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Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.

H)]
Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
V0

V4

V0

AV3

2000-E-41

AV4
0

R4

R4

Rout

-A

Rout
A

Rout
1

V3
Rout

V4
Rout

V0

R4

Rout

(iii)

R4

Writing equations (i), (ii) & (iii) in matrix form


1

V1
0

R1

V3

R2
1

-1

R3

R4

R4

R1
V2

V4
R3

-A

Rout

Rout

R4

Rout

R4

V0
A
1

1
0

R1

R2
1

-1

R3

R4

-A

Rout

Rout

R4

Rout

R4

R1

R2

1
R3

R4

R4

Rout

1
R4 Rout
V1

A
R4

1
R4

255

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Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
R1

R2

2000-E-41

R1
1

R3

R4

-A

Rout

Rout

R4

V2

0
R3

0
V0
A
1
A

R1

R2

-V2
1
R3

V0

V1

1
Rout

R4

R1

Rout

R3

R4

R3

R4

A
1
A

R1

R2

-V2
1
R3

V1

1
Rout

R4

R1

-V2 (R2 + R1) (AR4 - Rout)

Rout

AV1 (R4 + R3)

R1R2R3R4Rout

R1RoutR3R4

-V2 (R2 + R1) (AR4 - Rout) + AV1 (R4 + R3)


R1R2R3R4Rout
1

R1

R2

1
R3

R4

Rout

1
R4 Rout

A
R4

1
R4

256

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


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(R2 + R1)

(R4 + R3) (R4 + Rout)

R1R2

(R2 + R1)

R3R4Rout

2000-E-41

257

(AR4 - Rout)
R4R4Rout

(R4 + R3) (R4 + Rout) + R3R4 (AR4 - Rout)

R1R2

R3R4Rout

-V2 (R2 + R1) (AR4 - Rout) + AV1 (R4 + R3)


(R2 + R1) [(R4 + R3) (R4 + Rout) + R3R4 (AR4 - Rout)]
-V2 (R2 + R1) (AR4 - Rout) + AV1 (R4 + R3)
(R2 + R1) [R4R4 + R4Rout + R3R4 + R3Rout + R3R4AR4 R3R4Rout]
-V2 (R2 + R1) (AR4 - Rout) + AV1 (R4 + R3)
(R2 + R1) [R4R4 + R3R4 + R3R4AR4 R3R4Rout]
-V2 (R2 + R1) (AR4 - Rout) + AV1 (R4 + R3)
(R2 + R1) R3R4 (AR4 Rout)
AV1 (R4 + R3)

V2

(R2 + R1) R3R4 (AR4 Rout)

R3R4

Q#4.50: A 1700C maximum temperature digester is used in a paper mill to process


wood chips that will eventually become paper. As shown in Fig. P4.50a, three
electronic thermometers are placed along its length. Each thermometer outputs 0 V
at 00C, and the voltage changes 25 mV / 0C. We will use the average of the three
thermometer voltages to find an aggregate digester temperature. Furthermore, 1 V
should appear at V0 for every 100C of average temperature. Design such an
averaging circuit using the op-amp configuration shown in fig. 4.50b if the final
output voltage must be positive.
Solution:
Circuit diagram:

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893 Paper Mill Digester

Thermometer # 1

Thermometer # 2

2000-E-41

258

Thermometer # 3

P4.50a
R1

Rf

R2
R3

V1
Vx
V2
V3
fig. (a)

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Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

2000-E-41

259

Rf
OP-AMP MODEL

Rin
R1

R2

R3

Rout
AVe

V1
Vx
V2

V3

Fig. (b)

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V4

2000-E-41

260

Vx
V-

Rf

Rin
V+
R1

R2

R3

Rout
V1

V2
AVe

V3

Fig. (c)

Using Nodal Analysis


Applying KCL at node labeled V4

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Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

2000-E-41

261

According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction
V4 V1

V4 V2

R1

R2

V4 V3

V4

V4 Vx
0

R3

V4

V1

V4

V2

R1

R1

R2

Rin

Rf

V4

V3

V4

V4

Vx

R3

R3

Rin

Rf

Rf

0
R2

-1
V4

R1

R2

R3

Rin

Rf

V1

V2

V3

Vx
Rf

(i)
R1

R2

R3

Applying KCL at node labeled Vx


According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction
Vx V4

Vx - AVe
0

Rf

Rout

Ve = V+ - VVe = 0 - V4
Ve = -V4
Vx V4

Vx A(-V4)
0

Rf

Rout

Vx V4

Vx + AV4
0

Rf

Rout

Vx

V4

Vx

AV4

Rf

Rf

Rout

Rout

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
V4
Rout

Vx

Rf

Rout

2000-E-41

262

V1

V3

(ii)

Rf

Writing equations (i) & (ii) in matrix form


1

R1

R2

R3

Rin

Rf

-1

V2

V4
Rf

R1

Rf

Rout

Rf

R1

R2

R3

Rin

Rf

Rout

Rf

-1
Rf

Rout

R3

1
Vx

Rout

R2

R1

R2

R3

Rin

Rf

Rout

Rf Rout

1
Rf

A
Rf

V2

V3

Rf

V1

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
R1

R2

R3

Rin

Rf

R1

2000-E-41
R2

R3

0
Rout

Rf

Vx
A
A

Rout

V1

Rf

V2

R1 R2

V3

R3

R1

R2

R3

Rin

Rf

Rout

1
Rf Rout

Here
Rin = 108
Rout = 10
A = 105
We to bring about a result that
1

1
>>

1
&

R0

Rf

Ri

>>
R0

1
<<
R1

1
1
&
&
RI
Rf

&
Rf

1
&
R2

Rin

Here R0 = Rout; Ri = Rin

V1

V2

V3

A
Rf

1
Rf

263

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
Rout

R1

R2

R1

R2

R3

Rf

R3

Rout

Rout

Rf

-A (R2R3 V1 + R1R3 V2 + R1R2 V3)


Rout R1 R2 R3
(R2R3Rf + R1R3Rf + R1R2Rf + R1R2R3)

R1 R2 R3 Rf Rout

Rout Rf

-A (R2R3 V1 + R1R3 V2 + R1R2 V3)


Rout R1 R2 R3
(R2R3Rf + R1R3Rf + R1R2Rf + R1R2R3) + A R1 R2 R3
R1 R2 R3 Rf Rout
-A (R2R3 V1 + R1R3 V2 + R1R2 V3)
(R2R3Rf + R1R3Rf + R1R2Rf + R1R2R3) Rf + A R1 R2 R3 Rf
-A (R2R3 V1 + R1R3 V2 + R1R2 V3)
Rf R2R3Rf + Rf R1R3Rf + Rf R1R2Rf + Rf R1R2R3 + A R1 R2 R3 Rf
-A (R2R3 V1 + R1R3 V2 + R1R2 V3)
A R 1 R2 R3 Rf

-(R2R3 V1 + R1R3 V2 + R1R2 V3)


R1 R2 R3 Rf

2000-E-41

264

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2000-E-41

265

Choose R1 = R2 = R3 = 3 k & Rf = 1 k

R5
Vx
R4

V0

Fig. (a)

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2000-E-41

266

R5
OP-AMP MODEL

V0
Rin

Rout

R4

AVe

Vx

Fig.
(b)

V1
R4

V0
R5

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V-

2000-E-41

267

Rout

Vx
Rin
V+
AVe

Fig. (c)
Using nodal analysis:
Applying KCL at node Labeled V1
Assume that all the currents are going away from the junction
According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
entering into the junction
V1 Vx

V1

V1 V0

R4

Rin

V1

Vx

V1
+

R4

R4

R4

R5

V0
0

R5

R5

1
+

Rin

V1
+

Rin

+
R4

R5

-1
V1 +

R5

Vx
V0

R5
-1

V1

R4
Vx

V0
R5

(i)
R4

Applying KCL at node Labeled V0


Assume that all the currents are going away from the junction
According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
entering into the junction
V0 V1

V0 - AVe
+

R5
V0

0
Rout

V1

V0

AVe

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
+
R5

R5

0
Rout

Rout

Here
Ve = V+ - VVe = 0 V V 1
Ve = -V1
V0

V1

V0

A(-V1)

R5

R5

Rout

Rout

V0

V1

V0

R5

R5

0
AV1

+
A

+
Rout

0
Rout

V1
Rout

V0

R5

Rout

R5

V0

1
V1

(ii)

Rout
Rout
Writing equations (i) & (ii) in matrix form
1

-1

Vx
V1

R4

R5

R5

R4

Rout

Rout

V0
A

R4

R5

-1
R5

A
A
Rout
1

1
Rout
1

2000-E-41

268

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
R4

R5

R4

R5

Rout

Rout

R5

2000-E-41

269

Vx
R4

A
0
Rout
V0
1

R4

R5

Rout

Rout

R5

-A
Rout

Vx
R4

R5 + R 4

R4R5Rout
-A
Rout

R5Rout

Vx
R4

R5 + R4 + AR1
R4R5Rout
-AR5Vx
R5 + R4 + AR4
-AR5Vx
Hint: A = 105 and R4, R5 are in kilo ohm
AR4
-R5Vx
R4

R4 = 1 k; R5 = 12 k

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Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

2000-E-41

270

R5 = 12 k
Vx
R4 = 1 k

V0

V0

Fig. (d)
1V
4

V1

0.25 V

Q#4.51: A 0.1 shunt resistor is used to measure current in a fuel cell circuit. The
voltage drop across the shunt resistor is to be used to measure the current in the circuit.
The maximum current is 20 A. Design the network shown in Fig. P4.51 so that a
voltmeter attached to the output will read 0 volts when the current is 0 A and 20 V when
the current is 20 A. Be careful not to load the shunt resistor, since loading will cause an
inaccurate reading.
Solution:
Circuit diagram:

Load

IL

Fuel cell
VS

0.1

Design
circuit

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2000-E-41

271

Voltmeter

P4.51
VS = IL (0.1)
When IL = 0 A
VS = 0 (0.1)
VS = 0 Volt
VS = IL (0.1)
When IL = 20 A
VS = 20 (0.1)
VS = 2 Volt
VX = 20 Volts

VS
VX

R2

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2000-E-41

272

R1

fig. (a)
OP-AMP MODEL

VX
Rin

Rout
AVe

R2

VS

R1

fig. (b)
V1
V+

Rin

VX

V-

R2

Rout
VS
R1
AVe

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Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

2000-E-41

273

Using Nodal Analysis


fig. (c)
Applying KCL at node V1
According to KCL
The algebraic Sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction
V1 - VS

V1

V1 - VX
0

Rin
V1

R1 R2
VS

V1

V1

VX
0

Rin

Rin

R1

R2

R1

R2

R2

-1
V1

VX

(i)

R2

Applying KCL at node Labeled V0


Assume that all the currents are going away from the junction
According to KCL
The algebraic sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
entering into the junction
VX V1

VX - AVe
0

R2

Rout

Here
Ve = V+ - VVe = VS V1
VX V1

VX A (VS V1)
0

R2

Rout

VX

V1

VX

AVS

R2

R2

Rout

Rout

AV1
0

1
V1

Rout
1

AVS
VX

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
Rout
A

R2

Rout

R2
AVS

Rout

V1
VX
(ii)
Rout
Rout
Rout
Writing equations (i) & (ii) in matrix form
1

R1

R2

-1
V1

R2

AVS
VX

Rout

Rout
A

X
1

R1

R2

Rout
B
-1
R2

A
A
Rout

1
Rout

R1

R2

Rout

Rout

R2

R1

R2

0
A

AVS

Rout

Rout

V0
1

R1

R2

Rout

Rout

R2

AVS

R1

R2 Rout

R2 + R 1

2000-E-41

274

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Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
R1R2Rout
R2 + R 1

2000-E-41

275

R2Rout
AVS

R1R2Rout
R2 + R1 + AR1
R1R2Rout
AVS (R2 + R1)
R2 + R1 + AR1
AVS (R2 + R1)
Hint: A = 105 and R1, R2 are in kilo ohm
AR1
VS (R2 + R1)
R1
VX

R2
1+

VS

R1

Choose R1 = 1 k & R2 = 9 k
VX

R2

VX

1+
VS

R2
1+

R1

VS

R2
VX = 1

R1
R2

VS

VX = 1

VS

R1

R1

When VS = 0 V
VX = 0 V

When VS = 2 V
VX = 20 V

Q#4.52: Wood pulp (crushed material) is used to make paper in a paper mill. The
amount of lignin (complex polymer) present in pulp is called the kappa number. A very
sophisticated instrument is used to measure kappa, and the output of this instrument

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

2000-E-41

276

ranges from 1 to 5 volts, where 1 volt represents a kappa number of 12 and 5 volts
represents a kappa number of 20. The pulp mill operator has asked to have a kappa meter
installed on his console (cabinet). Design a circuit that will employ as input the 1 to 5
volt signal and output the kappa number. An electronics engineer in the plant has
suggested the circuit shown in Fig. P 4.52.
Solution:
Circuit diagram:

R1

R3
24 V

24 V
R2
R4

R5

24 V

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Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

2000-E-41

277

R7

R6

P 4.52

OP-AMP MODEL
R1
Rin
V1

Rout

V2

V3
V+

V-

R3
AVe
24 V

R2

R4
Unity Follower

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

2000-E-41

278

OP-AMP MODEL
Rin

Rout
V4

AVe
R5

non inverting configuration


V5

VS

R7
R6

Using Nodal Analysis


Applying KCL at node V1
According to KCL
The algebraic Sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction
V1 24

V1

V1 V2
0

R1

R2 R3

V1

24

V1

R1

R1

R2

V1

V2
0

R3
1

R3
-1

V1
R1

R2

R3

24
V2

R3

Applying KCL at node V2

(i)
R1

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Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

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279

According to KCL
The algebraic Sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction
V2 V1

V2 V4

V2 V3
0

R3

R4

Rin

V2

V1

V2

V4

V2

V3

R3

R3

R4

R4

Rin

Rin

0
Here
Rin = 108
Rout = 10
A = 105
We to bring about a result that
1

1
>>

1
&

R0

Rf

Ri

>>
R0

1
&
R2

R1

1
1
&
&
RI
Rf

&
Rf

1
<<

Rin

Here R0 = Rout; Ri = Rin


-1

V1
R3

-1
V2

R3

V4

R4

(ii)

R4

Applying KCL at node V3


According to KCL
The algebraic Sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction
V3 V2

V3 - AVe
0

Rin

Rout

V3

V2

V3

Rin

Rin

Rout

AVe
0

Here

Rout

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

2000-E-41

280

Ve = V+ - VVe = V2 V3
V3

V2

V3

A (V2 V3)
0

Rin

Rin

V3

AV2

Rout

Rout

AV3
0

Rout

Rout

Rout

-A

V2
Rout
-A

V3
Rout
A

V2
Rout

Rout
V3

(iii)

Rout

Applying KCL at node V4


According to KCL
The algebraic Sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction
V4 V2

V4 V5

V4 - AVe
0

R4

R7

V4 V2

Rout

V4 V5

V4 A (VS V5)
0

R4
V4

R7
V2

V4

Hint: Rin + R5 = Rin

Rout
V5

V4

AVS

AV5
0

R4

R4

-1

R7

R7

Rout

Rout

R4

R7
A

V2
R4
-1

V4
Rout
1

V2
R4

Rout

V4
Rout

V5
Rout R7
AVS

V5
Rout

AVS
Rout
(iv)

Rout

Applying KCL at node V5


According to KCL
The algebraic Sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
V5 VS

V5

2000-E-41

281

V5 V4
0

Rin

R6 R7

V5

V5

V4
0

R6

R7

R7

-1

V4

V5

R7

R6

(v)

R7

Writing equations (i) to (v) in matrix form

-1
0

R1

R2

R3

V2

V3

-1
0

R3

R4

R4

-A

Rout

Rout

-1
0

0
R4

V4
Rout
-1

V1

R3

-1
R3

Rout
1

V5
R7

R6

R7

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
A

24
R1

AVS
Rout

0
B

2000-E-41

282
X

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

R2

R3

R3

-1

R3

R3

R4

-1
0

0
R4

-A
A

0
Rout

Rout

-1

Rout

Rout

-1

R7

R6

R7

0
R4

283

-1
0

R1

2000-E-41

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2000-E-41

284

A Reduction Formula for Evaluating Determinants

a11
a21
a31
a41
a51

a12
a22
a32
a42
a52

a13
a23
a33
a43
a53

a14
a24
a34
a44
a54

a15
a25
a35
a45
a55

a11 a12 a11 a13 a11 a14 a11 a15


a21 a22 a21 a23 a21 a24 a21 a25
a11 a12 a11 a13 a11 a14 a11 a15
n-2

1
a11

a31
a11
a41
a11
a51

a32
a12
a42
a12
a52

R1

R2

a31
a11
a41
a11
a51

a33
a13
a43
a13
a53

a31
a11
a41
a11
a51

a34
a14
a44
a14
a54

a11

a31
a11
a41
a11
a51

a35
a15
a45
a15
a55
-1

a12

a13

R3

R3
a14

0
-1

a15

a21
R3

R3

R4

a22

a23

a25

-1
a24
R4
-A
a31

a32
Rout

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

2000-E-41

285

A
a33

a34

a41

a43

Rout
a35

0
-1

a42
R4
1

a44

a45
Rout

Rout

a51

a52

a53

a54

0
-1
R7

R6

R7

a55

a11
a21
1
R1
-1
R3

a12
a22
1

-1

R2

R3

R3
1

R3

R4

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

R2

R3

2000-E-41

1
a11

R1
a11
a21
1

R3

R4

R32

a13
a23
1

1
0

R1
-1

R2

R3
0

R3
0

a12

a11
a21

a14
a24

1
0

R1
-1

R2

R3
-1

R3

R4

-1
a13

R1

R2

a11
a21
1

R3

R4

a15
a25
1

1
0

R1
-1

R2

R3
0

286

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

2000-E-41

R3
0

a14

a11
a31

a12
a32

1
R1

-1

R2

R3

R3
-A

0
Rout

-A

R2

R3

Rout

a21
R1
a11
a31

a13
a33

R2

R3

0
R1

A
0
Rout

R2

R3

A
a22

R1
a11
a31

a14
a34

Rout

287

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
1

1
0

R1

R2

R3

a23

a11
a31

a15
a35

1
0

R1

R2

R3

a24

a11
a41

a12
a42

1
R1

-1

R2

R3

R3
-1

0
R4

-1

2000-E-41

288

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

2000-E-41
a31

R1

R2

a11
a41
1

R3

R4

a13
a43
1

1
0

R1

R2

R3

a32

a11
a41

a14
a44

R2

R3

0
R1

1
0
Rout

1
a33

R1

R2

a11
a41
1

R3

Rout

a15
a45
1

R2

R3

0
R1

A
0
Rout

289

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
1

2000-E-41

A
a34

R1

R2

a11
a51
1
R1

R3

a12
a52
1

-1

R2

R3

R3

a41

a11
a51

a13
a53

Rout

R2

R3

0
R1
0

a42

a11
a51

a14
a54

290

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
1

2000-E-41

1
0

R1

R2

R3
-1

0
R7

R2

R3

-1
a43

R1
a11
a51
1

R7

a15
a55
1

R2

R3

0
R1

R6

R7

1
a44

R1

R2

R3

R6

R7

a11
a21

a12
a22

a13
a23

a14
a24

a31
a41

a32
a42

a33
a43

a34
a44

a11 a12 a11 a13 a11 a14


a21 a22 a21 a23 a21 a24
n-2

1
a11

a11
a21

a12
a22

a11
a31
a11
a41

a12
a32
a12
a42

a11
a31
a11
a41

a13
a33
a13
a43

a11
a31
a11
a41

a14
a34
a14
a44

291

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

2000-E-41

292

= a11a22 a21a12
1

R2

R3

R1

R2

R3

Rout

a11
R1
a11
a21

R3

R32

a13
a23

= a11a23 a21a13
1
1
1
R1

R4

R2

a11
a21

R3

A
Rout

1
R1

R2

R3

-1
R4

a12

a14
a24

= a11a24 a21a14
0

a13

a11
a31

a12
a32

= a11a32 a31a12
0

a21

a11
a31

a13
a33

= a11a33 a31a13
1
R1

R2

R3

1
R3

1
R4

1
R32

R1

R2

R3

1
Rout

1
R1
a11
a31

R2

R3
a14
a34

-1
R4

a22

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

2000-E-41

293

= a11a34 a31a14
1

R2

R3

R1

R2

R3

Rout

-1

R1

R2

R3

R7

R1

R2

R3

R6

a23
R1
a11
a41

R3

R32

R4

a12
a42

= a11a42 a41a12
0

a31

a11
a41

a13
a43

= a11a43 a41a13
1

R2

R3

a32
R1
a11
a41

R3

R32

R4

a14
a44

= a11a44 a41a14
1

R2

R3
a11
a21

R3
a12
a22

R4
a13
a23

a31

a32

a33

1
a33

R1

R32

R7

a11 a12 a11 a13


n-2

1
a11
a11
a21

a21 a22 a21 a23


a11 a12 a11 a13
a31 a32 a31 a33

a12
a22

= a11a22 a21a12
1

A
a11

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
R1

1
R1

R2

R3

R2

R3

R3

R4

1
R3

1
R4

R32

1
R32

R3

2000-E-41

R1

R2

R1

R2

R3

Rout

R1

R2

R3

Rout

R1

R2

R3

Rout

R1

R2

R3

Rout

-1

R1

R2

R3

R7

R1

R2

R3

Rout

294

Rout

1
R1

R2

R3

-1
R4

a11
a13
a21
a23
= a11a23 a21a13
1

R2

R3

R2

R3

a12
R1
1
R1
a11
a31

R3
1
R3

R4
1
R4

R32
1
R32

a12
a32

= a11a32 a31a12

R2

R3

R2

R3

a21
R1
1
R1

R3
1
R3

R4
1
R4

R32
1
R32

a11
a13
a31
a33
= a11a33 a31a13
1

R2

R3

a22
R1
1

R3
1

R4
1

R32
1

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
R1

R2

R3

R3

a11

a12

a21

a22

R2

R3

R2

R3

R4

R32

2000-E-41

R1

R2

R3

R6

R7

R1

R2

R3

Rout

R1

R2

R3

Rout

R1

R2

R3

Rout

R1

R2

R3

R6

R1

R2

R3

Rout

-1

R1

R2

R3

R7

R1

R2

R3

Rout

R1

R2

R3

Rout

A
1
R1
1
R1

R3

1
R4

1
R3

1
R4

1
R32
1
R32

1
R1
1
R1
1
R1
1
R1
1
R1
1
R1
1
R1

R2

R3

R2

R3

R2

R3

R2

R3

R2

R3

R2

R3

R2

R3
a11
a21
a31

R3
a12
a22
a32

R4
a13
a23
a33

-1
R4
1
R3
1
R3
1
R3
1
R3
1
R3

1
R4
1
R4
1
R4
1
R4
1
R4

1
R32
1
R32
1
R32
1
R32
1
R32
1
R32
a14
a24
a34

a15
a25
a35

1
R7

295

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
a41

a42

a43

a44

a45

a51

a52

a53

a54

a55

n-2

n2

2000-E-41

n-2

a11

a12

a11

a11

a11

a21

a22

a11

a12

a11
a11
a11
Here
Rin = 108
Rout = 10
A = 105
We to bring about a result that

a21

a22

A
5-2

1
>>

1
&

RF

Ri

R0

3-2

R1

1
&
R2

1
1
&
&
RI
RF

&
RF

1
<<

R0
>>

42

Rin

Here R0 = Rout; Ri = Rin


Let R1 = R6 = 1 k
R2 = R 3 = R 4 = R 5 = R
After simplifying we get
57.6 104 (R7 + 1000)

576 108

1000 R7R10
R7R10
4
57.6 10 (R7 + 1000) - 576 1011
1000 R7R10
1

-1

24

R3

R1

0
R1

R2

R3

296

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
-1

2000-E-41

-1
0

R3

R3

297

R4

R4

-A
0

Rout
-1

AVS

Rout

Rout

-1

R7

R6

R7

0
R4

Rout

V3
A

-1

24

R3

R1

0
R1
-1

R2

R3

-1
0

R3

R3

R4

R4

-A
0

Rout
-1

AVS

Rout

Rout

0
R4

Rout

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

2000-E-41

298

-1

R7

R6

R7

A Reduction Formula for Evaluating Determinants

a11
a21
a31
a41
a51

a12
a22
a32
a42
a52

a13
a23
a33
a43
a53

a14
a24
a34
a44
a54

a15
a25
a35
a45
a55

a11 a12 a11 a13 a11 a14 a11 a15


a21 a22 a21 a23 a21 a24 a21 a25
a11 a12 a11 a13 a11 a14 a11 a15
n-2

1
a11

a31
a11
a41
a11
a51

a32
a12
a42
a12
a52

R1

R2

a31
a11
a41
a11
a51

a33
a13
a43
a13
a53

a31
a11
a41
a11
a51

a34
a14
a44
a14
a54

a11

a31
a11
a41
a11
a51

a35
a15
a45
a15
a55
-1

a12
R3

R3

24
a13

a14

R1
-1
a15

a21
R3

R3

R4

a22
a24
-1

a23

a25

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

2000-E-41

299

R4
-A
a31

a32
Rout

a33
a35

0
0

a34
a41

0
0

-1
a42

AVS

a43
R4

Rout

a44

a45
Rout

Rout

a51

a52

a53

a54

0
-1
R7

R6

R7

a55

a11
a21
1
R1
-1

a12
a22
1

-1

R2

R3

R3
1

R3

R4

R3

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

2000-E-41
a11

R1

R2

a11
a21
1
R1
-1

R3

R3

R4

R32

a13
a23
1

24

R2

R3

R1
0

R3

24
a12
R3 R1
a11
a21
1

a14
a24
1

1
0

R1
-1

R2

R3
-1

R3

R4

-1
a13

R1

R2

a11
a21
1

R3

R4

a15
a25
1

R2

R3

0
R1
-1

0
R3

300

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

a14

a11
a31

a12
a32

1
R1

-1

R2

R3

R3
-A

2000-E-41

0
Rout

-A
a21

R1

R2

a11
a31
1
R1

R3
a13
a33

24

R2

R3

R1

a22

a11
a31

a14
a34

Rout

1
0

R1
0

R2

R3
0

301

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
0

a23

a11
a31

a15
a35

R2

R3

2000-E-41

0
R1
0

0
a11
a41
1
R1

a24
a12
a42
1

-1

R2

R3

R3
-1

0
R4

R2

R3

-1
a31

R1
a11
a41
1
R1

R4

a13
a43
1

R2

R3

24
R1
AVS

0
Rout

AVS
a32

R1

R2

R3

Rout

302

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

a11
a41
1

2000-E-41

a14
a44
1

R2

R3

0
R1

1
0
Rout

R2

R3

Rout

a33
R1
a11
a41
1

a15
a45
1

R2

R3

0
R1

A
0
Rout

R2

R3

A
a34

R1
a11
a51
1

Rout

a12
a52
1

-1

303

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
R1

R2

R3

R3

a41

a11
a51

a13
a53

1
R1

24

R2

R3

R1

a42

a11
a51

a14
a54

2000-E-41

R2

R3

0
R1

-1
0
R7

-1
a43

R1

R2

a11
a51
1

R3
a15
a55

R7

304

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

2000-E-41

0
R1

R2

R3
1

R6

R7

1
a44

R1

R2

R3

R6

R7

a11
a21

a12
a22

a13
a23

a14
a24

a31
a41

a32
a42

a33
a43

a34
a44

a11 a12 a11 a13 a11 a14


a21 a22 a21 a23 a21 a24
n-2

1
a11

a11
a21

a11
a31
a11
a41

a12
a32
a12
a42

a11
a31
a11
a41

a13
a33
a13
a43

a11
a31
a11
a41

a14
a34
a14
a44

a12
a22

= a11a22 a21a12
1
1
1

24
a11

R1
a11
a21

R2

R3
a13
a23

Rout

R1R3

305

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
= a11a23 a21a13
1
1
1
R1

R2

a11
a21

R3

A
Rout

1
R1

R2

R3

2000-E-41

306

-1
R4

a12

a14
a24

= a11a24 a21a14
0

a13

a11
a31

a12
a32

= a11a32 a31a12
1
R1
1
R1

R2

R3

R2

R3

a11
a31

1
R3

1
R4

-1
R4

1
R32

1
R1

1
R2

1
R3

AVS

Rout

24
R1R3

a21

a13
a33

= a11a33 a31a13
1
R1

R2

R3

1
R3

1
R4

1
R32

R1

R2

R3

1
Rout

1
R1
a11
a31

R2

R3
a14
a34

= a11a34 a31a14

-1
R4

a22

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

2000-E-41

307

A
a23

R1
a11
a41

R2

R3

R3

R4

R3

R1

R2

R3

Rout

a12
a42

= a11a42 a41a12
0

a31

a11
a41

a13
a43

= a11a43 a41a13
1

-1
a32

R1
a11
a41

R2

R3

R3

R4

R3

R1

R2

R3

R7

a14
a44

= a11a44 a41a14
1

1
a33

R1

R2
A

R3
a11
a21

R3
a12
a22

R4
a13
a23

a31

a32

a33

R3

R1

a11 a12 a11 a13


n-2

1
a11
a11
a21

a21 a22 a21 a23


a11 a12 a11 a13
a31 a32 a31 a33

a12
a22

= a11a22 a21a12
1
1
1

24

R2

R3

R6

R7

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
R1
1
R1

R2

R3

Rout

R2

R3

R3

2000-E-41

308

R1R3
1
R4

1
R32

R1

R2

R3

1
Rout

1
R1
1
R1
1
R1
1
R1

R2

R3

R2

R3

R2

R3

R2

R3

-1
R4
1
R3

R1
1
R1

R4

-1
R4

Rout

R2

R3

Rout

R2

R3

a11
a31

1
R32

R1

R2

1
R3

AVS

Rout

24
R1R3

a11
a13
a21
a23
= a11a23 a21a13
1
1
1

R3

a11

1
R1

R2

R3

-1
R4

24
R1R3
1
R4

1
R32

R1

R2

R3

Rout

a12

a12
a32

= a11a32 a31a12
1

R2

R3

Rout

24
a21

R1
1

R1R3
1

-1

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
R1

R2

a11
a31

R3

R3

R4

R32

R1

R2

2000-E-41

R3

309

R7

a13
a33

= a11a33 a31a13

24
a22

R1
1
R1

R2

R3

Rout

R2

R3
a11

R3
a12

a21
1

a22
A

24

R2

R3

Rout

R1R3

R2

R3

A
1
R1
1
R1

R3

R1R3
1
R4

1
R4

1
R32

1
R32

R1

R2

R3

R6

R1

R2

R3

1
R7

1
Rout

1
R1
1
R1
1
R1

R2

R3

R2

R3

R2

R3

-1
R4
1
R3
-1
R4

1
R4
24
R1R3

1
R32

R1

R2

1
R3

Rout

AVS

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

R2

R3

R2

R3

Rout

R1
1

R2
1

R3
1

R3

R1

R2

R3

Rout

R1
1

R2
1

R3
1

R3

R1

R2

R3

Rout

R2

R3
a11
a21
a31
a41
a51

R3
a12
a22
a32
a42
a52

R4
a13
a23
a33
a43
a53

R1
1
R1
1

1
R1

A
Rout

R1

R2

R3

-1
R4

24
R1R3
1

R4
24

1
R32

R1

R2

R3

R6

-1

R1

R2

R3

R7

R1

R2

R3

Rout

R1R3
1

n-2

R4
24

1
R32

R1R3

n2

1
R32
a14
a24
a34
a44
a54

a15
a25
a35
a45
a55

n-2

a11

a12

a11

a11

a11

a21

a22

B
5-2

a11
Here
Rin = 108

2000-E-41

42

3-2

a11

a12

a11

a11

a21

a22

1
R7

310

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

2000-E-41

311

Rout = 10
A = 105
We to bring about a result that
1

1
>>

1
&

RF

Ri

R0

&
RF

R1

&
R2

<<

R0
>>

1
&
RI

1
&
RF

Rin

Here R0 = Rout; Ri = Rin


Let R1 = R6 = 1 k
R2 = R 3 = R 4 = R 5 = R
After simplifying we get
R = 6.265 k
R7 = 1 k
Hint: (a + b + c) 3 = a3 + b3 + c3 + 3a (b2 + c2) + 3b (a2 + c2) + 3c (a2 + b2) + 6abc
When
VS = 1 V
V3 (kappa number) = 12
When
VS = 5 V
V3 (kappa number) = 20
Q#4.53: An operator in a chemical plant would like to have a set of indicator lights that
indicate when a certain chemical flow is between certain specific values. The operator
wants a red light to indicate a flow of at least 10 GPM, red and yellow lights to indicate
a flow of 60 GPM, and red, yellow and green lights to indicate a flow rate of 80 GPM.
The 4-20 mA flow meter instrument outputs 4 mA when the flow is zero and 20 mA
when the flow rate is 100 GPM.
An experienced engineer has suggested the circuit shown in figure. The 4-20 mA flow
meter and 250 resistor provide a 1-5 V signal, which serves as one input for the three
comparators. The light bulbs will turn on when the negative input to a comparator is
higher than the positive input. Using this network, design a circuit that will satisfy the
operators requirements.
Solution:

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2000-E-41

312

12 V
12 V
+
250

VS

Green
IS = 4-20 mA

12 V
Yellow
12 V
12 V
Red

R1
VG
R2

R3
VY
R4

R5
VR
R6

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

2000-E-41

313

In electronics, a comparator is a device which compares two voltages or currents and


switches its output to indicate which is larger. More generally, the term is also used to
refer to a device that compares two items of data. A standard op-amp without negative
feedback can be used as a comparator, as indicated in the following diagram.

So you want to measure flow? The answer would seem to be to purchase a flowmeter. With fluid
flow defined as the amount of fluid that travels past a given location, this would seem to be
straightforward any flowmeter would suffice. However, consider the following equation
describing the flow of a fluid in a pipe.
Q=Axv

IS = m (flow) + b
The 4-20 mA flow meter instrument outputs 4 mA when the flow is zero and 20 mA
when the flow rate is 100 GPM.
IS = m (flow) + b
4 mA = m (0) + b
4 mA = b
IS = m (flow) + b
20 mA = m (100) + 4 mA
16 mA = m (100)
m = 0.16 mA per GPM

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2000-E-41

314

The slope of a line in the plane containing the x and y axes is generally represented by the
letter m, and is defined as the change in the y coordinate divided by the corresponding
change in the x coordinate, between two distinct points on the line. This is described by
the following equation:

When the flow rate is 80 GPM


IS = 0.16 mA per GPM (80) + 4 mA
IS = 16.8 mA
VS = IS (250)
VS = 16.8 mA (250)
VS = 4.2 Volt
Desire VS = VG
According to Voltage Divider Rule
R2
VG =

12 V = VS = 4.2 V
R1 + R 2

4.2 (R1 + R2) = 12 R2


4.2 R1 + 4.2 R2 = 12 R2
4.2 R1 + 4.2 R2 12 R2 = 0
4.2 R1 7.8 R2 = 0
Choose R2 = 1 k
4.2 R1 7.8 (1) = 0
R1 = 1.86 k
When the flow rate is 60 GPM
IS = 0.16 mA per GPM (60) + 4 mA
IS = 13.6 mA
VS = IS (250)
VS = 13.6 mA (250)
VS = 3.4 Volt
Desire VS = VY
According to Voltage Divider Rule
R4

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Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
VY =

2000-E-41

315

12 V = VS = 3.4 V
R3 + R 4

3.4 (R3 + R4) = 12 R4


3.4 R3 + 3.4 R4 = 12 R4
3.4 R3 + 3.4 R4 12 R4 = 0
3.4 R3 8.6 R4 = 0
Choose R4 = 1 k
3.4 R3 8.6 (1) = 0
R3 = 2.53 k
When the flow rate is 10 GPM
IS = 0.16 mA per GPM (10) + 4 mA
IS = 5.6 mA
VS = IS (250)
VS = 5.6 mA (250)
VS = 1.4 Volt
Desire VS = VR
According to Voltage Divider Rule
R6
VR =

12 V = VS = 1.4 V
R5 + R 6

1.4 (R5 + R6) = 12 R6


1.4 R5 + 1.4 R6 = 12 R6
1.4 R5 + 1.4 R6 12 R6 = 0
1.4 R5 10.6 R6 = 0
Choose R6 = 1 k
1.4 R5 10.6 (1) = 0
R5 = 7.57 k
Q#4.54: An industrial plant has a requirement for a circuit that uses as input the
temperature of a vessel and outputs a voltage proportional to the vessels temperature.
The vessels temperature ranges from 00C to 5000C, and the corresponding output of the
circuit should range from 0 to 12 V. A RTD, which is a linear device whose resistance
changes with temperature according to the plot in figure, is available. The problem then
is to use this RTD to design a circuit that employs this device as an input and produces a
0-12 V signal at the output, where 0 V corresponds to 00C and 12 V corresponds to
5000C. An engineer familiar with this problem suggests the use of the circuit shown in
figure in which the RTD bridge circuit provides the input to a standard instrumentation

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Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

2000-E-41

316

amplifier. Determine the component values in this network needed to satisfy the design
requirements.
Solution:
Circuit diagram:

24 V
V0
R1

R2

R5
V3

12 V

V1
V2

24 V

R4
V4

RTD

R3
R4
V5

R5

RG

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

2000-E-41

317

700

600

Resistance in ohms

500

400
Series1
Series2
300

200

100

Series1

100

200

300

400

500

Series2

100

200

300

400

500

600

temperature in Degree Centigrade

Rout

R1

R2

V+
Rin
V-

AVe

V0
R5
V3

12 V

V1
R4
Rout
V2

V4
+

V
RTD

RG

R3
Rin
V-

AVe

R4
V5

R5

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

2000-E-41

318

RRTD = 100 + T (0C)


RG =
Using Nodal Analysis
Applying KCL at node V1
According to KCL
The algebraic Sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction
V1 12

V1 V3

V1
0

R1

Rin

RRTD

Here
Rin = 108
Rout = 10
A = 105
We to bring about a result that
1

>>
R0

&
RF

Ri

1
>>

R0

R1

1
&
R2

1
1
&
&
RI
RF

1
0

&
RF

1
<<

Rin

Here R0 = Rout; Ri = Rin


V1 12

V1
0

R1

RRTD

V1 12

V1
0

R1
1

R1

RRTD
1

12
V1

R1

RRTD

(i)
R1

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

2000-E-41

319

Using Nodal Analysis


Applying KCL at node V2
According to KCL
The algebraic Sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction
V2 12

V2 V5

V2

Rin

R3

0
R2
V2 12

V2

R2

R3

R2
1

12
V2

R2

(ii)

R3

R2

Using Nodal Analysis


Applying KCL at node V3
According to KCL
The algebraic Sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction
V3 V4

V3 V1

V3 V0

V3 V5
0

R4
V3

Rin
V4

V3

R5

V0

V3

RG
V5
0

R4
1

R4

R5
1

R5
1

RG

RG
-1

V3
R4

R5

RG

-1
V4

R4

-1
V5

RG

V0

(iii)

R5

Using Nodal Analysis


Applying KCL at node V4
According to KCL
The algebraic Sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction
V4 AVe

V4 V5

V4 V3

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

2000-E-41

320

0
Rout

R4

R4

Here
Ve = V+ - VVe = V2 V5
V4 A (V2 V5)

V4 V5

V4 V3
0

Rout
V4 AV2 + AV5

R4

R4

V4 V5

V4 V3
0

Rout
V4

R4
AV2

AV5

R4

V4

V5

V4

V3
0

Rout

Rout

-A

Rout

R4

R4

-1
V2

R4

V3
R4

Rout

-A

-1

V2

V4

Rout

V5

R4

Rout

V4

R4

R4

V3

Rout

R4

V5

Rout

(iv)

Rout

Using Nodal Analysis


Applying KCL at node V5
According to KCL
The algebraic Sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction
V5 V2

V5

V5 V4

V5 V3
0

Rin
V5

R5
V5

V4

R4
V5

RG
V3
0

R5
-1

R4

R4
-1

RG

RG
1

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
V3
RG

V4

V5

R4

R4

R5

2000-E-41

321

(v)

RG

Using Nodal Analysis


Applying KCL at node V0
According to KCL
The algebraic Sum of all the currents leaving that junction = the algebraic sum of all the
currents entering into the junction
V0 AVe

V0 V3
0

Rout

R5

Here
Ve = V+ - VVe = V1 V3
V0 A (V1 V3)

V0 V3

Rout
V0 AV1 + AV3

R5
V0 V3

0
0
Rout
V0

R5
AV1

AV3

V0

V3
0

Rout
-A

Rout

Rout
A

R5
1

V1
Rout

1
V0

R5

A
V1

Rout

1
V3

Rout

-A

R5
Rout

R5

1
V3

Rout

V0

Rout

Writing equations (i) to (vi) in matrix form

(vi)

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

RRTD
1

0
R2

R3
1

R4

R5

RG

-1

-1

-1

0
R4

RG

R5

-A

-1

Rout

R4

Rout

Rout

-1

-1

0
RG

-A

R4

R4

A
0

Rout

322

1
0

R1

2000-E-41

RG
1

0
Rout

R5

0
Rout

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
A

12
V1
R1
12
V2
R2

V3

V4

V5

V0

2000-E-41

323

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
X

1
0

RRTD
1

0
R2

R3
1

R4

R5

RG

-1

-1

-1

0
R4

RG

R5

-A

-1

Rout

R4

Rout

Rout

-1

-1

0
RG

-A

R4

R4

A
0

Rout

324

0
R1

2000-E-41

RG
1

0
Rout

R5

0
Rout

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

2000-E-41

325

A Reduction Formula for Evaluating Determinants

a11
a21
a31
a41
a51
a61

a12
a22
a32
a42
a52
a62

a13
a23
a33
a43
a53
a63

a14
a24
a34
a44
a54
a64

a15
a25
a35
a45
a55
a65

a16
a26
a36
a46
a56
a66

a11
a21
a11
a31
a11

a12
a22
a12
a32
a12

a11
a21
a11
a31
a11

a13
a23
a13
a33
a13

a11
a21
a11
a31
a11

a14
a24
a14
a34
a14

a11
a21
a11
a31
a11

a15
a25
a15
a35
a15

a11
a21
a11
a31
a11

a16
a26
a16
a36
a16

a41
a11
a51
a11
a61

a42
a12
a52
a12
a62

a41
a11
a51
a11
a61

a43
a13
a53
a13
a63

a41
a11
a51
a11
a61

a44
a14
a54
a14
a64

a41
a11
a51
a11
a61

a45
a15
a55
a15
a65

a41
a11
a51
a11
a61

a46
a16
a56
a16
a66

n-2

1
a11

R1

RRTD

a11
a13
a15
a21

0
0
0

a12

a14
a16
a22

0
0
1

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

2000-E-41

R2

326

R3

a23
a25

0
0

a24
a26

0
0

a31

a32

a33

-1
a34

R4

R5

RG

R4

-1

-1

a35

a36
RG

R5
-A

a41

a42
Rout

-1

a43

a44
R4

Rout

A
a45

a46

Rout
0
a51

a52

-1

a53

-1
a54

RG

a55

R4

R4

R5

RG

a56

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

2000-E-41

327

-A
a61

a62

a64

Rout
A
a63
Rout
1
a65

a66
Rout

a11
a21

a12
a22

= a11a22 a21a12
1

1
a11

R1
a11
a21

RRTD R2
a13
a23

= a11a23 a21a13
0

a12

a11
a21

a14
a24

= a11a24 a21a14
0
a11
a21

a13
a15
a25

= a11a25 a21a15
0
a11
a21

a14
a16
a26

R3

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
= a11a26 a21a16
0
a11
a31

a15
a12
a32

= a11a32 a31a12
0
a11
a31

a21
a13
a33

= a11a33 a31a13
1

1
a22

R1
a11
a31

RRTD R4
a14
a34

R5

RG

= a11a34 a31a14
1

-1
a23

R1
a11
a31

RRTD R4
a15
a35

= a11a35 a31a15
0
a11
a31

a24
a16
a36

= a11a36 a31a16
1

-1
a25

R1
a11
a41

RRTD R5
a12
a42

= a11a42 a41a12
1

-A
a31

2000-E-41

328

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
R1

RRTD

a11
a41

Rout

a13
a43

= a11a43 a41a13
1

-1
a32

R1

RRTD

a11
a41

R4

a14
a44

= a11a44 a41a14
1

1
a33

R1
a11
a41

RRTD Rout
a15
a45

= a11a45 a41a15
1

A
a34

R1
a11
a41

RRTD Rout
a16
a46

= a11a46 a41a16
0
a11
a51

a35
a12
a52

= a11a52 a51a12
0
a11
a51

a41
a13
a53

= a11a53 a51a13
0

a42

2000-E-41

329

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
a11
a51

a14
a54

= a11a54 a51a14
1

-1
a43

R1
a11
a51

RRTD R4
a15
a55

= a11a55 a51a15
1

1
a44

R1
a11
a51

RRTD R4
a16
a56

R5

RG

= a11a56 a51a16
0
a11
a61

a45
a12
a62

= a11a62 a61a12
0
a11
a61

a51
a13
a63

= a11a63 a61a13
1

A
a52

R1
a11
a61

RRTD Rout
a14
a64

= a11a64 a61a14
0
a11
a61

a53
a15
a65

= a11a65 a61a15

2000-E-41

330

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
0

a54

a11
a61

a16
a66

2000-E-41

= a11a66 a61a16
1

1
a55

R1

RRTD

Rout
a11
a21
a31
a41
a51

a12
a22
a32
a42
a52

a13
a23
a33
a43
a53

a14
a24
a34
a44
a54

a15
a25
a35
a45
a55

a11 a12 a11 a13 a11 a14 a11 a15


a21 a22 a21 a23 a21 a24 a21 a25
a11 a12 a11 a13 a11 a14 a11 a15
n-2

1
a11

a11
a21

a31
a11
a41
a11
a51

a32
a12
a42
a12
a52

a31
a11
a41
a11
a51

a33
a13
a43
a13
a53

a31
a11
a41
a11
a51

a34
a14
a44
a14
a54

a31
a11
a41
a11
a51

a35
a15
a45
a15
a55

a12
a22

= a11a22 a21a12
1
1

1
a11

R1
a11
a21

RRTD R2
a13
a23

= a11a23 a21a13
1
1

R3

R1

RRTD

R4

R5

RG

-1
a12

R1
a11
a21

RRTD R2
a14
a24

= a11a24 a21a14
0
a11

a13
a15

R3

R1

RRTD

R4

331

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
a21

a25

= a11a25 a21a15
1
1

-1
a14

R1

RRTD

a11
a31

R2

R3

R1

RRTD

R5

a12
a32

= a11a32 a31a12
1
1

-1
a21

R1
a11
a31

RRTD R2
a13
a33

= a11a33 a31a13
1
1

R3

R1

RRTD

R4

1
a22

R1
a11
a31

RRTD R2
a14
a34

= a11a34 a31a14
1
1

R3

R1

RRTD

Rout

A
a23

R1
a11
a31

RRTD R2
a15
a35

R3

R1

RRTD

Rout

= a11a35 a31a15
1

12

R1

RRTD

a15
a11
a41

a12
a42

= a11a42 a41a12
0
a11
a41

a31
a13
a43

R2

2000-E-41

332

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
= a11a43 a41a13
1
1

2000-E-41

333

-1
a32

R1
a11
a41

RRTD R2
a14
a44

= a11a44 a41a14
1
1

R3

R1

RRTD

R4

1
a33

R1
a11
a41

RRTD R2
a15
a45

R3

R1

RRTD

R4

R5

RG

= a11a45 a41a15
0
a11
a51

a34
a12
a52

= a11a52 a51a12
1
1

A
a41

R1
a11
a51

RRTD R2
a13
a53

R3

R1

RRTD

Rout

= a11a53 a51a13
0
a11
a51

a42
a14
a54

= a11a54 a51a14
0
a11
a51

a43
a15
a55

= a11a55 a51a15
1
1

1
a44

R1

RRTD

R2
a11
a21

R3
a12
a22

R1 RRTD
a13
a14
a23
a24

Rout

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
a31

a32

a33

a34

a41

a42

a43

a44

2000-E-41

334

a11 a12 a11 a13 a11 a14


a21 a22 a21 a23 a21 a24
n-2

1
a11

a11
a21

a11
a31
a11
a41

a12
a32
a12
a42

a11
a31
a11
a41

a13
a33
a13
a43

a11
a31
a11
a41

a14
a34
a14
a44

a12
a22

= a11a22 a21a12
1

R1

RRTD

1
R1

RRTD

Rout

R2

R3

a11
a21

R2

1
R1
a13
a23

= a11a23 a21a13

R3

R1

RRTD

R4

R1

RRTD

1
RRTD

R2

R5
R3

-1
R4

a11

1
R1

RG

R1

1
RRTD

1
1
RRTD R4

-1
R1

R2

R3

1
RRTD

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

R1

RRTD

R2

1
R3

1
R1

1
RRTD

1
R4

2000-E-41

RG

R1

R5

335

RRTD

R2

R3

A
a12

R1

RRTD

a11
a21

Rout

a14
a24

= a11a24 a21a14
1

R1

RRTD

R2

1
R3

1
R1

1
RRTD

R4

R1

RRTD

R2

R3

RG

R1

RRTD

R2

R3

R1

RRTD

-1
a13
R5
a11
a31

a12
a32

= a11a32 a31a12
1

R1

RRTD

R2

1
R3

1
R1

1
RRTD

R4

R5

-1
a21

R1

RRTD

a11
a31

R4

a13
a33

= a11a33 a31a13
1

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

2000-E-41

336
a22

R1

RRTD

a11
a31

R2

R3

R1

RRTD

R4

R5

RG

a14
a34

= a11a34 a31a14
0
a11
a41

a23
a12
a42

= a11a42 a41a12
1
1
R1

RRTD

R2

R3

1
R1

1
RRTD

R4

R1

RRTD

RG

R1

RRTD

R2

R3

R2

1
R3

R1

RRTD

A
a31
Rout
a11
a41

a13
a43

= a11a43 a41a13
0
a11
a41

a32
a14
a44

= a11a44 a41a14
1

R1

RRTD

R2

1
R1

1
RRTD

1
Rout

R2

R3

1
R1

1
R3

1
R1

1
RRTD

R4

1
R1

RRTD

1
RRTD

R2

R5
R3

-1
R5

a33

1
R1

1
1
RRTD Rout

A
R1

1
RRTD

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
A

a11
a21

a12
a22

a13
a23

a31

a32

a33

2000-E-41

337

a11 a12 a11 a13


n-2

1
a11
a11
a21

a21 a22 a21 a23


a11 a12 a11 a13
a31 a32 a31 a33

a12
a22

= a11a22 a21a12
1

R1

RRTD

R2

1
R1

1
RRTD

1
Rout

R2

R3

1
R3

1
R1

RRTD

R4

1
R1

RRTD

R1

R2

R5

RG

R1

RRTD

1
R1

R3

1
1
RRTD R4

-1
R1

R2

R3

1
RRTD

-1

RRTD

R4
2

R1

RRTD

R1

RRTD

R1

RRTD

R1

RRTD

R2

1
R3

1
R2

1
R1

1
R3

1
RRTD

1
R1

1
R4

1
RRTD

R5
1

R4

R5

RG
1

RG

R1

RRTD

R2

R3

RG

R1

RRTD

R2

R3

-1
R4
1
R2

1
R3

1
R1

1
RRTD

1
R4

R5

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
R1

RRTD

2000-E-41

338

Rout
a11

a11
a21

a13
a23

= a11a23 a21a13
1

R1

RRTD

R1

RRTD

R1

RRTD

R2

1
R3

R1

R2

1
R3
a12

a12
a32

= a11a32 a31a12

RRTD

1
R4

R5

RG

R1

RRTD

R2

R3

R4

-1

a11
a31

R5

1
R1

1
RRTD

R4

R1

RRTD

R2

R3

R1

RRTD

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

R1

RRTD

R2

R3

1
R1

1
RRTD

R4

2000-E-41

339

R1

RRTD

R2

R3

R1

RRTD

R2

R3

RG

R1

RRTD

R1

RRTD

-A
Rout
1

R1

RRTD

R1

RRTD

a11
a31

R2

R3

1
R1

1
RRTD

R4

R5

RG

A
Rout

a21

a13
a33

= a11a33 a31a13
1

R1

RRTD

R2

1
R1

1
RRTD

1
Rout

R3

R2

R3

R1

RRTD

1
R1

RRTD

Rout

R2

R3

RRTD

R4

RRTD

R2

R5
1
R1

R3

1
1
RRTD R4

R2

-1
R1

R3

1
RRTD

R4
1

R3

R1

RRTD

R4

R1

RRTD

1
RRTD

-1

RRTD

R2

1
R1

R1

R1

R1

-1
R5

R2

R5
R3

1
R1

RG

R1

RRTD

R2

R3

1
1
RRTD Rout

A
R1

1
RRTD

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

R1

RRTD

1
R2

1
R3

1
R1

1
RRTD

R4

R1

RRTD

R1

RRTD

1
R2

2000-E-41

1
R3

1
R1

340

RRTD

A
Rout
1

R1
-1

RRTD

1
R2

1
R3

1
R1

1
RRTD

R4
a22

R5
a11

a12

a21

a22

A
= a11a22 a21a12

1
R2

1
R3

1
R1

1
RRTD

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

R1

RRTD

1
R1

RRTD

Rout

R2

R3

R2

R3

R1

RRTD

R4

R1

RRTD

R1

R2

R5
R3

RG

1
R1

2000-E-41

R1

1
RRTD

1
1
RRTD R4

-1
R1

341

R2

R3

1
RRTD

-1

RRTD

R4
2

R1

RRTD

R1

RRTD

R1

RRTD

R1
1

RRTD
1

R2

R1

RRTD

Rout

R1
1
R1

RRTD
1
RRTD

1
R2

1
R3

1
R2

1
R1

1
R3

1
RRTD

1
R1

1
R4

1
RRTD

R5
1

R4

R5

RG
1

RG

R1

RRTD

R2

R3

RG

R1

RRTD

R2

R3

-1
R4
1

1
R3

1
R1

1
RRTD

1
R4

R5

1
R2
1
Rout
1

1
R3
R1
1

1
R1
1

RRTD R4 R5 RG R1 RRTD R2
R3
1
1
1
1
1
-1
1
1
RRTD R2 R3 R1 RRTD R4 R1 RRTD
-1

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
R2

R3

R1
1
R1

RRTD
1
RRTD

R2

R3

R1

RRTD

R1

RRTD
1
R3

1
Rout
1

1
R1
1

R1
1

R1

RRTD R4 R5 RG R1 RRTD R2
R3
1
1
1
1
1
A
1
RRTD R2 R3 R1 RRTD Rout R1 RRTD

1
1

-1

RRTD

R2

342

R4

1
R2

2000-E-41

R5

1
R3

1
R1

1
RRTD

R4

R1

RRTD

R1

RRTD

R1

RRTD

RG

R1

RRTD

R2

R3

R2

1
R3

1
R1

RRTD

A
Rout

R1

RRTD

1
R2

1
R3

1
R1

1
RRTD

R4

1
R2

1
R3

1
R1

RRTD

-1
R5

R1

RRTD

1
R2

1
R3

1
R1

1
RRTD

R4

1
R2

1
R3

1
R1

RRTD

-A
Rout
1

R1

RRTD

1
R2

1
R3

1
R1

1
RRTD

R4

R5

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
1

R1

RRTD

R1
1

RRTD
1

R2
1

R1

RRTD

R4

R1
-1
R5

RRTD

2000-E-41

A
Rout
1

1
R3

1
R1

R2

R3

n-2

1
RRTD

1
R1

R4

1
RRTD

n2

R4

n-2

RG

R1

RRTD

R2

R3

R5

R1

RRTD

R2

R3

n-2

a11

a12

a11

a11

a11

a11

a21

a22

A
6-2

52

4-2

3-2

a11

a12

a11
a11
a11
Choose R1 = R2 = R3 = 100
R4 = R5 = 10 k
RG = 25 k
After simplifying we get
A = 22.947 10+4
V0 =?

a11

a21

a22

343

R1

RRTD

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

12
0

R1

RRTD

R1
1

R2

R3

2000-E-41

12
0

0
R2

R4

R5

RG

-1

-1

-A

R4

-1

RG
1

0
Rout

R4

Rout

Rout

-1

-1

1
0

RG
-A

R4

R4

R5

RG

A
0

Rout

0
Rout
A

344

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

2000-E-41

345

A Reduction Formula for Evaluating Determinants

a11
a21
a31
a41
a51
a61

a12
a22
a32
a42
a52
a62

a13
a23
a33
a43
a53
a63

a14
a24
a34
a44
a54
a64

a15
a25
a35
a45
a55
a65

a16
a26
a36
a46
a56
a66

a11
a21
a11
a31
a11

a12
a22
a12
a32
a12

a11
a21
a11
a31
a11

a13
a23
a13
a33
a13

a11
a21
a11
a31
a11

a14
a24
a14
a34
a14

a11
a21
a11
a31
a11

a15
a25
a15
a35
a15

a11
a21
a11
a31
a11

a16
a26
a16
a36
a16

a41
a11
a51
a11
a61

a42
a12
a52
a12
a62

a41
a11
a51
a11
a61

a43
a13
a53
a13
a63

a41
a11
a51
a11
a61

a44
a14
a54
a14
a64

a41
a11
a51
a11
a61

a45
a15
a55
a15
a65

a41
a11
a51
a11
a61

a46
a16
a56
a16
a66

n-2

1
a11

a11
R1

a12

0
0

RRTD

a13

a14

a15

a16

12
R1
a21

a22

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

a23

2000-E-41

346

R2

R3

a24

0
12

a25

a26
R2

a31

a32

R4

R5

RG

a33

0
-1

a34
R4

-1
a35

a36

RG
0
-A
Rout
a41

a42

-1
a43

a45

R4

A
Rout

1
a44

a46

Rout

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

2000-E-41

347
0

a51

a52

-1

a53

-1
a54

RG

a55

R4

R4

R5

RG

a56

a62

a64

a66

-A
a61
Rout
A
a63
Rout
a65
a11
a21

a12
a22

= a11a22 a21a12

1
a11

R1
a11
a21

RRTD R2
a13
a23

= a11a23 a21a13
0

a12

a11
a21

a14
a24

R3

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
= a11a24 a21a14
0
a11
a21

a13
a15
a25

= a11a25 a21a15
0
a11
a21

a14
a16
a26

= a11a26 a21a16
1

12
a15

R1
a11
a31

RRTD R2
a12
a32

= a11a32 a31a12
0
a11
a31

a21
a13
a33

= a11a33 a31a13
1

1
a22

R1
a11
a31

RRTD R4
a14
a34

R5

RG

= a11a34 a31a14
1

-1
a23

R1
a11
a31

RRTD R4
a15
a35

= a11a35 a31a15
0

a24

2000-E-41

348

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
a11
a31

a16
a36

= a11a36 a31a16
0
a11
a41

a25
a12
a42

= a11a42 a41a12
1

-A
a31

R1
a11
a41

RRTD Rout
a13
a43

= a11a43 a41a13
1

-1
a32

R1

RRTD

a11
a41

R4

a14
a44

= a11a44 a41a14
1

1
a33

R1
a11
a41

RRTD Rout
a15
a45

= a11a45 a41a15
1

A
a34

R1
a11
a41

RRTD Rout
a16
a46

= a11a46 a41a16
0

a35

2000-E-41

349

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
a11
a51

a12
a52

= a11a52 a51a12
0
a11
a51

a41
a13
a53

= a11a53 a51a13
0

a42

a11
a51

a14
a54

= a11a54 a51a14
1

-1
a43

R1
a11
a51

RRTD R4
a15
a55

= a11a55 a51a15
1

1
a44

R1
a11
a51

RRTD R4
a16
a56

R5

= a11a56 a51a16
0
a11
a61

a45
a12
a62

= a11a62 a61a12
0
a11
a61

a51
a13
a63

= a11a63 a61a13
1

RG

2000-E-41

350

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

2000-E-41

a52
R1

RRTD

a11
a61

Rout

a14
a64

= a11a64 a61a14
0
a11
a61

a53
a15
a65

= a11a65 a61a15
0
a11
a61

a54
a16
a66

= a11a66 a61a16
12

R1

Rout

a55
a11
a21
a31
a41
a51

a12
a22
a32
a42
a52

a13
a23
a33
a43
a53

a14
a24
a34
a44
a54

a15
a25
a35
a45
a55

a11 a12 a11 a13 a11 a14 a11 a15


a21 a22 a21 a23 a21 a24 a21 a25
a11 a12 a11 a13 a11 a14 a11 a15
n-2

1
a11

a11
a21

a31
a11
a41
a11
a51

a32
a12
a42
a12
a52

a31
a11
a41
a11
a51

a33
a13
a43
a13
a53

a31
a11
a41
a11
a51

a34
a14
a44
a14
a54

a31
a11
a41
a11
a51

a35
a15
a45
a15
a55

a12
a22

= a11a22 a21a12
1
1

1
a11

R1
a11

RRTD R2
a13

R3

R1

RRTD

R4

R5

RG

351

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
a21

a23

= a11a23 a21a13
1
1

-1
a12

R1
a11
a21

RRTD R2
a14
a24

R3

R1

RRTD

R4

= a11a24 a21a14
0
a11
a21

a13
a15
a25

= a11a25 a21a15
0

a14

a11
a31

a12
a32

= a11a32 a31a12
1
1

-1
a21

R1
a11
a31

RRTD R2
a13
a33

= a11a33 a31a13
1
1

R3

R1

RRTD

R4

1
a22

R1
a11
a31

RRTD R2
a14
a34

= a11a34 a31a14
1
1

R3

R1

RRTD

Rout

A
a23

R1
a11
a31

RRTD R2
a15
a35

= a11a35 a31a15

R3

R1

RRTD

Rout

2000-E-41

352

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

2000-E-41

353

12
a24

R1
a11
a41

RRTD
a12
a42

Rout

R2

= a11a42 a41a12
0
a11
a41

a31
a13
a43

= a11a43 a41a13
1
1

-1
a32

R1
a11
a41

RRTD R2
a14
a44

= a11a44 a41a14
1
1

R3

R1

RRTD

R4

1
a33

R1
a11
a41

RRTD R2
a15
a45

R3

R1

RRTD

R4

R5

RG

= a11a45 a41a15
0
a11
a51

a34
a12
a52

= a11a52 a51a12
1
1

A
a41

R1
a11
a51

RRTD R2
a13
a53

= a11a53 a51a13
0
a11

a42
a14

R3

R1

RRTD

Rout

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
a51

2000-E-41

354

a54

= a11a54 a51a14
0
a11
a51

a43
a15
a55

= a11a55 a51a15
1
1

12
a44

R1

RRTD
A

R2
a11
a21

R3
a12
a22

Rout
a13
a23

R1
a14
a24

a31
a41

a32
a42

a33
a43

a34
a44

a11 a12 a11 a13 a11 a14


a21 a22 a21 a23 a21 a24
n-2

1
a11

a11
a21

a12
a32
a12
a42

a11
a31
a11
a41

a13
a33
a13
a43

a11
a31
a11
a41

a14
a34
a14
a44

a12
a22

= a11a22 a21a12
1
1

R1

RRTD

R2

1
R1

1
RRTD

1
Rout

a11
a31
a11
a41

1
R3

1
R1

1
RRTD

R4

1
R1
1

RRTD
-1

R2

R5
R3

1
R1

RG

R1

1
RRTD

1
1
RRTD R4

-1
R1

R2

R3

1
RRTD

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
R2

R3

a11
a21

R1

RRTD

R4

2000-E-41

355

a11

a13
a23

= a11a23 a21a13

R1

RRTD

R2

1
R3

1
R1

1
RRTD

1
R4

R5

RG

R1

RRTD

R2

R3

A
a12

R1

RRTD

a11
a21

Rout

a14
a24

= a11a24 a21a14
1

R1

RRTD

R2

1
R3

1
R1

1
RRTD

1
R4

R5

1
RG

1
R1

1
RRTD

Rout

12
R2
a13
a11
a31

a12
a32

= a11a32 a31a12
1

R1

RRTD

1
R2

1
R3

1
R1

1
RRTD

1
R4

R5

1
RG

R1

RRTD

R2

R3

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
1

2000-E-41

356

-1
a21

R1

RRTD

a11
a31

R4

a13
a33

= a11a33 a31a13
1

R1

RRTD

a22
a11
a31

R2

R3

R1

RRTD

R4

R5

RG

a14
a34

= a11a34 a31a14
0
a11
a41

a23
a12
a42

= a11a42 a41a12
1
1
R1

RRTD

1
R2

1
R3

1
R1

1
RRTD

R4

R1

RRTD

R2

1
R3

1
R1

RRTD

A
a31
Rout
a11
a41

a13
a43

= a11a43 a41a13
0
a11
a41

a32
a14
a44

= a11a44 a41a14
1

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
R1

RRTD

12

Rout

R1

R2

R3

R1

RRTD

R4

R5

2000-E-41

357

RG

R1

RRTD

R2

R3

RG

R1

RRTD

R2

R3

a33

a11
a21

a12
a22

a13
a23

a31

a32

a33
a11 a12 a11 a13

n-2

1
a11
a11
a21

a21 a22 a21 a23


a11 a12 a11 a13
a31 a32 a31 a33

a12
a22

= a11a22 a21a12
1

R1

RRTD

1
R1

RRTD

Rout

R2

R3

R2

R3

R1

RRTD

R4

R1

RRTD

R1

R2

R5
1
R1

R3

1
1
RRTD R4

-1
R1

1
RRTD

-1

RRTD

R4
2

R1

RRTD

R1

RRTD

R2

1
R3

1
R2
-1

1
R1

1
R3

1
RRTD

1
R1

1
R4

1
RRTD

R5
1

R4

R5

RG
1

RG

R1

RRTD

R2

R3

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
R1

RRTD

R1

RRTD

R1

RRTD

2000-E-41

358

R4
1
R2

1
R3

1
R1

1
RRTD

1
R4

R5

RG

R1

RRTD

R2

R3

A
Rout
a11

a11
a21

a13
a23

= a11a23 a21a13
1

R1

RRTD

R1

RRTD

R2

1
R3

1
R1

1
RRTD

1
R4

R5

RG

R1

1
RRTD

R2

R3

1
R4
2

R1

RRTD

R2

1
R3

1
R1

1
RRTD

1
R4

R5

1
RG

1
R1

1
RRTD

Rout

12
R2
a12
a11
a31

a12
a32

= a11a32 a31a12

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893

R1

RRTD

R2

1
R3

1
R1

1
RRTD

R4

2000-E-41

359

R1

RRTD

R2

R3

R1

RRTD

R2

R3

R1

RRTD

-A
Rout
1

R1

RRTD

R1

RRTD

a11
a31

a13
a33

= a11a33 a31a13

R2

1
R3

1
R1

1
RRTD

R4

R5

RG

A
Rout

a21

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
1

R1

RRTD

R2

1
R1

1
RRTD

1
Rout

R2

R3

R1

RRTD

12

Rout

R1

R1

RRTD

1
R3

1
R1

R2

RRTD

R2

R5

RG

R1

RRTD

1
R1

R3

1
1
RRTD R4

R2

-1
R1

R3

1
RRTD

R4
1

R3

1
R2

R4

360

-1

RRTD
1

RRTD

1
R1
1

R1

2000-E-41

1
R1

1
R3

1
RRTD

1
R1

1
R4

1
RRTD

R4

RG

R1

RRTD

R2

R3

R5

R1

RRTD

R2

R3

1
R1

RRTD

A
Rout
2
1

R1

RRTD

1
R2

1
R3

1
R1

1
RRTD

1
R4

R5

1
RG

1
R1

12
a22
R2

a11

a12

a21

a22

A
= a11a22 a21a12

1
RRTD

1
Rout

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
1

R1

RRTD

R2

1
R1

1
RRTD

1
Rout

R2

R3

1
R3

1
R1

RRTD

R4

1
R1

RRTD

R1

R2

R5

RG

R1

RRTD

1
R1

R3

2000-E-41

1
1
RRTD R4

-1
R1

361

R2

R3

1
RRTD

-1

RRTD

R4
2

R1

RRTD

R1

RRTD

R1

RRTD

R1

RRTD

R1

RRTD

R1

RRTD

1
R1

RRTD

Rout

1
R2

1
R3

1
R2

1
R1

1
R3

1
RRTD

1
R1

1
R4

1
RRTD

R5
1

R4

R5

RG
1

RG

R1

RRTD

R2

R3

RG

R1

RRTD

R2

R3

RG

R1

RRTD

-1
R4
1
R2

1
R3

1
R1

1
RRTD

1
R4

R5

A
Rout

1
R2

1
R3
R1
1

R1

RRTD

R4

RRTD
-1

R2

R5
R3

1
R1

1
1
RRTD R4

-1
R1

R2

R3

1
RRTD

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
R2

R3

R1

RRTD

12

Rout

R1

R1

RRTD

R1

RRTD
1
R2

R3

R2

362

R4
1

2000-E-41

1
R1

1
R3

1
RRTD

1
R1

1
R4

1
RRTD

R4

RG

R1

RRTD

R2

R3

R5

R1

RRTD

R2

R3

1
R1

RRTD

A
Rout
2
1

R1

RRTD

1
R2

1
R3

1
R1

1
RRTD

1
R4

R5

RG

R1

RRTD

Rout

12
R2

R1

RRTD

1
R2

1
R3

1
R1

1
RRTD

R4

R1

RRTD

RG

R1

RRTD

R2

R3

R2

R3

1
R1

RRTD

-A
Rout
1

R1
1

RRTD
1

R2

R1

RRTD

Rout

1
R3

1
R1

1
RRTD

R4

R5

Muhammad Irfan Yousuf [Peon of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)]


Cell: 0300-8454295; Tel: 042-5421893
R1

RRTD

R1

RRTD

R1

RRTD

R2

R3

R1

RRTD

R4

R5

RG

R1

2000-E-41
RRTD

R2

363
R3

1
R4
2
1

R2

R3

1
R1

1
RRTD

1
R4

R5

RG

1
R1

1
RRTD

12
R2

n-2

n2

n-2

n-2

a11

a12

a11

a11

a11

a11

a21

a22

A
6-2

52

4-2

3-2

a11

a12

a11

a11

a11

a11

a21

a22

V0 = 0 when T (0C) = 0
Similarly,
V0 = 12 when T (0C) = 500

1
Rout