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Technical Note

Landslides (2011) 8:117131 DOI 10.1007/s10346-010-0227-7 Received: 27 March 2009 Accepted: 12 May 2010 Published online: 16 June 2010 Springer-Verlag 2010

Mohamed Farouk Mansour I Norbert R. Morgenstern I C. Derek Martin

Expected damage from displacement of slow-moving slides


of landslides is very rapid to extremely rapid. Falls may occur as free fall, bouncing or rolling. A topple is the rotation of a soil or rock mass around an axis that lies below the center of gravity of the displaced material. Toppling could occur due to the weight of materials upslope of the displaced soil or rock, or due to water building up in cracks in the soil or rock mass. Topples can be extremely slow or extremely rapid. Spread is the extension, and hence fracturing, of a cohesive soil, accompanied by subsidence over an underlying softer material. Flows are rapid movements in which the shear surfaces are closely spaced and not preserved. The distribution of velocity within the moving mass is similar to that of a viscous liquid. The basal detachment surface of a ow is thick. A slide, in contrast, is the downslope movement of soil or rock on rupture surfaces that are relatively thinner than those of ows and where intense shear strain has taken place (Cruden and Varnes 1996). While the losses resulting from rapid landslides such as debris ows, mud ows and rock falls are the highest and most severe, slow-moving slides also have adverse effects on affected facilities. The accumulation of slow movement can lead in some cases to total disruption of the serviceability of these facilities. Loss of life may result as well. Slow slides fall into three classes (Cruden and Varnes 1996): Extremely slowly moving slides: this class includes slides moving at rates ranging from 0 to 16 mm/year. Very slow-moving slides: this class includes slides moving at rates ranging from 16 mm/year to 1.6 m/year. Slow-moving slides: this class includes slides moving at rates ranging from 1.6 to 160 m/year (13.3 m/month). This study used the available literature to describe the damage to different facilities caused by the different classes of slow slides. The vulnerable infrastructure includes urban and suburban settlements, highways and railways, bridges, dams and lifelines such as pipelines. The main information required from each of the reviewed cases is the movement rate and the extent of damage caused. The different attributes of the reviewed cases, such as the method used to measure the movement, the type of materials controlling the movement and the likely trigger(s) of movement, were highlighted, and some elementary statistics were calculated. The analysis allows the typical (or expected) extent of damage to be related to the rate (or more usually the amount) of movement. Separate analyses are made for each class of the surveyed infrastructure. The damage extent is not vulnerability, but case histories rarely document the original value of the vulnerable facility and the cost of repairing the damage. The extent of damage resulting from slides of a certain velocity is the most common information mentioned in the cases cited. Characteristics of slow-moving slides More than 50 cases of slow-moving slides were reviewed in the study. The cases cover instabilities in many countries in the world: Landslides 8 & (2011) 117

Abstract Facilities such as buildings, highways, railways, bridges, dams and pipelines often are built on natural slopes where the risk of landslides is not low. The vulnerability of these facilities to slowmoving slides has sometimes been underestimated, although the velocity of some classes of slow slides is uncontrollable. More than 50 cases of slow slides were compiled from the literature for this study. Some statistics about the movement trigger(s), the methods used to measure displacement, the material forming the rupture surface and the type of the vulnerable facilities are presented. It is shown that the expected degree of damage to urban settlements, highways, bridges and dams can be related to the slide velocity or accumulating displacement. Buildings and residential houses may tolerate higher slide velocities and total displacements than other facilities before experiencing serious damage. Movements as low as 100mm may severely damage bridges, but such low rates may cause only moderate damage to urban communities. The relationship between movement and the expected extent of damage should be useful to geotechnical engineers who deal with different classes of slow slides and will help in the choice of appropriate mitigation measures based on preliminary estimates of movement rates. Keywords Slow-moving slides . landslide-induced damage . damage description . landslide velocity . vulnerability to slides Introduction Vulnerability is the degree of loss for a given element at risk resulting from the occurrence of a natural phenomenon such as a landslide. It is usually expressed as a value ranging from zero to one. Vulnerability is one of two factors used to evaluate the specic risk. The other element is the natural hazard. Natural hazard is dened as the probability of occurrence of a potentially damaging phenomenon, such as a landslide, within a certain period of time and a specic area. Specic risk is mathematically expressed as the product of the hazard and the vulnerability (Varnes 1984). The vulnerability to a landslide can be assessed by comparing the value of the resulting damage to the actual value of the vulnerable facility (Remondo et al. 2004). The steadily increasing population throughout the world has led to a considerable rise in urban development in landslide-prone areas. Urban landslides are triggered mainly by seasonal hydrological, environmental and anthropogenic changes, such as rainfall, earthquakes and human activities. The adverse effects of urban landsliding have been made more severe by uncontrolled population growth in hillside areas in some countries. Therefore, the risks arising from urban development in landslide-prone areas are increasing despite the progress in the application of mitigation measures. Landslide movement types fall into ve main categories: fall, topple, spread, ow and slide. While this paper focuses on slides, the ve main categories will be dened briey to illustrate the general differences between them. A fall occurs when the shear resistance along a surface inside a steep slope becomes very low or zero, so soil or rock descends through the air by falling. The velocity of this kind

118
Material hosting the rupture surface Preglacial clays and clay shale Clay shale Presheared bentonitic clay shale and sandstone Inclinometers 35 During 2001 Water ponding on the slope River erosion Clay shale Inclinometers and surface monuments Personal estimates 90120 2 years 100 5 months Inclinometers 108 11.5 years River erosion Inclinometers 14 3 months (one SI was installed for 7 years) Displacement measurement method Movement rate (mm/year) Duration of monitoring Trigger Vulnerable facility Town of Peace River, Alberta, Canada Regina beach in Saskatchewan, Canada Highway east of the town of Drayton in Alberta, Canada Highway 49 and the Little Smoky bridge in Alberta, Canada Peace River suspension Bridge and a water pipeline, British Columbia, Canada Reservoir level fluctuations and rainfall Rainfall Stream incision Construction activities 13 years 22 months Bridge construction Rainfall Mica Dam, British Columbia, Canada Oil well casing, Swan Hills, Alberta, Canada Pipeline, Fort McMurray, Canada Residential complex in Ohio, USA The Bismarck Bridge across the Missouri River, USA Urban slope in Santa Cruz do Sul, Brazil 6,000 2 months Construction activities Urban settlements on the elongated valley of the Loja basin in Ecuador 12 5 months Rainfall A slope proposed for residential development in the West Pennant Hills, Sydney, Australia 180 5 42 years 5 years Rainfall Rainfall Clyde Dam, New Zealand A 489 km2 next to LiriGarigliano and Volturno Rivers in Italy (urban development) Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (D-InSAR) Persistent Scatterers Interferometry 8 4 years Rainfall and construction activity Casalnuovo Monterotaro and Pietramontecorvino towns in Italy

Table 1 Summary of the reviewed cases

Case number

Reference

Limited and Edmonton (1992)

Landslides 8 & (2011)


Clay shale Toe erosion, precipitation and horizontal forces from the bridge anchor Clay Inclinometers and surface monuments Inclinometers Geomorphologic evidence Inclinometer 100 34 (up to 80) Inclinometers 306 188 Not indicated 5 years 100 5 years 1014 Recent monitoring lasted 4 years Clay shale Clay shale Plastic lacustrine clay Clay shale Interface between overlying colluvium and clayey siltstone Sedimentary rocks Differential GPS Colluvium and interface between residual soils and bedrock Inclinometers Sandy silt clay gouge Quaternary deposits Aerial survey data Clay

Clifton et al. (1986)

Clementino et al. (2008)

Hayley (1968)

Technical Note

Brooker and Peck (1993)

Moore et al. (2006)

Brooker and Peck (1993)

Barlow (2000)

Esser (2000)

10

Brooker and Peck (1993)

11

Bressani et al. (2008)

12

Ibadango et al. (2005)

13

Jworchan et al. (2008)

14

Gillon and Saul (1996)

15

Cascini et al. (2008b)

16

Wasowski et al. (2008)

Table 1 (continued) Case number Reference


Material hosting the rupture surface Rock 16 9 years Rainfall Buildings of the Moio della Civitella village in Salerno, Italy Permanent Scatterers Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (PSInSAR) and inclinometers Inclinometers and surface monuments Air photos Inclinometers Inclinometers 65 9 years Rainfall 44 2.5 years Rainfall 4,000 25 years Rainfall and human activity 1926 15 months Rainfall Dwelling houses and a highway in the Abruzzo region, Italy Crago village in Italy A major road and the RomeFlorence railway Collapse of a long stretch of a national road, the Serre La Voute landslide, North West Italy The Ionic coast, Italy Trinita Dam, Italy Reservoir filling Rainfall Coastal erosion and rainfall Toe erosion and rainfall Casanuova Dam, Italy Coastal cliff in Afton Down, UK Seawall structures, roads and footpaths in the town of Lyme Regis, UK 3.5 years Buildings on top of a cliff at Barton-on-Sea shore in Hampshire, UK 4 months Mining activities Widening of a railway embankment in the county of Durham, UK, in order to construct a new dual lane carriageway 560 2 and 4 years (both periods confirmed the same rate) 6006,000 Inferred by authors to be 1 month 23 10 13 years Not indicated Rainfall and erosion Coastal cliff instabilities along the Scarborough Coast, UK affected a road Rainfall The A5 Trunk road between London and Dublin, UK River downcutting Surface surveying techniques Surface surveying and inclinometers An ancient bridge in the county of Shropshire, England Triesen and Triesenberg villages in eastern Switzerland 60 32 years for surface surveying Rainfall Polmengo bridge near Faido, Switzerland Displacement measurement method Movement rate (mm/year) Duration of monitoring Trigger Vulnerable facility

17

Calcaterra et al. (2008)

18

Buccolini and Sciarra (1996) Clay Softened clay Quaternary deposits and dislocated bedrock

Marly clays

19

Spizzichino et al. (2004)

20

Cascini et al. (2008a)

21

Ceccucci et al. (2008)

22 Clay Softened clay layer Rock Inclinometers and surface surveying Surface surveying 861 91 1 year Inclinometers 12 16 years Topographic monuments 110 Inferred to be 1 year Inclinometers 127 11 years

DElia et al. (2000) Interface between weak and competent rock Inclinometers 132 3 months

Rainfall Reservoir filling

23

Catalano et al. (2000)

24

Catalano et al. (2000)

25

Barton and McCosker (2000)

26

Fort et al. (2000b)

27

Fort et al. (2000a)

Stiff, fissured overconsolidated Barton clay Glacial deposits of sands and gravels overlying boulder clay Inclinometers 13.8

28

Beaumont and Forth (1996)

29

Lee and Clark (2000)

Glacial till

Surface surveying

30

Nichol and Lowman (2000) Bentonitic layers Clay shale

Interface between till and mudstones and siltstones

31

Carson and Fisher (1991)

32

Bonnard et al. (2008)

Landslides 8 & (2011)

33

Bonnard et al. (2000)

119

120
Material hosting the rupture surface rupture surface Rock Ranged from more than a year to 10 years Seasonal changes (mostly rainfall) Extensometers, GPS, total station and inclinometers TLS 6070 (up to 200) 1 year Rainfall, earthquakes, mining operations and snow melt Rainfall Toe erosion Rainfall, snowmelt and erosion Toe erosion Construction activities Rainfall and reservoir level fluctuations 53 days 30100 (up to 365) Displacement measurement method measurement method Movement rate (mm/year) (mm/year) Duration of monitoring monitoring Trigger Vulnerable facility The Aknes rockslide in Norway may generate tsunamis that killed people before The Aknes rockslide in Norway may generate tsunamis that killed people before Urban communities in Zagreb, Croatia SLOBODA bridge in Novi Sad, Yugoslavia Tiefenbach village near Oberstdorf, Germany The national road from Athens to Sounion Pipeline between Turkey and Greece A motorway in the Austrian Alps Village located on the slope of the Shuping landslide, China Sichuan city in China Rock Clay Weathered marly clay Gravel and silt Inclinometers Inclinometers Inclinometers GPS and extensometers 2,000 (a maximum of more than 4,000) 450 57 730 9,100 180 3 years 590 65 days Not indicated Not indicated Interface between clayey layers and claystone Shaley graphite Colluvium Soil rock interface 1319 Extensometers 92 2 years + 4 months Inclinometers 10 2.5 years and 13 years Comparison of topographic maps 152300 Over 33 years

Table 1 (continued) Case number Reference

Landslides 8 & (2011)


Volcanic saprolite Coal beds with sandstones and mudstones Fine grained material Earth slide Extensometers and inclinometers Inclinometers Air photos and topographic maps 20 years 3 years 135 days 2 months Rainfall Underground coal mining Reservoir filling Rainfall Hancheng power station, China Lijiaxia hydropower station, China Rock Total station and photogrammetric surveys Air photos 7,000 3 years Rainfall New highway in Malaysia Incompetent shales Sandy silt and clayey silt colluvium 240 5,600 3 years and 9 months 16 years Bridge construction Rainfall The Sugock Bridge in Andong, Korea Major railway corridor from Colombo to Bodalla, Sri Lanka

34

Blikra (2008)

35

Oppikofer et al. (2008)

36

Mihalinec and Ortolan (2008)

37

Lokin et al. (1996)

38

Bunza (2000)

Technical Note

39

Kalteziotis et al. (1993)

40

Topal and Akin (2008)

41

Fuchsberger and Mauerhofer (1996)

42

Wang et al. (2008)

43

Zhou (2000)

44

Sun et al. (2000)

A roadside cutslope above Lai Ping Road, Sha Tin, China

45

Wu et al. (2008)

46

Bai et al. (2008)

47

Fujisawa et al. (2007)

Buildings and water service pipes collapsed and a part of a highway heaved in Japan

48

Malone et al. (2008)

49

Kang et al. (2000)

50

Chandler and Broise (2000)

Table 2 Advantages and disadvantages of different methods of measuring displacement


Instrumentation type Manual inclinometers Advantages - Can measure displacements as low as a fraction of a millimeter. - Temporal resolution can be improved by increasing the frequency of measurements, i.e., every day or less. Disadvantages - Slope indicator casings are broken at cumulative displacements of about 130 mm. Therefore, the lifetime is short in very slow and slow slides. - Measure the displacement versus time at a single point. Thus, there is no spatial coverage for large sites. Hence, the technique is not economically feasible for large sites. - Highly frequent monitoring of manual inclinometers is expensive for remote sites in terms of a technician wages. In-place Inclinometers - Overcome the temporal resolution drawback of manual inclinometers. The sensor is connected to a data-logger that records the displacements at intervals as short as required. - The location of the rupture surface should be determined before the installation of the in-place inclinometers. Therefore, a slope indicator casing should be installed first. - Have the same drawback of the low spatial coverage as manual inclinometers. Extensometers - Measure the displacement by measuring the opening of cracks - Do not require deep installations - Do not measure large displacements and, hence, not suitable for measuring displacements of slow slides or the upper range of very slow slides. - Measure the displacement at discrete points and, hence, do not provide good spatial coverage for large sites. - Measure surface displacements rather than the displacement at the rupture surface elevation. - Unable to determine the location of the rupture surface. Remote techniques (InSAR, DInSAR, TLS, etc.) - Suitable for measuring relatively large displacements (slow and the upper range of very slow movements), which cannot be captured by inclinometers or extensometers. - Overcome the spatial resolution drawback of the previous techniques by providing coverage to large sites as long as reflective objects are present or installed at strategic locations across the site. - May not be able to capture extremely slow movements over the monitoring interval, which is around a month. - No coherence is expected to occur if no reflective surfaces exist or are installed. - Measure the surface displacement rather than the movement of the rupture surface. - Unable to determine the location of the rupture surface. Surface surveying - Suitable for measuring relatively large displacements (slow and the upper range of very slow movements), which cannot be captured by inclinometers or extensometers. - Overcome the spatial resolution drawback of inclinometers and extensometers by providing coverage to large sites as long as surface targets are installed at strategic locations across the site. - The installation of surface targets for surveying is less expensive than installing corner reflectors for satellite imagery. Geomorphologic evidence - Very useful in quantifying long-term movements that occurred over many years and where there is no other method of measuring the movement. - Extremely slow movements may fall below the accuracy of the measuring instruments (total station). - Measure the surface displacement rather than the movement of the rupture surface.

- Unable to determine the location of the rupture surface.

- Cannot account for very slow or extremely slow movements because of the small scale of air photos. - Measure the surface displacement rather than the movement of the rupture surface. - Unable to determine the location of the rupture surface.

Canada, USA, Brazil, Ecuador, Australia, New Zealand, Italy, United Kingdom, Switzerland, Norway, Croatia, Yugoslavia, Germany, Greece, Austria, Turkey, China, Japan, Malaysia, Korea and Sri Lanka. Some of the surveyed slides affect more than one class of facility, e.g., urban areas and highways or highways and other infrastructure. The reviewed cases are listed in Table 1. Each group of slides occurring in the same country are grouped together. The order of countries is the same as mentioned earlier in this paragraph. In addition to the rate of movement and the extent of damage, information regarding the method of displacement

measurement, the nature of the slide material and the main trigger(s) of movement is presented. These attributes are summarized in Table 1. The statistics presented are intended to be helpful to geotechnical engineers dealing with slow-moving slides.

Displacement measurement The methods used to measure the displacement play an important role in dening the mechanisms and the movement behaviour of slow and extremely slow slides. A major issue when dealing with Landslides 8 & (2011) 121

Technical Note
Fig. 1 Percentages of different methods of displacement measurement
Geomorphologic evidence, 13% Extensometers, 9%

Remote techniques, 9%

Inclinometer, 58%

Surface surveying, 31%

very slow or extremely slow slides is the low frequency of data recording; hence, the trends of movement variation over time often are not clear. This hinders accurately determining the relative effects of different causal factors on movement. In addition, the movement rate is sometimes considered constant, while in fact it is not. Extremely and very slow movements consist of a viscous or creep component that is responsible for the persistence of movement during periods without pore-pressure change. The literature suggests that the slow movements of shallow slides are affected mainly by changes in hydrological boundary conditions, while the viscous soil properties contribute to a large percentage of the movement of deep-seated slides (Picarelli and Russo 2004). About 45 cases indicate the method of displacement measurement. Some of the surveyed slides were monitored using more than one type of measurement. The methods used included inclinometers, extensometers, remote techniques such as Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) and Terrestrial

Laser Scanning (TLS), surface surveying and geomorphologic evidence. A brief summary of the advantages and the drawbacks of each method is provided in Table 2. Inclinometers were used to record movement in about 60% of the reported cases. However, because of the shearing-off of inclinometer casings when displacements reach around 130 mm, inclinometers were not used to measure the displacements of slides moving at rates of more than 590 mm/year. In the upper range of very slow slides and in the range of slow slides, other methods, such as surface surveying, remote techniques, and geomorphologic evidence, become more useful to determine larger displacements over longer periods of time. The lower precision of these methods may not allow them to be used to accurately detect extremely slow movements. Remote techniques such as InSAR and TLS were used in only 9% of the studied slides. These techniques have been developed recently, and reliance on them should increase in the future as they provide coverage of large areas and overcome some of the disadvantages of inclinometers. However, the increased application of in situ

Fig. 2 Percentages of different material types in the rupture surface

Interface, 12%

Weak Rock, 27%

Soil, 53%

Rock, 10%

122

Landslides 8 & (2011)

Fig. 3 Percentages of different triggers of movement

Mining activities, 6% Snow melt, 4% Earthquakes, 2%

Stream incision, 23%

Rainfall, 64%

Reservoir filling and fluctuations, 11%

Anthropogenic activities, 19%

inclinometers can overcome the present issue of eventual loss of access to the shearing zone. Figure 1 shows the percentages of use of each of inclinometers, surface surveying, remote techniques, extensometers and geomorphology in measuring the displacements of slow slides. The sum of the percentages of the different methods is more than 100% because more than one method of displacement measurement was used in some of the surveyed cases. Materials of the rupture surface Only 48 of the studied cases explicitly state the type of the material in the rupture surface. More than half of these slides (52%) have rupture surfaces in soil materials, mainly clays and

silts. About 27% of the surveyed cases have rupture surfaces in weak rocks such as clay shales. The rupture surfaces run along the interface between the soil and the underlying rock in 13% of the reviewed cases, and the rest have rupture surfaces in rock materials. The sum of the percentages is slightly higher than 100% because one case (#4) involves more than one material type in the rupture surface. Comparison across the cases suggests that the usually expected hazards from rocky slopes are rock falls and toppling rather than sliding on a well-dened rupture surface. More than half of the studied cases have their rupture surfaces in soil rather than rock. This observation, however, does not necessarily indicate that sliding is the dominant mode of failure of earth

Fig. 4 Percentages of citation of different vulnerable facilities in the reviewed literature

Linear Infrastructure, 9%

Dams, 11% Urban settlements, 40%

Bridges, 12%

Railways, 5%

Highways, 23%

Landslides 8 & (2011)

123

Technical Note
Table 3 Summary of the case histories on the damage extent of urban communities due to slow-moving slides
Case number 15 16 32 13 Location Italy Italy Switzerland Australia Amount of damage No exact statement of damage but could be minor Cracks in buildings Minor damage to village houses and infrastructure Cracks in an embankment within the site in addition to some bent trees It is considered that there could be a threat to a coastal road in a town Removal of a portion of a street and structural distress to some houses Open cracks, wall disjunction and badly working casings Damage to dwelling houses Minor damages could occur to residential settlements and towns Movement rate (mm/year) 5 8 10 12 Soil type Quaternary deposits overlying upper Miocene bedrock Clay shales Colluvium over residual soils overlying bedrock Well jointed rock with no shear surfaces Glacial deposits overlying preglacial lake clays over clay shale Authors classified this damage as light to moderate Marly clay Rock A wide-scale study. A warning system was designed where the recorded rate lies in the green range (safe and no damages expected) 80 91 Interface between colluvium and clayey siltstone Cracks might be from buildings subsidence Development in the village is not affected by slope movements Remarks

25 1

United Kingdom Peace River town, Canada Italy Italy Norway

12 14

17 18 34

16.2 26 30100

11 26

Brazil United Kingdom Germany Regina beach, Canada China

Cracked pavements in streets and damages to houses Cracks in roads and footpaths of a town and damage to seawall structures The slides threatens a village by debris flow Rupture of service utilities, ground cracking. No damage to concrete sidewalk Cracks in roads and houses of a residential settlement on a slope Houses suffered damage (not specified) Minor to moderate damage may occur to residential settlements Cracks in houses Walls buckling Bending of doors and windows Damage of the rear wall of a garage by downslope movement

38 2

92 108

Gravel and silt Bentonitic clay shales The study concluded that 100 mm/year is enough to break a municipal water line The toe is the Three Gorges Dam reservoir but the study is about the damage to the residential settlements on the slope

42

170240

36 35 9

Croatia Norway USA

150300 200365 306

Clay Rock Plastic lacustrine clay

27 43

United Kingdom China

Movement led to major slope failures below a hotel building Cracks in a slope within a residential complex Severe damage to the backwall of a building

861 2000 (a maximum of more than 4,000) 4,000 6000

Stiff, fissured overconsolidated Barton clay Soil rock interface Because of the implementation of a warning system, the buildings were evacuated and no life losses took place

19 12

Italy Ecuador

Severe damage to Crago village buildings Parts of some houses of the city of Loja were separated by 1 m in 2 months Collapse of a car repair factory

47

Japan

9,100

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Landslides 8 & (2011)

Table 4 Summary of the case histories on the damage extent of highways and railways due to slow-moving slides
Case number 28 Location United Kingdom Amount of damage Cracks in road pavement Road needed re-pavement every 3 or 4 years 39 18 3 Greece Italy Alberta, Canada Cracks in the pavement of a major highway Traffic disruption to a highway Cracks in a highway that needed patching once or twice a year Damage not specified 1319 26 35 Movement rate (mm/year) 13.8 Soil type Glacial deposits overlying boulder clay Marly clay Presheared bentonitic clay shale over sandstone Softened clay A previous reactivation caused lots of damage and has interrupted a major road and highway Remarks

20

Italy

44

Alberta, Canada

Cracks in highway 49 Patching performed once a year

Minimum of 15 and up to 100

Till overlying preglacial lake clay and clay shale

21

Italy

Damage not specified but not severe Undefined threat to a road and a railway No quantification of damage reported No damage reported to a coastal road This rate was recorded after remedial measures have been installed

65

Quaternary deposits in addition to dislocated bedrock Intensely fissured clay shale and limestone over a bedrock Volcanic saprolite over competent bedrock Sedimentary rocks overlain by glacial till

A previous reactivation led to the collapse of a long stretch of a national road

22

Italy

132

44 29

China United Kingdom

450 560

Severe rainstorm events cause road blocking

41

Austria

Development of large fissures and failures in the cut slopes of a motorway A major traffic disruption expected if no drainage measures were adopted

590

Intensely sheared shaley graphite layer

30

United kingdom

Traffic obstruction of a trunk road Breach of the boundary between the road and the rear garden of a residential property

6006000

Glacial till overlying a sequence of mudstones and siltstones

50 48 47

Sri Lanka Malaysia Japan

Severe disruption to a railway corridor Disruption to a highway construction Upheaval of a part of a highway

5,600 7,000 9,100

Sandy silt and clayey silt colluvium Rock (schist)

slopes. Figure 2 shows the percentages of slides having their rupture surfaces in soil, rock and weak rock and at the interface between soils and rocks. Trigger(s) of movement Some of the cases have more than one identied movement trigger, although the majority have a single identied trigger.

Forty-seven cases report the trigger(s) of the slow movement of slides. Rainfall is the main trigger in 64% of the reviewed slides. This nding suggests that designing and installing drainage measures are important for facilities constructed in heavy-rainfall areas. Toe erosion and human activities are the triggers (or one of the triggers) of movement in about 42% of the surveyed slides. Reservoir lling and seasonal uctuations in reservoir levels seem Landslides 8 & (2011) 125

Technical Note
Table 5 Summary of the case histories on the damage extent of bridges due to slow-moving slides
Case number 37 Location Yugoslavia Amount of damage No actual damage to the SLOBODA bridge, but there is a threat. Mitigation plans are set for probable distress in the future 31 33 5 4 United Kingdom Switzerland British Columbia, Canada Alberta, Canada Continuous movement of abutment and piers Numerous cracks in the abutment of a bridge caused by a very high flood Displacement of one of the Peace River suspension bridge anchors led to the bridge collapse The Little Smoky bridge south pier needs continuous extension to accommodate movements The Bismarck bridge pier needs continuous extension to accommodate movements Bridge suffered severe deformations 23 60 90120 100 Clay shale Till overlying clay shale Movement rate (mm/year) 10 Soil type Weathered marly clay Remarks

10 49

USA Korea

100 240

Clay shale Alternating competent sandstones and incompetent shales

Table 6 Summary of the case histories on the damage extent of dams due to slow-moving slides
Case number 6 45 24 23 Location British Columbia, Canada China Italy Italy Amount of damage Minor or no damage to Mica Dam Serious damage to the Hancheng power station structures Fissures and cracks observed in Casanuova dam Damage to the electric cabin and the guardians house of Trinita Dam No damages to the dam 14 New Zealand Slide volume is enough to block the Clyde dam reservoir The slide-generated waves are expected to be higher than the free board 46 China Failure of localized disintegrated loose slide mass on the surface of the slope Slide-generated waves may endanger the hydropower station 730 180 Planar rock slide moving over slickensided sandy silt clay gouge Movement rate (mm/year) 1014 57 110 127 Soil type Rock slide moving on thin clay gouges Softened clay layer Highly permeable formation over a weathered clay formation Remarks

Fine-grained material with a clay percentage sometimes more than 90%

Table 7 Summary of the case histories on the damage extent of linear infrastructure due to slow-moving slides
Case number 7 5 8 47 Location Alberta, Canada British Columbia, Canada Fort McMurray, AB, Canada Japan Amount of damage Bending of oil well casing (Swan Hills Oil Field) Break down of a pipeline Displacement of pipelines Rupture to a water service pipe Movement rate (mm/year) 100 90120 188 9,100 Soil type Clay shale Glacial deposits overlying Cretaceous sedimentary clay shale over oil sands Remarks

126

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Strain

Log (Strain Rate)

Te rti ar y

ary ond Sec


y ar im Pr

Secondary

(a)

Time

(b)

Log (Time)

Fig. 5 Primary, secondary and tertiary creep stages from a typical triaxial test shown on both: (a) arithmetic and (b) logarithmic scales (Modified after Augustesen et al. 2004)

to affect slopes that lie upstream of dams, as these factors trigger the movement of about 11% of the studied cases. Other triggers such as earthquakes, snowmelt and mining activities are responsible together for the sliding in about 12% of the reviewed cases. Figure 3 shows the percentages of the contribution of different triggers to slow-slide movements. Classes of vulnerable facilities The vulnerable facilities include the ve categories mentioned above: urban and suburban settlements, highways and railways, bridges, dams and linear infrastructure. In 40% of the reviewed cases, the vulnerable facilities are urban and suburban communities. This high proportion is expected due to the direct threat posed to human life when towns are built close to natural moving

slopes. The vulnerabilities of highways and railways are documented in 23% and 5% of the studied cases, respectively. Highway and railway hazards can be life-threatening to travellers. The level of threat is, however, less than that to urban communities. Figure 4 shows the relative citations of the different types of vulnerable facilities among the studied cases. Damage extent Twenty-two of the reviewed cases described the extent of damage to urban and suburban communities. The cases are sorted in ascending order of the slide velocities, starting from a measured rate of 5 mm/year up to 9 m/year. The case numbers in Table 3 are linked to Table 1. Table 3 presents a summary of these cases, focusing on the extent of damage resulting from slides with
Table 9 Damage expected from slow-moving slides to highways versus movement rate
Movement rate (mm/year) 010 Extent of damage - Minor or no damage - Cracks start to appear - Developed cracks need patching once or may be twice a year - Needs re-pavement once every 3 or 4 years - May cause traffic disruption 100160 1601600 - Wider cracks in pavements - Need patching at intervals less than 1 year - Development of large fissures in embankment slopes - Failure may occur to embankment slopes - A major traffic disruption is expected if no drainage measures were implemented >1600 - Severe collapse to the highway or the railway - Traffic obstruction - May lead to life losses

Table 8 Damage expected from slow-moving slides to urban communities versus movement rate
Movement rate (mm/year) 010 10100 Extent of Damage - Minor or no damage - Cracks in streets, footpaths and nearby embankments - General signs of distress like bent trees - House walls disjunction and badly working casings - May cause damage to small dwelling houses 100300 - Cracks are wide to the extent that houses start to suffer a noticeable damage - Rupture of service utilities 300800 8004,000 - House walls buckling, bending of doors and windows and various damages in houses - Severe damage and failures to slopes or retaining walls supporting buildings - If no warning system is implemented, human losses may occur >4,000 - Complete collapse of buildings

10100

Landslides 8 & (2011)

Tertiary

Pri ry ma

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Technical Note
Table 10 Damage expected from slow-moving slides to bridges versus movement rate

Movement rate (mm/year) 0-10 1030

Extent of damage - Minor or no damage - Movement of piers and abutments take place but cracks may be very small - Mitigation plans should be set for probable future distress

30100

- Numerous cracks start to appear - There is a continuous need to extend the bridge piers and abutments to accommodate movements

>100

- Deformations become severe and pose a real threat to the bridge safety - Suspension bridges may collapse if the bridge anchors lied in the movement zone

Table 11 Damage expected from slow-moving slides to dams versus movement rates

Movement rate (mm/year) 016 16160

Extent of Damage - No reported damage - Serious damage to hydropower structures - Fissures and cracks may be observed in earth and rock fill dams

different velocities. All of the cases are compiled to qualitatively relate the expected damage to urban communities resulting from slow-moving slides. The relationship describes the expected increase in damage to urban communities from increasing slide velocities (or slide displacements) within the ranges of slow, very slow and extremely slow slides. The qualitative relationship is presented in Table 8 and graphically in Fig. 6. Tables 4, 5, 6, 7 similarly summarize the extent of damage resulting from slides moving at different rates that adversely affect highways and railways, bridges, dams and linear infrastructure, respectively. Table 4 indicates that only cases 22 and 50 document damage to railways. Hence, it is considered that the available information about the vulnerability of railways to slow-moving slides is not enough to develop a general description of the expected degree of damage to railways. Therefore, Tables 9, 10, 11 show the qualitative expected extents of damage from different slide velocities for highways, bridges and dams, respectively. Unlike the cases describing urban-community damage, the cases summarized in Tables 9, 10, 11 do not reveal a wide spectrum of movement rates. The damage extents for highways, bridges and dams show that the expected extents of damage occur at different limits of movement. Pipelines and water-reticulation pipes are examples of linear infrastructure. Only four cases are available with sufcient data, as shown in Table 7. A fth one has a qualitative description of the threat posed by a slow-moving earth slide to a pipeline. The limited number of available cases makes it difcult to relate the extent of damage to pipelines and water service pipes by the movement of slow-moving slides. Discussion The study presents simple statistics about the different attributes of slow-moving slides. In addition, it relates qualitative damage extents or damage descriptions to annual movement rate (or total

>160

- Failure of loose masses on the slope surface and hence the reservoir may be blocked - Slide-generated waves may overtop the dam crest

Dams

Severe

Bridges Highways Urban Communities Dams Bridges Highways Urban Communities Dams Bridges Highways Urban Communities Dams

Degree of Damage

Major

Moderate

Minor

Highways Urban Communities

160 m/yr

Bridges

10

100 1,000 Movement Rate (mm/yr)

10,000

100,000

1,000,000

Fig. 6 Schematic representation of the expected extent of damage versus movement rate for various forms of infrastructure. Green color indicates minor damage, orange indicates moderate damage, yellow indicates major damage, and red indicates severe damage

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displacement). It should be noted, however, that the damage descriptions corresponding to every movement-rate range is based only on the shown range. The extent of damage will become more severe if proper mitigation measures are not applied promptly to prevent the movement accumulating. For example, minor or no damage would result from a movement rate of 5 mm/year if the proper mitigation strategies are applied in a timely manner. However, if there has been no attempt to arrest the movement for 10 years, for example, the cumulative movement may become around 50 mm. This movement magnitude will bring the resulting damage to a higher level, which may be destructive in some cases. Therefore, it is the cumulative displacement that ultimately controls the extent of damage rather than the annual movement rate. Another problem is associated with extremely slow movements. Extremely slow slides are often considered as moving at a constant rate, unless a comprehensive program of monitoring the displacement over very short intervals is implemented. While this constant-rate movement is considered a creep displacement, the straintime curve in a creep test in a triaxial apparatus shows that the strain rate decreases, remains constant and then increases until failure during the primary, secondary and tertiary creep stages, as shown in Fig. 5. The laboratory creep behaviour implies that creeping landslides may change to be extremely rapid after long periods of observed decreasing movement rate. The evolution of catastrophic movements from creep displacements is a quite complex mechanism. Petley and Allison (1997) mentioned some basic patterns that control the relationship between creep and catastrophic movements. Creep may continue for long periods of time during which the displacement rate is essentially constant, but may show minor uctuations due to small changes in the water table. Another pattern is incremental creep, in which pore pressure changes and/or seismic events may cause changes in the rate of displacement. Deep-seated slides may similarly undergo short periods of creep followed by sudden failure. Finally, a deep-seated slide may undergo long-term creep displacements followed by a sudden failure. Schuster and Highland (2007) have pointed out the adverse effects of landslides on the natural environment in general. Their study discussed the vulnerability of each of the mountain and valley systems, i.e., the earths surface morphology, the rivers and streams in terms of water quality, forests and grasslands, and the native wildlife to landslides. Our study investigates a specic aspect of the issue by highlighting the vulnerability of different kinds of facilities to a particular type of landslidesslow-moving slides. Based on the outcomes of this study, we agree with the conclusions of Schuster and Highland (2007) that typical riskmanagement strategies, including (1) restricting development in landslide-prone areas, (2) implementing building codes, (3) design of physical mitigation works and (4) developing and installing landslide-monitoring and warning systems, could be adopted to reduce the impacts from these types of landslides. Conclusions The paper has reviewed about 50 cases relating to the vulnerability of different kinds of facilities to extremely slow, very slow and slow-moving slides. The results indicate the types of landslides and their associated ranges in movement rates; what types of equipment are routinely used to monitor these types of

landslide; the movement triggers; and the impacts. This literature survey allowed us to relate qualitative expected extent of damage to movement rate for urban communities, highways, bridges and dams threatened by extremely slow, very slow and slow-moving slides. The extent of damage to each of the studied facilities is categorized into minor, moderate, major and severe. The tabulated relationships shown in Tables 8, 9, 10, 11 are shown schematically in Fig. 6, which reveals that buildings and residential houses may tolerate higher slide velocities and total displacements than the other facilities before experiencing serious damage. Bridges are the least tolerant facilities, for movement rates as low as 100 mm/year may severely damage bridges within a year, whereas such low rates may cause only moderate damage to urban communities. Slow landslides can, however, become rapid landslides if conditions change. For creeping landslides, however, it is usually the cumulative total displacements that cause problems to infrastructure and housing. The study has an important practical signicance for geotechnical engineers as it provides a way of assessing the likely extent of damage based on preliminary estimates of movement rates. Hence, the proper eld investigation program can be planned, and the appropriate remedial measures can be implemented. In addition, alarm systems can be designed based on the measured movement rates in the eld. Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada for providing the nancial support of the project.

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M. F. Mansour ()) Structural Engineering Department (Geotechnical Division), Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt e-mail: mmansour@ualberta.ca N. R. Morgenstern : C. D. Martin Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada

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