L = 2H R = 6 I(s) = (6/s)[e-3s e-6s]/[2s + 6] I(s) = 6[e-3s e-6s]/s[2s + 6] I(s) = 6[e-3s e-6s]/s[2(s + 3)] I(s) = 3[e-3s e-6s]/s(s + 3) Consider: Using partial fraction: 3/s(s + 3) = A/s + B/(s + 3) 3 = A(s + 3) + Bs Put s = 0 3 = 3A A=1 Put s = -3 3 = A(s + 3) + Bs 3 = -3B B = -1 I(s) = 3[e-3s e-6s]/s(s + 3) I(s) = [e-3s e-6s][A/s + B/(s + 3)] I(s) = [e-3s e-6s][1/s - 1/(s + 3)] I(s) = e-3s/s e-3s/(s + 3) - e-6s/s + e-6s/(s + 3) On inverse Laplace transformation i(t) = u(t - 3) u(t - 6) e-3(t - 3)u(t - 3) + e-3(t - 6)u(t - 6)

i(t) = u(t - 3)[1 - e-3(t - 3)] - u(t - 6)[1 - e-3(t - 6)] Voltage across the inductor is given by vL = Ldi/dt = Ld/dt{u(t - 3)[1 - e-3(t - 3)] - u(t - 6)[1 - e-3(t - 6)]} d/dt{1 - e-3(t - 3)} = 0 - e-3(t - 3)d/dt{ -3(t - 3)} = -e-3(t - 3)d/dt{ -3t + 9)} = -e-3(t - 3){-3} = 3 e-3(t - 3) d/dt{1 - e-3(t - 6)} = 0 - e-3(t - 6)d/dt{ -3(t - 6)} = -e-3(t - 6)d/dt{ -3t + 18)} = -e-3(t - 6){-3} = 3 e-3(t - 6) vL = Ldi/dt = Ld/dt{u(t - 3)[1 - e-3(t - 3)] - u(t - 6)[1 - e-3(t - 6)]} vL = Ldi/dt = 2{u(t - 3) 3 e-3(t - 3) - u(t - 6) 3 e-3(t - 6)} vL = Ldi/dt = 6{u(t - 3)e-3(t - 3) - u(t - 6)e-3(t - 6)} t=0 vL = 0V 1 0V 2 0V 3 6V 4 0.299V 5 0.015V 6 -6V

0.015

-2

-4

-6

-6

-8 Series1 Series2

1 0 0

2 1 0

3 2 0

4 3 6 t

5 4 0.299

6 5 0.015

7 6 -6

Voltage across resistor vR = i(t)R = 6u(t - 3)[1 - e-3(t - 3)] - 6u(t - 6)[1 - e-3(t - 6)] t=0 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 5.7 5 5.985 6 0

7

6 5.7

5.985

4 Series1 Series2

0 Series1 Series2

1 0 0

2 1 0

3 2 0

4 3 0

5 4 5.7

6 5 5.985

7 6 0

time

Equipment: Signal generator Oscilloscope, DVM Resistors: 15 k , 1.5 k Capacitors: 0.047 F. Circuit diagram: R

Vin C

Vout

Low-Pass Filters Figure shows a simple RC circuit used as a low-pass filter. The bandwidth of the passband is BW = f2 f1 BW = fc 0 = fc Frequency fc is the cutoff frequency; it is the frequency above, which the output voltage drops below 70.7 percent of the input voltage. Vout = 0.707Vin According to voltage-divider equation: Vout = Vin{XC/ R2 + XC2} If the rms input voltage to the filter is 10 V, determine the output voltage at 200 Hz 600 Hz 1200 Hz 5000 Hz 10,000 Hz Assume R = 1 k C = 0.047 F f Hz Vout 200 9.983V 600 9.847 1200 9.426V 5000 5.607 1000 3.207 0

12000

10000

10000

8000 voutpout

Series1 Series2

Series1 200 600 1200 5000 1000 Series2 9.983 9.847 9.426 5.607 3.207 frequency

Experiment#7:

The magnitude of a high pass filter. Equipment: Signal generator Oscilloscope, DVM Resistors: 15 k , 1.5 k Capacitors: 0.047 F. Circuit diagram: C

Vin A.C.

Vout

Observations: Frequency Vin Hz V 100 2.4 200 2.4 500 2.4 1000 2.4 2000 2.4 5000 2.4 10000 2.4 20000 2.4

25000

20000

20000

5000

5000 2000 1000 500 100 0.9 200 1.4 2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Experiment#8:

Frequency characteristics of a bandstop filter. Equipment: Signal generator Oscilloscope and 1X probe High impedance millivoltmeter Capacitors: 0.01 F, 0.01 F Inductor: 100 200 H radio frequency coil Resistors: (1/4 watt): 100 , 1k , 2k 5% Observations: Component values Resonant frequency Q L C R Calculated Measured

Circuit diagram: a

Vin

C b For input frequencies within the stop-band region, Vout < 0.707 Vin. The resonance frequency and bandwidth of the bandstop filter may be determined from fr = 1/2 LC Qs = fr/BW = rLcoil/R1 + Rcoil Assuming the current drawn by the load is insignificant (unimportant), Vout = Vin(Zab/Zcircuit) Zab = Rcoil + j(XL - XC) Zcircuit = R1 + Rcoil + j(XL - XC) Zab = R2coil + (XL - XC)2 Zcircuit = (R1 + Rcoil)2 + (XL - XC)2 Vout = Vin( R2coil + (XL - XC)2/ (R1 + Rcoil)2 + (XL - XC)2) f = f2 f1 Q = fr/f(BW) Experiment#9:

To study the frequency characteristics of a band pass filter. Equipment: Audio signal generator Oscilloscope High impedance milli ohmmeter, capacitors Inductors, resistors Circuit diagram: R0

Vout L Vin C

A bandpass filter that uses a series RLC circuit whose resonance frequency and bandwidth provide the desired passband is shown in figure. Resonant frequency: fr = 1/2 LC BW = fr/Qs Qs = rL/R0 Vout = VinR0/ R02 + (XL - XC)2 Observations: Component values L C R

Experiment#10: To be able to predict and verify voltages in circuit containing d.c. and a.c. Equipment: Function generator with d.c. Offset Multimeter DVM D.C. power supply 0 10 V (if d.c. offset not available on function generator)

VR = VR(D.C.) + VR(A.C.) = 0 + 1 = 1V Vc = Vc(D.C.) + Vc(A.C.) = 2 + 0 = 2V Observations: Calculated Data Measured Data Experiment#11: To examine step and pulse response of series RC circuit. Equipment: Square wave generator Oscilloscope and time 1X probes Capacitors: 0.001 F 10% Resistors: two 10 k 5% Circuit diagram: dc 2 VC ac 0 VR dc 0 ac 1

Observations: R 1 2 Charging curve: Number of time constants 1 2 3 4 5 Discharging curve: Number of time constants 1 2 3 4 5 Voltage across C: Calculated voltage Measured voltage Calculated voltage Measured voltage C = RC = 5RC fmax

charging curve

Series1 Series2

2 1.72

1.9

1.96

1.98

1.26 1 1

0 Series1 Series2

1 1 1.26

2 2 1.72

4 4 1.96

5 5 1.98

Experiment#12: To show that the resonant frequency of a series RLC circuit is given by 1/2 LC and plot the frequency response of an RLC circuit. Equipment: Audio signal generator Oscilloscope Capacitors: 0.001 F Resistance: 100 5% Inductor. Circuit diagram: R

VR L Vin

Theory: Z = R2 + (XL - XC)2 I = V/Z For resonance frequency XL = XC 2 frL = 1/2 frC fr = 1/2 LC Observations: Frequency vR 500 Hz 1 kHz 2 kHz fr = 3 kHz 5 kHz 10 kHz 20 kHz 50 kHz

Frequency XC 500 Hz 1 kHz 2 kHz fr = 3 kHz 5 kHz 10 kHz 20 kHz 50 kHz Frequency versus vR

XL

vR

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