# Z12-Story

A MatheMusical Tutorial
Thomas Noll

Escola Superior de Musica de Catalunya, Barcelona Departament de Teoria i Composició

Basic Concepts
Semigroup, Monoid, Group Group Action, Monoid Action

Semigroup
A family of abstract „acts“. Any two acts can be concatenated and yield another act of this family.

Concatenation is associative:

Semigroup
A family of abstract „acts“. Any two acts can be concatenated and yield another act of this family.

Concatenation is associative:

=

Monoid
A Semigroup.

Neutral Element:

= =

Monoid
A Semigroup.

Neutral Element:

= =

Monoid
A Semigroup.

Neutral Element:

= =

Group
A Monoid.

Every act has an inverse:

=

=

=

=

Group Action γ: G x X
f g gf

X on a Set X
X

γf
X

γg
X

γgf = γg γf

Monoid Action µ: M x X
m n nm

X on a Set X
X

µm
X

µn
X

µnm= µn µm

Groups and Group Actions
Musical Examples

T0 T11 T10 T9 T8 T7 T6

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5

Example: Cyclic group of order 12

T0 T11 T10 T9 T8 T7 T6

T1 T2

Caley-Graph for C12
T5

T3 T4

Action of C12 on Z12
Abstract Acts Concrete Acts of Tone Transposition

T1

Abstract Concatenation

Concrete Concatenation

T1 T2

Example: Melodic Progressions as Acts of Transposition A. Schönberg: Five Pieces for Orchestra Op. 16/III: Farben Bars 1- 9

Bars 32- 38

Example: Chord Relations as Acts of Transposition A. Schönberg: Five Pieces for Orchestra Op. 16/III: Farben Bars 1- 9 T-1

Two Actions of C12 („T - Actions“) Transposition of Tones („pitch classes“) C12 x Z12 Z12

Transposition of Chords („pitch class sets“) C12 x Subsets(Z12) Subsets(Z12)

Musically Interesting: Common Tone Relations bar 1 bar 26 bar 44 3 common tones

T4

T8

Diatonic Scale (Balzano 1980):
Solidarity between Fifth Transposition and Chromatic Alteration T7

=
T1

T0 I T1I T0 T11 T2I T10 T3 I T9 T8 T4I T7 T5I T6I T6 T5 T7I T1 T2 T11 I T10 I

Caley-Graph for D12

T3 T4

T9 I

T8I

CGC+ F+ DBb+ AEb+ Ab+ EC#+ BF#B+ F#+ C#D+ G+ BbF-

D12-Actions on the 24 Triads: T/I-Action

A+ E+

Eb-

Ab-

CFC+ F+ BbBb+ EbEb+ Ab+ AbC#+ C#F#B+ F#+ B D+ G+ DG-

D12-Actions on the 24 Triads : S/W-Action

A+ E+ E-

A-

Neo-Riemannian Transformations As Alternative Generators

C-

P

C+ G+ D+ A+

R

A-

L

E+ E-

(Neo-)Riemannian Operation P = „Parallel“

F
Hugo Riemann

C

G D A E

Bb Eb G# C# B F#

(Neo-)Riemannian Operation R = „Relative“

F
Hugo Riemann

C

G D A E

Bb Eb G# C# B F#

F
Hugo Riemann

C

G D A E

Bb Eb G# C# B F#

Hexatonic System <L, P>

F Bb Eb G# C#

C

G D A E B

F#

Octatonic System <R, P>

F Bb Eb G# C#

C

G D A E B

F#

Hexatonic System (Cohn 1996):
Solidarity between Transformation and Voiceleading Parsimony T7 Remember:

=
T1

P

L

P

L

P

L

T-1

T1

T-1

T1

T-1

T1

Decomposition, Stabilizers, Conjugation etc.

Direct Product Z3 x Z4 Z4
3
3 7 11

2

6

10

2

1

9

1

5

0

0

4

8

Z3

0

1

2

2 1 0

0

1 2 2 0

3

0

1 2

a

1
0 3

b 0

3

2
1 0 2

1

2

1

a = t mod 3 10 9 t = 4 a + 9 b mod 12 8

11

0

1 2

b = t mod 4

t 4 7 6 5

3

Full Symmetry Group of affine Transformations of Z12 Sym(Z12) = Z12
Translations

Z12*
Kleinian Four-Group 1 5 5 1 11 7 7 11 1 5 11 7 5 1

(t, u) (s, v) = (t + u s, u v)

7 11

1,0

1,6

1,9

1,3

7,0

7,6

7,9

7,3

1,4

1,10

1,1

1,7

7,4

7,10

7,1

7,7

1,8

1,2

1,5

1,11

7,8

7,2

7,5

7,11

5,0

5,6

5,9

5,3

11,0

11,6

11,9

11,3

5,4

5,10

5,1

5,7

11,4

11,10

11,1

11,7

5,8

5,2

5,5

5,11

11,8

11,2

11,5

11,11

γ: G x X

X

Stabilizer of an Element x of X: Subgroup H of all g with γg(x) = x

1,0

1,6

1,9

1,3

7,0

7,6

7,9

7,3

1,4

1,10

1,1

1,7

7,4

7,10

7,1

7,7

1,8

1,2

1,5

1,11

7,8

7,2

7,5

7,11

5,0

5,6

5,9

5,3

11,0

11,6

11,9

11,3

5,4

5,10

5,1

5,7

11,4

11,10

11,1

11,7

5,8

5,2

5,5

5,11

11,8

11,2

11,5

11,11

Internal Symmetries of Chords and Scales
Example: Octatonic Strategies in Bartok (c.f. Cohn 1991) Mikrokosmos Book IV: From the Island of Bali

Internal Symmetries of Chords and Scales
Example: Octatonic Strategies in Bartok (c.f. Cohn 1991) Sonata for two Pianos and Percussion

Internal Symmetries of the Diatonic
Riemann 1878, Balzano 1980, Mazzola 1985, Cohn 1997 G- = {2, 10, 7} D- = {9, 5, 2} T7I T0 T5 Eb+ = {3, 7, 10} Bb+ = {10, 2, 5} T0 I C- = {7, 3, 0} T5 I T7 F+ = {5, 9, 0}

The Balzano - Family Zk(k+1)
2 6 10 2

V
11 3 7 11

iii I
8 0 4 8

vi IV
5 9 1 5

ii
2 6 10 2

18

3

8

13

18

V
14 19 4 9 14

iii
10 15

I
0

5

10

viii
6 11

VI
16

1

6

iv II
2 7

ix
18 3

12

17

2

8

13

18

3

9

15

21

27

3

IX
28 4 10 16 22 28

vii
23 29 5 11

V iii

17

23

18

24

0

I x

6

12

18

VIII
13 19 25 1 7 13

vi IV
8 14 20 26 2 8

ii
3 9 15 21 27 3

Monoids and Monoid Actions

Caley-Graph for a Free Monoid <f, g>
g

e

f

g
g f g

f
f

gg
g f g

fg
f g

gf
f g

ff
f

ggg
g f

fgg

gfg

ffg

ggf

fgf

gff

fff
f

g Example: Rhythms with two durational Values: 2,f3 g f g f g f g f g f g c.f. Chemillier & Truchet (2004)

gfx = gf g gfx = gf f

g
f g g f

e
g f f f g g

f
g

b

a
g

f

f

g2
ggg = g

c
ffg = ggf

f2
fff = f

Caley-Graph for Z2*

1 0

*
0 1

0 0 0

1 0 1

What is a Z2* - Action µ: Z2* x X

X?

X Y

Answer: (1) µ1 is the identical map idX of X. (2) µ0 is a projection to a subset Y of X.

gfx = gf g gfx = gf f

g
f g g f

e
g f f f g g

f
g

b

a
g

f

f

g2
ggg = g

c
ffg = ggf

f2
fff = f

F Bb Eb G# C#

C

G D Bb A Eb E B G#

F

C

G D A E

F#

C#

F#

B

˙

=
Concatenation Table

a f2 f e c

b g g2

˙

=
Concatenation Table

a f2 f e c

b g g2

˙

=
Concatenation Table

a f2 f e c

b g g2

Cosieves B: mB ⊂ B for all Elements m of M g
f g g f f g

e
g f f g g

f

f
g

b

a
g

f

f

g2

c

f2

Cosieves B: mB ⊂ B for all Elements m of M g
f g g f f g

e
g f f g g

f

f
g

b

a
g

f

f

g2

c

f2

Cosieves B: mB ⊂ B for all Elements m of M g
f g g f f g

e
g f f g g

f

f
g

b

a
g

f

f

g2

c

f2

Cosieves B: mB ⊂ B for all Elements m of M g
f g g f f g

e
g f f g g

f

f
g

b

a
g

f

f

g2

c

f2

Cosieves B: mB ⊂ B for all Elements m of M g
f g g f f g

e
g f f g g

f

f
g

b

a
g

f

f

g2

c

f2

Cosieves B: mB ⊂ B for all Elements m of M g
f g g f f g

e
g f f g g

f

f
g

b

a
g

f

f

g2

c

f2

a f2 f e c

b g g2

T

a

b g c g2

P R
a b g g2

L
a f2 f c b

f2

f

a

b

c

C ø

c

Action of M on Sieves

Go to the blackgoard :-)

From Monoids to Categories
Recall: A Monoid is Semigroup with a neutral Element.

= =

From Monoids to Categories
B A In a Category arrows are sorted: A C C B

From Monoids to Categories
B A In a Category arrows are sorted: Codomain Domain A B Identities = „Objects“ A A C B B

From Monoids to Categories
B A In a Category arrows are sorted: C B A B A

=
A

B

=
A

B

Monoid Action µ: M x X
m n nm

X on a Set X
X

µm
X

µn
X

µnm= µn µm

Functor
m A nm B n C

F: C

Sets
F(B)

F(m)

F(n)

F(A) F(C)

F(nm) = F(n) F(m)

Intuitionistic Logics of Projecting Is not a sub-object of this Projection

Are

and

Elements of No, but....

? No.

Z(π)

Z(σ)

Z(τ)

Z(π) π Z(σ)

{}

{σ} {σ, π}

Ω(π)

ø
Ω(σ)

σ

ø
τ Z(τ) Abstract Diagram {} {τ} Ω(τ)

Play-Action

Evaluation-Action

Play Action Z(π) Bb Eb G#

Perspectival Action C

F

G D A E

Z(σ)

C# Z(τ) Pipes are mapped to keys

F#

H

Tones are mapped to tones

a f2 f e c

b g g2

T

a

b g c g2

P R
a b g g2

L
a f2 f c b

f2

f

a

b

c

C ø

c

Characteristic Function of {0, 4, 1}
T

C R

T C R

χ{0,4,1}(t) =

P L R L R T

Lawvere-Tierney Topologies

T

jP
L

P R C T P L T C R

jL
P L C ø R ø

jR

jC
L P C ø R

ø

jP χ{0,4,1}
C C R T P L L R R R

T T T T C R T R R L L T R

C

jR χ{0,4,1}
L C R T P L L R T T

T T T T C R T R T L L T T

L

jL χ{0,4,1}
R C R T P L T R R R

T T T T C R T R R L T T R

R

jP χ{0,4,10}
C C T R R L L R R T

T R T R L R T P T C C T R

L

jR χ{0,4,10}
L C T T R L L R T T

T T T R L R T P T C L T T

L

jL χ{0,4,10}
R C T R R L T R R T

T R T R L R T P T C R T R

T

Fifth - Transposition through Chromatic Alteration

Z20 = Z4(4+1)

Z30 = Z5(5+1)

Perspective

τF

Perspective

τG

τF(x) = 3x+7 mod 12

τF(x) = 8x+4 mod 12

Perspective

τF

Perspective

τG

τF(x) = 4x+9 mod 20

τF(x) = 15x+5 mod 20

Perspective

τF