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Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.

H)] 2000-E-41 1
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis






































CH#4






Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 2
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

Q#4.1: An amplifier has a gain of 15 and the input waveform shown in Fig.
P4.1. Draw the output waveform.
Solution:
Circuit diagram:

V
in
(mV)


150

100

50


0 0.5 1 1.5 2.0 t (s)
-50

-100

-150


Relationship between the output and input voltages
V
0
= A
0
V
in
0 s t s 0.499

(x
2
, y
2
) = (0.499, 50)


(x
1
, y
1
) = (0, 0)

Equation:

y y
1
y
2
y
1

=
x x
1
x
2
x
1


Here
x t (s)
y V
in
(mV)
x
1
0 s
y
1
0 mV
x
2
0.499 s
y
2
50 mV

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 3
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

Substituting the corresponding values

V
in
0 mV

50 mV 0 mV
=
t 0 s

0.499 s 0 s

V
in
50 mV
=
t 0.499s

0.499V
in
= 0.05 t

V
in
= 100.2 t mV

0.5 s t s 0.999
(x
2
, y
2
) = (0.5 s, -100 mV)


(x
1
, y
1
) = (0.999 s, -150 mV)

Equation:

y y
1
y
2
y
1

=
x x
1
x
2
x
1


Here
X t (s)
Y V
in
(mV)
x
1
0.999 s
y
1
-150 mV
x
2
0.5 s
y
2
-100 mV

Substituting the corresponding values

V
in
(-150 mV)

-100 mV (-150 mV)
=
t 0.999 s

0.5 s 0.999 s

V
in
+ 150 mV

-100 mV + 150 mV
=
t 0.999 s

0.5 s 0.999 s



Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 4
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

V
in
+ 150 mV

50 mV
=
t 0.999 s

-0.499 s

-0.499(V
in
+ 150 mV) = 50 mV (t 0.999 s)
-0.499V
in
0.075 = 0.05 t 0.05
-0.499V
in
0.075 + 0.05 = 0.05 t
-0.499V
in
0.025 = 0.05 t
-0.499V
in
= 0.05 t + 0.025
V
in
= -0.1 t 0.05

V
in
= -1000 (0.1 t + 0.05) mV

1 s t s 1.499
(x
2
, y
2
) = (1.499, 0 mV)






(x
1
, y
1
) = (1, -150 mV)
Equation:

y y
1
y
2
y
1

=
x x
1
x
2
x
1


Here
x t (s)
y V
in
(mV)
x
1
1 s
y
1
-150 mV
x
2
1.499 s
y
2
0 mV

Substituting the corresponding values

V
in
(-150 mV)

0 mV (-150 mV)
=
t 1 s

1.499 s 1 s

V
in
+ 150 mV

0 mV + 150 mV
=
t 1 s

1.499 s 1 s

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 5
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

V
in
+ 150 mV

150 mV
=
t 1 s

0.499 s

0.499(V
in
+ 150 mV) = 150 mV (t 1 s)
0.499V
in
+ 0.075 = 0.15 t 0.15
0.499V
in
+ 0.075 + 0.15 = 0.15 t
0.499V
in
+ 0.225 = 0.15 t
0.499V
in
= 0.15 t - 0.225
V
in
= 0.301 t 0.451

V
in
= 1000 (0.301 t - 0.451) mV

1.5 s t s 2.0
(x
2
, y
2
) = (1.5 s, 50 mV)



(x
1
, y
1
) = (2 s, 0 mV)
Equation:

y y
1
y
2
y
1

=
x x
1
x
2
x
1


Here
x t (s)
y V
in
(mV)
x
1
2 s
y
1
0 mV
x
2
1.5 s
y
2
50 mV

Substituting the corresponding values

V
in
0 mV

50 mV 0 mV
=
t 2 s

1.5 s 2 s

V
in
50 mV
=
t 2 s

-0.5 s

-0.5V
in
= 50 mV(t 2 s)
-0.5V
in
= 0.05t 0.1

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 6
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

V
in
= 1000 (-0.1t + 0.2) mV

Output waveform

t = 0 s V
0
= A
0
V
in

V
0
= A
0
(100.2 t mV)
Here A
0
= 15
Substituting the corresponding value
V
0
= 15(100.2 (0 s) mV)
V
0
= 0 V
t = 0.499 s V
0
= A
0
V
in

V
0
= A
0
(100.2 t mV)
Here A
0
= 15
Substituting the corresponding value
V
0
= 15(100.2 (0.499 s) mV)
V
0
= 0.75 V
t = 0.5 s V
0
= A
0
V
in

V
0
= A
0
(-1000 (0.1 t + 0.05) mV)
Here A
0
= 15
Substituting the corresponding value
V
0
= 15(-1000 (0.1 (0.5) + 0.05) mV)
V
0
= 15(-1000 (0.05 + 0.05) mV)
V
0
= 15(-1000 (0.1) mV)
V
0
= -1.5 V
t = 0.999 s V
0
= A
0
V
in

V
0
= A
0
(-1000 (0.1 t + 0.05) mV)
Here A
0
= 15
Substituting the corresponding value
V
0
= 15(-1000 (0.1 (0.999) + 0.05) mV)
V
0
= 15(-1000 (0.1 + 0.05) mV)
V
0
= 15(-1000 (0.15) mV)
V
0
= -2.25 V
t = 1 s V
0
= A
0
V
in

V
0
= A
0
(1000 (0.301 t - 0.451) mV)
Here A
0
= 15
Substituting the corresponding value
V
0
= 15(1000 (0.301 (1) - 0.451) mV)
V
0
= 15(1000 (0.301 - 0.451) mV)
V
0
= 15(1000 (-0.15) mV)
V
0
= -2.25 V
t = 1.499 s V
0
= A
0
V
in

V
0
= A
0
(1000 (0.301 t - 0.451) mV)
Here A
0
= 15
Substituting the corresponding value
V
0
= 15(1000 (0.301 (1.499) - 0.451) mV)
V
0
= 15(1000 (0.451 - 0.451) mV)
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 7
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

V
0
= 0 V
t = 1.5 s V
0
= A
0
V
in

V
0
= A
0
(1000 (-0.1t + 0.2) mV)
Here A
0
= 15
Substituting the corresponding value
V
0
= 15(1000 (-0.1(1.5) + 0.2) mV)
V
0
= 15(1000 (-0.15 + 0.2) mV)
V
0
= 15(1000 (0.05) mV)
V
0
= 0.75 V
t = 2 s V
0
= A
0
V
in

V
0
= A
0
(1000 (-0.1t + 0.2) mV)
Here A
0
= 15
Substituting the corresponding value
V
0
= 15(1000 (-0.1(2) + 0.2) mV)
V
0
= 15(1000 (-0.2 + 0.2) mV)
V
0
= 15(1000 (0) mV)
V
0
= 0 V

output voltage versus time
0
0.499 0.5
0.999 1
1.499 1.5
2
0
0.75
-1.5
-2.25 -2.25
0
0.75
0
-2.5
-2
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
time
v
o
l
t
a
g
e
Series1
Series2
Series1 0 0.499 0.5 0.999 1 1.499 1.5 2
Series2 0 0.75 -1.5 -2.25 -2.25 0 0.75 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Q#4.2: An amplifier has a gain of 5 and the output waveform shown in Fig. P4.2.
Sketch the input waveform.
Solution:
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 8
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

Circuit diagram:
V
0
(V)

12

10

6

5

4

2

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
-2

-4

-6

-8

-10

-12

Relationship between the output and input voltages

0 s t s 0.999
(x
2
, y
2
) = (0.999 ms, 4 V)




(x
1
, y
1
) = (0 ms, 0 V)

Equation:

y y
1
y
2
y
1

=
x x
1
x
2
x
1



Here
t (ms)
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Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

X t (ms)
Y V
0
(V)
x
1
0 ms
y
1
0 V
x
2
0.999 ms
y
2
4 V

Substituting the corresponding values

V
0
0 V

4 V 0 V
=
t 0 ms

0.999 ms 0 ms

V
0
4 V
=
t 0.999 ms

(0.999 ms) V
0
= 4 t
0.001 V
0
= 4 t

V
0
= 4000 t V

1 s t s 1.999
(x
2
, y
2
) = (1.999 ms, 12 V)








(x
1
, y
1
) = (1 ms, 4 V)

Equation:

y y
1
y
2
y
1

=
x x
1
x
2
x
1






Here
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 10
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

x t (ms)
y V
0
(V)
x
1
1 ms
y
1
4 V
x
2
1.999 ms
y
2
12 V

Substituting the corresponding values

V
0
4 V

12 V 4 V
=
t 1 ms

1.999 ms 1 ms

V
0
4 V

8 V
=
t 1 ms

0.999 ms

(0.999 ms)(V
0
4 V) = 8(t 1 ms)
(0.001)(V
0
4 V) = 8(t 0.001)
0.001V
0
0.004 = 8t 0.008
0.001V
0
0.004 + 0.008 = 8t
0.001V
0
+ 0.004 = 8t
0.001V
0
= 8t 0.004

V
0
= (8000t 4) V

2 s t s 3.999


V
0
= 12 V

4 s t s 5.999
(x
2
, y
2
) = (4 ms, 12 V)











(x
1
, y
1
) = (5.999 ms, 0 V)

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 11
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

Equation:

y y
1
y
2
y
1

=
x x
1
x
2
x
1

Here
X t (ms)
Y V
0
(V)
x
1
5.999 ms
y
1
0 V
x
2
4 ms
y
2
12 V

Substituting the corresponding values

V
0
0 V

12 V 0 V
=
t 5.999 ms

4 ms 5.999 ms

V
0


12 V
=
t 5.999 ms

-1.999 ms

(-1.999 ms) V
0
= 12(t 5.999 ms)
-0.002V
0
= 12t 0.072

V
0
= (-6000t + 36) V

6 s t s 6.999


V
0
= -8 V

7 s t s 9











Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 12
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


(x
2
, y
2
) = (9 ms, 0 V)












(x
1
, y
1
) = (7 ms, -12 V)
Equation:

y y
1
y
2
y
1

=
x x
1
x
2
x
1

Here
X t (ms)
Y V
0
(V)
x
1
7 ms
y
1
-12 V
x
2
9 ms
y
2
0 V

Substituting the corresponding values

V
0
(-12) V

0 V (-12) V
=
t 7 ms

9 ms 7 ms

V
0
+ 12

12 V
=
t 7 ms

2 ms

(2 ms)(V
0
+ 12) = 12(t 7 ms)
(0.002)(V
0
+ 12) = 12(t 0.007)
0.002V
0
+ 0.024 = 12t 0.084
0.002V
0
+ 0.024 + 0.084 = 12t
0.002V
0
+ 0.108 = 12t
0.002V
0
= 12t 0.108

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 13
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


V
0
= (6000t - 54) V

Interval Input voltage
0 s t s 0.999 V
0
= A
0
V
in

V
0

V
in
=
A
0

4000 t V Hint: Here
V
in
= A
0
= -5
-5


V
in
= -800 t V
1 s t s 1.999 V
0
= A
0
V
in

V
0

V
in
=
A
0

(8000t 4) V
V
in
=
-5


V
in
= -0.2 (8000t 4) V
2 s t s 3.999 V
0
= A
0
V
in

V
0

V
in
=
A
0

12 V
V
in
=
-5


V
in
= -2.4 V
4 s t s 5.999 V
0
= A
0
V
in

V
0

V
in
=
A
0

(-6000t + 36) V
V
in
=
-5
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 14
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

V
in
= -0.2 (-6000t + 36) V
6 s t s 6.999 V
0
= A
0
V
in

V
0

V
in
=
A
0

-8 V
V
in
=
-5


V
in
= 1.6 V
7 s t s 9 V
0
= A
0
V
in

V
0

V
in
=
A
0

(6000t - 54) V
V
in
=
-5

V
in
= -0.2 (6000t 54) V

Input waveform

t = 0 ms V
in
= -800 t V
V
in
= -800 (0 ms) V
V
in
= 0 V
t = 0.999 ms V
in
= -800 t V
V
in
= -800 (0.999 ms) V
V
in
= -0.799 V
t = 1 ms V
in
= -0.2 (8000t 4) V
V
in
= -0.2 (8000(1 ms) 4) V
V
in
= -0.2 (8 4) V
V
in
= -0.2 (4) V
V
in
= -0.8 V
t = 1.999 ms V
in
= -0.2 (8000t 4) V
V
in
= -0.2 (8000(1.999 ms) 4) V
V
in
= -0.2 (15.992 4) V
V
in
= -0.2 (11.992) V
V
in
= - 2.398 V
t = 2 ms V
in
= -2.4 V
t = 3.999 ms V
in
= -2.4 V
t = 4 ms V
in
= -0.2 (-6000t + 36) V
V
in
= -0.2 (-6000(4 ms) + 36) V
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 15
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

V
in
= -0.2 (-24 + 36) V
V
in
= -0.2 (12) V
V
in
= -2.4 V
t = 5.999 ms V
in
= -0.2 (-6000t + 36) V
V
in
= -0.2 (-6000(5.999 ms) + 36) V
V
in
= -0.2 (-35.994 + 36) V
V
in
= -0.2 (0.006) V
V
in
= -0.0012 V
t = 6 ms V
in
= 1.6 V
t = 6.999 ms V
in
= 1.6 V
t = 7 ms V
in
= -0.2 (6000t 54) V
V
in
= -0.2 (6000(7 ms) 54) V
V
in
= -0.2 (42 54) V
V
in
= -0.2 (-12) V
V
in
= 2.4 V
t = 9 ms V
in
= -0.2 (6000t 54) V
V
in
= -0.2 (6000(9 ms) 54) V
V
in
= -0.2 (54 54) V
V
in
= -0.2 (0) V
V
in
= 0 V

Input waveform
























Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 16
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

input voltage versus time
0
0.999 1
1.999 2
3.999 4
5.999 6
6.999 7
9
0
-0.799 -0.8
-2.398 -2.4 -2.4 -2.4
-0.0012
1.6 1.6
2.4
0
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
time (ms)
v
o
l
t
a
g
e

(
V
)
Series1
Series2
Series1 0 0.999 1 1.999 2 3.999 4 5.999 6 6.999 7 9
Series2 0 -0.8 -0.8 -2.4 -2.4 -2.4 -2.4 -0 1.6 1.6 2.4 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Q#4.3: An op-amp base amplifier has supply voltages of 5 V and a gain of 20.
(a) Sketch the input waveform from the output waveform in Fig. P4.3.
(b) Double the amplitude of your results in (a) and sketch the new output
waveform.
Solution:
Circuit diagram:



















Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 17
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

V
0
(V)
3

2

1

0 25 50 75 100 125 t (ms)
-1

-2

-3

Relationship between the output and input voltages
0 s t s 24.999

(x
2
, y
2
) = (24.999 ms, 3 V)




(x
1
, y
1
) = (0 ms, 0 V)

Equation:

y y
1
y
2
y
1

=
x x
1
x
2
x
1

Here
X t (ms)
Y V
0
(V)
x
1
0 ms
y
1
0 V
x
2
24.999 ms
y
2
3 V

Substituting the corresponding values

V
0
0 V

3 V 0 V
=
t 0 ms

24.999 ms 0 ms



Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 18
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

V
0
3 V
=
t 24.999 ms

(24.999 ms) V
0
= 3 t
0.025 V
0
= 3 t

V
0
= 120 t V

25 s t s 74.999
(x
2
, y
2
) = (25 ms, 3 V)




(x
1
, y
1
) = (74.999 ms, 0 V)

Equation:

y y
1
y
2
y
1

=
x x
1
x
2
x
1

Here
X t (ms)
Y V
0
(V)
x
1
74.999 ms
y
1
0 V
x
2
25 ms
y
2
3 V

Substituting the corresponding values

V
0
0 V

3 V 0 V
=
t 74.999 ms

25 ms 74.999 ms

V
0


3 V
=
t 74.999 ms

-49.999 ms

(-49.999 ms) V
0
= 3 (t 74.999 ms)
-0.05 V
0
= 3 (t 0.075)
-0.05 V
0
= 3 t 0.225

V
0
= (-60 t + 4.5) V
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 19
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

75 s t s 99.999
(x
2
, y
2
) = (75 ms, 0 V)




(x
1
, y
1
) = (99.999 ms, -3 V)
Equation:

y y
1
y
2
y
1

=
x x
1
x
2
x
1

Here
X t (ms)
Y V
0
(V)
x
1
99.999 ms
y
1
-3 V
x
2
75 ms
y
2
0 V

Substituting the corresponding values

V
0
(-3 V)

0 V (-3 V)
=
t 99.999 ms

75 ms 99.999 ms

V
0
+ 3 V

3 V
=
t 99.999 ms

-24.999 ms

(-24.999 ms)(V
0
+ 3 V) = 3(t 99.999 ms)
(-0.025)(V
0
+ 3 V) = 3(t 0.1)
-0.025V
0
0.075 = 3t 0.3
-0.025V
0
0.075 + 0.3 = 3t
-0.025V
0
+ 0.225 = 3t
-0.025V
0
= 3t - 0.225

V
0
= (-120 t + 9) V

100 s t s 125





Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 20
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

(x
2
, y
2
) = (125 ms, 0 V)




(x
1
, y
1
) = (100 ms, -3)

Equation:

y y
1
y
2
y
1

=
x x
1
x
2
x
1

Here
x t (ms)
y V
0
(V)
x
1
100 ms
y
1
-3 V
x
2
125 ms
y
2
0 V

Substituting the corresponding values

V
0
(-3 V)

0 V (-3 V)
=
t 100 ms

125 ms 100 ms

V
0
+ 3 V

3 V
=
t 100 ms

25 ms

(25 ms)(V
0
+ 3 V) = 3 (t 100 ms)
(0.025)(V
0
+ 3 V) = 3 (t 0.1)
0.025V
0
+ 0.075 = 3 t 0.3
0.025V
0
+ 0.075 + 0.3 = 3 t
0.025V
0
+ 0.375 = 3 t
0.025V
0
= 3 t 0.375

V
0
= (120 t - 15) V







Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 21
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

Interval Input voltage
0 s t s 24.999 V
0
= A
0
V
in

V
0

V
in
=
A
0

120 t V Hint: Here
V
in
= A
0
= 20
20


V
in
= 6 t V
25 s t s 74.999 V
0
= A
0
V
in

V
0

V
in
=
A
0

(-60 t + 4.5) V
V
in
=
20


V
in
= 0.05 (-60 t + 4.5) V
75 s t s 99.999 V
0
= A
0
V
in

V
0

V
in
=
A
0

(-120 t + 9) V
V
in
=
20


V
in
= 0.05 (-120 t + 9) V
100 s t s 125 V
0
= A
0
V
in

V
0

V
in
=
A
0

(120 t - 15) V
V
in
=
20

V
in
= 0.05 (120 t - 15) V

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 22
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

Input waveform

t = 0 ms V
in
= 6 t V
V
in
= 6 (0 ms) V
V
in
= 0 V
t = 24.999 ms V
in
= 6 t V
V
in
= 6 (24.999 ms) V
V
in
= 0.15 V
t = 25 ms V
in
= 0.05 (-60 t + 4.5) V
V
in
= 0.05 (-60 (25 ms) + 4.5) V
V
in
= 0.05 (-1.5 + 4.5) V
V
in
= 0.05 (3) V
V
in
= 0.15 V
t = 74.999 ms V
in
= 0.05 (-60 t + 4.5) V
V
in
= 0.05 (-60 (74.999 ms) + 4.5) V
V
in
= 0.05 (-4.5 + 4.5) V
V
in
= 0.05 (0) V
V
in
= 0 V
t = 75 ms V
in
= 0.05 (-120 t + 9) V
V
in
= 0.05 (-120 (75 ms) + 9) V
V
in
= 0.05 (-9 + 9) V
V
in
= 0.05 (0) V
V
in
= 0 V
t = 99.999 ms V
in
= 0.05 (-120 t + 9) V
V
in
= 0.05 (-120 (99.999 ms) + 9) V
V
in
= 0.05 (-12 + 9) V
V
in
= 0.05 (-3) V
V
in
= -0.15 V
t = 100 ms V
in
= 0.05 (120 t - 15) V
V
in
= 0.05 (120 (100 ms) - 15) V
V
in
= 0.05 (12 - 15) V
V
in
= 0.05 (-3) V
V
in
= -0.15 V
t = 125 ms V
in
= 0.05 (120 t - 15) V
V
in
= 0.05 (120 (125 ms) - 15) V
V
in
= 0.05 (15 - 15) V
V
in
= 0.05 (0) V
V
in
= 0 V








Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 23
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

input voltage versus time
0
24.999 25
74.999 75
99.999 100
125
0 0.15 0.15 0 0 -0.15 -0.15 0
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
time (ms)
V
o
l
t
a
g
e
Series1
Series2
Series1 0 24.999 25 74.999 75 99.999 100 125
Series2 0 0.15 0.15 0 0 -0.15 -0.15 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

t (msec) V
in
2V
in

0 0 0
24.999 0.15 0.3
25 0.15 0.3
74.999 0 0
75 0 0
99.999 -0.15 -0.3
100 -0.15 -0.3
125 0 0

V
in
(V)

0.3




0 25 50 75 100 125 t (ms)



-0.3


Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 24
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

0 s t s 24.999
(x
2
, y
2
) = (24.999 ms, 0.3 V)




(x
1
, y
1
) = (0 ms, 0 V)

Equation:

y y
1
y
2
y
1

=
x x
1
x
2
x
1

Here
X t (ms)
Y V
in
(V)
x
1
0 ms
y
1
0 V
x
2
24.999 ms
y
2
0.3 V

Substituting the corresponding values

V
in
0 V

0.3 V 0 V
=
t 0 ms

24.999 ms 0 ms

V
in
0.3 V
=
t 24.999 ms

(24.999 ms) V
in
= 0.3 t
0.025 V
in
= 0.3 t

V
in
= 12 t V

Relationship between the output and input voltages
25 s t s 74.999
(x
2
, y
2
) = (25 ms, 0.3)




(x
1
, y
1
) = (74.999 ms, 0)

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 25
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

Equation:

y y
1
y
2
y
1

=
x x
1
x
2
x
1

Here
X t (ms)
Y V
in
(V)
x
1
74.999 ms
y
1
0 V
x
2
25 ms
y
2
0.3 V

Substituting the corresponding values

V
in
0 V

0.3 V 0 V
=
t 74.999 ms

25 ms 74.999 ms

V
in


0.3 V
=
t 74.999 ms

-49.999 ms

(-49.999 ms) V
in
= 0.3(t 74.999 ms)
-0.05V
in
= 0.3 t 0.022

V
in
= (-6 t + 0.44) V

75 s t s 99.999
(x
2
, y
2
) = (75 ms, 0)




(x
1
, y
1
) = (99.999 ms, -0.3)
Equation:

y y
1
y
2
y
1

=
x x
1
x
2
x
1

Here



Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 26
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


X t (ms)
Y V
in
(V)
x
1
99.999 ms
y
1
-0.3 V
x
2
75 ms
y
2
0 V

Substituting the corresponding values

V
in
(-0.3 V)

0 V (-0.3 V)
=
t 99.999 ms

75 ms 99.999 ms

V
in
+ 0.3 V

0.3 V
=
t 99.999 ms

-24.999 ms

(-24.999 ms)(V
in
+ 0.3 V) = 0.3(t 99.999 ms)
(-0.025)(V
in
+ 0.3 V) = 0.3 t 0.03
-0.025 V
in
0.007 = 0.3 t 0.03
-0.025 V
in
0.007 + 0.03 = 0.3 t
-0.025 V
in
+ 0.023 = 0.3 t
-0.025 V
in
= 0.3 t 0.023

V
in
= (-12 t + 0.92) V

100 s t s 125
(x
2
, y
2
) = (125 ms, 0 V)




(x
1
, y
1
) = (100 ms, -0.3 V)
Equation:

y y
1
y
2
y
1

=
x x
1
x
2
x
1

Here





Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 27
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


x t (ms)
y V
in
(V)
x
1
100 ms
y
1
-0.3 V
x
2
125 ms
y
2
0 V

Substituting the corresponding values

V
in
(-0.3 V)

0 V (-0.3 V)
=
t 100 ms

125 ms 100 ms

V
in
+ 0.3

0.3
=
t 100 ms

25 ms

(25 ms)(V
in
+ 0.3 V) = 0.3(t 100 ms)
(0.025)(V
in
+ 0.3 V) = 0.3(t 100 ms)
0.025V
in
+ 0.007 = 0.3 t 0.03
0.025V
in
+ 0.007 + 0.03 = 0.3 t
0.025V
in
+ 0.037 = 0.3 t
0.025V
in
= 0.3 t 0.037

V
in
= (12 t 1.48) V

Output waveform

t = 0 ms V
0
= A
0
V
in
Here A
0
= 20
V
0
= 20(12 t)
V
0
= 20(12 (0 ms))
V
0
= 0 Volt
t = 24.999 ms V
0
= A
0
V
in
Here A
0
= 20
V
0
= 20(12 t)
V
0
= 20(12 (24.999 ms))
V
0
= 6 Volt
t = 25 ms V
0
= A
0
V
in
Here A
0
= 20
V
0
= 20(-6 t + 0.44)
V
0
= 20(-6 (25 ms) + 0.44)
V
0
= 20(-0.15 + 0.44)
V
0
= 20(0.29)
V
0
= 5.8 Volt
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 28
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

t = 74.999 ms V
0
= A
0
V
in
Here A
0
= 20
V
0
= 20(-6 t + 0.44)
V
0
= 20(-6 (74.999 ms) + 0.44)
V
0
= 20(-0.45 + 0.44)
V
0
= 20(-0.01)
V
0
= -0.2 Volt
t = 75 ms V
0
= A
0
V
in
Here A
0
= 20
V
0
= 20(-12 t + 0.92)
V
0
= 20(-12 (75 ms) + 0.92)
V
0
= 20(-0.9 + 0.92)
V
0
= 20(0.02)
V
0
= 0.4 V
t = 99.999 ms V
0
= A
0
V
in
Here A
0
= 20
V
0
= 20(-12 t + 0.92)
V
0
= 20(-12 (99.999 ms) + 0.92)
V
0
= 20(-1.2 + 0.92)
V
0
= 20(-0.28)
V
0
= -5.6 V
t = 100 ms V
0
= A
0
V
in

V
in
= (12 t 1.48) V
Here A
0
= 20
V
0
= 20(12 t 1.48)
V
0
= 20(12 (100 ms) 1.48)
V
0
= 20(1.2 1.48)
V
0
= 20(-0.28)
V
0
= -5.6 V
t = 125 ms V
0
= A
0
V
in

V
in
= (12 t 1.48) V
Here A
0
= 20
V
0
= 20(12 t 1.48)
V
0
= 20(12 (125 ms) 1.48)
V
0
= 20(1.5 1.48)
V
0
= 20(0.02)
V
0
= 0.4 V









Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 29
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


output voltage versus time
0
24.999 25
74.999 75
99.999 100
125
0
6 5.8
-0.2 0.4
-5.6 -5.6
0.4
-20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
time
v
o
l
t
a
g
e
Series1
Series2
Series1 0 24.999 25 74.999 75 99.999 100 125
Series2 0 6 5.8 -0.2 0.4 -5.6 -5.6 0.4
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Q#4.4: For an ideal op-amp, the voltage gain and input resistance are infinite while
the output resistance is zero. What are the consequences for
(a) the op-amps input voltage?
(b) the op-amps input currents?
(c) the op-amps output current?
Solution:
(a) V
in
= 0 V Hint: B/C Voltage gain =
Proof:

V
out

A
0
=
V
in

V
out

A
0
=
0 V

A
0
=

Hence proved.

(b) I
in
= 0 A
Proof: Hint: B/C input resistance =

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 30
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

V
in

I
in
=
R
in

V
in

I
in
=



I
in
= 0 A

Hence proved.

(c) B/C R
out
= 0 O, the output current is limited only by external circuitry.
Proof:

V
out

I
out
=
R
out
R
out
= 0 O


V
out
AV
e
R
Load

I
out
=
0


I
out
= A

Hence proved.

Q#4.5: Revisit your answers in Problem 4.4 under the following nonideal scenarios.
(a) R
in
= , R
out
= 0, A
0
=
(b) R
in
= , Rout > 0, A
0
=
(c) R
in
= , R
out
= 0, A
0
=
Solution:
(a) V
in
= 0 V Hint: B/C Voltage gain =
Proof:

V
out

A
0
=
V
in

V
out

A
0
=
0 V

A
0
=


Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 31
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

Hence proved.

I
in
= 0 A
Proof: Hint: B/C input resistance =

V
in

I
in
=
R
in

V
in

I
in
=



I
in
= 0 A

Hence proved.

B/C R
out
= 0 O, the output current is limited only by external circuitry.
Proof:

V
out

I
out
=
R
out
R
out
= 0 O


V
out
AV
e
R
Load

I
out
=
0


I
out
= A

Hence proved.

(b) V
in
= 0 V Hint: B/C Voltage gain =
Proof:

V
out

A
0
=
V
in

V
out

A
0
=
0 V

A
0
=

Hence proved.

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 32
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

I
in
= 0 A
Proof: Hint: B/C input resistance =


V
in

I
in
=
R
in

V
in

I
in
=



I
in
= 0 A

Hence proved.
B/C R
out
= > 0 O, the output current is limited both by R
0
& external circuitry.
Proof:

V
out

I
out
=
R
out
R
out
= 0 O


V
out
AV
e
R
Load

I
out
=
>0


I
out
= A

Hence proved.

(c)
V
in
= 0 V Hint: B/C Voltage gain =
Proof:

V
out

A
0
=
V
in

V
out

A
0
=
0 V

A
0
=

Hence proved.


Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 33
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

I
in
= 0 A only when V
in
= 0 V
Proof: Hint: B/C input resistance =

V
in

I
in
=
R
in

V
in

I
in
=
R
in
= 0


I
in
= 0 A

Hence proved.

B/C R
out
= 0 O, the output current is limited only by external circuitry.
Proof:

V
out

I
out
=
R
out
R
out
= 0 O


V
out
AV
e
R
Load

I
out
=
0


I
out
= A

Hence proved.

Q#4.6: Revisit the exact analysis of the inverting configuration in section 4.3.
(a) Find an expression for the gain if R
in
= , R
out
= 0, A
0
= .
Solution:
SECTION 4.3:
As a general rule, when analyzing operational amplifier circuits we write nodal equations
at the operational amplifier input terminals, using the ideal operational amplifier model
conditions. Thus, the technique is straightforward and simple to implement.
Gain of the basic inverting OP-AMP configuration
Here R
i
= R
in









Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 34
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


R
2

-
V
0
R
1

=
V
S
1 1 1 1 1
+ + +
R
1
R
i
R
2
R
2
R
0

1 -
1 1 A
0

-
R
2
R
2
R
0


R
2

-
V
0
R
1

=
V
S
1 1 1 1 1
+ + +
R
1


R
2
R
2
0
1 -
-1 -1 A
0

+
R
2
R
2
0

We to bring about a result that

1 1 1 1 1
>> & << &
R
0
R
2
R
i
R
1
R
2

R
2

-
V
0
R
1

=
V
S
1 1 1
+
R
1
R
2
R
0

1 +
1 A
0


R
2
R
0





Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 35
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

1 1 R
2
+ R
1

+ =
R
1
R
2
R
1
R
2



R
2

-
V
0
R
1

=
V
S
R
2
+ R
1
1

R
1
R
2
R
0

1 +
1 A
0


R
2
R
0



R
2

-
V
0
R
1

=
V
S
R
2
+ R
1
1
1 +
R
1


A
0



(b)
Plot the ratio of the gain in (a) to the ideal gain versus A
0
for 1 s A
0
s 1000 for an
ideal gain of 10.
Ideal gain = -10
Proof:
R
2

-
V
0
R
1

= Hint: for ideal OP-AMP
V
S
R
2
+ R
1
1 A
0
=
1 +
R
1












Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 36
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


R
2

-
V
0
R
1

=
V
S
R
2
+ R
1

1 + 0
R
1






R
2

-
V
0
R
1

=
V
S

1 + 0





V
0
-R
2

= = -10
V
S
R
1



R
2

-

R
1

Actual gain =

R
2
R
1
1
1 + +
R
1


R
1
A
0



-10
Actual gain =

1
1 + (10) + 1


A
0


-10
Actual gain =

11
1 +
A
0



Actual gain
Gain ratio =
Ideal gain

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 37
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

-10


11
1 +
A
0

Gain ratio =
-10

1
Gain ratio =

11
1 +
A
0



Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 38
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893




A
0
Gain ratio
1 1
Gain ratio =

11
1 +
A
0


1
Gain ratio =

11
1 +
1



Gain ratio = 0.083
200 1
Gain ratio =

11
1 +
A
0


1
Gain ratio =

11
1 +
200



Gain ratio = 0.948
400 1
Gain ratio =

11
1 +
A
0


1
Gain ratio =

11
1 +
400



Gain ratio = 0.973
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 39
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


Graphical Analysis





600 1
Gain ratio =

11
1 +
A
0


1
Gain ratio =

11
1 +
600



Gain ratio = 0.982
800 1
Gain ratio =

11
1 +
A
0


1
Gain ratio =

11
1 +
800



Gain ratio = 0.986
1000 1
Gain ratio =

11
1 +
A
0


1
Gain ratio =

11
1 +
1000



Gain ratio = 0.989
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 40
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

Gain ratio versus A0
1
200
400
600
800
1000
0.083 0.948 0.973 0.982 0.986 0.989 0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
A0
G
a
i
n

r
a
t
i
o
Series1
Series2
Series1 1 200 400 600 800 1000
Series2 0.083 0.948 0.973 0.982 0.986 0.989
1 2 3 4 5 6




(b) From your plot, does the actual gain approach the ideal gain value as A
0
increases
or decreases?
Solution:
As A
0
increases the actual gain approaches the ideal one.
Proof:
A
0
Actual gain
1 -10
Actual gain =

11
1 +
A
0


-10
Actual gain =

11
1 +
1



Actual gain = -0.833




Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 41
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

200 -10
Actual gain =

11
1 +
A
0


-10
Actual gain =

11
1 +
200



Actual gain = -9.479
400 -10
Actual gain =

11
1 +
A
0


-10
Actual gain =

11
1 +
400



Actual gain = -9.732
600 -10
Actual gain =

11
1 +
A
0


-10
Actual gain =

11
1 +
600



Actual gain = -9.820






Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 42
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

800 -10
Actual gain =

11
1 +
A
0


-10
Actual gain =

11
1 +
800



Actual gain = -9.864
1000 -10
Actual gain =

11
1 +
A
0


-10
Actual gain =

11
1 +
1000



Actual gain = -9.891

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 43
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

Graphical Analysis
Actual gain versus A0
1
200
400
600
800
1000
-0.833
-9.479 -9.732 -9.82 -9.864 -9.891
-200
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
A0
A
c
t
u
a
l

g
a
i
n
Series1
Series2
Series1 1 200 400 600 800 1000
Series2 -0.833 -9.479 -9.732 -9.82 -9.864 -9.891
1 2 3 4 5 6

Hence proved.

(c) From your plot, what is the minimum value of A
0
if the actual gain is within 5%
of the ideal case?
Solution:
1
Gain ratio = s 0.95

11
1 +
A
0



11
1 + 0.95 = 1
A
0




11
1 + = 1.053
A
0


A
0
> 207.547


Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 44
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

Q#4.7: Revisit the exact analysis of the inverting amplifier in section 4.3.
(a) Find an expression for the voltage gain if R
in
= , R
out
= 0, A
0
= .
Solution:
SECTION 4.3:
As a general rule, when analyzing operational amplifier circuits we write nodal equations
at the operational amplifier input terminals, using the ideal operational amplifier model
conditions. Thus, the technique is straightforward and simple to implement.
Gain of the basic inverting OP-AMP configuration
Here R
i
= R
in


R
2

-
V
0
R
1

=
V
S
1 1 1 1 1
+ + +
R
1
R
i
R
2
R
2
R
0

1 -
1 1 A
0

-
R
2
R
2
R
0


R
2

-
V
0
R
1

=
V
S
1 1 1 1 1
+ + +
R
1
R
i
R
2
R
2
0
1 -
-1 -1 A
0

+
R
2
R
2
0

We to bring about a result that

1 1
>>
R
0
R
2







Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 45
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



R
2

-
V
0
R
1

=
V
S
1 1 1 1
+ +
R
1
R
2
R
i
R
0

1 +
1 A
0


R
2
R
0


1 1 1 R
i
R
2
+ R
i
R
1
+ R
1
R
2

+ + =
R
1
R
2
R
i
R
i
R
1
R
2


R
2

-
V
0
R
1

=
V
S
R
i
R
2
+ R
i
R
1
+ R
1
R
2
1

R
1
R
2
R
i
R
0

1 +
1 A
0


R
2
R
0


R
2

-
V
0
R
1

= = Actual gain (i)
V
S
R
i
R
2
+ R
i
R
1
+ R
1
R
2

+ 1
A
0
R
1
R
i




(b) For R
2
= 27 kO and R
1
= 3 kO, plot the ratio of the actual gain to the ideal gain
for A
0
= 1000 and 1 kO s R
in
s 100 kO.







Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 46
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



R
2

-
V
0
R
1

=
V
S
R
i
R
2
+ R
i
R
1
+ R
1
R
2

Lim A
0
+ 1
A
0
R
1
R
i




R
2

-
V
0
R
1

=
V
S
0 + 1

V
0
-R
2
-27000
= = Ideal gain = = -9
V
S
R
1
3000

Substituting the corresponding values in equation (i)


Here
R
2
= 27 kO
R
1
= 3 kO
A
0
= 1000

27000
-
V
0
3000
= = Actual gain
V
S
R
i
(27000) + R
i
(3000) + (3000)(27000)
+ 1
(1000)(3000) R
i





V
0
-9


= = Actual gain
V
S
R
i
(27000) + R
i
(3000) + 81 10
+6

+ 1
(3 10
+6
)R
i










Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 47
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

Actual gain
Gain ratio =
Ideal gain




-9




R
i
(27000) + R
i
(3000) + 81 10
+6

+ 1
(3 10
+6
)R
i



=
-9

-9

1
=

R
i
(27000) + R
i
(3000) + 81 10
+6
-9
+ 1
(3 10
+6
)R
i





1


= Gain ratio

R
i
(27000) + R
i
(3000) + 81 10
+6

+ 1
(3 10
+6
)R
i





R
i
Gain ratio
1,000

1


=

R
i
(27000) + R
i
(3000) + 81 10
+6

+ 1
(3 10
+6
)R
i





1


=

(1000)(27000) + (1000)(3000) + 81 10
+6

+ 1
(3 10
+6
)(1000)






Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 48
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


1


=

27 10
+6
+ 3 10
+6
+ 81 10
+6

+ 1
3 10
+9




1


=

111 10
+6

+ 1
3 10
+9




1


=

37 10
+6-9
+ 1

= 0.964




20,000

1


=

R
i
(27000) + R
i
(3000) + 81 10
+6

+ 1
(3 10
+6
)R
i




1


=

(20000)(27000) + (20000)(3000) + 81 10
+6

+ 1
(3 10
+6
)(20000)




1


=

540000000 + 60000000 + 81000000
+ 1
60000000000



= 0.989

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 49
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

40,000

1


=

R
i
(27000) + R
i
(3000) + 81 10
+6

+ 1
(3 10
+6
)R
i




1


=

(40000)(27000) + (40000)(3000) + 81 10
+6

+ 1
(3 10
+6
)(40000)




1


=

1080000000 + 120000000 + 81000000
+ 1
120000000000



= 0.989

60,000

1


=

R
i
(27000) + R
i
(3000) + 81 10
+6

+ 1
(3 10
+6
)R
i




1


=

(60000)(27000) + (60000)(3000) + 81 10
+6

+ 1
(3 10
+6
)(60000)




1


=

1620000000 + 180000000 + 81000000
+ 1
180000000000



= 0.990
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 50
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80,000

1


=

R
i
(27000) + R
i
(3000) + 81 10
+6

+ 1
(3 10
+6
)R
i




1


=

(80000)(27000) + (80000)(3000) + 81 10
+6

+ 1
(3 10
+6
)(80000)




1


=

2160000000 + 240000000 + 81000000
+ 1
240000000000



= 0.990

100,000

1


=

R
i
(27000) + R
i
(3000) + 81 10
+6

+ 1
(3 10
+6
)R
i




1


=

(100000)(27000) + (100000)(3000) + 81 10
+6

+ 1
(3 10
+6
)(100000)




1


=

2700000000 + 300000000 + 81000000
+ 1
300000000000



= 0.990
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 51
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

Gain ratio versus Ri
1000
20000
40000
60000
80000
100000
0.964 0.989 0.989 0.99 0.99 0.99 0
20000
40000
60000
80000
100000
120000
Ri
G
a
i
n

r
a
t
i
o
Series1
Series2
Series1 1000 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000
Series2 0.964 0.989 0.989 0.99 0.99 0.99
1 2 3 4 5 6
(c) From your plot, does the ratio approach unity as R
in
increases or decreases?
Solution:
The Gain ratio approaches unity as R
in
increases.
(d) From your plot in (b), what is the minimum value of R
in
if the gain ratio is to be at
least 0.98?

1


s 0.98

R
i
(27000) + R
i
(3000) + 81 10
+6

+ 1
(3 10
+6
)R
i






R
i
(27000) + R
i
(3000) + 81 10
+6

+ 1 0.98 > 1
(3 10
+6
)R
i





0.98 R
i
(27000) + R
i
(3000) + 81 10
+6

+ 0.98 > 1
(3 10
+6
)R
i








Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 52
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



0.98 R
i
(27000) + R
i
(3000) + 81 10
+6

+ 0.98 > 1
(3 10
+6
)R
i





0.327 R
i
(27000) + R
i
(3000) + 81 10
+6

> 1 0.98
1000000R
i




882.9R
i
+ 981R
i
+ 26487000
> 0.02
1000000R
i




882.9R
i
+ 981R
i
+ 26487000 > 20000R
i

882.9R
i
+ 981R
i
- 20000R
i
> -26487000
-18136.1R
i
> -26487000

R
i
> 1.460 kO

Q#4.8: An op-amp based amplifier has 18 V supplies and a gain of 80. Over what
input range the amplifier is linear?
Solution:

V
out

A
0
= = -80
V
in


V
out
s 18 V

18
A
0
= = -80
V
in


V
in
s -0.225 V
Linear region limited to

V
in
s 0.225 V


SECTI ON 4.3

Q#4.9: Determine the gain of the amplifier in Fig. P4.9. What is the value of I
0
?
Solution:


Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 53
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


V
in
= 2 V

I
0

V
0




R
2
= 20 kO







R
1
= 3.3

kO





OP-AMP MODEL

I
0


V
0



R
in
R
out



AV
e
R
2





V
in






R
1





Fig. (a)


Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 54
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

V
1
V
0


V
+
R
in
V
-
R
2

I
0



R
out


V
in

R
1



AV
e





Using Nodal Analysis Fig. (b)
Applying KCL at node V
1
According to KCL
The algebraic Sum of all the currents leaving that junction = The algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
1
- V
in
V
1
V
1
V
0

+ + = 0 (i)
R
in
R
1
R
2


Applying KCL at node V
0
According to KCL
The algebraic Sum of all the currents leaving that junction = The algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
0
V
1
V
0
- AV
e

+ = 0 (ii)
R
2
R
out


Here
V
e
= V
in
V
1

V
0
V
1
V
0
A(V
in
V
1
)


+ = 0
R
2
R
out


V
0
V
1
V
0
AV
in
+ AV
1

+ = 0
R
2
R
out


Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 55
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

V
0
V
1
V
0
AV
in
AV
1

- + - + = 0
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
out

1 1 A 1 AV
in

+ V
0
+ - V
1
= (iii)
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
out



Simplifying equation (i)

V
1
- V
in
V
1
V
1
V
0

+ + = 0
R
in
R
1
R
2


V
1
V
in
V
1
V
1
V
0

- + + - = 0
R
in
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
2



1 1 1 V
0
V
in

+ + V
1
- = (iv)
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
2
R
in



Writing equations (iii) & (iv) in matrix form
AV
in


A 1 1 1
- + V
1
R
out

R
out
R
2
R
2
R
out


=
1 1 1 -1

V
in

+ + V
0

R
in
R
1
R
2
R
2
R
in



A X = B
Solving for the node voltages, we obtain
Determinant of A =





Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 56
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893





A 1 1 1
- +


R
out
R
2
R
2
R
out



1 1 1 -1


+ +
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
2




A 1 -1 1 1 1 1 1
= - - + + +
R
out
R
2
R
2
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
2
R
out




AV
in
1 1
+
R
out
R
2
R
out



V
in
-1

R
in
R
2



V
1
=

A 1 -1 1 1 1 1 1
- - + + +
R
out
R
2
R
2
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
2
R
out


AV
in
-1 V
in
1 1
- +
R
out
R
2
R
in
R
2
R
out

V
1
=
A 1 -1 1 1 1 1 1
- - + + +
R
out
R
2
R
2
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
2
R
out


Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 57
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Substituting corresponding values

A 10
5

R
out
10 O
V
in
2 V
R
in
10
8
O
R
1
3.3 kO
R
2
20 kO

2(10
5
) -1 2 1 1
- +
10 2 10
4
10
8
2 10
4
10
=
10
5
1 -1 1 1 1 1
- - + + + 0.1
10 2 10
4
2 10
4
10
8
3300 2 10
4
2 10
4


(20000)(-0.00005) (0.00000002)(0.00005 + 0.1)
=
(10000 - 0.00005)(-0.00005) (0.00000001 +
0.0003030303030303030303030303030303 + 0.00005)(0.00005 + 0.1)

-1 (0.00000002)(0.10005)
=
(9999.99995)(-0.00005) (0.0003530403030303030303030303030303)(
0.10005)

-1 0.000000002001
=
-0.4999999975 3.0318181818181818181818181818182e-5

-1.000000002001
=
-0.50003031568181818181818181818182

V
1
= 1.9998787486263633990966172278781 Volts









Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 58
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A 1 AV
in

-
R
out
R
2
R
out



1

1

1

V
in

+ +
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
in



V
0
=

A 1 -1 1 1 1 1 1
- - + + +
R
out
R
2
R
2
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
2
R
out

A 1 V
in
1 1 1 AV
in

- - + +
R
out
R
2
R
in
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
out


V
0
=
A 1 -1 1 1 1 1 1
- - + + +
R
out
R
2
R
2
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
2
R
out


Substituting corresponding values

10
5
1 2 1 1 1 2(10
5
)
- - + +
10 2 10
4
10
8
10
8
3300 2 10
4
10
V
0
=

10
5
1 -1 1 1 1 1
- - + + + 0.1
10 2 10
4
2 10
4
10
8
3300 2 10
4
2 10
4


(10000 - 0.00005)(0.00000002) (0.00000001 +
0.0003030303030303030303030303030303 + 0.00005)(20000)
=
(10000 - 0.00005)(-0.00005) (0.00000001 +
0.0003030303030303030303030303030303 + 0.00005)(0.00005 + 0.1)



Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 59
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(9999.99995)(0.00000002)
(0.0003530403030303030303030303030303)(20000)
=
(9999.99995)(-0.00005) - (0.0003530403030303030303030303030303)(0.1)

0.000199999999 7.0608060606060606060606060606061
=
-0.4999999975 - 3.530403030303030303030303030303e-5

-7.061
=
-0.5

V
0
= 14.122 Volts

V
0
14.122 V
=
V
in
2 V

Gain = 7.061

From Fig. (b)

AVe V
0

I
0
=
R
out

A(V
in
V
1
) V
0

I
0
=
R
out

10
5
(2 V 1.9998787486263633990966172278781 V) 14.122 V
I
0
=
10 O


12.125137363660090338277212191358 14.122 V
I
0
=
10 O



-1.9968626363399096617227878086424 V
I
0
=
10 O


I
0
= -0.2 A

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 60
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

Q#4.10: For the amplifier in Fig. P4.10, find the gain and I
0
.
Solution:
Circuit diagram:



I
0

V
0




R
2
= 20 kO







R
1
= 3.3 kO



V
S
= 2 V

Fig. (a)




















Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 61
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


OP-AMP MODEL

I
0


V
0



R
in
R
out



AV
e
R
2











R
1




V
S





Fig. (b)



















Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 62
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

V
1
V
0


V
+
R
in
V
-
R
2

I
0



R
out



R
1



AV
e





V
S





Fig. (c)
Using Nodal Analysis
Applying KCL at node V
1
According to KCL
The algebraic Sum of all the currents leaving that junction = The algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
1
- 0 V
1
- V
S
V
1
V
0

+ + = 0
R
in
R
1
R
2

V
1
V
1
- V
S
V
1
V
0

+ + = 0
R
in
R
1
R
2

V
1
V
1
V
S
V
1
V
0

+ + = 0
R
in
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
2







Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 63
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



1 1

1

-1 V
S

+ + V
1
+ V
0
= (i)
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
2
R
1


Applying KCL at node V
0
According to KCL
The algebraic Sum of all the currents leaving that junction = The algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
0
V
1
V
0
- AVe
+ = 0
R
2
R
out


V
e
= V
+
- V
-

Here
V
+
= 0 V
V
-
= V
1
V
e
= 0 V - V
1

V
e
= -V
1

V
0
V
1
V
0
A(-V
1
)
+ = 0
R
2
R
out


V
0
V
1
V
0
+ AV
1

+ = 0
R
2
R
out


Simplifying we get

V
0
V
1
V
0
AV
1

+ + = 0
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
out


A 1 1 1
V
1
+ + V
0
= 0 (ii)
R
out
R
2
R
out
R
2


Writing equations (i) & (ii) in matrix form


Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 64
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


1 1 1 -1 V
1
V
S

+ +
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
2
R
1



A 1 1 1
+ 0
R
out
R
2
R
out
R
2
V
0


A X B

Determinant of A =


1 1 1 -1


+ +
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
2



A 1 1 1
+
R
out
R
2
R
out
R
2




1 1 1 1 1 A 1 1
+ + + +
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
2
R
out
R
2
R
2


















Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 65
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


V
S
-1




R
1
R
2



1 1
0 +


R
out
R
2


V
1


1 1 1 1 1 A 1 1
+ + + +
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
2
R
out
R
2
R
2




V
S
1 1
+ 0
R
1
R
out
R
2



1 1 1 1 1 A 1 1
+ + + +
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
2
R
out
R
2
R
2




V
S
1 1
+
R
1
R
out
R
2



1 1 1 1 1 A 1 1
+ + + +
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
2
R
out
R
2
R
2








Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 66
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

Substituting corresponding values

A 10
5

R
out
10 O
V
in
2 V
R
in
10
8
O
R
1
3.3 kO
R
2
20 kO


2 1 1
+
3300

10

20000




1 1 1 1 1 10
5
1 1
+ + + +
10
8
3300 20000 10 20000 10 20000 20000


(6.0606060606060606060606060606061e-4)(0.1 + 0.00005)

(0.00000001 + 0.0003030303030303030303030303030303 + 0.00005)
(0.1 + 0.00005) + (10000 - 0.00005)(0.00005)

(6.0606060606060606060606060606061e-4)(0.1)

(0.0003530403030303030303030303030303)
(0.1) + (9999.99995)(0.00005)

6.0606060606060606060606060606061e-5

3.530403030303030303030303030303e-5 + 0.5

6.0606060606060606060606060606061e-5

0.5

V
1
= 1.212 10
-4
Volts





Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 67
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



1 1 1 V
S



+ +

R
in
R
1
R
2
R
1





A 1
0


R
out
R
2




V
0


1 1 1 1 1 A 1 1
+ + + +
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
2
R
out
R
2
R
2



V
S
A 1
0
R
1
R
out
R
2



1 1 1 1 1 A 1 1
+ + + +
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
2
R
out
R
2
R
2



V
S
A 1

R
1
R
out
R
2



1 1 1 1 1 A 1 1
+ + + +
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
2
R
out
R
2
R
2









Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 68
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


2 10
5
1

3300

10

20000




1 1 1 1 1 10
5
1 1
+ + + +
10
8
3300 20000 10 20000 10 20000 20000

-(6.0606060606060606060606060606061e-4)(10000 - 0.00005)

(0.00000001 + 0.0003030303030303030303030303030303 + 0.00005)
(0.1 + 0.00005) + (10000 - 0.00005)(0.00005)

-(6.0606060606060606060606060606061e-4)(9999.99995)

(0.0003530403030303030303030303030303)
(0.1) + (9999.99995)(0.00005)

-6.061

3.530403030303030303030303030303e-5 + 0.5

-6.061

0.5

V
0
= -12.122 Volts

V
0
-12.122 V
=
V
S
2 V

Gain = -6.061

From Fig. (b)

AVe V
0

I
0
=
R
out

A(V
1
) V
0

I
0
=
R
out

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 69
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

10
5
(-1.212 10
-4
V) (-12.122 V)
I
0
=
10 O


-12.12 V + 12.122 V
I
0
=
10 O



0.002 V
I
0
=
10 O


I
0
= 200 A

Q#4.11: Using the ideal op-amp assumptions, determine the values of V
0
and I
1
in
Fig. P4.11.

I
1

11 V


V
0








10 kO



1

kO




Fig. (a)






Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 70
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

OP-AMP MODEL

I
1


V
0



R
in
R
out



AV
e
10 kO




V
in






1 kO




Fig. (b)

I
1
V
1
V
0


V
+
R
in
V
-
10 kO



R
out


V
in
= 11 V
1 kO


AV
e





Using Nodal Analysis Fig. (c)
Applying KCL at node Labeled V
1

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction


Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 71
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

V
1
- V
in
V
1
V
1
V
0

+ + 0
R
in
1000 10000

V
1
V
in
V
1
V
1
V
0

+ + 0
R
in
R
in
1000

10000

10000


1 1 1

-1 V
in

+ + V
1
+ V
0
(i)
R
in
1000

10000

10000 R
in



Applying KCL at node Labeled V
0

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
0
AV
e
V
0
V
1

+ 0
R
out
10000

V
0
AVe V
0
V
1

+ 0
R
out
R
out
10000 10000


-1 1 1 AVe
V
1
+

+ V
0
(ii)
10000 R
out
10000 R
out


from fig. (c)
V
e
= V
in
V
1
Here V
in
= 11 V

V
e
= 11 V
1
(iii)

Writing equations (i) & (ii) in matrix form







Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 72
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


1 1 1 -1 V
in

+ + V
1

R
in
1000 10000 10000 R
in



-1 1 1 AV
e

+ V
0

10000 R
out
10000 R
out


A X B

Determinant of A =


1 1 1 -1
+ +
R
in
1000 10000 10000


-1 1 1
+
10000 R
out
10000



1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + +
R
in
1000 10000 R
out
10000 10
8




V
in
-1

R
in
10000


AV
e
1 1
+
R
out
R
out
10000

V
1


1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + +
R
in
1000 10000 R
out
10000 10
8

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 73
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


V
in
1 1 AV
e
1
+ +
R
in
R
out
10000 R
out
10000

V
1


1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + +
R
in
1000 10000 R
out
10000 10
8


Substituting the corresponding values

A 10
5

R
out
10 O
V
in
11 V
R
in
10
8
O


11

1 1 10
5
V
e
1
+ +
10
8

10

10000 10

10000

V
1


1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + +
10
8

1000 10000 10

10000 10
8


(0.00000011)(0.1 + 0.0001) + (10000V
e
)(0.0001)
V
1
=
(0.00000001 + 0.001 + 0.0001)(0.1 + 0.0001) (0.00000001)

(0.00000011)(0.1001) + V
e

V
1
=
(0.001)(0.1) 0.00000001

0.000000011011 + V
e

V
1
=
0.0001 0.00000001

Substituting the value of V
e
from eq. (iii)

0.000000011011 + (11 V
1
)
V
1
=
0.0001 0.00000001
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 74
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

0.00009999V
1
= 0.000000011011 + (11 V
1
)
0.00009999V
1
= 0.000000011011 + 11 - V
1

0.00009999V
1
- 0.000000011011 - 11 + V
1
= 0
1.00009999V
1
- 11.000000011011 = 0

V
1
= 10.998900230976904619307115481523 Volts


1 1 1 V
in

+ +
R
in
1000 10000 R
in



-1 AV
e


10000

R
out


V
0
=

1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + +
R
in
1000 10000 R
out
10000 10
8



1 1 1 AV
e
1 V
in

+ + +
R
in
1000 10000 R
out
10000 R
in


=

1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + +
R
in
1000 10000 R
out
10000 10
8














Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 75
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

Substituting the corresponding values

A 10
5

R
out
10 O
V
in
11 V
R
in
10
8
O


1 1 1 10
5
V
e
1 11
+ + +
10
8
1000 10000 10

10000 10
8


=

1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + +
10
8

1000 10000 10

10000 10
8


(0.00000001 + 0.001 + 0.0001)(10000V
e
) + (0.0001)(0.00000011)

(0.00000001 + 0.001 + 0.0001)(0.1 + 0.0001) 0.00000001

(0.001)(10000V
e
) + 0.000000000011

(0.001)(0.1) 0.00000001

(0.001)(10000V
e
) + 0.000000000011

0.0001 0.00000001

0.00009999V
0
= (0.001)(10000V
e
) + 0.000000000011
Substituting the value of V
e
from eq. (iii)
0.00009999V
0
= (0.001)(10000(11 V
1
)) + 0.000000000011
0.00009999V
0
= (0.001)(10000(11 V
1
)) + 0.000000000011
Here
V
1
= 10.998900230976904619307115481523 V
0.00009999V
0
= (0.001)(10000(11 10.998900230976904619307115481523)) +
0.000000000011
0.00009999V
0
= 0.010997690230953806928845184769975 + 0.000000000011

V
0
= 109.98790120965903519197104480423 V

From figure (c)



Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 76
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

V
in
V
1

I
1
=
R
in
11 V 10.998900230976904619307115481523 V
I
1
=
10
8


I
1
= 0 A

Q#4.12: Using the ideal op-amp assumptions, determine I
1
, I
2
and I
3
in Fig. P4.12.
Solution:

I
3


R
2


I
1
I
2



R
1

V
0


1 mA





Fig. (a)

















-
+
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 77
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


I
3



R
2


OP-AMP MODEL

I
2


V
0



R
in
R
out

R
1
AV
e





I
1





1 mA






Fig. (b)

















Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 78
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

I
1
V
1
V
0


R
1
I
3
R
2


I
2


V
-
R
out


1 mA
R
in


V
+

AV
e





Fig. (c)
According to ohms Law

V
1

I
2
=
R
in


Here
R
in
=

V
1

I
2
=


I
2
= 0 A

Applying KCL at node Labeled V
1

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents entering into the junction = the algebraic sum of all
the currents leaving that junction
I
1
= I
2
+ I
3
Substituting the corresponding values we get
1 mA = 0 A + I
3

I
3
= 1 mA

Q#4.13: In a useful application, the amplifier drives a load. The circuit in Fig. P4.13
models this scenario.
(a) Sketch the gain V
0
/V
S
for 10 O s R
L
s .

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 79
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

(b) Sketch I
0
for 10 O s R
L
s if V
S
= 0.1 V.
(c) Repeat (b) if V
S
= 1 V.
(d) What is the minimum value of R
L
if |I
0
| must be less than 100 mA for |V
S
| <
0.5 V?
(e) What is the current I
S
if R
L
is 100 O? Repeat for R
L
= 10 kO.

Solution:
Circuit diagram:

I
S


V
S
I
0

V
0





R
2
R
L






R
1






Fig. (a)
















+
-
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 80
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

OP-AMP MODEL

I
S
I
0





R
in
R
out



AV
e
27 kO R
L





V
S






3 kO





Fig. (b)
I
S
V
1
V
0


V
+
R
in
V
-
27 kO I
0




R
out


V
S
R
L

3 kO


AV
e





Using Nodal Analysis Fig. (c)
Applying KCL at node Labeled V
1

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction


Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 81
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

V
1
- V
S
V
1
V
1
V
0

+ + 0
R
in
3000 27000

V
1
V
S
V
1
V
1
V
0

+ + 0
R
in
R
in
3000 27000 27000


1

1

1 -1 V
S

+ + V
1
+ V
0
(i)
R
in
3000

27000 27000 R
in



Applying KCL at node Labeled V
0

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
0
V
1
V
0
- AV
e
V
0
+ + 0
27000 R
out
R
L


Here
V
e
= V
+
- V
-

V
e
= V
S
V
1


V
0
V
1
V
0
A(V
S
V
1
)

V
0
+ + 0
27000 R
out
R
L


V
0
V
1
V
0
AV
S
+ AV
1
V
0

+ + 0
27000 27000 R
out
R
L


V
0
V
1
V
0
AV
S
AV
1
V
0

+ + + 0
27000 27000 R
out
R
out
R
out
R
L


-1 A 1 1 1 AV
S

+ V
1
+ + + V
0
(ii)
27000 R
out
27000 R
out
R
L
R
out




Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 82
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

Writing equations (i) & (ii) in matrix form


1 1 1 -1 V
S

+ + V
1

R
in
3000 27000 27000 R
in



-1 A 1 1 1 AV
S

+ + + V
0

27000 R
out
27000 R
out
R
L
R
out



Determinant of A =


1 1 1 -1
+ +
R
in
3000 27000 27000


-1 A 1 1 1
+ + +
27000 R
out
27000 R
out
R
L




1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 A 1
= + + + + + +
R
in
3000 27000 27000 R
out
R
L
27000 R
out
27000

V
0
=?














Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 83
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


1 1 1 V
S

+ +
R
in
3000 27000 R
in



-1 A AV
S

+
27000 R
out
R
out





V
0
=

1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 A 1
+ + + + + +
R
in
3000 27000 27000 R
out
R
L
27000 R
out
27000


1 1 1 AV
S
-1 A V
S

+ + +
R
in
3000 27000 R
out
27000 R
out
R
in


V
0
=

1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 A 1
+ + + + + +
R
in
3000 27000 27000 R
out
R
L
27000 R
out
27000


1 1 1 A -1 A 1
V
S
+ + +
R
in
3000 27000 R
out
27000 R
out
R
in


V
0
=

1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 A 1
+ + + + + +
R
in
3000 27000 27000 R
out
R
L
27000 R
out
27000








Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 84
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


1 1 1 A -1 A 1
V
0
+ + +
R
in
3000 27000 R
out
27000 R
out
R
in




1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 A 1
V
S
+ + + + + +
R
in
3000 27000 27000 R
out
R
L
27000 R
out
27000

Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O
R
L
10 O


1 1 1 10
5
-1 10
5
1
V
0
+ + +
10
8

3000 27000 10

27000 10

10
8




1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 10
5
1
V
S
+ + + + + +
10
8

3000 27000 27000 10

10

27000 10

27000


(0.00000001 + 0.0003333 + 0.00003704)(10000) (-0.00003704 + 10000)(
0.00000001)
=
(0.00000001 + 0.0003333 + 0.00003704)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + 0.1) + (-
0.00003704 + 10000)(0.00003704)

(0.00037035)(10000) (10000)(0.00000001)
=
(0.00037035)(0.2) + (10000)(0.00003704)

3.703 - 0
=
0 + 0.370



Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 85
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

3.703
=
0.370

Gain = 10.008

Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O
R
L
20,000 O


1 1 1 10
5
-1 10
5
1
V
0
+ + +
10
8

3000 27000 10

27000 10

10
8




1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 10
5
1
V
S
+ + + + + +
10
8

3000 27000 27000 10

2 10
4

27000 10

27000

(0.00000001 + 0.0003333 + 0.00003704)(10000) (-0.00003704 + 10000)(
0.00000001)
=
(0.00000001 + 0.0003333 + 0.00003704)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + 0) + (-0.00003704
+ 10000)(0.00003704)

(0.00037035)(10000) (10000)(0.00000001)
=
(0.00037035)(0.1) + (10000)(0.00003704)

3.703 - 0
=
0 + 0.370

3.703
=
0.370

Gain = 10.008



Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 86
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O
R
L
40,000 O


1 1 1 10
5
-1 10
5
1
V
0
+ + +
10
8

3000 27000 10

27000 10

10
8




1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 10
5
1
V
S
+ + + + + +
10
8

3000 27000 27000 10

4 10
4

27000 10

27000

(0.00000001 + 0.0003333 + 0.00003704)(10000) (-0.00003704 + 10000)(
0.00000001)
=
(0.00000001 + 0.0003333 + 0.00003704)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + 0) + (-0.00003704
+ 10000)(0.00003704)

(0.00037035)(10000) (10000)(0.00000001)
=
(0.00037035)(0.1) + (10000)(0.00003704)

3.703 - 0
=
0 + 0.370

3.703
=
0.370

Gain = 10.008

Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O
R
L
60,000 O

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 87
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


1 1 1 10
5
-1 10
5
1
V
0
+ + +
10
8

3000 27000 10

27000 10

10
8




1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 10
5
1
V
S
+ + + + + +
10
8

3000 27000 27000 10

6 10
4

27000 10

27000

(0.00000001 + 0.0003333 + 0.00003704)(10000) (-0.00003704 + 10000)(
0.00000001)
=
(0.00000001 + 0.0003333 + 0.00003704)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + 0) + (-0.00003704
+ 10000)(0.00003704)

(0.00037035)(10000) (10000)(0.00000001)
=
(0.00037035)(0.1) + (10000)(0.00003704)

3.703 - 0
=
0 + 0.370

3.703
=
0.370

Gain = 10.008

Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O
R
L
80,000 O









Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 88
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



1 1 1 10
5
-1 10
5
1
V
0
+ + +
10
8

3000 27000 10

27000 10

10
8




1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 10
5
1
V
S
+ + + + + +
10
8

3000 27000 27000 10

8 10
4

27000 10

27000

(0.00000001 + 0.0003333 + 0.00003704)(10000) (-0.00003704 + 10000)(
0.00000001)
=
(0.00000001 + 0.0003333 + 0.00003704)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + 0) + (-0.00003704
+ 10000)(0.00003704)

(0.00037035)(10000) (10000)(0.00000001)
=
(0.00037035)(0.1) + (10000)(0.00003704)

3.703 - 0
=
0 + 0.370

3.703
=
0.370

Gain = 10.008

Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O
R
L
100,000 O








Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 89
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



1 1 1 10
5
-1 10
5
1
V
0
+ + +
10
8

3000 27000 10

27000 10

10
8




1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 10
5
1
V
S
+ + + + + +
10
8

3000 27000 27000 10

1 10
5

27000 10

27000

(0.00000001 + 0.0003333 + 0.00003704)(10000) (-0.00003704 + 10000)(
0.00000001)
=
(0.00000001 + 0.0003333 + 0.00003704)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + 0) + (-0.00003704
+ 10000)(0.00003704)

(0.00037035)(10000) (10000)(0.00000001)
=
(0.00037035)(0.1) + (10000)(0.00003704)

3.703 - 0
=
0 + 0.370

3.703
=
0.370

Gain = 10.008

Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O
R
L
O








Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 90
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


1 1 1 10
5
-1 10
5
1
V
0
+ + +
10
8

3000 27000 10

27000 10

10
8




1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 10
5
1
V
S
+ + + + + +
10
8

3000 27000 27000 10


27000 10

27000

(0.00000001 + 0.0003333 + 0.00003704)(10000) (-0.00003704 + 10000)(
0.00000001)
=
(0.00000001 + 0.0003333 + 0.00003704)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + 0) + (-0.00003704
+ 10000)(0.00003704)

(0.00037035)(10000) (10000)(0.00000001)
=
(0.00037035)(0.1) + (10000)(0.00003704)

3.703 - 0
=
0 + 0.370

3.703
=
0.370

Gain = 10.008

Graphical analysis:













Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 91
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

Gain versus RL
10.008 10.008 10.008 10.008 10.008 10.008 10
20,000
40,000
60,000
80,000
100,000
1 0
20000
40000
60000
80000
100000
120000
RL
G
a
i
n
Series1
Series2
Series3
Series1 10.008 10.008 10.008 10.008 10.008 10.008
Series2 10 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000
Series3 1
1 2 3 4 5 6
(b) Solution:

AV
e
V
0

I
0
=
R
out


Here
V
e
= V
S
V
1

A(V
S
V
1
) V
0

I
0
= (iii)
R
out


From (a)

V
0

10.008
V
S


V
0
= 10.008 V
S
Here
V
S
= 0.1 V
V
0
= 10.008(0.1 V)

V
0
= 1.001 V


Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 92
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

R
L
(O) V
0
(V)


V
S
= 0.1 V
10 1.001 V
20,000 1.001 V
40,000 1.001 V
60,000 1.001 V
80,000 1.001 V
100,000 1.001 V

V
1
=?


V
S
-1

R
in
27000


AV
S
1 1 1
+ +
R
out


27000 R
out
R
L





V
1
=

1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 A 1
+ + + + + +
R
in
3000 27000 27000 R
out
R
L
27000 R
out
27000


V
S
1 1 1 AV
S
1
+ + +
R
in
27000 R
out
R
L
R
out
27000

V
1
=

1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 A 1
+ + + + + +
R
in
3000 27000 27000 R
out
R
L
27000 R
out
27000

Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O
R
L
10 O

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 93
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


0.1

1 1 1 (10
5
)0.1

1
+ + +
10
8

27000 10 10

10

27000



1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 10
5
1
+ + + + + +
10
8

3000 27000 27000 10

10

27000 10

27000

(0.000000001)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + 0.1) + (1000)(0.00003704)
=
(0.00000001 + 0.0003333 + 0.00003704)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + 0.1) + (-
0.00003704 + 10000)(0.00003704)

(0.000000001)(0.2) + 0.037
=
(0.00037035)(0.2) + (10000)(0.00003704)

0 + 0.037
=
0 + 0.370

0.037
=
0.370

V
1
= 0.1 V

Substituting the corresponding values in equation (iii)

10
5
(0.1 0.1) 1.001
I
0
=
10

0 1.001
I
0
=
10

1.001
I
0
=
10

I
0
= -0.100 A

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 94
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


V
S
1 1 1 AV
S
1
+ + +
R
in
27000 R
out
R
L
R
out
27000

V
1
=

1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 A 1
+ + + + + +
R
in
3000 27000 27000 R
out
R
L
27000 R
out
27000

Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O
R
L
20,000 O


0.1

1 1 1 (10
5
)0.1

1
+ + +
10
8

27000 10 2 10
4

10

27000



1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 10
5
1
+ + + + + +
10
8

3000 27000 27000 10

2 10
4

27000 10

27000

(0.000000001)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + 0.00005) + (1000)(0.00003704)
=
(0.00000001 + 0.0003333 + 0.00003704)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + 0.00005) + (-
0.00003704 + 10000)(0.00003704)

(0.000000001)(0.10008704) + 0.037
=
(0.00037035)(0.10008704) + (9999.99996296)(0.00003704)

0.00000000010008704 + 0.037
=
0.000037067235264 + 0.3703999986280384

0.037
=
0.370

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 95
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


V
1
= 0.1 V

Substituting the corresponding values in equation (iii)

10
5
(0.1 0.1) 1.001
I
0
=
10

0 1.001
I
0
=
10

1.001
I
0
=
10

I
0
= -0.100 A


V
S
1 1 1 AV
S
1
+ + +
R
in
27000 R
out
R
L
R
out
27000

V
1
=

1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 A 1
+ + + + + +
R
in
3000 27000 27000 R
out
R
L
27000 R
out
27000

Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O
R
L
O










Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 96
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


0.1

1 1 1 (10
5
)0.1

1
+ + +
10
8

27000 10

10

27000



1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 10
5
1
+ + + + + +
10
8

3000 27000 27000 10


27000 10

27000

(0.000000001)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + 0) + (1000)(0.00003704)
=
(0.00000001 + 0.0003333 + 0.00003704)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + 0) + (-0.00003704
+ 10000)(0.00003704)

(0.000000001)(0.1) + 0.037
=
(0.00037035)(0.1) + (10000)(0.00003704)

0 + 0.037
=
0 + 0.370

0.037
=
0.370

V
1
= 0.1 V

Substituting the corresponding values in equation (iii)

10
5
(0.1 0.1) 1.001
I
0
=
10

0 1.001
I
0
=
10

1.001
I
0
=
10

I
0
= -0.100 A

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 97
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

Graphical analysis:
I0 versus RL
-0.1 -0.1 -0.1
-0.12
-0.1
-0.08
-0.06
-0.04
-0.02
0
RL (ohms)
I
0

(
A
)
Series1
Series1 -0.1 -0.1 -0.1
10 20,000

(c) Solution:
From (a)

V
0

10.008
V
S


V
0
= 10.008 V
S
Here
V
S
= 1.0 V
V
0
= 10.008(1.0 V)

V
0
= 10.008 V


R
L
(O) V
0
(V)


V
S
= 1.0 V
10 10.008 V
20,000 10.008 V
40,000 10.008 V
60,000 10.008 V
80,000 10.008 V
100,000 10.008 V




Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 98
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

V
S
= 1 V

V
S
1 1 1 AV
S
1
+ + +
R
in
27000 R
out
R
L
R
out
27000

V
1
=

1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 A 1
+ + + + + +
R
in
3000 27000 27000 R
out
R
L
27000 R
out
27000

Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O
R
L
10 O


1

1 1 1 (10
5
)1.0

1
+ + +
10
8

27000 10 10

10

27000



1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 10
5
1
+ + + + + +
10
8

3000 27000 27000 10

10

27000 10

27000

(0.00000001)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + 0.1) + (10000)(0.00003704)
=
(0.00000001 + 0.0003333 + 0.00003704)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + 0.1) + (-
0.00003704 + 10000)(0.00003704)

(0.00000001)(0.2) + 0.370
=
(0.00037035)(0.2) + (10000)(0.00003704)

0 + 0.370
=
0 + 0.370

0.370
=
0.370
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 99
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


V
1
= 1 V

Substituting the corresponding values in equation (iii)

10
5
(1.0 1.0) 10.008
I
0
=
10

0 10.008
I
0
=
10

10.008
I
0
=
10

I
0
= -1.001 A


V
S
1 1 1 AV
S
1
+ + +
R
in
27000 R
out
R
L
R
out
27000

V
1
=

1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 A 1
+ + + + + +
R
in
3000 27000 27000 R
out
R
L
27000 R
out
27000

Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O
R
L
20,000 O










Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 100
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


1.0

1 1 1 (10
5
)1.0

1
+ + +
10
8

27000 10 2 10
4

10

27000



1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 10
5
1
+ + + + + +
10
8

3000 27000 27000 10

2 10
4

27000 10

27000

(0.00000001)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + 0.00005) + (10000)(0.00003704)
=
(0.00000001 + 0.0003333 + 0.00003704)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + 0.00005) + (-
0.00003704 + 10000)(0.00003704)

(0.00000001)(0.10008704) + 0.370
=
(0.00037035)(0.10008704) + (9999.99996296)(0.00003704)

0 + 0.370
=
0.000037067235264 + 0.3703999986280384

0.370
=
0.370

V
1
= 1.0 V

Substituting the corresponding values in equation (iii)

10
5
(1.0 1.0) 10.008
I
0
=
10

0 10.008
I
0
=
10

10.008
I
0
=
10

I
0
= -1.001 A

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 101
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


V
S
1 1 1 AV
S
1
+ + +
R
in
27000 R
out
R
L
R
out
27000

V
1
=

1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 A 1
+ + + + + +
R
in
3000 27000 27000 R
out
R
L
27000 R
out
27000

Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O
R
L
O


1.0

1 1 1 (10
5
)1.0

1
+ + +
10
8

27000 10

10

27000



1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 10
5
1
+ + + + + +
10
8

3000 27000 27000 10


27000 10

27000

(0.00000001)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + 0) + (10000)(0.00003704)
=
(0.00000001 + 0.0003333 + 0.00003704)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + 0) + (-0.00003704
+ 10000)(0.00003704)

(0.00000001)(0.1) + 0.370
=
(0.00037035)(0.1) + (10000)(0.00003704)

0 + 0.370
=
0 + 0.370

0.370
=
0.370

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 102
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


V
1
= 1.0 V

Substituting the corresponding values in equation (iii)

10
5
(1.0 1.0) 10.008
I
0
=
10

0 10.008
I
0
=
10

10.008
I
0
=
10

I
0
= -1.001 A

I0 versus RL
-1.001 -1.001 -1.001
-1.2
-1
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
RL
I
0
Series1
Series1 -1.001 -1.001 -1.001
10 20,000

(d) Solution:





Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 103
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


V
S
1 1 1 AV
S
1
+ + +
R
in
27000 R
out
R
L
R
out
27000

V
1
=

1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 A 1
+ + + + + +
R
in
3000 27000 27000 R
out
R
L
27000 R
out
27000

Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O
V
S
0.4 V


0.4

1 1 1 (10
5
)0.4

1
+ + +
10
8

27000 10 R
L
10

27000



1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 10
5
1
+ + + + + +
10
8

3000 27000 27000 10

R
L
27000 10

27000

(0.000000004)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + R
L
-1
) + (4000)(0.00003704)
=
(0.00000001 + 0.0003333 + 0.00003704)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + R
L
-1
) + (-
0.00003704 + 10000)(0.00003704)

(0.000000004)(0.1 + R
L
-1
) + 0.148
=
(0.00037035)(0.1 + R
L
-1
) + (10000)(0.00003704)

0 + 0.148 + 0.000000004 R
L
-1

=
0 + 0.370 + 0.00037035 R
L
-1


0.148 + 0.000000004 R
L
-1

V
1
=
0.370 + 0.00037035 R
L
-1


Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 104
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


1 1 1 A -1 A 1
+ + +
R
in
3000 27000 R
out
27000 R
out
R
in




1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 A 1
+ + + + + +
R
in
3000 27000 27000 R
out
R
L
27000 R
out
27000


R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O


1 1 1 10
5
-1 10
5
1
+ + +
10
8

3000 27000 10

27000 10

10
8


V
0


1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 10
5
1
+ + + + + +
10
8

3000 27000 27000 10

R
L
27000 10

27000

(0.00000001 + 0.0003333 + 0.00003704)(10000) (-0.00003704 + 10000)(
0.00000001)
=
(0.00000001 + 0.0003333 + 0.00003704)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + R
L
-1
) + (-
0.00003704 + 10000)(0.00003704)

(0.00037035)(10000) (10000)(0.00000001)
=
(0.00037035)(0.1 + R
L
-1
) + (10000)(0.00003704)

3.703 - 0
=
0 + 0.370 + 0.00037035 R
L
-1


3.703
V
0
=
0.370 + 0.00037035 R
L
-1


Substituting the corresponding values in equation (iii)
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 105
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

Here
A = 10
5
V
S
= 0.4 V
R
out
= 10 O
I
0
= 99 mA = 0.099 A

10
5
(0.4 V
1
) V
0

0.099 =
10

10
5
(0.4 V
1
) V
0
= 0.099(10)
40000 100000V
1
V
0
= 0.99

100000V
1
V
0
= 0.99 40000
100000V
1
V
0
= -39999.01
100000V
1
+ V
0
= 39999.01

0.148 + 0.000000004 R
L
-1
3.703
100000 + = 39999.01

0.370 + 0.00037035 R
L
-1
0.370 + 0.00037035 R
L
-1


100000(0.148 + 0.000000004 R
L
-1
) + 3.703
= 39999.01
0.370 + 0.00037035 R
L
-1

100000(0.148 + 0.000000004 R
L
-1
) + 3.703 = 39999.01(0.370 + 0.00037035 R
L
-1
)
14800 + 0.0004 R
L
-1
+ 3.703 = 14799.6337 + 14.814 R
L
-1

14800 + 0.0004 R
L
-1
+ 3.703 - 14799.6337 - 14.814 R
L
-1
= 0
-14.814 R
L
-1
+ 4.0693 = 0
-14.814 R
L
-1
= -4.0693
R
L
-1
= 0.275

R
L
= 3.636 O














Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 106
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


V
S
1 1 1 AV
S
1
+ + +
R
in
27000 R
out
R
L
R
out
27000

V
1
=

1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 A 1
+ + + + + +
R
in
3000 27000 27000 R
out
R
L
27000 R
out
27000

Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O
V
S
0.3 V


0.3

1 1 1 (10
5
)0.3

1
+ + +
10
8

27000 10 R
L
10

27000



1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 10
5
1
+ + + + + +
10
8

3000 27000 27000 10

R
L
27000 10

27000

(0.000000003)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + R
L
-1
) + (3000)(0.00003704)
=
(0.00000001 + 0.0003333 + 0.00003704)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + R
L
-1
) + (-
0.00003704 + 10000)(0.00003704)

(0.000000003)(0.1 + R
L
-1
) + 0.111
=
(0.00037035)(0.1 + R
L
-1
) + (10000)(0.00003704)

0 + 0.111 + 0.000000003 R
L
-1

=
0 + 0.370 + 0.00037035 R
L
-1


0.111 + 0.000000003 R
L
-1

V
1
=
0.370 + 0.00037035 R
L
-1


Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 107
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


1 1 1 A -1 A 1
+ + +
R
in
3000 27000 R
out
27000 R
out
R
in




1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 A 1
+ + + + + +
R
in
3000 27000 27000 R
out
R
L
27000 R
out
27000


R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O


1 1 1 10
5
-1 10
5
1
+ + +
10
8

3000 27000 10

27000 10

10
8


V
0


1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 10
5
1
+ + + + + +
10
8

3000 27000 27000 10

R
L
27000 10

27000

(0.00000001 + 0.0003333 + 0.00003704)(10000) (-0.00003704 + 10000)(
0.00000001)
=
(0.00000001 + 0.0003333 + 0.00003704)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + R
L
-1
) + (-
0.00003704 + 10000)(0.00003704)

(0.00037035)(10000) (10000)(0.00000001)
=
(0.00037035)(0.1 + R
L
-1
) + (10000)(0.00003704)

3.703 - 0
=
0 + 0.370 + 0.00037035 R
L
-1


3.703
V
0
=
0.370 + 0.00037035 R
L
-1


Substituting the corresponding values in equation (iii)
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 108
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

Here
A = 10
5
V
S
= 0.3 V
R
out
= 10 O
I
0
= 98 mA = 0.098 A

10
5
(0.3 V
1
) V
0

0.098 =
10

10
5
(0.3 V
1
) V
0
= 0.098(10)
30000 100000V
1
V
0
= 0.98

100000V
1
V
0
= 0.98 30000
100000V
1
V
0
= -29999.02
100000V
1
+ V
0
= 29999.02

0.111 + 0.000000003 R
L
-1
3.703
100000 + = 29999.02

0.370 + 0.00037035 R
L
-1
0.370 + 0.00037035 R
L
-1


100000(0.111 + 0.000000003 R
L
-1
) + 3.703
= 29999.02
0.370 + 0.00037035 R
L
-1

100000(0.111 + 0.000000003 R
L
-1
) + 3.703 = 29999.02(0.370 + 0.00037035 R
L
-1
)
11100 + 0.0003 R
L
-1
+ 3.703 = 11099.637 + 11.11 R
L
-1

11100 + 0.0003 R
L
-1
+ 3.703 - 11099.637 11.11 R
L
-1
= 0
- 11.11R
L
-1
+ 4.066 = 0
-11.11 R
L
-1
= -4.066
R
L
-1
= 0.366

R
L
= 2.733 O














Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 109
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


V
S
1 1 1 AV
S
1
+ + +
R
in
27000 R
out
R
L
R
out
27000

V
1
=

1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 A 1
+ + + + + +
R
in
3000 27000 27000 R
out
R
L
27000 R
out
27000

Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O
V
S
0.2 V


0.2

1 1 1 (10
5
)0.2

1
+ + +
10
8

27000 10 R
L
10

27000



1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 10
5
1
+ + + + + +
10
8

3000 27000 27000 10

R
L
27000 10

27000

(0.000000002)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + R
L
-1
) + (2000)(0.00003704)
=
(0.00000001 + 0.0003333 + 0.00003704)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + R
L
-1
) + (-
0.00003704 + 10000)(0.00003704)

(0.000000002)(0.1 + R
L
-1
) + 0.074

=
(0.00037035)(0.1 + R
L
-1
) + (10000)(0.00003704)

0 + 0.074 + 0.000000002 R
L
-1

=
0 + 0.370 + 0.00037035 R
L
-1


0.074 + 0.000000002 R
L
-1

V
1
=
0.370 + 0.00037035 R
L
-1

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 110
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


1 1 1 A -1 A 1
+ + +
R
in
3000 27000 R
out
27000 R
out
R
in




1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 A 1
+ + + + + +
R
in
3000 27000 27000 R
out
R
L
27000 R
out
27000


R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O


1 1 1 10
5
-1 10
5
1
+ + +
10
8

3000 27000 10

27000 10

10
8


V
0


1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 10
5
1
+ + + + + +
10
8

3000 27000 27000 10

R
L
27000 10

27000

(0.00000001 + 0.0003333 + 0.00003704)(10000) (-0.00003704 + 10000)(
0.00000001)
=
(0.00000001 + 0.0003333 + 0.00003704)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + R
L
-1
) + (-
0.00003704 + 10000)(0.00003704)

(0.00037035)(10000) (10000)(0.00000001)
=
(0.00037035)(0.1 + R
L
-1
) + (10000)(0.00003704)

3.703 - 0
=
0 + 0.370 + 0.00037035 R
L
-1


3.703
V
0
=
0.370 + 0.00037035 R
L
-1


Substituting the corresponding values in equation (iii)
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 111
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

Here
A = 10
5
V
S
= 0.2 V
R
out
= 10 O
I
0
= 97 mA = 0.097 A

10
5
(0.2 V
1
) V
0

0.097 =
10

10
5
(0.2 V
1
) V
0
= 0.097(10)
20000 100000V
1
V
0
= 0.97

100000V
1
V
0
= 0.97 20000
100000V
1
V
0
= -19999.03
100000V
1
+ V
0
= 19999.03

0.074 + 0.000000002 R
L
-1
3.703
100000 + = 19999.03

0.370 + 0.00037035 R
L
-1
0.370 + 0.00037035 R
L
-1


100000(0.074 + 0.000000002 R
L
-1
) + 3.703
= 19999.03
0.370 + 0.00037035 R
L
-1

100000(0.074 + 0.000000002 R
L
-1
) + 3.703 = 19999.03(0.370 + 0.00037035 R
L
-1
)
7400 + 0.0002 R
L
-1
+ 3.703 = 7399.641 + 7.407 R
L
-1

7400 + 0.0002 R
L
-1
+ 3.703 - 7399.641 7.407 R
L
-1
= 0
-7.4068 R
L
-1
+ 4.062 = 0
-7.4068 R
L
-1
= -4.062
R
L
-1
= 0.548

R
L
= 1.825 O

By comparison
I
0
(mA) V
S
(V) R
L
(O)
99 0.4 3.636
98 0.3 2.733
97 0.2 1.825

(e) Solution:
from fig. (c)

V
S
V
1

I
S
=
R
in

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 112
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


V
S
1 1 1 AV
S
1
+ + +
R
in
27000 R
out
R
L
R
out
27000

V
1
=

1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 A 1
+ + + + + +
R
in
3000 27000 27000 R
out
R
L
27000 R
out
27000

Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O


V
S
1 1 1 (10
5
)V
S
1
+ + +
10
8

27000 10 R
L
10

27000



1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 10
5
1
+ + + + + +
10
8

3000 27000 27000 10

R
L
27000 10

27000

(0.00000001 V
S
)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + R
L
-1
) + (10000 V
S
)(0.00003704)
=
(0.00000001 + 0.0003333 + 0.00003704)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + R
L
-1
) + (-
0.00003704 + 10000)(0.00003704)

(0.00000001 V
S
)(0.1 + R
L
-1
) + 0.370 V
S

=
(0.00037035)(0.1 + R
L
-1
) + (10000)(0.00003704)

0 + 0.370 V
S
+ 0.00000001 V
S
R
L
-1

=
0 + 0.370 + 0.00037035 R
L
-1


0.37 V
S
+ 0.00000001 V
S
R
L
-1

V
1
=
0.370 + 0.00037035 R
L
-1


Substituting the corresponding values
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 113
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

Here R
L
= 100 O

0.37 V
S
+ 0.00000001 V
S
(100)
-1

V
S

0.370 + 0.00037035 (100)
-1

I
S
=
10
8


0.37 V
S
+ 0.00000001 V
S
(0.01)
V
S

0.370 + 0.00037035 (0.01)
I
S
=
10
8


0.37 V
S
+ 0
V
S

0.370 + 0
I
S
=
10
8

I
S
= 0 A

When R
L
= 10,000 O

0.37 V
S
+ 0.00000001 V
S
(10000)
-1

V
S

0.370 + 0.00037035 (10000)
-1

I
S
=
10
8


0.37 V
S
+ 0.00000001 V
S
(0)
V
S

0.370 + 0.00037035 (0)
I
S
=
10
8


0.37 V
S
+ 0
V
S

0.370 + 0
I
S
=
10
8

I
S
= 0 A



Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 114
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

Q#4.14: Repeat Problem 4.13 for the circuit in Fig. P4.14.
(a) Solution:




R
2


V
S




I
0

R
1

V
0



R
L






Fig. (a)
























-
+
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 115
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893





R
2


OP-AMP MODEL

I
0


V
0



R
in
R
out

R
1
AV
e
R
L










V
S







Fig. (b)

















Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 116
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

V
1
V
0


I
S
R
1
R
2
I
0




V
-
R
out


V
S
R
L

R
in


V
+

AV
e





Fig. (c)
Using nodal analysis:
Applying KCL at node Labeled V
1

Assume that all the currents are going away from the junction
According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
entering into the junction

V
1
- V
S
V
1
V
1
V
0

+ + 0
R
1
R
in
R
2


V
1


V
S
V
1
V
1
V
0

+ + 0
R
1
R
1
R
in
R
2
R
2


1 1 1 -1 V
S

+ + V
1
+ V
0
(i)
R
1
R
in
R
2
R
2
R
1


Applying KCL at node Labeled V
0

Assume that all the currents are going away from the junction
According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
entering into the junction




Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 117
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

V
0
V
1
V
0
- AV
e
V
0

+ + 0
R
2
R
out
R
L

V
0
V
1
V
0
AVe V
0

+ + 0
R
2
R
2
R
out
Rout R
L


-1 1 1 1 AVe
V
1
+ + + V
0
(ii)
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
out

Writing equations (i) & (ii) in matrix form

1 1 1 -1 V
S

+ + V
1

R
1
R
in
R
2
R
2
R
1




-1 1 1 1 AV
e

+ + V
0

R
2
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
out

A X B
Determinant of A =

1 1 1 -1
+ +


R
1
R
in
R
2
R
2




-1 1 1 1
+ +


R
2
R
2
R
out
R
L









Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 118
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + + +
R
1
R
in
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
2
R
2



1 1 1 V
S

+ +


R
1
R
in
R
2
R
1




-1 AV
e




R
2
R
out

V
0


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + + +
R
1
R
in
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
2
R
2



1 1 1 AV
e
1 V
S


+ + +
R
1
R
in
R
2
R
out
R
2
R
1


V
0


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + + +
R
1
R
in
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
2
R
2

Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O
R
2
27 k
R
1
3 k




Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 119
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



1 1 1 10
5
V
e
1 V
S


+ + +
3000

10
8

27000

10

27000

3000



V
0


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + + +
3000

10
8
27000 27000 10 R
L
27000 27000


(0.0003334 + 0.00000001 + 0.00003704)(10000V
e
) + (0.00003704)(0.0003334
V
S
)
=
(0.0003334 + 0.00000001 + 0.00003704)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + R
L
-1
) +
(0.00003704)(0.00003704)

(0.00037045)(10000V
e
) + 0.000000012349136 V
S

=
(0.00037045)(0.1 + R
L
-1
) + 0

3.7045 V
e

=
0 + 0.00037045 R
L
-1


3.7045 V
e

=
0.00037045 R
L
-1


V
0
= 9998.650 V
e
R
L
Here
From fig. (c)
V
e
= V
+
- V
-
V
e
= 0 V V
1

V
e
= V
1


Therefore,
V
0
= 9998.650 (-V
1
) R
L
(iii)


V
1
=?





Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 120
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


V
S
-1





R
1
R
2




AV
e
1 1 1
+ +




R
out
R
2
R
out
R
L

V
1


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + + +
R
1
R
in
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
2
R
2


V
S
1 1 1 AV
e
1


+ + +

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
out
R
2

V
1


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + + +
R
1
R
in
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
2
R
2

Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O
R
2
27 k
R
1
3 k











Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 121
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



V
S
1 1 10
5
V
e
1

+ + R
L
-1
+
3000

27000

10 10 27000

V
1


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + + +
3000

10
8
27000 27000 10 R
L
27000 27000


(0.0003333 V
S
)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + R
L
-1
) + (10000V
e
)(0.00003704)
=
(0.0003334 + 0.00000001 + 0.00003704)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + R
L
-1
) +
(0.00003704)(0.00003704)

(0.0003333 V
S
)(0.1 + R
L
-1
) + 0.37 V
e

=
(0.00037045)(0.1 + R
L
-1
) + 0

0.0003333 V
S
R
L
-1
+ 0.37 V
e

=
0.00037045 R
L
-1


R
L
(0.0003333 V
S
R
L
-1
+ 0.37 V
e
)
=
0.00037045

0.0003333 V
S
+ 0.37 V
e
R
L

=
0.00037045

V
1
= 0.9 V
S
+ 998.785 V
e
R
L
Here
V
e
= -V
1
V
1
= 0.9 V
S
+ 998.785 (-V
1
) R
L

V
1
= 0.9 V
S
- 998.785 V
1
R
L

V
1
+ 998.785 V
1
R
L
= 0.9 V
S

V
1
(1 + 998.785 R
L
) = 0.9 V
S
V
1
= 0.9 V
S
(1 + 998.785 R
L
)
-1

Substituting the value of V
1
in eq. (iii)
V
0
= 9998.650 (-0.9 V
S
(1 + 998.785 R
L
)
-1
) R
L
When

R
L
= 10 O

V
0
= 9998.650 (-0.9 V
S
(1 + 998.785 (10))
-1
) 10

V
0
= 99986.5 (-0.9 V
S
(1 + 9987.85)
-1
)
V
0
= 99986.5 (-0.0000901 V
S
)
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 122
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

V
0

= -9.009
V
S

When

R
L
= 20,000 O

V
0
= 9998.650 (-0.9 V
S
(1 + 998.785 (20000))
-1
) 20000

V
0
= 199973000 (-0.9 V
S
(1 + 19975700)
-1
)
V
0
= 199973000 (-0.00000004505 V
S
)

Gain = -9.009

When

R
L
= 40,000 O

V
0
= 9998.650 (-0.9 V
S
(1 + 998.785 (40000))
-1
) 40000

V
0
= 399946000 (-0.9 V
S
(1 + 39950320)
-1
)
V
0
= 399946000 (-0.00000002253 V
S
)

Gain = -9.011

When

R
L
= 60,000 O

V
0
= 9998.650 (-0.9 V
S
(1 + 998.785 (60000))
-1
) 60000

V
0
= 599919000 (-0.9 V
S
(1 + 59927100)
-1
)
V
0
= 599919000 (-0.00000001502 V
S
)

Gain = -9.011

When

R
L
= 80,000 O

V
0
= 9998.650 (-0.9 V
S
(1 + 998.785 (80000))
-1
) 80000

V
0
= 599919000 (-0.9 V
S
(1 + 59927100)
-1
)
V
0
= 599919000 (-0.00000001502 V
S
)

Gain = -9.011

When

R
L
= O
V
0
= 9998.650 (-0.9 V
S
(1 + 998.785 (R
L
))
-1
) R
L

d d
V
0
= 9998.650 (-0.9 V
S
(1 + 998.785 (R
L
) )
-1
) (R
L
)
R
L
dR
L
R
L
dR
L


V
0
= 9998.650 (-0.9 V
S
(1 + 998.785 (1))
-1
) 1

V
0
= 9998.650 (-0.9 V
S
(1 + 998.785)
-1
)
V
0
= 9998.650 (-0.001 V
S
)

Gain = -9.999


Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 123
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

Graphical analysis:
Gain versus RL
10 20000 40000 60000 80000

-10.2
-10
-9.8
-9.6
-9.4
-9.2
-9
-8.8
-8.6
-8.4
RL (ohms)
G
a
i
n
Series1
Series1 -9.009 -9.009 -9.011 -9.011 -9.011 -9.999
10 20000 40000 60000 80000

(b) Solution:
from fig. (c)

AV
e
V
0

I
0
=
R
out

Here
V
e
= -V
1

A(-V
1
) V
0

I
0
=
R
out


-AV
1
V
0

I
0
= (i)
R
out









Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 124
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

V
S
1 1 1 AV
e
1


+ + +

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
out
R
2

V
1


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + + +
R
1
R
in
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
2
R
2

Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O
R
2
27 k
R
1
3 k
V
S
0.1 V
R
L
10 O



0.1 1 1 1 10
5
V
e
1

+ +

+
3000

27000

10 10 10 27000

V
1


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + + +
3000

10
8
27000 27000 10 10

27000 27000


(0.00003333)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + 0.1) + (10000V
e
)(0.00003704)
=
(0.0003334 + 0.00000001 + 0.00003704)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + 0.1) +
(0.00003704)(0.00003704)

(0.00003333)(0.2) + 0.3704V
e

=
(0.00037045)(0.2) + 0.0000000013719616


0.000006666 + 0.3704V
e

=
0.00007409 + 0.0000000013719616



Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 125
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

0.000006666 + 0.3704V
e

=
0.00007409

V
1
= 0.090 + 4999.325V
e
Here V
e
= -V
1

V
1
= 0.090 + 4999.325(-V
1
)
V
1
= 0.090 - 4999.325 V
1

V
1
+ 4999.325 V
1
= 0.090
5000.325 V
1
= 0.090

V
1
= 0.000018 Volts


1 1 1 AV
e
1 V
S


+ + +
R
1
R
in
R
2
R
out
R
2
R
1


V
0


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + + +
R
1
R
in
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
2
R
2

Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O
R
2
27 k
R
1
3 k
V
S
0.1 V
R
L
10 O


1 1 1 10
5
V
e
1 0.1

+ + +
3000

10
8

27000

10

27000

3000



V
0


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + + +
3000

10
8
27000 27000 10 10

27000 27000





Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 126
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

(0.0003334 + 0.00000001 + 0.00003704)(10000V
e
) + (0.00003704)(0.0003334
(0.1))
=
(0.0003334 + 0.00000001 + 0.00003704)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + 0.1) +
(0.00003704)(0.00003704)

(0.00037045)(10000V
e
) + 0.0000000012349136
=
(0.00037045)(0.2) + 0.0000000013719616

3.7045 V
e
+ 0
=
0.00007409 + 0.0000000013719616

3.7045 V
e

=
0.00007409

V
0
= 50000 V
e

Here V
e
= -V
1

V
0
= 50000 (-V
1
)
V
0
= -50000 (0.000018)

V
0
= -0.9 Volts

Substituting the corresponding values in eq. (i)

-10
5
(0.000018 V) (-0.9 V)
I
0
=
10 O

-1.8 V (-0.9 V)
I
0
=
10 O


-0.9 V
I
0
=
10 O


I
0
= -0.09 A






Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 127
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

V
S
1 1 1 AV
e
1


+ + +

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
out
R
2

V
1


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + + +
R
1
R
in
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
2
R
2

Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O
R
2
27 k
R
1
3 k
V
S
0.1 V
R
L
20000 O



0.1 1 1 1 10
5
V
e
1

+ +

+
3000

27000

10 2 10
4
10 27000

V
1


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + + +
3000

10
8
27000 27000 10 2 10
4


27000 27000


(0.00003333)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + 0) + (10000V
e
)(0.00003704)
=
(0.0003334 + 0.00000001 + 0.00003704)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + 0) +
(0.00003704)(0.00003704)

(0.00003333)(0.1) + 0.3704V
e

=
(0.00037045)(0.1) + 0.0000000013719616


0.000003333 + 0.3704V
e

=
0.000037045 + 0.0000000013719616


Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 128
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

0.000003333 + 0.3704V
e

=
0.0000370463719616

V
1
= 0.090 + 9998.28V
e
Here V
e
= -V
1

V
1
= 0.090 + 9998.28(-V
1
)
V
1
= 0.090 - 9998.28V
1
V
1
+ 9998.28V
1
= 0.090
V
1
(1 + 9998.28)

= 0.090
V
1
(9999.28)

= 0.090

V
1
=

9.001 Volts

From (a)
When

R
L
= 20,000 O


V
0

= -9.009
V
S


V
0
= -9.009V
S
Here V
S
= 0.1 V
V
0
= -9.009(0.1 V)

V
0
= -0.901 V

Therefore,
Substituting the corresponding values in eq. (i)

-10
5
(9.001 V) (-0.901 V)
I
0
=
10 O

-0.9001 V (-0.901 V)
I
0
=
10 O


0.0009 V
I
0
=
10 O


I
0
= 0.09 mA



Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 129
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


V
S
1 1 1 AV
e
1


+ + +

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
out
R
2

V
1


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + + +
R
1
R
in
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
2
R
2

Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O
R
2
27 k
R
1
3 k
V
S
0.1 V
R
L
O



0.1 1 1 1 10
5
V
e
1

+ +

+
3000

27000

10 10 27000

V
1


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + + +
3000

10
8
27000 27000 10

27000 27000


(0.00003333)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + 0) + (10000V
e
)(0.00003704)
=
(0.0003334 + 0.00000001 + 0.00003704)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + 0) +
(0.00003704)(0.00003704)

(0.00003333)(0.1) + 0.3704V
e

=
(0.00037045)(0.1) + 0.0000000013719616


0.000003333 + 0.3704V
e

=
0.000037045 + 0.0000000013719616

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 130
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

0.000003333 + 0.3704V
e

=
0.0000370463719616

V
1
= 0.090 + 9998.28V
e
Here V
e
= -V
1

V
1
= 0.090 + 9998.28(-V
1
)
V
1
= 0.090 - 9998.28V
1
V
1
+ 9998.28V
1
= 0.090
V
1
(1 + 9998.28)

= 0.090
V
1
(9999.28)

= 0.090

V
1
=

9.001 Volts

From (a)
When

R
L
= O


V
0

= -9.999
V
S


V
0
= -9.999V
S
Here V
S
= 0.1 V
V
0
= -9.999(0.1 V)

V
0
= -1 V

Therefore,
Substituting the corresponding values in eq. (i)

-10
5
(9.001 V) (-1 V)
I
0
=
10 O

-0.9001 V (-1 V)
I
0
=
10 O


0.0999 V
I
0
=
10 O


I
0
= 0.010 A

Graphical analysis:
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 131
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

I0 versus RL
-0.09
0.00009
0.01
-0.1
-0.08
-0.06
-0.04
-0.02
0
0.02
RL (ohms)
I
0

(
A
)
Series1
Series1 -0.09 0.00009 0.01
10 20000
(c) Solution:

V
S
1 1 1 AV
e
1


+ + +

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
out
R
2

V
1


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + + +
R
1
R
in
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
2
R
2

Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O
R
2
27 k
R
1
3 k
V
S
1.0 V
R
L
10 O


Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 132
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



1.0 1 1 1 10
5
V
e
1

+ +

+
3000

27000

10 10 10 27000

V
1


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + + +
3000

10
8
27000 27000 10 10

27000 27000


(0.0003333)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + 0.1) + (10000V
e
)(0.00003704)
=
(0.0003334 + 0.00000001 + 0.00003704)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + 0.1) +
(0.00003704)(0.00003704)

(0.0003333)(0.2) + 0.3704V
e

=
(0.00037045)(0.2) + 0.0000000013719616


0.00006666 + 0.3704V
e

=
0.00007409 + 0.0000000013719616

0.00006666 + 0.3704V
e

=
0.00007409

V
1
= 0.900 + 4999.325V
e
Here V
e
= -V
1
V
1
= 0.900 + 4999.325(-V
1
)
V
1
= 0.900 - 4999.325V
1
V
1
+ 4999.325V
1
= 0.9
V
1
(1 + 4999.325)

= 0.9
V
1
(5000.325)

= 0.9

V
1
= 0.00018 Volts

From (a)
When

R
L
= 10 O


V
0

= -9.009
V
S

V
0
= -9.009V
S
Here V
S
= 1.0 V
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 133
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

V
0
= -9.009(1.0 V)

V
0
= -9.009 V

Substituting the corresponding values in eq. (i)

-10
5
(0.000018 V) (-9.009 V)
I
0
=
10 O

-1.8 V (-9.009 V)
I
0
=
10 O


7.209 V
I
0
=
10 O


I
0
= 0.721 A

V
S
1 1 1 AV
e
1


+ + +

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
out
R
2

V
1


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + + +
R
1
R
in
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
2
R
2

Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O
R
2
27 k
R
1
3 k
V
S
1.0 V
R
L
20000 O






Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 134
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



1.0 1 1 1 10
5
V
e
1

+ +

+
3000

27000

10 2 10
4
10 27000

V
1


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + + +
3000

10
8
27000 27000 10 2 10
4


27000 27000


(0.0003333)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + 0) + (10000V
e
)(0.00003704)
=
(0.0003334 + 0.00000001 + 0.00003704)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + 0) +
(0.00003704)(0.00003704)

(0.0003333)(0.1) + 0.3704V
e

=
(0.00037045)(0.1) + 0.0000000013719616


0.00003333 + 0.3704V
e

=
0.000037045 + 0.0000000013719616

0.00003333 + 0.3704V
e

=
0.0000370463719616

V
1
= 0.90 + 9998.28V
e
Here V
e
= -V
1

V
1
= 0.90 + 9998.28(-V
1
)
V
1
= 0.90 - 9998.28V
1
V
1
+ 9998.28V
1
= 0.90
V
1
(1 + 9998.28)

= 0.90
V
1
(9999.28)

= 0.90

V
1
= 90.01 Volts

From (a)
When

R
L
= 20,000 O


V
0

= -9.009
V
S


V
0
= -9.009V
S
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 135
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

Here V
S
= 1.0 V
V
0
= -9.009(1.0 V)

V
0
= -9.009 V

Therefore,
Substituting the corresponding values in eq. (i)

-10
5
(90.01 V) (-9.009 V)
I
0
=
10 O

-9.001 + 9.009
I
0
=
10 O


0.008 V
I
0
=
10 O


I
0
= 0.001 A

V
S
1 1 1 AV
e
1


+ + +

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
out
R
2

V
1


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + + +
R
1
R
in
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
2
R
2

Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O
R
2
27 k
R
1
3 k
V
S
1.0 V
R
L
O




Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 136
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



1.0 1 1 1 10
5
V
e
1

+ +

+
3000

27000

10 10 27000

V
1


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + + +
3000

10
8
27000 27000 10

27000 27000


(0.0003333)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + 0) + (10000V
e
)(0.00003704)
=
(0.0003334 + 0.00000001 + 0.00003704)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + 0) +
(0.00003704)(0.00003704)

(0.0003333)(0.1) + 0.3704V
e

=
(0.00037045)(0.1) + 0.0000000013719616


0.00003333 + 0.3704V
e

=
0.000037045 + 0.0000000013719616

0.00003333 + 0.3704V
e

=
0.0000370463719616

V
1
= 0.90 + 9998.28V
e
Here V
e
= -V
1

V
1
= 0.90 + 9998.28(-V
1
)
V
1
= 0.90 - 9998.28V
1
V
1
+ 9998.28V
1
= 0.90
V
1
(1 + 9998.28)

= 0.90
V
1
(9999.28)

= 0.90

V
1
=

90.01 Volts

From (a)
When

R
L
= O


V
0

= -9.999
V
S

V
0
= -9.999V
S
Here V
S
= 1.0 V
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 137
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

V
0
= -9.999(1.0 V)

V
0
= -9.999 V

Therefore,
Substituting the corresponding values in eq. (i)

-10
5
(90.01 V) (-9.999 V)
I
0
=
10 O

-9.001 + 9.999
I
0
=
10 O


0.998 V
I
0
=
10 O


I
0
= 0.1 A

Graphical analysis:
I0 versus RL
0.721
0.001
0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
RL (ohms)
I
0

(
A
)
Series1
Series1 0.721 0.001 0.1
10 20000

(d) Solution:

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 138
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

V
S
1 1 1 AV
e
1


+ + +

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
out
R
2

V
1


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + + +
R
1
R
in
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
2
R
2

Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O
R
2
27 k
R
1
3 k
V
S
0.4 V



0.4 1 1 1 10
5
V
e
1

+ +

+
3000

27000

10 R
L
10 27000

V
1


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + + +
3000

10
8
27000 27000 10 R
L
27000 27000


(0.0001333)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + R
L
-1
) + (10000V
e
)(0.00003704)
=
(0.0003334 + 0.00000001 + 0.00003704)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + R
L
-1
) +
(0.00003704)(0.00003704)

(0.0001333)(0.1 + R
L
-1
) + (10000V
e
)(0.00003704)
=
(0.00037045)(0.1 + R
L
-1
) + 0.0000000013719616

0.0001333 R
L
-1
+ 0.3704V
e

=
0.00037045 R
L
-1
+ 0.0000000013719616

0.0001333 R
L
-1
+ 0.3704V
e

=
0.00037045 R
L
-1
+ 0
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 139
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

0.0001333 R
L
-1
+ 0.3704V
e


=
0.00037045 R
L
-1


V
1
= 0.360 + 999.865 R
L
V
e


V
S
1 1 1 AV
e
1


+ + +

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
out
R
2

V
1


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + + +
R
1
R
in
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
2
R
2

Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O
R
2
27 k
R
1
3 k
V
S
0.3 V



0.3 1 1 1 10
5
V
e
1

+ +

+
3000

27000

10 R
L
10 27000

V
1


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + + +
3000

10
8
27000 27000 10 R
L
27000 27000


(0.0001)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + R
L
-1
) + (10000V
e
)(0.00003704)
=
(0.0003334 + 0.00000001 + 0.00003704)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + R
L
-1
) +
(0.00003704)(0.00003704)

(0.0001)(0.1 + R
L
-1
) + (10000V
e
)(0.00003704)
=
(0.00037045)(0.1 + R
L
-1
) + 0.0000000013719616


Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 140
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0.0001 R
L
-1
+ 0.3704V
e

=
0.00037045 R
L
-1
+ 0.0000000013719616

0.0001 R
L
-1
+ 0.3704V
e

=
0.00037045 R
L
-1
+ 0

0.0001 R
L
-1
+ 0.3704V
e


=
0.00037045 R
L
-1


V
1
= 0.270 + 999.865 R
L
V
e



V
S
1 1 1 AV
e
1


+ + +

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
out
R
2

V
1


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + + +
R
1
R
in
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
2
R
2

Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O
R
2
27 k
R
1
3 k
V
S
0.2 V



0.2 1 1 1 10
5
V
e
1

+ +

+
3000

27000

10 R
L
10 27000

V
1


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + + +
3000

10
8
27000 27000 10 R
L
27000 27000



Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 141
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(0.00006667)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + R
L
-1
) + (10000V
e
)(0.00003704)
=
(0.0003334 + 0.00000001 + 0.00003704)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + R
L
-1
) +
(0.00003704)(0.00003704)

(0.00006667)(0.1 + R
L
-1
) + (10000V
e
)(0.00003704)
=
(0.00037045)(0.1 + R
L
-1
) + 0.0000000013719616


0.00006667 R
L
-1
+ 0.3704V
e

=
0.00037045 R
L
-1
+ 0.0000000013719616

0.00006667 R
L
-1
+ 0.3704V
e

=
0.00037045 R
L
-1
+ 0

0.00006667 R
L
-1
+ 0.3704V
e


=
0.00037045 R
L
-1


V
1
= 0.180 + 999.865 R
L
V
e



1 1 1 AV
e
1 V
S


+ + +
R
1
R
in
R
2
R
out
R
2
R
1


V
0


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + + +
R
1
R
in
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
2
R
2

Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O
R
2
27 k
R
1
3 k
V
S
0.4 V




Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 142
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1 1 1 10
5
V
e
1 0.4

+ + +
3000

10
8

27000

10

27000

3000



V
0


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + + +
3000

10
8
27000 27000 10 R
L
27000 27000


(0.0003334 + 0.00000001 + 0.00003704)(10000V
e
) + (0.00003704)(0.0001333)
=
(0.0003334 + 0.00000001 + 0.00003704)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + R
L
-1
) +
(0.00003704)(0.00003704)

(0.00037045)(10000V
e
) + 0.000000004937432
=
(0.00037045)(0.1 + R
L
-1
) + 0.0000000013719616

3.7045 V
e
+ 0
=
0.00037045 R
L
-1
+ 0

3.7045 V
e

=
0.00037045 R
L
-1


V
0
= 10000 R
L
V
e




1 1 1 AV
e
1 V
S


+ + +
R
1
R
in
R
2
R
out
R
2
R
1


V
0


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + + +
R
1
R
in
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
2
R
2

Substituting the corresponding values





Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 143
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O
R
2
27 k
R
1
3 k
V
S
0.3 V



1 1 1 10
5
V
e
1 0.3

+ + +
3000

10
8

27000

10

27000

3000



V
0


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + + +
3000

10
8
27000 27000 10 R
L
27000 27000


(0.0003334 + 0.00000001 + 0.00003704)(10000V
e
) + (0.00003704)(0.0001)
=
(0.0003334 + 0.00000001 + 0.00003704)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + R
L
-1
) +
(0.00003704)(0.00003704)

(0.00037045)(10000V
e
) + 0.000000003704
=
(0.00037045)(0.1 + R
L
-1
) + 0.0000000013719616

3.7045 V
e
+ 0
=
0.00037045 R
L
-1
+ 0

3.7045 V
e

=
0.00037045 R
L
-1


V
0
= 10000 R
L
V
e











Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 144
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



1 1 1 AV
e
1 V
S


+ + +
R
1
R
in
R
2
R
out
R
2
R
1


V
0


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + + +
R
1
R
in
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
2
R
2

Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O
R
2
27 k
R
1
3 k
V
S
0.2 V



1 1 1 10
5
V
e
1 0.2

+ + +
3000

10
8

27000

10

27000

3000



V
0


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + + +
3000

10
8
27000 27000 10 R
L
27000 27000


(0.0003334 + 0.00000001 + 0.00003704)(10000V
e
) + (0.00003704)(0.00006667)
=
(0.0003334 + 0.00000001 + 0.00003704)(0.00003704 + 0.1 + R
L
-1
) +
(0.00003704)(0.00003704)

(0.00037045)(10000V
e
) + 0.0000000024694568
=
(0.00037045)(0.1 + R
L
-1
) + 0.0000000013719616

3.7045 V
e
+ 0
=
0.00037045 R
L
-1
+ 0



Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 145
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

3.7045 V
e

=
0.00037045 R
L
-1


V
0
= 10000 R
L
V
e


When I
0
= 99 mA
V
S
= 0.4 V
From (b) eq. (i)
I
0
R
out
=

-AV
1
V
0

Substituting the corresponding values
(99 mA)(10)

=

-10
5
(0.360 + 999.865 R
L
V
e
) (10000 R
L
V
e
)
Here V
e
= -V
1

(0.099)(10)

=

-10
5
(0.360 + 999.865 R
L
(-V
1
)) (10000 R
L
(-V
1
))
0.99

=

-10
5
(0.360 - 999.865 R
L
V
1
) + 10000 R
L
V
1

0.99

=

-36000 + 99986500 R
L
V
1
+ 10000 R
L
V
1
0.99

+ 36000 = 99996500 R
L
V
1

36000.99 = 99996500 R
L
V
1
According to virtual short
V
1
= V
S

36000.99 = 99996500 R
L
V
S
36000.99 = 99996500 R
L
(0.4)
36000.99 = 39998600 R
L

R
L
= 0.001 O

When I
0
= 98 mA
V
S
= 0.3 V
From (b) eq. (i)
I
0
R
out
=

-AV
1
V
0

Substituting the corresponding values
(98 mA)(10)

=

-10
5
(0.270 + 999.865 R
L
V
e
) (10000 R
L
V
e
)
Here V
e
= -V
1

(0.098)(10)

=

-10
5
(0.270 + 999.865 R
L
(-V
1
)) (10000 R
L
(-V
1
))
0.98

=

-10
5
(0.270 - 999.865 R
L
V
1
) + 10000 R
L
V
1

0.98

=

-27000 + 99986500 R
L
V
1
+ 10000 R
L
V
1
0.98

+ 27000 = 99996500 R
L
V
1

27000.98 = 99996500 R
L
V
1
According to virtual short
V
1
= V
S

27000.98 = 99996500 R
L
V
S
27000.98 = 99996500 R
L
(0.3)
27000.98 = 29998950 R
L

R
L
= 0.001 O

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 146
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

When I
0
= 97 mA
V
S
= 0.2 V
From (b) eq. (i)
I
0
R
out
=

-AV
1
V
0

Substituting the corresponding values
(97 mA)(10)

=

-10
5
(0.180 + 999.865 R
L
V
e
) (10000 R
L
V
e
)
Here V
e
= -V
1

(0.097)(10)

=

-10
5
(0.180 + 999.865 R
L
(-V
1
)) (10000 R
L
(-V
1
))
0.97

=

-10
5
(0.180 - 999.865 R
L
V
1
) + 10000 R
L
V
1

0.97

=

-18000 + 99986500 R
L
V
1
+ 10000 R
L
V
1
0.97

+ 18000 = 99996500 R
L
V
1

18000.97 = 99996500 R
L
V
1
According to virtual short
V
1
= V
S

18000.97 = 99996500 R
L
V
S
18000.97 = 99996500 R
L
(0.2)
18000.97 = 19999300 R
L

R
L
= 0.001 O

So,

R
L(min)
= 0.001 O

(e) Solution:
from fig. (c)

V
S
V
1

I
S
=
R
1


Here V
S
= V
1
Hint: Virtual ground
Therefore,
I
S
= 0 A in both cases.

Q#4.15: The op-amp in the amplifier in Fig. P4.15 operates with 15 V supplies and
can output no more than 200 mA. What is the maximum gain allowable for the
amplifier if the maximum value of V
S
is 1 V?
Solution:
Circuit diagram:






Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 147
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


V
S


I
0

V
0






R
L
= 50 O

R
2




R
1

R
1
+ R
2
= 10 kO



Fig. (a)

OP-AMP MODEL

I
0


V
0

R
in
R
out



AV
e
R
2





V
S
R
L
= 50 O





R
1





Fig. (b)

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 148
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

V
1
V
0


V
+
R
in
V
-
R
2
I
0




R
out


V
S

R
1
R
L
= 50 O


AV
e





Using Nodal Analysis Fig. (c)
Applying KCL at node labeled V
1

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
1
V
S
V
1
V
1
V
0

+ + 0
R
in
R
1
R
2


V
1
V
S
V
1
V
1
V
0

+ + 0
R
in
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
2



1 1 1 -1 V
S

+ + V
1
+

V
0
(i)
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
2
R
in



Applying KCL at node labeled V
0

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
0
V
1
V
0
- AV
e
V
0

+ + 0
R
2
R
out
R
L



Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 149
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

V
0
V
1
V
0
AV
e
V
0

+ + 0
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
L


-1 1 1 1 AV
e

V
1
+ + + V
0
(ii)
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
out



Writing equations (i) & (ii) in matrix form

1 1 1 -1 V
S

+ + V
1

R
in
R
1
R
2
R
2
R
in



-1 1 1 1 AVe
+ + V
0

R
2
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
out


A X B

determinant of A =


1 1 1 -1
+ +
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
2



-1 1 1 1
+ +
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
L



1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + +
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
2
R
2


V
0
=?





Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 150
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1 1 1 V
S

+ +
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
in



-1 AVe

R
2
R
out


V
0


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + +
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
2
R
2



1 1 1 AVe 1 V
S

+ + +
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
2
R
in


V
0


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + +
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
2
R
2


Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O
R
L
50 O


1 1 1 10
5
Ve 1 V
S

+ + +
10
8

R
1
R
2
10 R
2
10
8


V
0


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + +
10
8

R
1
R
2
R
2
10

50

R
2
R
2



Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 151
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(0.00000001 + R
1
-1
+ R
2
-1
)(10000V
e
) + (R
2
-1
)(0.00000001V
S
)
=
(0.00000001 + R
1
-1
+ R
2
-1
)(R
2
-1
+ 0.1 + 0.02) - (R
2
)
-2


Here
R
2
= 10000 R
1
V
S
= 1 V

(0.00000001 + R
1
-1
+ (10000 R
1
)
-1
)(10000V
e
) + ((10000 R
1
)
-1
)(0.00000001(1 V))

(0.00000001 + R
1
-1
+ (10000 R
1
)
-1
)((10000 R
1
)
-1
+ 0.1 + 0.02) - (10000 R
1
)
-2


(R
1
-1
+ (10000 R
1
)
-1
)(10000V
e
)

(R
1
-1
+ (10000 R
1
)
-1
)((10000 R
1
)
-1
+ 0.12) - (10000 R
1
)
-2


(10000 R
1
)
-1
=?
When n is negative or fraction

n(n - 1)
(1 + x)
n
= 1 + nx + x
2
+
2!

(1 + x)
n
= 1 + nx + 0.5 n(n - 1)x
2
Hint:

2! = 2.1 = 2
(10000 R
1
)
-1
=?
(1 + (0.0001R
1
))
-1
=?
Here n = -1; x = 0.0001R
1

first three terms of the binomial expansion
(1 + (0.0001R
1
))
-1
= 1 + (-1)(0.0001R
1
) + 0.5(-1)(-1 - 1)(0.0001R
1
)
2
(1 + (0.0001R
1
))
-1
= 1 + 0.0001R
1
+ 0.5(-1)(-2)(0.00000001)R
1
2
(1 + (0.0001R
1
))
-1
= 1 + 0.0001R
1
+ 1(0.00000001)R
1
2
(1 + (0.0001R
1
))
-1
= 1 + 0 + 0

(1 + (0.0001R
1
))
-1
= 1

(R
1
-1
+ (10000 R
1
)
-1
)(10000V
e
)

(R
1
-1
+ (10000 R
1
)
-1
)((10000 R
1
)
-1
+ 0.12) - (10000 R
1
)
-1
(10000 R
1
)
-1


(R
1
-1
+ (1))(10000V
e
)

(R
1
-1
+ (1))((1) + 0.12) - (1)(1)

(R
1
-1
+ 1)(10000V
e
)

(R
1
-1
+ 1)(1.12) - 1
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 152
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An OP-AMP with a 15 V supply could typically produce a 14 V maximum output
swing.
Here V
0
= 14 V
Therefore,
14[1.12(R
1
-1
+ 1) - 1] = (R
1
-1
+ 1)(10000V
e
)
15.68(R
1
-1
+ 1) - 14 = (R
1
-1
+ 1)(10000V
e
)
Here V
e
= V
S
V
1
15.68(R
1
-1
+ 1) - 14 = (R
1
-1
+ 1)(10000(V
S
V
1
))
15.68(R
1
-1
+ 1) - 14 = (R
1
-1
+ 1)(10000V
S
10000V
1
)
Here V
S
= 1 V
15.68(R
1
-1
+ 1) - 14 = (R
1
-1
+ 1)(10000(1) 10000V
1
)
15.68(R
1
-1
+ 1) - 14 = (R
1
-1
+ 1)(10000 10000V
1
)
V
1
=?

V
S
-1

R
in
R
2



AVe 1 1 1
+ +
R
out
R
2
R
out
R
L


V
1


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + +
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
2
R
2



V
S
1 1 1 AV
e
1
+ + +
R
in
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
out
R
2


V
1


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + +
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
2
R
2


Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O
R
L
50 O
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 153
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V
S
1 1 1 10
5
V
e
1
+ + +
10
8

R
2
10

50

10

R
2


V
1


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + +
10
8

R
1
R
2
R
2
10

50

R
2
R
2


(0.00000001 V
S
)(R
2
-1
+ 0.1 + 0.02) + (10000V
e
)(R
2
-1
)
=
(0.00000001 + R
1
-1
+ R
2
-1
)(R
2
-1
+ 0.1 + 0.02) - (R
2
)
-2


(0.00000001 V
S
)(R
2
-1
+ 0.1 + 0.02) + (10000V
e
)(R
2
-1
)
=
(R
1
-1
+ R
2
-1
)(R
2
-1
+ 0.12) - (R
2
)
-2


Here
R
2
= 10000 R
1
V
S
= 1 V

(0.00000001 V
S
)((10000 R
1
)
-1
+ 0.1 + 0.02) + (10000V
e
)((10000 R
1
)
-1
)
=
(R
1
-1
+ (10000 R
1
)
-1
)((10000 R
1
)
-1
+ 0.12) - (10000 R
1
)
-2

(0.00000001 V
S
)((10000 R
1
)
-1
+ 0.1 + 0.02) + (10000V
e
)((10000 R
1
)
-1
)
=
(R
1
-1
+ (10000 R
1
)
-1
)((10000 R
1
)
-1
+ 0.12) - (10000 R
1
)
-1
(10000 R
1
)
-1

As we already have
(1 + (0.0001R
1
))
-1
= 1

(0.00000001 V
S
)((1) + 0.1 + 0.02) + (10000V
e
)(1)
=
(R
1
-1
+ 1)(1 + 0.12) - (1)(1)


0.0000000112 V
S
+ 10000V
e

=
(R
1
-1
+ 1)(1.12) - 1


Here V
e
= V
S
V
1



Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 154
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

0.0000000112 V
S
+ 10000(V
S
V
1
)
=
(R
1
-1
+ 1)(1.12) - 1

[(R
1
-1
+ 1)(1.12) - 1]V
1
= 0.0000000112 V
S
+ 10000(V
S
V
1
)
[(R
1
-1
+ 1)(1.12) - 1]V
1
= 0.0000000112 V
S
+ 10000V
S
10000V
1

[(R
1
-1
+ 1)(1.12) - 1]V
1
+ 10000V
1
= 10000.0000000112 V
S

[[(R
1
-1
+ 1)(1.12) - 1] + 10000] V
1
= 10000.0000000112 V
S

10000.0000000112 V
S

V
1
=
[[(R
1
-1
+ 1)(1.12) - 1] + 10000]

15.68(R
1
-1
+ 1) - 14 = (R
1
-1
+ 1)(10000 10000V
1
)
15.68(R
1
-1
+ 1) - 14 = 10000(R
1
-1
+ 1) 10000V
1
(R
1
-1
+ 1)
15.68R
1
-1
+ 15.68 - 14 = 10000R
1
-1
+ 10000 10000V
1
(R
1
-1
+ 1)
15.68R
1
-1
+ 15.68 - 14 - 10000R
1
-1
- 10000 = 10000V
1
(R
1
-1
+ 1)
-9984.32 R
1
-1
- 9998.32 = 10000V
1
(R
1
-1
+ 1)
Substituting the corresponding value of V
1

10000.0000000112 V
S
(R
1
-1
+ 1)
-9984.32 R
1
-1
- 9998.32 =
[[(R
1
-1
+ 1)(1.12) - 1] + 10000]

(-9984.32 R
1
-1
- 9998.32) [[(R
1
-1
+ 1)(1.12) - 1] + 10000] = 10000 V
S
(R
1
-1
+ 1)
(-9984.32 R
1
-1
- 9998.32) [[1.12 R
1
-1
+ 1.12 1 + 10000] = 10000 V
S
(R
1
-1
+ 1)
(-9984.32 R
1
-1
- 9998.32) (1.12 R
1
-1
+ 10000.12) = 10000 V
S
(R
1
-1
+ 1)
-11182.4384 R
1
-2
-99844398.1184 R
1
-1
- 11198.1184 R
1
-1
- 99984399.7984 = 10000
V
S
(R
1
-1
+ 1)
Here V
S
= 1 V
-11182.4384 R
1
-2
-99844398.1184 R
1
-1
- 11198.1184 R
1
-1
- 99984399.7984 = 10000(1
V)(R
1
-1
+ 1)
-11182.4384 R
1
-2
-99844398.1184 R
1
-1
- 11198.1184 R
1
-1
- 99984399.7984 = 10000(R
1
-1

+ 1)
-11182.4384 R
1
-2
-99844398.1184 R
1
-1
- 11198.1184 R
1
-1
- 99984399.7984 = 10000R
1
-1
+
10000
-11182.4384 R
1
-2
-99844398.1184 R
1
-1
- 11198.1184 R
1
-1
- 99984399.7984 - 10000R
1
-1
-
10000 = 0
-11182.4384 R
1
-2
-99865596.2368 R
1
-1
-99994399.7984 = 0
neglecting the higher order terms
-99865596.2368 R
1
-1
= 99994399.7984
R
1
-1
= -1.001
R
1
= -0.999
(R
1
( = 0.999 O (R
1
( = R
1



Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 155
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

R
1
+ R
2
= 10000 O
0.999 O + R
2
= 10000 O

R
2

= 9999.001 O


1 1 1 AVe 1 V
S

+ + +
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
2
R
in


V
0


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + +
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
2
R
2


Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O
R
L
50 O
R
1
0.999 O
R
2
9999.001 O


1 1 1 10
5
V
e
1 V
S

+ + +
10
8

0.999

9999.001

10

9999.001 10
8



V
0


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
+ + + +
10
8

0.999

9999.001 9999.001 10 50 9999.001 9999.001

(0.00000001 + 1.001 + 0.0001)(10000V
e
) + (0.0001)(0.00000001V
S
)
=
(0.00000001 + 1.001 + 0.0001)(0.0001 + 0.1 + 0.02) - (0.0001)(0.0001)

(1.00110001)(10000V
e
) + 0.000000000001(1 V)
=
(1.00110001)(0.1201) - 0.00000001


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10011.0001V
e
+ 0.000000000001
=
0.120232111201

V
0
= 83263.947V
e

Here
V
e
= V
S
V
1
V
0
= 83263.947(V
S
V
1
)


V
S
= 1 V
V
0
= 83263.947(1 V
1
)


From above

10000(1)
V
1
=
[[(0.999
-1
+ 1)(1.12) - 1] + 10000]

10000
V
1
=
10001.241121121121121121121121121

V
1
= 0.99987590328979269788085600443015 Volts

Now
V
0
= 83263.947(1 0.99987590328979269788085600443015)


V
0
= 83263.947(0.0001241)



V
0
= 10.3330558227 Volts

V
0

Maximum allowable gain =
V
S


10.3330558227 V
Maximum allowable gain =
1 V

Maximum allowable gain = 10.3330558227

Q#4.16: For the amplifier in Fig. P4.16, the maximum value of V
S
is 2 V and the OP-
AMP can deliver no more than 100 mA.
(a) If 10 V supplies are used, what is the maximum allowable value of R
2
?
(b) Repeat for 3 V supplies.
(c) Discuss the impact of the supplies on the maximum allowable gain.
Solution:


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Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


V
S


I
0

V
0








R
2




R
1
100 O

R
L
= 10 O




Fig. (a)

OP-AMP MODEL

I
0


V
0

R
in
R
out



AV
e
R
2





V
S
R
L
= 10 O





R
1





Fig. (b)

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 158
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V
1
V
0


V
+
R
in
V
-
R
2
I
0




R
out


V
S

R
1
R
L
= 50 O


AV
e





Using Nodal Analysis Fig. (c)
Applying KCL at node labeled V
1

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
1
V
S
V
1
V
1
V
0

+ + 0
R
in
R
1
R
2


V
1
V
S
V
1
V
1
V
0

+ + 0
R
in
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
2



1 1 1 -1 V
S

+ + V
1
+

V
0
(i)
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
2
R
in



Applying KCL at node labeled V
0

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
0
V
1
V
0
- AV
e
V
0

+ + 0
R
2
R
out
R
L



Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 159
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Here
V
e
= V
S
V
1

V
0
V
1
V
0
A[V
S
V
1
]

V
0

+ + 0
R
2
R
out
R
L


V
0
V
1
V
0
AV
S
+ AV
1
V
0

+ + 0
R
2
R
out
R
L


V
0
V
1
V
0
AV
S
AV
1
V
0

+ + + 0
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
out
R
L


A 1 1 1 1 AV
S

V
1
+ + + V
0
(ii)
R
out
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
out


Writing equations (i) & (ii) in matrix form

1 1 1 -1 V
S

+ + V
1

R
in
R
1
R
2
R
2
R
in



A 1 1 1 1 AV
S

+ + V
0

R
out
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
out


A X B

determinant of A =


1 1 1 -1
+ +
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
2



A 1 1 1 1
+ +
R
out
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
L



Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 160
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1 1 1 1 1 1 1 A 1
+ + + + +
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
2
R
out
R
2



1 1 1 V
S

+ +
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
in



A 1 AV
S


R
out
R
2
R
out


V
0


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 A 1
+ + + + +
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
2
R
out
R
2



1 1 1 AV
S
V
S
A 1
+ + -
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
in
R
out
R
2


V
0


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 A 1
+ + + + +
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
L
R
2
R
out
R
2


Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O
R
L
10 O
R
1
100 O
V
S
2 V






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1 1 1 10
5
(2) 2

10
5
1
+ + -
10
8

100

R
2
10 10
8
10 R
2


V
0


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10
5
1
+ + + + +
10
8

100

R
2
R
2
10

10

R
2
10

R
2



(0.00000001 + 0.01 + R
2
-1
)(10000(2)) (0.00000002)(10000 R
2
-1
)
=
(0.00000001 + 0.01 + R
2
-1
)(R
2
-1
+ 0.1 + 0.1) + (R
2
-1
)(10000 R
2
-1
)

(0.01000001 + R
2
-1
)(20000) - 0.0002 + 0.00000002 R
2
-1

=
(0.01000001 + R
2
-1
)(R
2
-1
+ 0.2) + (R
2
-1
)(10000 R
2
-1
)

An OP-AMP with a 10 V supply could typically produce a 9 V maximum output
swing.
Here V
0
= 9 V
9[(0.01000001 + R
2
-1
)(R
2
-1
+ 0.2) + (R
2
-1
)(10000 R
2
-1
)] = (0.01000001 + R
2
-1
)(20000) -
0.0002 + 0.00000002 R
2
-1
9[(0.01000001 + R
2
-1
)(R
2
-1
+ 0.2) + (R
2
-1
)(10000 R
2
-1
)] = 200.0002 + 20000 R
2
-1
-
0.0002 + 0.00000002 R
2
-1

9[0.01000001 R
2
-1
+ 0.002000002 + R
2
-2
+ 0.2 R
2
-1
+ 10000 R
2
-1
- R
2
-2
] = 200 +
20000.00000002 R
2
-1
9[10000.21000001 R
2
-1
+ 0.002000002] = 200 + 20000.00000002 R
2
-1
90001.89000009 R
2
-1
+ 0.018000018 = 200 + 20000.00000002 R
2
-1
90001.89000009 R
2
-1
+ 0.018000018 - 200 - 20000.00000002 R
2
-1
= 0
70001.89000007

R
2
-1
- 199.981999982 = 0
70001.89000007

R
2
-1
= 199.981999982
R
2
-1
= 0.0028568085801940493806579567572155

R
2

= 350.041 O

(b) Solution:
An OP-AMP with a 3 V supply could typically produce a 2 V maximum output swing.
Here V
0
= 2 V
2[(0.01000001 + R
2
-1
)(R
2
-1
+ 0.2) + (R
2
-1
)(10000 R
2
-1
)] = (0.01000001 + R
2
-1
)(20000) -
0.0002 + 0.00000002 R
2
-1
2[(0.01000001 + R
2
-1
)(R
2
-1
+ 0.2) + (R
2
-1
)(10000 R
2
-1
)] = 200.0002 + 20000 R
2
-1
-
0.0002 + 0.00000002 R
2
-1

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 162
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2[0.01000001 R
2
-1
+ 0.002000002 + R
2
-2
+ 0.2 R
2
-1
+ 10000 R
2
-1
- R
2
-2
] = 200 +
20000.00000002 R
2
-1
2[10000.21000001 R
2
-1
+ 0.002000002] = 200 + 20000.00000002 R
2
-1
20000.42000002 R
2
-1
+ 0.004000004 = 200 + 20000.00000002 R
2
-1
20000.42000002 R
2
-1
+ 0.004000004 - 200 - 20000.00000002 R
2
-1
= 0
0.42 R
2
-1
-199.995999996 = 0

R
2

= 476.181 O

(c) Solution:
V
S
(V) Output Voltage V
0
(V) Gain

2
9

V
0
9 V

V
S
2 V

Gain = 4.5
2

V
0
2 V

V
S
2 V

Gain = 1

Q#4.17: For the circuit in Fig. P4.17.
(a) find V
0
in terms of V
1
and V
2
.
(b) If V
1
= 2 V and V
2
= 6 V, find V
0
.
(c) If the OP-AMP supplies are 12 V and V
1
= 4 V, what is the allowable range of V
2
?
Solution:
Circuit diagram:
















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V
1




V
0

V
2



2 kO



2 kO





1 kO





Fig. (a)

OP-AMP MODEL






















Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 164
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V
0

R
in
R
out



AV
e
2 kO




V
1






2 kO

1 kO




V
2






Fig. (b)


















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V
3
V
0


V
+
R
in
V
-
2 kO



R
out


V
1
2 kO

1 kO







AV
e

V
2




Fig. (3)
Using Nodal Analysis
Applying KCL at node labeled V
3

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
3
V
1
V
3
V
2
V
3
V
3
V
0

+ + + 0
R
in
2 k 1 k 2 k

V
3
V
1
V
3
V
2
V
3
V
3
V
0

+ + + 0
R
in
R
in
2 k 2 k 1 k 2 k 2 k

1 1 1 1 -1 V
1
V
2

+ + + V
3
+ V
0
+
R
in
2 k 1 k 2 k 2 k R
in
2 k


1 2 -1 V
1
V
2



+ V
3
+ V
0


+ (i)
R
in
k 2 k R
in


2 k

Applying KCL at node labeled V
0

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction


Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 166
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V
0
V
3
V
0
- AV
e

+ 0
2 k R
out


V
0
V
3
V
0
AV
e

+ 0
2 k 2 k R
out
R
out


Here
V
e
= V
1
V
3

V
0
V
3
V
0
A[V
1
V
3
]
+ 0
2 k 2 k R
out
R
out


V
0
V
3
V
0
AV
1
AV
3

+ + 0
2 k 2 k R
out
R
out
R
out


A 1 1 1 AV
1

V
3
+ + V
0
(ii)
R
out
2 k R
out
2 k R
out


Writing equations (i) & (ii) in matrix form

1 2 -1 V
1
V
2

+ V
3
+
R
in
k 2 k R
in
2 k


A 1 1 1 AV
1

+ V
0

R
out
2 k R
out
2 k R
out













Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 167
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determinant of A =

1 2 -1


+


R
in
k 2 k




A 1 1 1
+
R
out
2 k R
out
2 k



1 2 1 1 1 A 1
+ + +
R
in
k R
out
2 k 2 k R
out
2 k

V
0
=?

1 2 V
1
V
2

+ +


R
in
k R
in
2 k


A 1 AV
1


R
out
2 k

R
out






1 2 1 1 1 A 1
+ + +
R
in
k R
out
2 k 2 k R
out
2 k













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AV
1
1 2 A 1 V
1
V
2

+ +
R
out
R
in
k R
out
2 k R
in
2 k



1 2 1 1 1 A 1
+ + +
R
in
k R
out
2 k 2 k R
out
2 k

Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O


10
5
V
1
1

2 10
5
1 V
1
V
2

+ +
10 10
8
k 10 2 k 10
8
2 k



1 2 1 1 1 10
5
1
+ + +
10
8

k 10

2 k 2 k 10

2 k

10000V
1
(0.00000001 + 0.002) (10000 - 0.0005)(0.00000001V
1
+ 0.0005V
2
)
=
(0.00000001 + 0.002)(0.1 + 0.0005) + (0.0005)(10000 0.0005)

10000V
1
(0.002) (9999.9995)(0.0005V
2
)
=
(0.002)(0.1) + (0.0005)(9999.9995)

20V
1
- 5V
2

=
0.0002 + 5

20V
1
- 5V
2

=
5

V
0
= 4V
1
- V
2

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(b) Solution:
V
0
=?
Here
V
1
= 2 V
V
2
= 6 V
Substituting the corresponding values
V
0
= 4(2 V) - 6 V
V
0
= 8 V 6 V

V
0
= 2 V

(c) Solution:
Here V
1
= 4 V
An OP-AMP with a 12 V supply could typically produce a 11 V maximum output
swing.
When V
0
= +11 V
Substituting the corresponding values
11 = 4(4 V) - V
2

11 = 16 - V
2
-5 = -V
2

V
2
= 5 V

When V
0
= -11 V
Substituting the corresponding values
-11 = 4(4 V) - V
2

-11 = 16 - V
2
-27 = -V
2

V
2
= 27 V

5 V s V
2
s 27 V

Q#4.18: Find V
0
in the circuit in Fig. P4.18 assuming the OP-AMP is ideal.
Solution:
Circuit diagram:










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5 kO






1 kO
+

1 V V
0


-


Fig. (a)




























-
+
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 171
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5 k

OP-AMP MODEL

I
0


V
0



R
in
R
out

1 k

AV
e










1 V






Fig. (b)

















Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 172
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V
1
V
0


1 k 5 k



V
-
R
out


1 V


R
in


V
+

AV
e





Fig. (c)
Using Nodal Analysis
Applying KCL at node labeled V
1

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
1
1 V V
1
0 V V
1
V
0

+ + 0
1 k R
in
5 k

V
1
1

V
1
V
1
V
0

+ + 0
1 k 1 k R
in
5 k 5 k


1 1 1 -1 1
+ + V
1
+ V
0
(i)
1 k 5 k R
in
5 k 1 k


Applying KCL at node labeled V
0

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction



Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 173
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V
0
V
1
V
0
- AV
e

+ 0
5 k

R
out


V
0
V
1
V
0
AV
e

+ 0
5 k 5 k R
out
R
out

Here
V
e
= V
+
- V
-
V
e
= 0 V V
1

V
e
= V
1


V
0
V
1
V
0
A(-V
1
)
+ 0
5 k 5 k R
out
R
out

V
0
V
1
V
0
AV
1

+ + 0
5 k 5 k R
out
R
out

-1 A 1 1
+ V
1
+ + V
0
0 (ii)
5 k R
out
5 k R
out


Writing equations (i) & (ii) in matrix form

1 6 -1


+ V
1
0.001


R
in
5

k 5 k


A 1 1 1
+ V
0
0
R
out
5 k R
out
5 k

A X B

determinant of A =?






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1 6 -1


+




R
in
5

k 5 k


A 1 1 1
+


R
out
5 k R
out
5 k


1 6 1 1 A 1 1
+ + +
R
in
5 k R
out
5 k R
out
5 k 5 k

V
0
=?

1 6


+ 0.001




R
in
5

k


A 1
0


R
out
5 k



V
0
=

1 6 1 1 A 1 1
+ + +
R
in
5 k R
out
5 k R
out
5 k 5 k


A 1
-0.001
R
out
5 k

V
0
=

1 6 1 1 A 1 1
+ + +
R
in
5 k R
out
5 k R
out
5 k 5 k

Substituting the corresponding values


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R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O


10
5
1
-0.001
10

5 k

V
0
=

1 6 1 1 10
5
1 1
+ + +
10
8

5 k 10

5 k 10

5 k 5 k

-0.001(10000 - 0.0002)
=
(0.00000001 + 0.0012)(0.1 + 0.0002) + (10000 - 0.0002)(0.0002)

-10
=
(0.001)(0.1) + 2

-10
=
2

V
0
= -5 Volts

Q#4.19: The network in Fig. P4.19 is a current-to-voltage converter or transconductance
amplifier. Find V
0
/i
S
for this network.
Solution:
Circuit diagram:













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1 O







+

i
S
V
0


-


Fig. (a)



1 O

OP-AMP MODEL



V
0



R
in
R
out



AV
e










i
S







Fig. (b)
-
+

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 177
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V
1
V
0


1 O



V
-
R
out


i
S

R
in


V
+

AV
e





Fig. (c)
Using Nodal Analysis
Applying KCL at node labeled V
1

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
1
V
1
V
0

+ i
S

R
in
1

V
1

+ V
1
V
0
= i
S

R
in


1
+ 1 V
1
+

-1 V
0
= i
S
(i)
R
in


Applying KCL at node labeled V
0

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
0
V
1
V
0
- AV
e

+ 0
1

R
out




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V
0
AV
e

V
0
V
1
+ 0
R
out
R
out


1 AV
e

-1 V
1
+ 1 + V
0
(ii)
R
out
R
out


Writing equations (i) & (ii) in matrix form

1

V
1
i
S

+ 1 -1




R
in



1 AV
e

-1 1 +




R
out
V
0
R
out


A X B

determinant of A =?

1




+ 1 -1




R
in



1
-1 1 +




R
out



1 1
+ 1 1 + 1
R
in
R
out


V
0
=?








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1


+ 1 i
S





R
in



AV
e

-1






R
out



1 1
+ 1 1 + 1
R
in
R
out



AV
e
1
+ 1 + i
S

R
out
R
in



1 1
+ 1 1 + 1
R
in
R
out


Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O

10
5
V
e
1
+ 1 + i
S

10 10
8




1 1
+ 1 1 + 1
10
8
10

10000V
e
(0.00000001 + 1) + i
S

=
(0.00000001 + 1)(1 + 0.1) - 1


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10000V
e
+ i
S

=
(1)(1.1) - 1

V
0
= 100000Ve + 10i
S
Here
Here
V
e
= V
+
- V
-
V
e
= 0 V V
1

V
e
= V
1


V
0
= 100000(-V
1
) + 10i
S
V
0
= -100000V
1
+ 10i
S
V
1
=?




i
S


-1







AV
e
1
1 +




R
out
R
out



1 1
+ 1 1 + 1
R
in
R
out





1 AV
e

i
S
+ 1 +


R
out
R
out



1 1
+ 1 1 + 1
R
in
R
out


Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O

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1 10
5
V
e

i
S
+ 1 +
10 10


1 1
+ 1 1 + 1
10
8
10

i
S
(0.1 + 1) + 10000V
e

=
(0.00000001 + 1)(1 + 0.1) - 1

i
S
(1.1) + 10000V
e

=
(1)(1.1) - 1

0.1V
1
= i
S
(1.1) + 10000V
e
Here
V
e
= -V
1
0.1V
1
= i
S
(1.1) + 10000(-V
1
)
0.1V
1
= i
S
(1.1) - 10000V
1
0.1V
1
+ 10000V
1
= i
S
(1.1)
10000.1V
1
= i
S
(1.1)
V
1
= 0.00011i
S
V
0
= -100000(0.00011i
S
) + 10i
S
V
0
= -11i
S
+ 10i
S
V
0
= -1i
S


V
0

-1
i
S


Q#4.20: Calculate the transfer function i
0
/V
1
for the network shown in Fig. P4.20.
Solution:
Circuit diagram:









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V
1


i
0









R
F




R
I





Fig. (a)

OP-AMP MODEL






R
in
R
out



AV
e
R
F





V
1






R
I





Fig. (b)

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V
2


V
+
R
in
V
-
R
F

i
0



R
out


V
1

R
I



AV
e





Using Nodal Analysis Fig. (c)
Applying KCL at node labeled V
2

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
2
V
1
V
2
V
2
- AV
e

+ + 0
R
in
R
I
R
F
+ R
out


Here
V
e
= V
+
- V
-
V
e
= V
1
- V
2


V
2
V
1
V
2
V
2
A(V
1
V
2
)
+ + 0
R
in
R
I
R
F
+ R
out

In accordance with virtual short
V
2
= V
1


V
1
V
1
V
1
V
1
A(V
1
V
1
)
+ + 0
R
in
R
I
R
F
+ R
out

V
1
V
1

+ 0
R
I
R
F
+ R
out


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V
1

+ (-i
0
) 0 Hint: from above
R
I


V
1

i
0

R
I


i
0
R
I
= V
1

i
0
1

V
1
R
I


Q#4.21: Determine the relationship between V
1
and i
0
in the circuit shown in Fig. P4.21.
Solution:
Circuit diagram:



R
F


V
1


I
0

R
I









Fig. (a)











-
+
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R
F


OP-AMP MODEL

I
0





R
in
R
out

R
I
AV
e










V
1







Fig. (b)



















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V
2


R
I
V
-
R
F

i
0



R
out


V
1

R
in



V
+
AV
e





Using Nodal Analysis Fig. (c)
Applying KCL at node labeled V
2

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
2
V
1
V
2

+ i
0

R
I
R
in


In accordance with virtual short
V
2
= 0 V

0 V V
1
0 V


+ i
0

R
I
R
in


-V
1

i
0

R
I


i
0
R
I
= -V
1

i
0
-1

V
1
R
I


Q#4.22: Find V
0
in the network in Fig. P4.22 and explain what effect R
1
has on the
output.

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Solution:
Circuit diagram:




10 O






2 O
+

2 V


V
0


R
1
= 10 O


-


Fig. (a)




















-
+
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10 O

OP-AMP MODEL



V
0



R
in
R
out

2 O

AV
e







10 O


2 V






Fig. (b)


















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V
1
V
0


2 O 10 O



V
-
R
out


2 V


R
in


V
+

AV
e




R
1






Fig. (c)
Using Nodal Analysis
Applying KCL at node labeled V
1

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
1
2 V V
1
V
1
V
0

+ + 0
2 R
in
+ R
1
10

V
1
V
1

1 + + 0.1[V
1
V
0
] = 0
2 R
in
+ R
1


V
1

0.5V
1
1 + + 0.1V
1
0.1V
0
= 0
R
in
+ R
1






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1
0.6 + V
1
+ -0.1 V
0
1 (i)
R
in
+ R
1



Applying KCL at node labeled V
0

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
0
V
1
V
0
- AV
e

+ 0
10

R
out


0.1(V
0
V
1
) + 0.1(V
0
- AV
e
) = 0 Hint: R
out
= 10 O
0.1V
0
0.1V
1
+ 0.1V
0
0.1AV
e
= 0



-0.1 V
1
+ 0.2 V
0
0.1AV
e
(ii)


Writing equations (i) & (ii) in matrix form

1
0.6 + -0.1 V
1
1
R
in
+ R
1



-0.1 0.2 V
0
0.1AV
e


A X B

determinant of A =

1
0.6 + -0.1


R
in
+ R
1



-0.1 0.2




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1
0.2 0.6 + 0.01
R
in
+ R
1


V
1
=?
1 -0.1






0.1AV
e
0.2


1
0.2 0.6 + 0.01
R
in
+ R
1


(1)(0.2) + 0.1(0.1AVe)


1
0.2 0.6 + 0.01
R
in
+ R
1


0.2 + 0.01AVe


1
0.2 0.6 + 0.01
R
in
+ R
1


Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
1
10 O

0.2 + 0.01(10
5
)Ve


1
0.2 0.6 + 0.01
10
8
+ 10


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0.2 + 1000V
e

=
0.2(0.6) 0.01

0.11V
1
= 0.2 + 1000V
e
Here
V
e
= V
+
- V
-
from fig. (c)
According to Voltage divider rule

R
1

V
+
= V
1

R
in
+ R
1

10
V
+
= V
1

10
8
+ 10

V
+
= 10 10
-8
V
1
V
e
= 10 10
-8
V
1
- V
1
V
e
= (10 10
-8
1)V
1
V
e
= (-1)V
1
V
e
= -V
1
0.11V
1
= 0.2 + 1000(-V
1
)
0.11V
1
= 0.2 - 1000V
1
0.11V
1
+ 1000V
1
= 0.2
1000.11V
1
= 0.2

V
1
= 0.0002 Volts

V
0
=?
1 1
0.6 +


R
in
+ R
1



-0.1 0.1AV
e



1
0.2 0.6 + 0.01
R
in
+ R
1





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1
0.1AV
e
0.6 + 0.1
R
in
+ R
1



1
0.2 0.6 + 0.01
R
in
+ R
1


Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
1
10 O


1
0.1AV
e
0.6 + 0.1
10
8
+ 10


1
0.2 0.6 + 0.01
10
8
+ 10

0.11V
0
=

0.1AV
e
(0.6) 0.1
0.11V
0
=

0.1(10
5
)(-V
1
)

(0.6) 0.1
0.11V
0
=

0.1(10
5
)(-0.0002)

(0.6) 0.1
0.11V
0
=

-1.2 0.1
0.11V
0
=

-1.3

V
0
= -11.818 Volts

from above we come to the point that R
1
has no effect on the output.

Q#4.23: Determine the expression for V
0
in the network in Fig. P4.23.
Solution:
Circuit diagram:







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R
2


V
A


V
0

R
1


V
B





Fig. (a)





























-
+
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R
2


OP-AMP MODEL



V
0



R
in
R
out

R
1
AV
e










V
A
V
B







Fig. (b)

















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V
1
V
0


R
1
R
2




V
-
R
out


V
A

R
in


V
+

AV
e


V
B






Fig. (c)
Using Nodal Analysis
Applying KCL at node labeled V
1

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
1
- V
A
V
1
V
B
V
1
V
0
+ + 0
R
1
R
in
R
2


V
1
V
A
V
1
V
B
V
1
V
0

+ + 0
R
1
R
1
R
in
R
in
R
2
R
2



1 1 1 -1 V
A
V
B

+ + V
1
+ V
0
+ (i)
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
2
R
1
R
in



Applying KCL at node V
0
According to KCL
The algebraic Sum of all the currents leaving that junction = The algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction


Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 197
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

V
0
V
1
V
0
- AV
e

+ = 0
R
2
R
out


Here
V
e
= V
+
V
-
V
e
= V
B
V
1

V
0
V
1
V
0
A(V
B
V
1
)


+ 0
R
2
R
out


V
0
V
1
V
0
AV
B
+ AV
1

+ 0
R
2
R
out


V
0
V
1
V
0
AV
B
AV
1

+ + 0
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
out



A 1 1 1 AV
B

V
1
+ + V
0
(i)
R
out
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
out




1 1 1 -1 V
A
V
B

+ + V
1
+
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
2
R
1
R
in




A 1 1 1 AV
B

+ V
0

R
out
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
out


A X B

determinant of A =






Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 198
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1 1 1 -1
+ +
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
2




A 1 1 1
+
R
out
R
2
R
2
R
out




1 1 1 1 1 A 1 1
+ + + +
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
2


V
0
=?

1 1 1 V
A
V
B



+ + +
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
1


R
in






A 1 AV
B

+
R
out
R
2
R
out





1 1 1 1 1 A 1 1
+ + + +
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
2



AV
B
1 1 1 A 1 V
A
V
B

+ + + +
R
out
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
in



1 1 1 1 1 A 1 1
+ + + +
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
2


Here
R
in
= 10
8
O
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 199
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

R
out
= 10 O
A = 10
5
We to bring about a result that

1 1 1 1 1
>> & << &
R
0
R
2
R
i
R
1
R
2

A 1 1
>> & ~ 0
R
0
R
2
R
in


Here R
0
= R
out
; R
i
= R
in


AV
B
1 1 A V
A

+
R
out
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
1


1 1 1 A 1
+ +
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out


R
2



Q#4.24: Show that the output of the circuit in Fig. P4.24 is

R
2
R
2

V
0
= 1 + V
1
V
2

R
1
R
1


Solution:
Circuit diagram:













Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 200
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


V
1


R
3

V
0






R
4


R
2




R
1




V
2

Fig. (a)
























Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 201
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


OP-AMP MODEL



V
0

R
in
R
out



AV
e
R
2





R
3



R
4





V
1
R
1







V
2






Fig. (b)















Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 202
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


V
3
V
0


V
+
R
in
V
-
R
2




R
out


R
3

R
1
R
4



AV
e

V
1

V
2







Here Fig. (c)
R
3
+ R
in
~ R
in
V
3
V
0


V
+
R
in
V
-
R
2




R
out





R
1
R
4



AV
e

V
1

V
2







Fig. (c)


Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 203
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Using Nodal Analysis
Applying KCL at node labeled V
3

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
3
V
1
V
3
V
2
V
3
V
0

+ + 0
R
3
+ R
in
R
1
R
2


V
3
V
1
V
3
V
2
V
3
V
0

+ + 0
R
in
R
1
R
2


V
3
V
1
V
3
V
2
V
3
V
0

+ + 0
R
in
R
in
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
2



1 1 1 -1 V
1
V
2

+ + V
3
+ V
0
+ (i)
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
2
R
in
R
1



V
0
V
3
V
0
- AV
e
V
0

+ + 0
R
2
R
out
R
4


V
e
= V
1
V
3

V
0
V
3
V
0
A(V
1
V
3
)

V
0

+ + 0
R
2
R
out
R
4


V
0
V
3
V
0
AV
1
+ AV
3
V
0

+ + 0
R
2
R
out
R
4


V
0
V
3
V
0
AV
1
AV
3
V
0

+ + + 0
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
out
R
4





Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 204
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A 1 1 1 1 AV
1

V
3
+ + + V
0
(ii)
R
out
R
2
R
out
R
2
R
4
R
out


Writing equations (i) & (ii) in matrix form

1 1 1 -1 V
1
V
2

+ + V
3
+


R
in
R
1
R
2
R
2
R
in
R
1



A 1 1 1 1 AV
1

+ + V
0

R
out
R
2
R
out
R
2
R
4
R
out


A X B

determinant of A =

1 1 1 -1
+ +




R
in
R
1
R
2
R
2



A 1 1 1 1
+ +
R
out
R
2
R
out
R
2
R
4




1 1 1 1 1 1 A 1 1
+ + + + +
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
2
R
4
R
out
R
2
R
2


V
0
=?










Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 205
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1 1 1 V
1
V
2

+ + +
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
in
R
1



A 1 AV
1


R
out
R
2
R
out



1 1 1 1 1 1 A 1 1
+ + + + +
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
2
R
4
R
out
R
2
R
2



1 1 1 AV
1
A 1 V
1
V
2

+ + +
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
in
R
1


1 1 1 1 1 1 A 1 1
+ + + + +
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
2
R
4
R
out
R
2
R
2


Here
R
in
= 10
8
O
R
out
= 10 O
A = 10
5
We to bring about a result that

1 1 1 1 1 1
>> & & << &
R
0
R
2
R
4
R
i
R
1
R
2

A 1 1
>> & ~ 0
R
0
R
2
R
in


Here R
0
= R
out
; R
i
= R
in






Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 206
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1 1 AV
1
A V
2

+
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
1



1 1 1 A 1
+ +
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2



Q#4.25: Find V
0
in the network in Fig. P4.25.
Solution:
Circuit diagram:




4 O






1 O
+

5 V


V
0


4 V


-


Fig. (a)







-
+
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 207
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4 O

OP-AMP MODEL



V
0



R
in
R
out

1 O

AV
e








4 V

5 V






Fig. (b)
















Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 208
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



V
1
V
0


1 O 4 O



V
-
R
out


5 V


R
in


V
+

AV
e



4 V






Fig. (c)
Using Nodal Analysis
Applying KCL at node labeled V
1

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
1
5 V
1
- 4 V
1
V
0

+ + 0
1 R
in
4

V
1
4
V
1
5 + + 0.25 V
1
0.25 V
0
= 0
R
in
R
in


1 4
1.25 + V
1
+ -0.25 V
0
5 + (i)
R
in
R
in



Applying KCL at node labeled V
0


Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 209
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
0
V
1
V
0
- AV
e

+ 0
4 R
out

Here
V
e
= V
+
- V
-
V
e
= 4 V
1

V
0
V
1
V
0
A(4 V
1
)
+ 0
4 R
out

V
0
V
1
V
0
4A + AV
1

+ 0
4 R
out

V
0
V
1
V
0
4A AV
1

+ + 0
4 4 R
out
R
out
R
out


A 1 4A
0.25 + + 0.25 (ii)
R
out
R
out
R
out


Writing equations (i) & (ii) in matrix form

1 4
1.25 + -0.25 V
1
5 +
R
in
R
in



A 1 4A
0.25 + 0.25 V
0

R
out
R
out
R
out


A X B

determinant of A =



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1
1.25 + -0.25


R
in



A 1
0.25 + 0.25
R
out
R
out



1 1 A
1.25 + + 0.25 + (0.25) 0.25
R
in
R
out
R
out


V
0
=?

1 4
1.25 + 5 +
R
in
R
in



A 4A
0.25
R
out
R
out


1 1 A
1.25 + + 0.25 + (0.25) 0.25
R
in
R
out
R
out



1 4A A 4
1.25 + 0.25 5 +
R
in
R
out
R
out
R
in



1 1 A
1.25 + + 0.25 + (0.25) 0.25
R
in
R
out
R
out


Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 211
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1 4(10
5
) 10
5
4
1.25 + 0.25 5 +
10
8
10 10 10
8


1 1 10
5

1.25 + + 0.25 + 0.25 0.25
10
8
10 10

(1.25 + 0.00000001)(40000) (10000 0.25)(5 + 0.00000004)
=
(1.25 + 0.00000001)(0.1 + 0.25) + 0.25(10000 0.25)

(1.25000001)(40000) (9999.75)(5.00000004)
=
(1.25000001)(0.35) + 0.25(9999.75)

50000.0004 49998.75039999
=
0.4375000035 + 2499.9375

1.25000001
=
2500.3750000035

V
0
= 0.0004999 Volts

Q#4.26: Find the voltage gain of the op-amp circuit shown in Fig. P4.26.
Solution:
Circuit diagram:














Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 212
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20 kO

+




80 kO
V
1

24 kO V
0




1 kO
-



Fig. (a)
























Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 213
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

OP-AMP MODEL



+
20 kO

R
in
R
out



AV
e
24

kO




V
1
80 kO
V
0





1 kO

-


Fig. (b)


V
2
V
3
V
0




20 kO V
+
R
in
V
-
24 kO



R
out


V
1

80 kO 1 kO


AV
e





Fig. (c)
Using Nodal Analysis
Applying KCL at node labeled V
2

According to KCL


Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 214
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The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
2
V
1
V
2
V
2
V
3

+ + 0
20000 80000 R
in


V
2
V
1
V
2
V
2
V
3

+ + 0
20000 20000 80000 R
in
R
in



1 1 1 -1 V
1

+ + V
2
+ V
3
(i)
R
in
20000 80000 R
in
20000

Applying KCL at node labeled V
3

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
3
V
2
V
3
V
3
V
0

+ + 0
R
in
1000 24000

V
3
V
2
V
3
V
3
V
0

+ + 0
R
in
R
in
1000 24000 24000


-1 1 1 1 -1
V
2
+ + + V
3
+ V
0
0 (ii)
R
in
R
in
1000 24000 24000

Applying KCL at node labeled V
0

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
0
V
3
V
0
- AV
e

+ 0
24000 R
out


Here
V
e
= V
+
- V
-

V
e
= V
2
- V
3

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 215
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

V
0
V
3
V
0
A(V
2
- V
3
)
+ 0
24000 R
out


V
0
V
3
V
0
AV
2
AV
3

+ + 0
24000 24000 R
out
R
out
R
out


-A A 1 1 1
V
2
+ V
3
+ + V
0
0 (iii)
R
out
R
out
24000 R
out
24000

Writing equations (i), (ii) & (iii) in matrix form

1 1 1 -1
+ + 0 V
2

R
in
20000 80000 R
in



-1 1 1 1 -1
+ + V
3

R
in
R
in
1000 24000 24000


-A A 1 1 1
+ V
0

R
out
R
out
24000 R
out
24000

A X
V
1


20000



0



0



B

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 216
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determinant of A =

1 1 1 -1
+ + 0
R
in
20000 80000 R
in



-1 1 1 1 -1
+ +
R
in
R
in
1000 24000 24000


-A A 1 1 1
+
R
out
R
out
24000 R
out
24000



1 1 1 -1
+ +
1 1 1 R
in
1000

24000 24000
+ +
R
in
20000 80000 A 1 1 1
+
R
out
24000

R
out
24000


-1 -1

-1 R
in
24000
+ 0
R
in
-A 1 1
+


R
out
R
out
24000












Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 217
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1 1 1
+ +
R
in
20000 80000


1 1 1 1 1 A 1 1
+ + + + +
R
in
1000 24000 R
out
24000 R
out
24000 24000


1 -1 1 1 A 1
+
R
in
R
in
R
out
24000 R
out
24000


Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O


1 1 1
+ +
10
8

20000 80000


1 1 1 1 1 10
5
1 1
+ + + + +
10
8

1000 24000 10

24000 10

24000 24000


1 -1 1 1 10
5
1
+
10
8

10
8

10

24000 10

24000

= (0.00000001 + 0.00005 + 0.0000125)[(0.00000001 + 0.001 + 0.00004167)(0.1 +
0.00004167) + (10000 - 0.00004167)(0.00004167)] + (0.00000001)[(-0.00000001)(0.1 +
0.00004167) (10000)(0.00004167)]

= (0.00006251)[(0.00104168)(0.10004167) + (9999.99995833)(0.00004167)] +
(0.00000001)[(-0.00000001)(0.100004167) 0.4167]

= (0.00006251)[0.0001042114068056 + 0.4166999982636111] + (0.00000001)[-
0.00000000100004167 0.4167]
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 218
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= 0.000026054431146497747917 - 0.0000000041670000100004167

A = 0.0000260502641464877475003

V
0
=?

1 1 1 -1 V
1

+ +
R
in
20000 80000 R
in
20000


-1 1 1 1
+ + 0
R
in
R
in
1000 24000


-A A 1
0
R
out
R
out
24000


A



1 1 1 zero
+ + 0
1 1 1 R
in
1000

24000
+ +
R
in
20000 80000 A 1
0
R
out
24000




-1 zero -1 1 1 1
0 + +
-1 R
in
V
1
R
in
R
in
1000 24000
+
R
in
-A 20000 -A A 1
0


R
out
R
out
R
out
24000


A


Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 219
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V
0
-1 1 1 1
1 + +
R
in
R
in
1000 24000
20000
-A A 1

R
out
R
out
24000






A
V
1




1 -1 A 1 A 1 1 1
+ + +
20000 R
in
R
out
24000 R
out
R
in
1000 24000



A

Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O



1 -1 10
5
1 10
5
1 1 1
+ + +
20000 10
8
10 24000 10

10
8

1000 24000



A




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(0.00005)[(-0.00000001)(10000 - 0.00004167) + (10000)(0.00000001 + 0.001 +
0.00004167)]


0.0000260502641464877475003

(0.00005)[(-0.00000001)(9999.99995833) + (10000)(0.00104168)]


0.0000260502641464877475003

(0.00005)[-0.0000999999995833 + 10.4168]


0.0000260502641464877475003

0.000520835000000020835


0.0000260502641464877475003

Gain = 19.993

Q#4.27: For the circuit in Fig. P4.27 find the value of R
1
that produces a voltage
gain of 10.
Solution:
Circuit diagram:



















Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 221
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893






+





V
1

18 kO V
0




R
1

-



Fig. (a)
OP-AMP MODEL



+


R
in
R
out



AV
e
18

kO




V
1

V
0





R
1


-


Fig. (b)


Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 222
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893





V
2
V
0




V
+
R
in
V
-
18 kO



R
out


V
1

R
1



AV
e





Fig. (c)
Using Nodal Analysis
Applying KCL at node labeled V
2

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
2
V
1
V
2
V
2
V
0

+ + 0
R
in
R
1
18000

V
2
V
1
V
2
V
2
V
0

+ + 0
R
in
R
in
R
1
18000 18000


1 1 1 -1 V
1

+ + V
2
+ V
0
(i)
R
in
R
1
18000 18000 R
in


Applying KCL at node labeled V
0

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction




Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 223
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

V
0
V
2
V
0
- AV
e

+ 0
18000 R
out


Here
V
e
= V
+
- V
-

V
e
= V
1
V
2

V
0
V
2
V
0
A(V
1
V
2
)
+ 0
18000 R
out


V
0
V
2
V
0
AV
1
AV
2

+ + 0
18000 18000 R
out
R
out
R
out


A 1 1 1 AV
1

V
2
+ + V
0
(ii)
R
out
18000 R
out
18000 R
out


Writing equations (i) & (ii) in matrix form

1 1 1 -1 V
1

+ + V
2

R
in
R
1
18000 18000 R
in



A 1 1 1 AV
1

+ V
0

R
out
18000 R
out
18000 R
out

A X B

determinant of A =

1 1 1 -1
+ +
R
in
R
1
18000 18000


A 1 1 1
+
R
out
18000 R
out
18000




Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 224
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



1 1 1 1 1 A 1 1
+ + + +
R
in
R
1
18000 R
out
18000 R
out
18000 18000

V
0
=?

1 1 1 V
1

+ +
R
in
R
1
18000 R
in



A 1 AV
1


R
out
18000 R
out



1 1 1 1 1 A 1 1
+ + + +
R
in
R
1
18000 R
out
18000 R
out
18000 18000


1 1 1 AV
1
A 1 V
1

+ +
R
in
R
1
18000 R
out
R
out
18000 R
in


1 1 1 1 1 A 1 1
+ + + +
R
in
R
1
18000 R
out
18000 R
out
18000 18000


1 1 1 A A 1 1
V
1
+ +
R
in
R
1
18000 R
out
R
out
18000 R
in


1 1 1 1 1 A 1 1
+ + + +
R
in
R
1
18000 R
out
18000 R
out
18000 18000





Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 225
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


V
0
1 1 1 A A 1 1
+ +
R
in
R
1
18000 R
out
R
out
18000 R
in



1 1 1 1 1 A 1 1
+ + + +
V
1
R
in
R
1
18000 R
out
18000 R
out
18000 18000

Substituting the corresponding values

R
in
10
8
O
A 10
5

R
out
10 O



1 1 1 10
5
10
5
1 1
+ +
10
8

R
1
18000 10

10

18000 10
8



1 1 1 1 1 10
5
1 1
+ + + +
10
8

R
1
18000 10

18000 10

18000 18000

(0.00000001 + R
1
-1
+

0.00005556)(10000) (10000 - 0.00005556)(0.00000001)

(0.00000001 + R
1
-1
+

0.00005556)(0.1 + 0.00005556) + (10000 - 0.00005556)(
0.00005556)

(0.00005557 + R
1
-1
)(10000) (9999.99994444)(0.00000001)

(0.00005557 + R
1
-1
)(0.10005556) + (9999.99994444)(0.00005556)

10000 R
1
-1
+

0.5557 0.0000999999994444

0.10005556 R
1
-1
+ 0.0000055600874692 + 0.5555999969130864

10000 R
1
-1
+ 0.5556000000005556

0.10005556 R
1
-1
+ 0.5556055570005556

10(0.10005556 R
1
-1
+ 0.5556055570005556) = 10000 R
1
-1
+ 0.5556000000005556
1.0005556 R
1
-1
+

5.556055570005556 - 10000 R
1
-1
- 0.5556000000005556 = 0
-9998.9994444 R
1
-1
=

-5.0004555700050004
R
1
-1
= 0.0005001
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 226
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


R
1

= 1.9996000799840031993601279744051 kO

Q#4.28: Determine the relationship between V
0
and V
in
in the circuit in Fig. P4.28.
Solution:
Circuit diagram:



R
1


+




R
2

V
in

R
F
V
0




R
I

-


Fig. (a)



















Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 227
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

OP-AMP MODEL



+
R
1
R
in
R
out



AV
e
R
F





V
in
R
2

V
0





R
I


-


Fig. (b)
V
2
V
3
V
0




R
1
V
+
R
in
V
-
R
F




R
out


V
in

R
2
R
I



AV
e





Fig. (c)
Using Nodal Analysis
Applying KCL at node labeled V
2

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction


Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 228
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

V
2
V
in
V
2
V
3
V
2

+ 0
R
1
R
in
R
2


V
2
V
in
V
2
V
3
V
2

0
R
1
R
1
R
in
R
in
R
2


1 1 1 -1 V
in

+ + V
2
+ V
3
(i)
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
in
R
1


Applying KCL at node labeled V
3

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
3
V
2
V
3
V
3
V
0

0
R
in
R
I
R
F

V
3
V
2
V
3
V
3
V
0

0
R
in
R
in
R
I
R
F
R
F



-1 1 1 1 -1
V
2
V
3
V
0
0 (ii)
R
in
R
in
R
I
R
F
R
F


Applying KCL at node labeled V
0

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
0
V
3
V
0
- AV
e

0
R
F
R
out

V
0
V
3
V
0
AV
e

0
R
F
R
F
R
out
R
out


Here
V
e
= V
+
- V
-
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 229
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

V
e
= V
2
- V
3


V
0
V
3
V
0
A(V
2
- V
3
)
0
R
F
R
F
R
out
R
out

V
0
V
3
V
0
AV
2
AV
3

0
R
F
R
F
R
out
R
out
R
out


-A A 1 1 1
V
2
V
3
V
0
0 (iii)
R
out
R
out
R
F
R
out
R
F


Writing equations (i), (ii) & (iii) in matrix form

1 1 1 -1 V
in

0 V
2

R
in
R
1
R
2
R
in
R
1


-1 1 1 1 -1
V
3
0
R
in
R
in
R
I
R
F
R
F



-A A 1 1 1
V
0
0
R
out
R
out
R
F
R
out
R
F


A X B

determinant of |A| =

1 1 1 -1

R
in
R
I
R
F
R
F

1 1 1 -1

R
in
R
1
R
2
R
in

A 1 1 1

R
out
R
F
R
out
R
F



Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 230
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


-1 -1

R
in
R
F


0

-A 1 1

R
out
R
out
R
F




1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
in
R
1
R
2
R
in
R
I
R
F
R
out
R
F
R
out
R
F
R
F
R
in



-1 1 1 A 1

R
in
R
out
R
F
R
out
R
F


Here
R
in
= 10
8
O
R
out
= 10 O
A = 10
5
We to bring about a result that

1 1 1 1 1 1 1
>> & << & & &
R
0
R
F


R
i
R
1
R
2
R
I
R
F

A 1 1
>> & ~ 0
R
0
R
F
R
in


Here R
0
= R
out
; R
i
= R
in

1 1 1 1 1 A 1
0
R
1
R
2
R
I
R
F
R
out
R
out
R
F


V
0
=?



Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 231
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


1 1 1 -1 V
in




R
in
R
1
R
2
R
in
R
1


-1 1 1 1
0


R
in
R
in
R
I
R
F



-A A 1
0


R
out
R
out
R
F



1 1 1 1 1 A 1

R
1
R
2
R
I
R
F
R
out
R
out
R
F



-1 1 1 1

V
in
R
in
R
in
R
I
R
F


R
1
-A A 1

R
out
R
out
R
F



1 1 1 1 1 A 1

R
1
R
2
R
I
R
F
R
out
R
out
R
F



-1 1 1 1


R
in
R
in
R
I
R
F



-A A 1

R
out
R
out
R
F





Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 232
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


-1 A 1 A 1 1 1

R
in
R
out
R
F
R
out
R
in
R
I
R
F



A 1 1
0
R
out
R
I
R
F




V
in
A 1 1

R
1
R
out
R
I
R
F


V
0


1 1 1 1 1 A 1

R
1
R
2
R
I
R
F
R
out
R
out
R
F



Q#4.29: In the network in Fig. P4.29 derive the expression for V
0
in terms of the
inputs V
1
and V
2
.
Solution:
Circuit diagram:



R
F


V
1


V
0

R
1


V
2



R
2

R
I

Fig. (a)



-
+
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 233
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893





R
F


OP-AMP MODEL



V
0



R
in
R
out

R
1
AV
e












R
2

R
I





V
1
V
2





Fig. (b)











Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 234
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

V
3
V
0


R
1
R
F




V
-
R
out


V
1

R
in


V
+

AV
e

V
4



R
I
R
2




V
2





Fig. (c)
Using Nodal Analysis
Applying KCL at node labeled V
3

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
3
V
1
V
3
V
4
V
3
V
0

0
R
1
R
in
R
F


V
3
V
1
V
3
V
4
V
3
V
0

0
R
1
R
1
R
in
R
in
R
F
R
F


1 1 1 -1 -1 V
1

V
3
V
4
V
0
(i)
R
1
R
in
R
F
R
in
R
F
R
1


Applying KCL at node labeled V
4


Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 235
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
4
V
2
V
4
V
4
V
3

0
R
2
R
I
R
in


V
4
V
2
V
4
V
4
V
3

0
R
2
R
2
R
I
R
in
R
in


-1 1 1 1 V
2

V
3
V
4
(ii)
R
in
R
in
R
I
R
2
R
2


Applying KCL at node labeled V
0

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
0
V
3
V
0
- AV
e

0
R
F
R
out

Here V
e
= V
+
- V
-

V
e
= V
4
- V
3

V
0
V
3
V
0
A(V
4
V
3
)
0
R
F
R
out

V
0
V
3
V
0
AV
4
+ AV
3

0
R
F
R
out

V
0
V
3
V
0
AV
4
AV
3

0
R
F
R
F
R
out
R
out
R
out


A 1 -A 1 1
V
3
V
4
V
0
0 (iii)
R
out
R
F
R
out
R
out
R
F


Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 236
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

Writing equations (i), (ii) & (iii) in matrix form

1 1 1 -1 -1 V
1

V
3

R
1
R
in
R
F
R
in
R
F
R
1



-1 1 1 1 V
2

0 V
4

R
in
R
in
R
I
R
2
R
2



A 1 -A 1 1
V
0
0
R
out
R
F
R
out
R
out
R
F


A X B

1 1 1 -1 -1

R
1
R
in
R
F
R
in
R
F



-1 1 1 1
A 0
R
in
R
in
R
I
R
2



A 1 -A 1 1

R
out
R
F
R
out
R
out
R
F




1 1 1
0
1 1 1 R
in
R
I
R
2

A
R
1
R
in
R
F
-A 1 1

R
out
R
out
R
F






Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 237
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



-1 0

1 R
in


R
in
A 1 1 1

R
out
R
F
R
out
R
F




-1 1 1 1

-1 R
in
R
in
R
I
R
2


R
F

A 1 -A

R
out
R
F
R
out



1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
A
R
1
R
in
R
F
R
in
R
I
R
2
R
out
R
F
R
in


-1 1 1 -1 A A 1 1 1 1

R
in
R
out
R
F
R
F
R
in
R
out
R
out
R
F
R
in
R
I
R
2


















Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 238
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



1 1 1 -1 V
1


R
1
R
in
R
F
R
in
R
1



-1 1 1 1 V
2


R
in
R
in
R
I
R
2
R
2



A 1 -A
0
R
out
R
F
R
out


V
0

A


1 1 1 AV
2
1 -V
2
A 1 V
1


R
1
R
in
R
F
R
2
R
out
R
in
R
2
R
out
R
F
R
1


A A 1 1 1 1

R
in
R
out
R
out
R
F
R
in
R
I
R
2


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

R
1
R
in
R
F
R
in
R
I
R
2
R
out
R
F
R
in


-1 1 1 -1 A A 1 1 1 1

R
in
R
out
R
F
R
F
R
in
R
out
R
out
R
F
R
in
R
I
R
2


Here
R
in
= 10
8
O
R
out
= 10 O
A = 10
5
We to bring about a result that

1 1 1 1 1 1 1
>> & << & & &
R
0
R
F


R
i
R
1
R
2
R
I
R
F

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 239
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

A 1 1
>> & ~ 0
R
0
R
F
R
in


Here R
0
= R
out
; R
i
= R
in


1 1 AV
2
V
1
-A 1 1

R
1
R
F
R
2
R
out
R
1
R
out
R
I
R
2



1 1 1 1 1 -1 -A 1 1

R
1
R
F
R
I
R
2
R
out
R
F
R
out
R
I
R
2



Q#4.30: Find Vo in the circuit in Fig. P4.30.
Solution:
Circuit diagram:


40 kO
5 kO






5 kO +
5 V


V
0

20 kO
4 V

-

Fig. (a)







-
+
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 240
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893





R
F


OP-AMP MODEL



V
0



R
in
R
out

R
1
AV
e












R
2

R
I





V
1
V
2





Fig. (b)











Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 241
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

V
3
V
0


R
1
R
F




V
-
R
out


V
1

R
in


V
+

AV
e

V
4



R
I
R
2




V
2





Fig. (c)
Using Nodal Analysis
Applying KCL at node labeled V
3

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
3
V
1
V
3
V
4
V
3
V
0

0
R
1
R
in
R
F


V
3
V
1
V
3
V
4
V
3
V
0

0
R
1
R
1
R
in
R
in
R
F
R
F


1 1 1 -1 -1 V
1

V
3
V
4
V
0
(i)
R
1
R
in
R
F
R
in
R
F
R
1


Applying KCL at node labeled V
4


Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 242
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
4
V
2
V
4
V
4
V
3

0
R
2
R
I
R
in


V
4
V
2
V
4
V
4
V
3

0
R
2
R
2
R
I
R
in
R
in


-1 1 1 1 V
2

V
3
V
4
(ii)
R
in
R
in
R
I
R
2
R
2


Applying KCL at node labeled V
0

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
0
V
3
V
0
- AV
e

0
R
F
R
out

Here V
e
= V
+
- V
-

V
e
= V
4
- V
3

V
0
V
3
V
0
A(V
4
V
3
)
0
R
F
R
out

V
0
V
3
V
0
AV
4
+ AV
3

0
R
F
R
out

V
0
V
3
V
0
AV
4
AV
3

0
R
F
R
F
R
out
R
out
R
out


A 1 -A 1 1
V
3
V
4
V
0
0 (iii)
R
out
R
F
R
out
R
out
R
F


Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 243
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

Writing equations (i), (ii) & (iii) in matrix form

1 1 1 -1 -1 V
1

V
3

R
1
R
in
R
F
R
in
R
F
R
1



-1 1 1 1 V
2

0 V
4

R
in
R
in
R
I
R
2
R
2



A 1 -A 1 1
V
0
0
R
out
R
F
R
out
R
out
R
F


A X B

1 1 1 -1 -1

R
1
R
in
R
F
R
in
R
F



-1 1 1 1
A 0
R
in
R
in
R
I
R
2



A 1 -A 1 1

R
out
R
F
R
out
R
out
R
F




1 1 1
0
1 1 1 R
in
R
I
R
2

A
R
1
R
in
R
F
-A 1 1

R
out
R
out
R
F






Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 244
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



-1 0

1 R
in


R
in
A 1 1 1

R
out
R
F
R
out
R
F




-1 1 1 1

-1 R
in
R
in
R
I
R
2


R
F

A 1 -A

R
out
R
F
R
out



1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
A
R
1
R
in
R
F
R
in
R
I
R
2
R
out
R
F
R
in


-1 1 1 -1 A A 1 1 1 1

R
in
R
out
R
F
R
F
R
in
R
out
R
out
R
F
R
in
R
I
R
2


















Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 245
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



1 1 1 -1 V
1


R
1
R
in
R
F
R
in
R
1



-1 1 1 1 V
2


R
in
R
in
R
I
R
2
R
2



A 1 -A
0
R
out
R
F
R
out


V
0

A


1 1 1 AV
2
1 -V
2
A 1 V
1


R
1
R
in
R
F
R
2
R
out
R
in
R
2
R
out
R
F
R
1


A A 1 1 1 1

R
in
R
out
R
out
R
F
R
in
R
I
R
2


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

R
1
R
in
R
F
R
in
R
I
R
2
R
out
R
F
R
in


-1 1 1 -1 A A 1 1 1 1

R
in
R
out
R
F
R
F
R
in
R
out
R
out
R
F
R
in
R
I
R
2


Here
R
in
= 10
8
O
R
out
= 10 O
A = 10
5
We to bring about a result that

1 1 1 1 1 1 1
>> & << & & &
R
0
R
F


R
i
R
1
R
2
R
I
R
F

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 246
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

A 1 1
>> & ~ 0
R
0
R
F
R
in


Here R
0
= R
out
; R
i
= R
in


1 1 AV
2
V
1
-A 1 1

R
1
R
F
R
2
R
out
R
1
R
out
R
I
R
2



1 1 1 1 1 -1 -A 1 1

R
1
R
F
R
I
R
2
R
out
R
F
R
out
R
I
R
2


Here
R
I
= 20 kO
R
F
= 40 kO
R
1
= 5 kO
R
2
= 5 kO
V
1
= 5 V
V
2
= 4 V

1 1 4(10
5
) 5 -10
5
1 1

5000 40000 5000(10) 5000 10 20000 5000


1 1 1 1 1 -1 -10
5
1 1

5000 40000 20000 5000 10 40000 10 20000 5000

(0.0002 + 0.000025)(8) + (0.001)(-10000)(0.00005 + 0.0002)

(0.0002 + 0.000025)(0.00005 + 0.0002)(0.1) + (-0.000025)(-10000)(0.00005 + 0.0002)

0.0018 + (-0.0025)

0.000000045 + 0.0000625

-0.0007

0.000062545

V
0
= -11.192 Volts
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 247
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

Q#4.31: Find V
0
in the circuit in Fig. P4.31.
Solution:
Circuit diagram:


10 kO 100 kO



20 kO






+
9 V 30 kO



40 kO 20 kO
10 V V
0



12 V 6 V


-

Fig. (a)

















-
+
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 248
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893





100 k

OP-AMP MODEL



+


R
in
R
out



10 k 20 k 30 k

AV
e








9 V
40 k 20 k


10 V

6 V


12 V


-


Fig. (b)











V
0

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 249
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


V
1
V
0



V
-
100 k


R
in



V
+






10 k 20 k 30 k






R
out



9 V
40 k 20 k


10 V
AV
e

6 V


12 V





Fig. (c)
Using Nodal Analysis
Applying KCL at node labeled V
1

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
1
9 V
1
10 V
1
+ 12 V
1
V
1
V
0
V
1
- 6
0
10 k 20 k 30 k 40 k 100 k R
in



Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 250
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

Simplifying we get

V
1
9 V
1
10 V
1
12 V
1
V
1
V
0
V
1
6



10 k 10 k 20 k 20 k 30 k 30 k 40 k 100 k 100 k R
in
R
in


1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 9 10
V
1
V
0

10 k 20 k 30 k 40 k 100 k R
in
100 k 10 k 20 k

12 6

30 k R
in


131 1 -1 60 6
V
1
V
0
(i)
600 k R
in
100 k 60 k R
in



Using Nodal Analysis
Applying KCL at node labeled V
0

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
0
V
1
V
0
- AV
e
V
0

0
100 k R
out
20 k

Here
V
e
= V
+
- V
-
V
e
= 6 V
1

V
0
V
1
V
0
A(6 V
1
)

V
0

0
100 k R
out
20 k

V
0
V
1
V
0
6A + AV
1
V
0

0
100 k R
out
20 k

V
0
V
1
V
0
6A AV
1
V
0

0
100 k 100 k R
out
R
out
R
out
20

k

0
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 251
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


A 1 1 1 1 6A
V
1
V
0
(ii)
R
out
100 k R
out
100 k 20 k R
out



Writing equations (i) & (ii) in matrix form


131 1 -1 60 6
V
1

600 k R
in
100 k 60 k R
in



A 1 1 1 1 6A
V
0

R
out
100 k R
out
100 k 20 k R
out


A X B

131 1 -1

600 k R
in
100 k
A

A 1 1 1 1

R
out
100 k R
out
100 k 20 k


131 1 1 1 1 1 A 1

600 k R
in
R
out
100 k 20 k 100 k R
out
100 k













Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 252
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


131 1 60 6

600 k R
in
60 k R
in



A 1 6A

R
out
100 k R
out


V
0

131 1 1 1 1 1 A 1

600 k R
in
R
out
100 k 20 k 100 k R
out
100 k


131 1 6A A 1 60 6

600 k R
in
R
out
R
out
100 k 60 k R
in

V
0

131 1 1 1 1 1 A 1

600 k R
in
R
out
100 k 20 k 100 k R
out
100 k

Here
R
in
= 10
8
O
R
out
= 10 O
A = 10
5
We to bring about a result that

1 1 1 1 1 1 1
>> & << & & &
R
0
R
F


R
i
R
1
R
2
R
I
R
F

A 1 1
>> & ~ 0
R
0
R
F
R
in


Here R
0
= R
out
; R
i
= R
in





Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 253
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


131 6A A 60

600 k R
out
R
out
60 k

V
0

131 1 1 A

600 k R
out
100 k R
out



131 6(10
5
) 10
5
60

600 k 10

10 60 k

V
0

131 1 1 10
5


600 k 10

100 k 10



(2.184 10
-4
)(6 10
+4
) (10
4
)(0.001)
V
0
(2.184 10
-4
)(0.1) + (0.00001)(10
4
)

13.104 - 10
V
0
0.00002184 + 0.1

3.104
V
0
0.10002184

V
0
=

31.034 Volts


Q#4.32: Determine the expression for the output voltage, V
0
, of the inverting
summer circuit shown in Fig. P4.32.
Solution:
Circuit diagram:






Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 254
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


V
1

R
1
R
F






V
2
V
0

R
2




V
3

R
3


Fig. (a)































-
+
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 255
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893





R
F


OP-AMP MODEL






R
in
R
out



R
1
R
2
R
3


AV
e








V
1




V
2





V
3






Fig. (b)











V
0

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 256
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


V
4
V
0



V
-
R
F



R
in



V
+






R
1
R
2
R
3







R
out



V
1




V
2

AV
e




V
3






Fig. (c)












Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 257
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

Using Nodal Analysis
Applying KCL at node labeled V
4

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
4
V
1
V
4


V
2
V
4
V
3
V
4
V
4
V
0

0
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
in
R
F

V
4
V
1
V
4
V
2
V
4
V
3
V
4
V
4
V
0

0
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
2
R
3
R
3
R
in
R
F
R
F


1 1 1 1 1 -1 V
1
V
2
V
3

V
4
V
0
(i)
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
in
R
F
R
F
R
1
R
2
R
3


Applying KCL at node labeled V
0

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
0
V
4
V
0
- AV
e

0
R
F
R
out


V
e
= V
+
- V
-
V
e
= 0 - V
4
V
e
= -V
4

V
0
V
4
V
0
A(-V
4
)
0
R
F
R
out


V
0
V
4
V
0
+ AV
4

0
R
F
R
out


V
0
V
4
V
0
AV
4

0
R
F
R
F
R
out
R
out




Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 258
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


A 1 1 1
V
4
V
0
0 (ii)
R
out
R
F
R
out
R
F


Writing equations (i) & (ii) in matrix form

1 1 1 1 1 -1 V
1
V
2
V
3

V
4

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
in
R
F
R
F
R
1
R
2
R
3



A 1 1 1
V
0
0
R
out
R
F
R
out
R
F


A X B

1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
in
R
F
R
F


A

A 1 1 1

R
out
R
F
R
out
R
F



1 1 1 1 1 1 1 A 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
in
R
F
R
out
R
F
R
out
R
F
R
F















Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 259
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


1 1 1 1 1 V
1
V
2
V
3


R
1
R
2
R
3
R
in
R
F
R
1
R
2
R
3



A 1
0
R
out
R
F


V
0


A


A 1 V
1
V
2
V
3


R
out
R
F
R
1
R
2
R
3



1 1 1 1 1 1 1 A 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
in
R
F
R
out
R
F
R
out
R
F
R
F


Here
R
in
= 10
8
O
R
out
= 10 O
A = 10
5
We to bring about a result that

1 1 1 1 1 1 1
>> & << & & &
R
0
R
F


R
i
R
1
R
2
R
I
R
F

A 1 1
>> & ~ 0
R
0
R
F
R
in


Here R
0
= R
out
; R
i
= R
in








Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 260
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


A V
1
V
2
V
3


R
out
R
1
R
2
R
3



1 1 1 1 1 A 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
F
R
out
R
out
R
F



Q#4.33: Determine the output voltage of the non-inverting averaging circuit shown
in Fig. P4.33.
Solution:
Circuit diagram:



V
1

R
1






V
2
V
0

R
2




V
3

R
3


Fig. (a)


R
F

R
I











+
-
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 261
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893







OP-AMP MODEL






R
in
R
out



R
1
R
2
R
3


AV
e








V
1


R
F


V
2
R
I





V
3






Fig. (b)











V
0

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 262
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


V
5
V
4
V
0



V
+
R
in
V
-
R
F












R
1
R
2
R
3







R
out

R
I


V
1




V
2

AV
e




V
3






Fig. (c)
Using Nodal Analysis
Applying KCL at node labeled V
5

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
5
V
1
V
5


V
2
V
5
V
3
V
5
V
4

0
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
in


Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 263
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

V
5
V
1
V
5
V
2
V
5
V
3
V
5
V
4

0
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
2
R
3
R
3
R
in
R
in



1 1 1 1 -1 V
1
V
2
V
3

V
5
V
4
(i)
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
in


R
in
R
1
R
2
R
3


Applying KCL at node labeled V
4

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
4
V
5
V
4
V
4
V
0
0
R
in
R
I
R
F

V
4
V
5
V
4
V
4
V
0

0
R
in
R
in
R
I
R
F
R
F


-1 1 1 1 -1
V
5
V
4
V
0
0 (ii)
R
in
R
in
R
I
R
F
R
F


Applying KCL at node labeled V
0

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
0
V
4
V
0
- AV
e

0
R
F
R
out


V
e
= V
+
- V
-
V
e
= V
5
- V
4

V
0
V
4
V
0
A(V
5
- V
4
)
0
R
F
R
out

V
0
V
4
V
0
AV
5
AV
4

0
R
F
R
F
R
out
R
out
R
out

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 264
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


-A A 1 1 1
V
5
V
4
V
0
0 (iii)
R
out
R
out
R
F
R
out
R
F


Writing equations (i), (ii) & (iii) in matrix form

1 1 1 1 -1

0 V
5

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
in
R
in



-1 1 1 1 -1
V
4

R
in
R
in
R
I
R
F
R
F



-A A 1 1 1
V
0

R
out
R
out
R
F
R
out
R
F


A X
V
1
V
2
V
3


R
1
R
2
R
3





0




0

B









Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 265
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



1 1 1 1 -1
0
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
in
R
in



-1 1 1 1 -1
A
R
in
R
in
R
I
R
F
R
F



-A A 1 1 1

R
out
R
out
R
F
R
out
R
F



1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
in
R
in
R
I
R
F
R
out
R
F
R
F




A 1 1 -1 1 1 A

R
out
R
F
R
in
R
in
R
out
R
F
R
out
R
F


Here
R
in
= 10
8
O
R
out
= 10 O
A = 10
5
We to bring about a result that

1 1 1 1 1 1 1
>> & << & & &
R
0
R
F


R
i
R
1
R
2
R
I
R
F

A 1 1
>> & ~ 0
R
0
R
F
R
in


Here R
0
= R
out
; R
i
= R
in





Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 266
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


1 1 1 1 1 1 A

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
I
R
F
R
out
R
F
R
out




1 1 1 1 -1 V
1
V
2
V
3


R
1
R
2
R
3
R
in
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
3



-1 1 1 1
0
R
in
R
in
R
I
R
F



-A A 1
0
R
out
R
out
R
F


V
0

A


V
1
V
2
V
3
-1 A 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
in
R
out
R
F
R
out
R
in
R
I
R
F


V
0

A


V
1
V
2
V
3
A 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
I
R
F


V
0


1 1 1 1 1 1 A

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
I
R
F
R
out
R
F
R
out









Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 267
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Q#4.34: Find the input/output relationship for the current amplifier shown in Fig.
P4.34.
Solution:
Circuit diagram: R
F



i
in


i
0




R
L





R
I



Fig. (a)

R
F



OP-AMP MODEL OP-AMP MODEL
i
in
i
0

V
-
V
+
V
+
V
-


R
in
R
out
R
in
R
out


AV
e
AV
e



R
L






R
I




Fig. (b)


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i
in
V
1
V
2
V
+
V
-
V
3
i
0


R
F
R
in



R
L



R
out
R
out




V
-

AV
e
R
I
AV
e

R
in


V
+


Fig. (c)
Using Nodal Analysis
Applying KCL at node labeled V
1

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
1
V
1
V
2

i
in

R
in
R
F


V
1
V
1
V
2

i
in

R
in
R
F
R
F



1 1 -1
V
1
V
2
i
in
(i)
R
in
R
F
R
F


Applying KCL at node labeled V
2

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction


Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 269
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V
2
V
1
V
2
- AV
e
V
2
V
3

0
R
F
R
out
R
in


Here
V
e
= V
+
- V
-
V
e
= 0 V
1
V
e
= V
1

V
2
V
1
V
2
A(-V
1
)

V
2
V
3

0
R
F
R
out
R
in


V
2
V
1
V
2
AV
1
V
2
V
3

0
R
F
R
F
R
out
R
out
R
in
R
in


A 1 1 1 1 -1
V
1
V
2
V
3
0 (ii)
R
out
R
F
R
in
R
out
R
F
R
in


Applying KCL at node labeled V
3

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
3
V
2
V
3

i
0

R
in
R
I


V
3
V
2
V
3

i
0

R
in
R
in
R
I



-1 1 1
V
2
V
3
i
0
(iii)
R
in
R
in
R
I


Writing equations (i), (ii) & (iii) in matrix form





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1 1 -1
0 V
1
i
in

R
in
R
F
R
F



A 1 1 1 1 -1
V
2
0
R
out
R
F
R
in
R
out
R
F
R
in



0 -1 1 1
V
3
i
0

R
in
R
in
R
I


A X B

1 1 -1
0
R
in
R
F
R
F



A 1 1 1 1 -1
A


R
out
R
F
R
in
R
out
R
F
R
in



0 -1 1 1



R
in
R
in
R
I



1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

R
in
R
F
R
in
R
out
R
F
R
in
R
I
R
in
2
R
F



A 1 1 1

R
out
R
F
R
in
R
I


Here
R
in
= 10
8
O
R
out
= 10 O
A = 10
5
We to bring about a result that
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 271
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1 1 1 1 1 1 1
>> & << & & &
R
0
R
F


R
i
R
1
R
2
R
I
R
F

A 1 1
>> & ~ 0
R
0
R
F
R
in


Here R
0
= R
out
; R
i
= R
in


1 1 1 1 1 A 1

R
F
R
out
R
F
R
I
R
F
R
out
R
I



1 1
i
in
0
R
in
R
F



A 1 -1
0


R
out
R
F
R
in



1 1
0 i
0



R
in
R
I


V
2


A


1 1 i
0
A 1 1 1
i
in

R
in
R
F
R
in
R
out
R
F
R
in
R
I



1 1 1 1 1 A 1

R
F
R
out
R
F
R
I
R
F
R
out
R
I





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A 1
i
in


R
out
R
I



1 1 1 1 1 A 1

R
F
R
out
R
F
R
I
R
F
R
out
R
I



1 1 -1
i
in

R
in
R
F
R
F



A 1 1 1 1
0


R
out
R
F
R
in
R
out
R
F



0 -1
i
0



R
in


V
3


A


1 1 1 1 1 1 A 1
i
0
i
0
i
n

R
in
R
F
R
in
R
out
R
F
R
F
R
out
R
F


A 1 -1

R
out
R
F
R
in


V
3


A





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1 1 1 1 A


i
0
i
0

R
F
R
out
R
F
R
F
R
out



1 1 1 1 1 A 1

R
F
R
out
R
F
R
I
R
F
R
out
R
I


Putting the corresponding values of V
2
& V
3
in equation (iii), we get the input/output
relationship.

Q#4.35: Find V
0
in the circuit in Fig. P4.35.
Solution:
Circuit diagram:

80 k


10 k 40 k






20 k
5 V
+

V
0
40 k

-

Fig. (a)










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80 k

40 k


OP-AMP MODEL OP-AMP MODEL


V
-
V
+
V
-
V
+


R
in
R
out
R
in
R
out


AV
e
AV
e


10 k
20 k


5 V
+

V
0
40 k

-

Fig. (b)





















Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 275
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80 k


V
1
V
2
V
-
V
+
V
3
V
4


40 k R
in
20 k



10 k

R
out
R
out


5 V
+
V
-

AV
e
V
0
40 k

AV
e

R
in


V
+
-


Fig. (c)
Using Nodal Analysis
Applying KCL at node labeled V
1

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
1
5 V
1
V
1
V
2
V
1
V
4

0
10 k R
in
40 k 80 k

V
1
5 V
1
V
1
V
2
V
1
V
4

0
10 k 10 k R
in
40 k 40 k 80 k 80 k

1 11 -1 -1 5
V
1
V
2
V
4

R
in
80 k 40 k 80 k 10 k

Here
R
in
= 10
8
O
R
out
= 10 O
A = 10
5
We to bring about a result that

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 276
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1 1 1 1 1 1 1
>> & << & & &
R
0
R
F


R
i
R
1
R
2
R
I
R
F

A 1 1
>> & ~ 0
R
0
R
F
R
in


Here R
0
= R
out
; R
i
= R
in


11 -1 -1 5
V
1
V
2
V
4
(i)
80 k 40 k 80 k 10 k

Applying KCL at node labeled V
2

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
2
V
1
V
2
V
3
V
2
- AV
e

0
40 k R
in
R
out


Here
V
e
= V
+
- V
-
V
e
= 0 V V
1

V
e
= V
1


V
2
V
1
V
2
V
3
V
2
A(-V
1
)
0
40 k R
in
R
out


V
2
V
1
V
2
V
3
V
2
+ AV
1

0
40 k R
in
R
out

V
2
V
1
V
2
V
3
V
2
AV
1

0
40 k 40 k R
in
R
in
R
out
R
out

A 1 1 1 1 -1
V
1
V
2
V
3
0
R
out
40 k R
in
R
out
40 k R
in




Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 277
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A 1
V
1
V
2
0 (ii)
R
out
R
out


Applying KCL at node labeled V
3

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
3
V
2
V
3
V
3
V
4

0
R
in
40 k 20 k

V
3
V
2
V
3
V
3
V
4

0
R
in
R
in
40 k 20 k 20 k

-1 1 3 -1
V
2
V
3
V
4
0
R
in
R
in
40 k 20 k


3 -1
V
3
V
4
0 (iii)
40 k 20 k

Applying KCL at node labeled V
4

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
4
V
1
V
4
V
3
V
4
- AV
e

0
80 k 20 k R
out


Here
V
e
= V
+
- V
-
V
e
= V
3
V
2


V
4
V
1
V
4
V
3
V
4
A(V
3
V
2
)
0
80 k 20 k R
out




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V
4
V
1
V
4
V
3
V
4
AV
3
AV
2

0
80 k 80 k 20 k 20 k R
out
R
out
R
out


-1 A -A 1 1 5
V
1
V
2
V
3
V
4
0
80 k R
out
R
out
20 k R
out
80 k


-1 A -A 1
V
1
V
2
V
3
V
4
0 (iv)
80 k R
out
R
out
R
out


Writing equations (i), (ii), (iii) & (iv) in matrix form

11 -1 -1 5
0 V
1

80 k 40 k 80 k 10 k

A 1
0 0 V
2
0
R
out
R
out


3 -1
0 0 V
3
0
40 k 20 k

-1 A -A 1
V
4
0
80 k R
out
R
out
R
out


A X B













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11 -1 -1
0
80 k 40 k 80 k

A 1
0 0
R
out
R
out

A
3 -1
0 0
40 k 20 k

-1 A -A 1

80 k R
out
R
out
R
out



1 A
0 0 0 0
R
out
R
out


11 3 -1 1 3 -1
0 0
80 k 40 k 20 k 40 k 40 k 20 k

A -A 1 -1 -A 1

R
out
R
out
R
out
80 k R
out
R
out



A 1
0
R
out
R
out


1 3
0 0
80 k 40 k

-1 A -A

80 k R
out
R
out




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11 1 3 1 A 1 1 A 3 1

80 k R
out
40 k R
out
R
out
20 k 40 k R
out
40 k R
out




A 1 1 A -A 3 1 1 3

R
out
20 k 80 k R
out
R
out
40 k R
out
80 k 40 k



11 -1 5 -1

80 k 40 k 10 k 80 k


A 1
0 0
R
out
R
out



-1
0 0 0
20 k


-1 A 1
0
80 k R
out
R
out


V
3

A











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1 A
0 0 0 0
R
out
R
out


11 -1 1 -1
0 0 0 0
80 k 20 k 40 k 20 k

A 1 -1 1
0 0
R
out
R
out
80 k R
out



A 1 A 1
0 0
R
out
R
out
R
out
R
out


5 -1 1
0 0 0 0 0
10 k 20 k 80 k

-1 A 1 -1 A
0
80 k R
out
R
out
80 k R
out


A

5 A A 1 1 1 1

10 k R
out
R
out
20 k R
out
80 k 20 k

A

5 A A 1 1 1 1

10 k R
out
R
out
20 k R
out
80 k 20 k


5 10
5
10
5
1 1 1 1

10 k 10 10 20 k 10 80 k 20 k

5 10
10
1

20 10
9
1600 10
7
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= 2.5 0
= 2.5


11 1 3 1 A 1 1 A 3 1

80 k R
out
40 k R
out
R
out
20 k 40 k R
out
40 k R
out




A 1 1 A -A 3 1 1 3

R
out
20 k 80 k R
out
R
out
40 k R
out
80 k 40 k



11 1 3 1 10
5
1 1 10
5
3 1

80 k 10 40 k 10 10 20 k 40 k 10 40 k 10



10
5
1 1 10
5
-10
5
3 1 1 3

10 20 k 80 k 10 10 40 k 10 80 k 40 k



11 3 10
5
10
5
3 10
5
-3 10
10


80 10
4
40 10
4
20 10
4
40 10
4
40 10
4
20 10
4
3200 10
8



3

3200 10
7


= 0.00001375 (0.0000075 0.5) + 0.25 (0.0000075 0.5) + (-0.09375) -
0.00000000009375
= -0.000006874896875 - 0.124998125 - 0.09375000009375
= -0.219

2.5
V
3
=
-0.219

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V
3
= -11.416 Volts = V
0


Q#4.36: Find V
0
in the circuit in Fig. P4.36.
Solution:
Circuit diagram:

R
2



V
1
R
1
V
0


V
2

R
1





R
2




Fig. (a)






















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R
1
R
2



OP-AMP MODEL OP-AMP MODEL


V
+
V
-
V
-
V
+


R
in
R
out
R
1
R
in
R
out


AV
e
AV
e





V
1
R
2
V
2





Fig. (b)

V
3
V
4
V
5
V
0


R
1
R
1
R
2



R
out


V
-
V
-

R
out


R
in

R
in

V
+
V
+



V
1
AV
e


V
2
AV
e

R
2




Fig. (c)
Applying KCL at node labeled V
3

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction



V
0



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V
3
V
1
V
3
V
3
V
4

0
R
in
R
2
R
1


V
3
V
1
V
3
V
3
V
4

0
R
in
R
in
R
2
R
1
R
1


1 1 1 -1 V
1

V
3
V
4

R
in
R
1
R
2
R
1
R
in


Here
R
in
= 10
8
O
R
out
= 10 O
A = 10
5
We to bring about a result that
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
>> & << & & &
R
0
R
F


R
i
R
1
R
2
R
I
R
F

A 1 1
>> & ~ 0
R
0
R
F
R
in


Here R
0
= R
out
; R
i
= R
in


1 1 -1
V
3
V
4
0 (i)
R
1
R
2
R
1


Applying KCL at node labeled V
4

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
4
V
3
V
4
- AV
e
V
4
V
5

0
R
1
R
out
R
1


V
4
V
3
V
4
AV
e
V
4
V
5

0
R
1
R
1
R
out
R
out
R
1
R
1

Here
V
e
= V
+
- V
-
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 286
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V
e
= V
1
V
3


V
4
V
3
V
4
A(V
1
V
3
)

V
4
V
5

0
R
1
R
1
R
out
R
out
R
1
R
1

V
4
V
3
V
4
AV
1
AV
3
V
4
V
5

0
R
1
R
1
R
out
R
out
R
out
R
1
R
1

A 1 2 1 -1 AV
1

V
3
V
4
V
5

R
out
R
1
R
1
R
out
R
1
R
out


A 1 -1 AV
1

V
3
V
4
V
5
(ii)
R
out
R
out
R
1
R
out


Applying KCL at node labeled V
5

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
5
V
4
V
5
V
2
V
5
V
0

0
R
1
R
in
R
2


V
5
V
4
V
5
V
2
V
5
V
0

0
R
1
R
1
R
in
R
in
R
2
R
2


-1 1 1 1 -1 V
2

V
4
V
5
V
0

R
1
R
in
R
1
R
2
R
2
R
in


-1 1 1 -1
V
4
V
5


V
0
0 (iii)
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
2

Applying KCL at node labeled V
0

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 287
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

V
0
V
5
V
0
- AV
e

0
R
2
R
out


Here
V
e
= V
+
- V
-
V
e
= V
2
V
5

V
0
V
5
V
0
A(V
2
V
5
)
0
R
2
R
out

V
0
V
5
V
0
AV
2
AV
5

0
R
2
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
out


A 1 1 1 AV
2

V
5
V
0

R
out
R
2
R
out
R
2
R
out


A 1 AV
2

V
5
V
0
(iv)
R
out
R
out
R
out


Writing equations (i),(ii),(iii) & (iv) in matrix form

1 1 -1
0 0 V
3
0
R
1
R
2
R
1



A 1 -1 AV
1

0 V
4

R
out
R
out
R
1
R
out



-1 1 1 -1
0 V
5
0
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
2



A 1 AV
2

0 0 V
0

R
out
R
out
R
out

A X B
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 288
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


1 1 -1
0 0
R
1
R
2
R
1



A 1 -1
0
R
out
R
out
R
1


A
-1 1 1 -1
0
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
2



A 1
0 0
R
out
R
out



1 -1
0




R
out
R
1



1 1 -1 1 1 -1 1

R
1
R
2
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
2
R
1



A 1
0
R
out
R
out













Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 289
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


A -1
0
R
out
R
1



1 1 -1
0
R
1
R
2
R
2



A 1
0
R
out
R
out



1 1 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 -1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
1
R
out
R
1




A 1 1 1 A 1

R
out
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2





















Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 290
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



1 1 -1
0 0
R
1
R
2
R
1



A 1 -1 AV
1


R
out
R
out
R
1
R
out



-1 1 1
0 0
R
1
R
1
R
2



A AV
2

0 0
R
out
R
out


V
0

A























Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 291
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


1 -1 AV
1


R
out
R
1
R
out



1 1 -1 1 1 1
0
R
1
R
2
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
1



A AV
2

0
R
out
R
out


A -1 AV
1


R
out
R
1
R
out



1 1
0 0
R
1
R
2



A AV
2

0
R
out
R
out


V
0

A














Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 292
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


1 1 1 1 1 AV
2
1 -1 AV
2
AV
1
-1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
out
R
out
R
1


A 1 A 1 1 AV
2


R
out
R
1
R
out
R
1
R
2
R
out





1 1 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 -1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
1
R
out
R
1




A 1 1 1 A 1

R
out
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2



Q#4.37: Find the expression for V
0
in the differential amplifier circuit shown in Fig.
P4.37.
Solution:
Circuit diagram:
R
F



R
1

V
1

V
0


R
1



R
1
R
1

V
2





Fig. (a)

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 293
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R
in
R
out



R
in
R
out


R
F



OP-AMP MODEL
R
1

V
-
V
+


V
1


AV
e


R
1

R
1



OP-AMP MODEL

V
-
V
+




AV
e



R
1




V
2




Fig. (b)














V
0

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V
3
V
4
V
5
V
0


R
1
R
1
R
F



V
-
V
-


R
1
R
in
R
out
R
1
R
in
R
out

V
+

V
+


V
2
AV
e
V
1
AV
e





Fig. (c)
Applying KCL at node labeled V
3

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
3
V
2
V
3
V
3
V
4

0
R
1
R
in
R
1


V
3
V
2
V
3
V
3
V
4

0
R
1
R
1
R
in
R
1
R
1


1 2 -1 V
2

V
3
V
4

R
in
R
1
R
1
R
1


Here
R
in
= 10
8
O
R
out
= 10 O
A = 10
5
We to bring about a result that
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
>> & << & & &
R
0
R
F


R
i
R
1
R
2
R
I
R
F

A 1 1
>> & ~ 0
R
0
R
F
R
in


Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 295
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

Here R
0
= R
out
; R
i
= R
in


2 -1 V
2

V
3
V
4
(i)
R
1
R
1
R
1


Applying KCL at node labeled V
4

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
4
V
3
V
4
V
5
V
4
- AV
e

0
R
1
R
1
R
out

Here
V
e
= V
+
- V
-
V
e
= 0 V V
3
V
e
= -V
3

V
4
V
3
V
4
V
5
V
4
A(-V
3
)
0
R
1
R
1
R
out

V
4
V
3
V
4
V
5
V
4
+ AV
3

0
R
1
R
1
R
out

V
4
V
3
V
4
V
5
V
4
AV
3

0
R
1
R
1
R
1
R
1
R
out
R
out

A 1 1 2 -1
V
3
V
4
V
5
0
R
out
R
1
R
out
R
1
R
1



A 1 -1
V
3
V
4
V
5
0 (ii)
R
out
R
out
R
1



Applying KCL at node labeled V
5

According to KCL
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 296
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
5
V
4
V
5
V
1
V
5
V
0
V
5

0
R
1
R
1
R
F
R
in


V
5
V
4
V
5
V
1
V
5
V
0
V
5

0
R
1
R
1
R
1
R
1
R
F
R
F
R
in


-1 1 1 2 -1 V
1

V
4
V
5
V
0

R
1
R
in
R
F
R
1
R
F
R
1


-1 1 2 -1 V
1

V
4
V
5
V
0
(iii)
R
1
R
F
R
1
R
F
R
1


V
0
V
5
V
0
- AV
e
0
R
F
R
out


V
0
V
5
V
0
AV
e

0
R
F
R
F
R
out
R
out


Here
V
e
= V
+
- V
-
V
e
= 0 V V
5
V
e
= -V
5

V
0
V
5
V
0
A(-V
5
)
0
R
F
R
F
R
out
R
out


V
0
V
5
V
0
AV
5

0
R
F
R
F
R
out
R
out


A 1 1 1
V
5
V
0
0


R
out
R
F
R
out
R
F



Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 297
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



A 1
V
5
V
0
0

(iv)
R
out
R
out


Writing equations (i),(ii),(iii) & (iv) in matrix form

2 -1 V
2

0 0 V
3

R
1
R
1
R
1



A 1 -1
0 V
4
0
R
out
R
out
R
1



-1 1 2 -1 V
1

0 V
5

R
1
R
F
R
1
R
F
R
1



A 1
0 0 V
0
0
R
out
R
out


A X B

















Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 298
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



2 -1
0 0
R
1
R
1



A 1 -1
0
R
out
R
out
R
1


A
-1 1 2 -1
0
R
1
R
F
R
1
R
F



A 1
0 0
R
out
R
out


1 -1 A -1
0 0
R
out
R
1
R
out
R
1



2 -1 1 2 -1 1 1 2 -1
0
R
1
R
1
R
F
R
1
R
F
R
1
R
F
R
1
R
F



A 1 A 1
0 0
R
out
R
out
R
out
R
out












Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 299
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



2 1 1 2 1 A 1 1 -1 1 1 A

R
1
R
out
R
F
R
1
R
out
R
out
R
F
R
1
R
1
R
out
R
1
R
out




1 2 1 A 1

R
F
R
1
R
out
R
out
R
F




2 -1 V
2

0
R
1
R
1
R
1



A 1 -1
0
R
out
R
out
R
1



-1 1 2 V
1

0
R
1
R
F
R
1
R
1



A
0 0 0
R
out

V
0

A











Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 300
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


1 -1 A -1
0 0
R
out
R
1
R
out
R
1



2 -1 1 2 V
1
1 1 2 V
1

0
R
1
R
1
R
F
R
1
R
1
R
1
R
F
R
1
R
1



A A
0 0 0 0
R
out
R
out




A 1 -1

R
out
R
out
R
1



V
2
-1 1 2
0
R
1
R
1
R
F
R
1



A
0 0
R
out



A













Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 301
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2 1 -A V
1
1 A -A V
1
V
2
A -1 A

R
1
R
out
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
out
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
out
R
1
R
out





2 1 1 2 1 A 1 1 -1 1 1 A

R
1
R
out
R
F
R
1
R
out
R
out
R
F
R
1
R
1
R
out
R
1
R
out




1 2 1 A 1

R
F
R
1
R
out
R
out
R
F



Q#4.38: Find V
0
in the circuit in Fig. P4.38.
Solution:
Circuit diagram:

R
2
R
3





R
4




R
1

V
1

V
0




Fig. (a)






Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 302
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893




R
in
R
out


R
2
R
3






R
4



OP-AMP MODEL

V
-
V
+
V
0




AV
e



R
1




V
1




Fig. (b)

V
2
V
3
V
0






R
2
R
3



V
-


R
1
R
in
R
4
R
out


V
+


V
1
AV
e





Fig. (c)




Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 303
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

Applying KCL at node labeled V
2

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
2
V
1
V
2
V
2
V
3

0
R
1
R
in
R
2


V
2
V
1
V
2
V
2
V
3

0
R
1
R
1
R
in
R
1
R
1


1 2 -1 V
1

V
2
V
3

R
in
R
1
R
1
R
1


Here
R
in
= 10
8
O
R
out
= 10 O
A = 10
5
We to bring about a result that
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
>> & << & & &
R
0
R
F


R
i
R
1
R
2
R
I
R
F

A 1 1
>> & ~ 0
R
0
R
F
R
in

Here R
0
= R
out
; R
i
= R
in


2 -1 V
1

V
2
V
3
(i)
R
1
R
1
R
1


Applying KCL at node labeled V
3

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
3
V
2
V
3
V
0
V
3

0
R
2
R
3
R
4



Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 304
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

V
3
V
2
V
3
V
0
V
3

0
R
2
R
2
R
3
R
3
R
4


-1 1 1 1 -1
V
2
V
3
V
0
0 (ii)
R
2
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
3



V
0
V
3
V
0
- AV
e
0
R
3
R
out


V
0
V
3
V
0
AV
e

0
R
3
R
3
R
out
R
out


Here
V
e
= V
+
- V
-
V
e
= 0 V V
2
V
e
= -V
2

V
0
V
3
V
0
A(-V
2
)
0
R
3
R
3
R
out
R
out


V
0
V
3
V
0
AV
2

0
R
3
R
3
R
out
R
out


A -1 1 1
V
2
V
3
V
0
0 (iii)
R
out
R
3
R
out
R
3


Writing equations (i),(ii) & (iii) in matrix form









Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 305
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


2 -1 V
1

0 V
2

R
1
R
1
R
1



-1 1 1 1 -1
V
3
0
R
2
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
3



A -1 1 1
V
0
0
R
out
R
3
R
out
R
3


A X B

2 -1
0
R
1
R
1



-1 1 1 1 -1
A
R
2
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
3



A -1 1 1

R
out
R
3
R
out
R
3



2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
out
R
3
R
3
2

R
1
R
2




1 1 A 1

R
out
R
3
R
out
R
3





Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 306
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



2 -1 V
1


R
1
R
1
R
1



-1 1 1 1
0
R
2
R
2
R
3
R
4



A -1
0
R
out
R
3



V
0

A



V
1
1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
2
R
3
R
4



V
0



2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
out
R
3
R
3
2

R
1
R
2




1 1 A 1

R
out
R
3
R
out
R
3




Q#4.39: Find the output voltage V
0
, in the circuit in Fig. P4.39.
Solution:
Circuit diagram:


Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 307
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



R
4



V
1
R
3
V
0



R
2





R
1



R
2




R
3


V
2


R
4



Fig. (a)

















Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 308
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

R
2
R
4



OP-AMP MODEL OP-AMP MODEL


V
+
V
-
V
-
V
+




R
in
V
3
R
out
V
4
R
3
V
5
R
in
R
out


AV
e
AV
e





V
1
R
1


R
2

V
6


OP-AMP MODEL
R
3

V
-
V
+

V
8

R
in
R
out
V
7


AV
e
R
4







V
2




Fig. (b)
Applying KCL at node labeled V
3

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
3
V
1
V
3
V
4
V
3
V
6

0
R
in
R
2
R
1



V
0


Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 309
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

V
3
V
1
V
3
V
4
V
3
V
6

0
R
in
R
in
R
2
R
2
R
1
R
1


1 1 1 -1 -1 V
1

V
3
V
4
V
6

R
in
R
1
R
2
R
2
R
1
R
in


Here
R
in
= 10
8
O
R
out
= 10 O
A = 10
5
We to bring about a result that
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
>> & << & & &
R
0
R
F


R
i
R
1
R
2
R
I
R
F

A 1 1
>> & ~ 0
R
0
R
F
R
in

Here R
0
= R
out
; R
i
= R
in


1 1 -1 -1
V
3
V
4
V
6
0 (i)
R
1
R
2
R
2
R
1


Applying KCL at node labeled V
4

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
4
V
3
V
4
V
5
V
4
- AV
e

0
R
2
R
3
R
out


V
4
V
3
V
4
V
5
V
4
AV
e

0
R
2
R
2
R
3
R
3
R
out
R
out


Here
V
e
= V
+
- V
-
V
e
= V
1
- V
3

V
4
V
3
V
4
V
5
V
4
A(V
1
V
3
)
0
R
2
R
2
R
3
R
3
R
out
R
out
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 310
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


V
4
V
3
V
4
V
5
V
4
AV
1
AV
3

0
R
2
R
2
R
3
R
3
R
out
R
out
R
out


A 1 1 1 1 -1 AV
1

V
3
V
4
V
5

R
out
R
2
R
out
R
2
R
3
R
3
R
out


A 1 -1 AV
1

V
3
V
4
V
5
(ii)
R
out
R
out
R
3
R
out


Applying KCL at node labeled V
5

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
5
V
4
V
5
V
0
V
5
V
8

0
R
3
R
4
R
in


V
5
V
4
V
5
V
0
V
5
V
8

0
R
3
R
3
R
4
R
4
R
in
R
in


-1 1 1 1 -1 -1
V
4
V
5
V
8
V
0
0
R
3
R
in
R
3
R
4
R
in
R
4


-1 1 1 -1
V
4
V
5
V
0
0 (iii)
R
3
R
3
R
4
R
4


Applying KCL at node labeled V
6

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
6
V
3
V
6
V
7
V
6
V
2

0
R
1
R
2
R
in


Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 311
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

V
6
V
3
V
6
V
7
V
6
V
2

0
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
2
R
in
R
in


V
6
V
3
V
6
V
7

0
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
2



-1 1 1 -1
V
3
V
6
V
7
0 (iv)
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
2


Applying KCL at node labeled V
7

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
7
V
6
V
7
V
8
V
7
- AV
e

0
R
2
R
3
R
out

V
7
V
6
V
7
V
8
V
7
AV
e

0
R
2
R
2
R
3
R
3
R
out
R
out


Here
V
e
= V
+
- V
-
V
e
= V
2
V
6

V
7
V
6
V
7
V
8
V
7
A(V
2
V
6
)
0
R
2
R
2
R
3
R
3
R
out
R
out


V
7
V
6
V
7
V
8
V
7
AV
2
AV
6

0
R
2
R
2
R
3
R
3
R
out
R
out
R
out


A 1 1 1 1 -1 AV
2

V
6
V
7
V
8

R
out
R
2
R
out
R
2
R
3
R
3
R
out


A 1 -1 AV
2

V
6
V
7
V
8
(v)
R
out
R
out
R
3
R
out
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 312
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

Applying KCL at node labeled V
8

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
8
V
8
V
7
V
8
V
5

0
R
4
R
3
R
in

V
8
V
8
V
7
V
8
V
5

0
R
4
R
3
R
3
R
in
R
in


-1 1 1
V
7
V
8
0 (vi)
R
3
R
3
R
4


Applying KCL at node labeled V
0

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

V
0
V
5
V
0
- AV
e

0
R
4
R
out


Here
V
e
= V
+
- V
-
V
e
= V
8
V
5

V
0
V
5
V
0
A(V
8
V
5
)
0
R
4
R
out


V
0
V
5
V
0
AV
8
AV
5
0
R
4
R
4
R
out
R
out
R
out


A 1 -A 1 1
V
5
V
8
V
0
0
R
out
R
4
R
out
R
out
R
4




Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 313
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


A -A 1
V
5
V
8
V
0
0 (vii)
R
out
R
out
R
out



Writing equations (i) to (vii) in matrix form

1 1 -1 -1
0 0 0 0 V
3

R
1
R
2
R
2
R
1


A 1 -1
0 0 0 0 V
4

R
out
R
out
R
3



-1 1 1 -1
0 0 0 0 V
5

R
3
R
3
R
4
R
4



-1 1 1 -1
0 0 0 0 V
6

R
1
R
1
R
2
R
2



A 1 -1
0 0 0 0 V
7

R
out
R
out
R
3



-1 1 1
0 0 0 0 0 V
8

R
3
R
3
R
4



A -A 1
0 0 0 0 V
0

R
out
R
out
R
out


A X



Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 314
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



0



AV
1


R
out




0




0



AV
2


R
out



0




0


B










Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 315
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


1 1 -1 -1
0 0 0 0
R
1
R
2
R
2
R
1


A 1 -1
0 0 0 0
R
out
R
out
R
3



-1 1 1 -1
0 0 0 0
R
3
R
3
R
4
R
4



-1 1 1 -1
A 0 0 0 0
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
2



A 1 -1
0 0 0 0
R
out
R
out
R
3



-1 1 1
0 0 0 0 0
R
3
R
3
R
4



A -A 1
0 0 0 0
R
out
R
out
R
out


A Reduction Formula for Evaluating Determinants










Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 316
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


a
11
a
12
a
13
a
14
a
15
a
16
a
17

a
21
a
22
a
23
a
24
a
25
a
26
a
27

a
31
a
32
a
33
a
34
a
35
a
36
a
37

A a
41
a
42
a
43
a
44
a
45
a
46
a
47

a
51
a
52
a
53
a
54
a
55
a
56
a
57

a
61
a
62
a
63
a
64
a
65
a
66
a
67

a
71
a
72
a
73
a
74
a
75
a
76
a
77


a
11
a
12
a
11
a
13
a
11
a
14
a
11
a
15
a
11
a
16
a
11
a
17

a
21
a
22
a
21
a
23
a
21
a
24
a
21
a
25
a
21
a
26
a
21
a
27

a
11
a
12
a
11
a
13
a
11
a
14
a
11
a
15
a
11
a
16
a
11
a
17

a
31
a
32
a
31
a
33
a
31
a
34
a
31
a
35
a
31
a
36
a
31
a
37

a
11
a
12
a
11
a
13
a
11
a
14
a
11
a
15
a
11
a
16
a
11
a
17
n - 2
1 a
41
a
42
a
41
a
43
a
41
a
44
a
41
a
45
a
41
a
46
a
41
a
47

a
11
a
11
a
12
a
11
a
13
a
11
a
14
a
11
a
15
a
11
a
16
a
11
a
17

a
51
a
52
a
51
a
53
a
51
a
54
a
51
a
55
a
51
a
56
a
51
a
57

a
11
a
12
a
11
a
13
a
11
a
14
a
11
a
15
a
11
a
16
a
11
a
17

a
61
a
62
a
61
a
63
a
61
a
64
a
61
a
65
a
61
a
66
a
61
a
67

a
11
a
12
a
11
a
13
a
11
a
14
a
11
a
15
a
11
a
16
a
11
a
17

a
71
a
72
a
71
a
73
a
71
a
74
a
71
a
75
a
71
a
76
a
71
a
77







Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 317
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

a
11

1 1

R
1
R
2


a
12

-1

R
2

a
13


-1

R
1

a
14


0
a
15



0
a
16


0
a
17



0 a
21


A

R
out

a
22


1

R
out

a
23

-1

R
3

a
24


0
a
25


0
a
26


0
a
27


0
a
31


0 a
32

-1

R
3

a
33

1 1

R
3
R
4


a
34


0
a
35


0
a
36


0


Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 318
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

a
37

-1

R
4

a
41

-1

R
1

a
42
0 a
43
0
a
44

1 1

R
1
R
2


a
45

-1

R
2

a
46
0 a
47
0
a
51
0 a
52
0
a
53
0
a
54

A

R
out

a
55

1

R
out

a
56

-1

R
3

a
57
0 a
61
0
a
62
0 a
63
0
a
64
0
a
65

-1

R
3

a
66

1 1

R
3
R
4


a
67
0
a
71
0 a
72
0
a
73


A

R
out

a
74
0



Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 319
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

a
75

0
a
76


-A

R
out

a
77


1

R
out




a
11
a
12

a
21
a
22




1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
2


A 1

R
out
R
out




1 1 1 A 1
a
11

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2



a
11
a
13

a
21
a
23



1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
1


A -1

R
out
R
3

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 320
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



1 1 -1 A 1
a
12

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1




a
11
a
14

a
21
a
24



1 1
0
R
1
R
2



A
0
R
out



0 a
13


a
11
a
15

a
21
a
25



1 1
0
R
1
R
2



A
0
R
out



0 a
14


a
11
a
16

a
21
a
26

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 321
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



1 1
0
R
1
R
2



A
0
R
out



0 a
15


a
11
a
17

a
21
a
27



1 1
0
R
1
R
2



A
0
R
out



0 a
16

a
11
a
12

a
31
a
32



1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
2


-1
0


R
3




Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 322
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



1 1 -1
a
21

R
1
R
2
R
3



a
11
a
13

a
31
a
33



1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
1


1 1
0


R
3
R
4




1 1 1 1
a
22

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4



a
11
a
14

a
31
a
34



1 1
0
R
1
R
2




0 0





0 a
23



Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 323
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

a
11
a
15

a
31
a
35



1 1
0
R
1
R
2




0 0





0 a
24


a
11
a
16

a
31
a
36



1 1
0
R
1
R
2




0 0





0 a
25


a
11
a
17

a
31
a
37









Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 324
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



1 1
0
R
1
R
2



-1
0


R
4




1 1 -1
a
26

R
1
R
2
R
4


a
11
a
12

a
41
a
42



1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
2


-1
0
R
1




-1
a
31

R
1
R
2



a
11
a
13

a
41
a
43






Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 325
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

2


1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
1


-1
0
R
1




-1
a
32

R
1
2




a
11
a
14

a
41
a
44



1 1
0
R
1
R
2


-1 1 1

R
1
R
1
R
2




1 1
a
33

R
1
R
2



a
11
a
15

a
41
a
45





Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 326
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893




1 1
0
R
1
R
2


-1 -1

R
1
R
2




1 1 -1
a
34

R
1
R
2
R
2



a
11
a
16

a
41
a
46



1 1
0
R
1
R
2


-1
0
R
1



0 a
35


a
11
a
17

a
41
a
47









Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 327
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



1 1
0
R
1
R
2


-1
0
R
1



0 a
36


a
11
a
12

a
51
a
52



1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
2



0 0





0 a
41


a
11
a
13

a
51
a
53



1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
1



0 0





0 a
42

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 328
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

a
11
a
14

a
51
a
54



1 1
0
R
1
R
2


A
0


R
out



1 1 A
a
43

R
1
R
2
R
out



a
11
a
15

a
51
a
55



1 1
0
R
1
R
2


1
0


R
out



1 1 1
a
44

R
1
R
2
R
out



a
11
a
16

a
51
a
56



Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 329
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



1 1
0
R
1
R
2


-1
0


R
3



1 1 -1
a
45

R
1
R
2
R
3



a
11
a
17

a
51
a
57



1 1
0
R
1
R
2



0 0





0 a
46


a
11
a
12

a
61
a
62



1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
2



0 0

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 330
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


0 a
51


a
11
a
13

a
61
a
63



1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
1



0 0



0 a
52


a
11
a
14

a
61
a
64



1 1
0
R
1
R
2



0 0



0 a
53


a
11
a
15

a
61
a
65






Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 331
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



1 1
0
R
1
R
2


-1
0
R
3



1 1 -1
a
54

R
1
R
2
R
3



a
11
a
16

a
61
a
66



1 1
0
R
1
R
2


1 1
0
R
3
R
4



1 1 1 1
a
55

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4




a
11
a
17

a
61
a
67







Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 332
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



1 1
0
R
1
R
2



0 0



0 a
56


a
11
a
12

a
71
a
72



1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
2



0 0



0 a
61


a
11
a
13

a
71
a
73



1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
1


A
0
R
out




Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 333
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



1 1 A
a
62

R
1
R
2
R
out



a
11
a
14

a
71
a
74



1 1
0
R
1
R
2



0 0



0 a
63


a
11
a
15

a
71
a
75



1 1
0
R
1
R
2



0 0



0 a
64







Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 334
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

a
11
a
16

a
71
a
76



1 1
0
R
1
R
2


-A
0
R
out




1 1 -A
a
65

R
1
R
2
R
out


a
11
a
17

a
71
a
77



1 1
0
R
1
R
2


1
0
R
out




1 1 1
a
66

R
1
R
2
R
out








Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 335
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


a
11
a
12
a
13
a
14
a
15
a
16



a
21
a
22
a
23
a
24
a
25
a
26



a
31
a
32
a
33
a
34
a
35
a
36



A a
41
a
42
a
43
a
44
a
45
a
46



a
51
a
52
a
53
a
54
a
55
a
56



a
61
a
62
a
63
a
64
a
65
a
66





a
11
a
12
a
11
a
13
a
11
a
14
a
11
a
15
a
11
a
16



a
21
a
22
a
21
a
23
a
21
a
24
a
21
a
25
a
21
a
26

a
11
a
12
a
11
a
13
a
11
a
14
a
11
a
15
a
11
a
16

a
31
a
32
a
31
a
33
a
31
a
34
a
31
a
35
a
31
a
36

a
11
a
12
a
11
a
13
a
11
a
14
a
11
a
15
a
11
a
16
n - 2
1 a
41
a
42
a
41
a
43
a
41
a
44
a
41
a
45
a
41
a
46

a
11
a
11
a
12
a
11
a
13
a
11
a
14
a
11
a
15
a
11
a
16

a
51
a
52
a
51
a
53
a
51
a
54
a
51
a
55
a
51
a
56

a
11
a
12
a
11
a
13
a
11
a
14
a
11
a
15
a
11
a
16

a
61
a
62
a
61
a
63
a
61
a
64
a
61
a
65
a
61
a
66

a
11
a
12

a
21
a
22


= a
11
a
22
a
21
a
12






Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 336
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893




1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3




1 1 -1 A 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1



a
11
a
11
a
13

a
21
a
23


= a
11
a
23
a
21
a
13
= 0 a
12


a
11
a
14

a
21
a
24


= a
11
a
24
a
21
a
14
= 0 a
13


a
11
a
15

a
21
a
25


= a
11
a
25
a
21
a
15
= 0 a
14


a
11
a
16

a
21
a
26


= a
11
a
26
a
21
a
16


1 1 1 A 1 1 1 -1
a
15

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
4

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 337
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



a
11
a
12

a
31
a
32


= a
11
a
32
a
31
a
12



1 1 1 A 1 -1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
2
R
1
R
2



a
21

1 1 -1 A 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1



a
11
a
13

a
31
a
33


= a
11
a
33
a
31
a
13



2
1 1 1 A 1 1 1
a
22

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2



a
11
a
14

a
31
a
34


= a
11
a
34
a
31
a
14





1 1 1 A 1 1 1 -1
a
23

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 338
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
2



a
11
a
15

a
31
a
35


= a
11
a
35
a
31
a
15

0 a
24


a
11
a
16

a
31
a
36


= a
11
a
36
a
31
a
16

0 a
25


a
11
a
12

a
41
a
42


= a
11
a
42
a
41
a
12

0 a
31


a
11
a
13

a
41
a
43


= a
11
a
43
a
41
a
13



1 1 1 A 1 1 1 A
a
32

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
out





a
11
a
14

a
41
a
44


= a
11
a
44
a
41
a
14

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 339
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893




1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1
a
33

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
out



a
11
a
15

a
41
a
45


= a
11
a
45
a
41
a
15



1 1 1 A 1 1 1 -1
a
34

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3



a
11
a
16

a
41
a
46


= a
11
a
46
a
41
a
16


0 a
35


a
11
a
12

a
51
a
52


= a
11
a
52
a
51
a
12


0 a
41


a
11
a
13

a
51
a
53


= a
11
a
53
a
51
a
13


0 a
42


a
11
a
14

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 340
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

a
51
a
54


= a
11
a
54
a
51
a
14




1 1 1 A 1 1 1 -1
a
43

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3



a
11
a
15

a
51
a
55


= a
11
a
55
a
51
a
15



1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1
a
44

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4



a
11
a
16

a
51
a
56


= a
11
a
56
a
51
a
16

0 a
45


a
11
a
12

a
61
a
62


= a
11
a
62
a
61
a
12



1 1 1 A 1 1 1 A
a
51

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
out





Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 341
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

a
11
a
13

a
61
a
63


= a
11
a
63
a
61
a
13

0 a
52


a
11
a
14

a
61
a
64


= a
11
a
64
a
61
a
14

0 a
53


a
11
a
15

a
61
a
65


= a
11
a
65
a
61
a
15


1 1 1 A 1 1 1 -A
a
54

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
out



a
11
a
16

a
61
a
66


= a
11
a
66
a
61
a
16



1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1
a
55

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
out









Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 342
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

a
11
a
12
a
13
a
14
a
15





a
21
a
22
a
23
a
24
a
25





A a
31
a
32
a
33
a
34
a
35





a
41
a
42
a
43
a
44
a
45





a
51
a
52
a
53
a
54
a
55







a
11
a
12
a
11
a
13
a
11
a
14
a
11
a
15



a
21
a
22
a
21
a
23
a
21
a
24
a
21
a
25



a
11
a
12
a
11
a
13
a
11
a
14
a
11
a
15


n - 2
1 a
31
a
32
a
31
a
33
a
31
a
34
a
31
a
35



a
11
a
11
a
12
a
11
a
13
a
11
a
14
a
11
a
15



a
41
a
42
a
41
a
43
a
41
a
44
a
41
a
45



a
11
a
12
a
11
a
13
a
11
a
14
a
11
a
15



a
51
a
52
a
51
a
53
a
51
a
54
a
51
a
55




a
11
a
12

a
21
a
22


= a
11
a
22
a
21
a
12












Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 343
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3




2
1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2



a
11

a
11
a
13

a
21
a
23


= a
11
a
23
a
21
a
13



1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3





1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2



-1

R
2


a
12

a
11
a
14

a
21
a
24


= a
11
a
24
a
21
a
14

0 a
13

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 344
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

a
11
a
15

a
21
a
25


= a
11
a
25
a
21
a
15



1 1 1 A 1 -1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
2
R
1
R
2




1 1 -1 A 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1




1 1 1 A 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
4


a
14
a
11
a
12

a
31
a
32


= a
11
a
32
a
31
a
12
















Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 345
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893




1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3





1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2



A

R
out


a
21
a
11
a
13

a
31
a
33


= a
11
a
33
a
31
a
13



1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3





1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2



1

R
out


a
22



Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 346
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

a
11
a
14

a
31
a
34


= a
11
a
34
a
31
a
14



1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3





1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2



-1

R
3


a
23
a
11
a
15

a
31
a
35


= a
11
a
35
a
31
a
15

0 a
24

a
11
a
12

a
41
a
42


= a
11
a
42
a
41
a
12

0 a
31

a
11
a
13

a
41
a
43


= a
11
a
43
a
41
a
13

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 347
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893




1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3





1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2



-1

R
3


a
32
a
11
a
14

a
41
a
44


= a
11
a
44
a
41
a
14




1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3





1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2



1 1

R
3
R
4


a
33



Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 348
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


a
11
a
15

a
41
a
45


= a
11
a
45
a
41
a
15

0 a
34

a
11
a
12

a
51
a
52


= a
11
a
52
a
51
a
12

0
a
41
a
11
a
13

a
51
a
53


= a
11
a
53
a
51
a
13

0 a
42

a
11
a
14

a
51
a
54


= a
11
a
54
a
51
a
14



1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3





1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2



-A

R
out
a
43
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 349
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


a
11
a
15

a
51
a
55

= a
11
a
55
a
51
a
15


1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3





1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2



1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1 A

R
out
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
out




1 1 1 A 1 1 1 -1
a
44

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
4




















Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 350
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

a
11
a
12
a
13
a
14





a
21
a
22
a
23
a
24






A
a
31
a
32
a
33
a
34







a
41
a
42
a
43
a
44













a
11
a
12
a
11
a
13
a
11
a
14





a
21
a
22
a
21
a
23
a
21
a
24




n - 2
1 a
11
a
12
a
11
a
13
a
11
a
14





a
11
a
31
a
32
a
31
a
33
a
31
a
34





a
11
a
12
a
11
a
13
a
11
a
14





a
41
a
42
a
41
a
43
a
41
a
44










a
11
a
12

a
21
a
22


= a
11
a
22
a
21
a
12


1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3




2
1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2











Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 351
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3





1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2



1

R
out




1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3





1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2



A

R
out














Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 352
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3





1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2



-1

R
2


a
11
a
11
a
13

a
21
a
23


= a
11
a
23
a
21
a
13



1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3




2
1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2












Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 353
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893




1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3





1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2



-1

R
3


a
12
a
11
a
14

a
21
a
24


= a
11
a
24
a
21
a
14



1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3





1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2



A

R
out






Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 354
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



1 1 1 A 1 -1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
2
R
1
R
2




1 1 -1 A 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1




1 1 1 A 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
4


a
13
a
11
a
12

a
31
a
32


= a
11
a
32
a
31
a
12



1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3




2
1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2











Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 355
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893




1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3





1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2



-1

R
3


a
21
a
11
a
13

a
31
a
33


= a
11
a
33
a
31
a
13



1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3




2
1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2











Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 356
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893




1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3





1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2



1 1

R
3
R
4


a
22
a
11
a
14

a
31
a
34


= a
11
a
34
a
31
a
14

0
a
23
a
11
a
12

a
41
a
42


= a
11
a
42
a
41
a
12

0 a
31


a
11
a
13

a
41
a
43


= a
11
a
43
a
41
a
13







Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 357
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893




1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3




2
1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2




1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3





1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2



-A

R
out
a
32



a
11
a
14

a
41
a
44


= a
11
a
44
a
41
a
14









Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 358
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893




1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3




2
1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2




1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3





1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2



1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1 A

R
out
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
out




1 1 1 A 1 1 1 -1
a
33

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
4












Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 359
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

a
11
a
12
a
13





A a
21
a
22
a
23







a
31
a
32
a
33














a
11
a
12
a
11
a
13






n - 2
1 a
21
a
22
a
21
a
23







a
11
a
11
a
12
a
11
a
13







a
31
a
32
a
31
a
33







a
11
a
12

a
21
a
22


= a
11
a
22
a
21
a
12


1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3




2
1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
















Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 360
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893




1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3





1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2



1

R
out




1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3





1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2



A

R
out













Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 361
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893





1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3





1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2



-1

R
2





1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3




2
1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
















Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 362
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893





1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3





1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2



1 1

R
3
R
4






1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3




2
1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
















Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 363
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893




1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3





1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2



-1

R
3






1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3




2
1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
















Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 364
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893




1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3





1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2



-1

R
3


a
11
a
11
a
13

a
21
a
23


= a
11
a
23
a
21
a
13



1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3




2
1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2











Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 365
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893




1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3





1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2



-1

R
3






1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3





1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2



A

R
out











Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 366
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



1 1 1 A 1 -1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
2
R
1
R
2




1 1 -1 A 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1




1 1 1 A 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
4


a
12
a
11
a
12

a
31
a
32


= a
11
a
32
a
31
a
12



1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3




2
1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2











Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 367
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3





1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2



1

R
out




1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3





1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2



A

R
out














Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 368
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3





1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2



-1

R
2





1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3




2
1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2




1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3





1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2



-A

R
out
a
21
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 369
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

a
11
a
13

a
31
a
33


= a
11
a
33
a
31
a
13



1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3




2
1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2






























Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 370
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893




1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3





1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2



1

R
out




1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3





1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2



A

R
out













Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 371
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893




1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3





1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2



-1

R
2






























Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 372
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893




1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3




2
1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2




1 1 1 A 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4
R
1
R
2
R
3





1 1 -1 A 1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2



1 1 1 1 A 1 1 1 A

R
out
R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
out




1 1 1 A 1 1 1 -1
a
22

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2
R
1
R
2
R
4












Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 373
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



n - 2 n 2 n - 2 n - 2 n 2 n - 2
1 1 1 1 1 1 a
11
a
12

A
a
11
a
11
a
11
a
11
a
11
a
11
a
21
a
22




7 - 2 6 2 5 - 2 4 - 2 3 2 2 - 2
1 1 1 1 1 1 a
11
a
12

A
a
11
a
11
a
11
a
11
a
11
a
11
a
21
a
22



































Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 374
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


1 1 -1 -1
0 0 0 0
R
1
R
2
R
2
R
1


A 1 -1 AV
1

0 0 0
R
out
R
out
R
3
R
out



-1 1 1
0 0 0 0
R
3
R
3
R
4
0


-1 1 1 -1
0 0 0 0
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
2



A 1 -1 AV
2

0 0 0
R
out
R
out
R
3
R
out



-1 1 1
0 0 0 0 0
R
3
R
3
R
4



A -A
0 0 0 0 0
R
out
R
out

V
0

A











Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 375
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


1 1 -1 -1
0 0 0 0
R
1
R
2
R
2
R
1


A 1 -1 AV
1

0 0 0
R
out
R
out
R
3
R
out



-1 1 1
0 0 0 0
R
3
R
3
R
4
0


-1 1 1 -1
0 0 0 0
R
1
R
1
R
2
R
2



A 1 -1 AV
2

0 0 0
R
out
R
out
R
3
R
out



-1 1 1
0 0 0 0 0
R
3
R
3
R
4



A -A
0 0 0 0 0
R
out
R
out




A Reduction Formula for Evaluating Determinants










Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 376
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


a
11
a
12
a
13
a
14
a
15
a
16
a
17

a
21
a
22
a
23
a
24
a
25
a
26
a
27

a
31
a
32
a
33
a
34
a
35
a
36
a
37

a
41
a
42
a
43
a
44
a
45
a
46
a
47

a
51
a
52
a
53
a
54
a
55
a
56
a
57

a
61
a
62
a
63
a
64
a
65
a
66
a
67

a
71
a
72
a
73
a
74
a
75
a
76
a
77


a
11
a
12
a
11
a
13
a
11
a
14
a
11
a
15
a
11
a
16
a
11
a
17

a
21
a
22
a
21
a
23
a
21
a
24
a
21
a
25
a
21
a
26
a
21
a
27

a
11
a
12
a
11
a
13
a
11
a
14
a
11
a
15
a
11
a
16
a
11
a
17

a
31
a
32
a
31
a
33
a
31
a
34
a
31
a
35
a
31
a
36
a
31
a
37

a
11
a
12
a
11
a
13
a
11
a
14
a
11
a
15
a
11
a
16
a
11
a
17
n - 2
1 a
41
a
42
a
41
a
43
a
41
a
44
a
41
a
45
a
41
a
46
a
41
a
47

a
11
a
11
a
12
a
11
a
13
a
11
a
14
a
11
a
15
a
11
a
16
a
11
a
17

a
51
a
52
a
51
a
53
a
51
a
54
a
51
a
55
a
51
a
56
a
51
a
57

a
11
a
12
a
11
a
13
a
11
a
14
a
11
a
15
a
11
a
16
a
11
a
17

a
61
a
62
a
61
a
63
a
61
a
64
a
61
a
65
a
61
a
66
a
61
a
67

a
11
a
12
a
11
a
13
a
11
a
14
a
11
a
15
a
11
a
16
a
11
a
17

a
71
a
72
a
71
a
73
a
71
a
74
a
71
a
75
a
71
a
76
a
71
a
77







Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 377
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

a
11

1 1

R
1
R
2


a
12

-1

R
2

a
13


-1

R
1

a
14


0
a
15



0
a
16


0
a
17



0 a
21


A

R
out

a
22


1

R
out

a
23

-1

R
3

a
24


0
a
25


0
a
26


0 a
27

AV
1


R
out


a
31


0 a
32

-1

R
3

a
33

1 1

R
3
R
4


a
34


0
a
35


0
a
36


0
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 378
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


a
37



0


a
41

-1

R
1

a
42
0 a
43
0
a
44

1 1

R
1
R
2


a
45

-1

R
2

a
46
0 a
47
0
a
51
0 a
52
0
a
53
0
a
54

A

R
out

a
55

1

R
out

a
56

-1

R
3

a
57

AV
2


R
out


a
61
0
a
62
0 a
63
0
a
64
0
a
65

-1

R
3

a
66

1 1

R
3
R
4


a
67
0
a
71



0
a
72

0
Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 379
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

a
73


A

R
out

a
74
0

a
75

0
a
76


-A

R
out

a
77
0


a
11
a
12

a
21
a
22




1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
2


A 1

R
out
R
out




1 1 1 A 1
a
11

R
1
R
2
R
out
R
out
R
2



a
11
a
13

a
21
a
23









Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 380
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
1


A -1

R
out
R
3



1 1 -1 A 1
a
12

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
out
R
1



a
11
a
14

a
21
a
24



1 1
0
R
1
R
2



A
0
R
out



0 a
13


a
11
a
15

a
21
a
25



1 1
0
R
1
R
2



A
0
R
out

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 381
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893


0 a
14


a
11
a
16

a
21
a
26



1 1
0
R
1
R
2



A
0
R
out



0 a
15


a
11
a
17

a
21
a
27



1 1
0
R
1
R
2



A AV
1


R
out
R
out



1 1 AV
1

a
16

R
1
R
2
R
out



a
11
a
12

a
31
a
32



Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 382
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
2


-1
0


R
3



1 1 -1
a
21

R
1
R
2
R
3



a
11
a
13

a
31
a
33



1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
1


1 1
0


R
3
R
4




1 1 1 1
a
22

R
1
R
2
R
3
R
4



a
11
a
14

a
31
a
34






Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 383
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893



1 1
0
R
1
R
2




0 0





0 a
23


a
11
a
15

a
31
a
35



1 1
0
R
1
R
2




0 0





0 a
24


a
11
a
16

a
31
a
36



1 1
0
R
1
R
2




0 0





0 a
25

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 384
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

a
11
a
17

a
31
a
37



1 1
0
R
1
R
2




0 0





0 a
26


a
11
a
12

a
41
a
42



1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
2


-1
0
R
1




-1
a
31

R
1
R
2



a
11
a
13

a
41
a
43






Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 385
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893




1 1 -1

R
1
R
2
R
1


-1
0
R
1




-1
a
32

R
1
2




a
11
a
14

a
41
a
44



1 1
0
R
1
R
2


-1 1 1

R
1
R
1
R
2




1 1
a
33

R
1
R
2



a
11
a
15

a
41
a
45





Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)] 2000-E-41 386
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893




1 1
0
R
1
R
2


-1 -1

R
1
R
2




1 1 -1
a
34

R
1
R
2
R
2



a
11
a
16

a
41
a
46



1 1
0
R
1
R
2


-1
0
R
1



0 a
35


a
11
a
17

a
41
a
47