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'Emergency Brake Reverse' is a replica of a security system for a vehicle in which it works to stop the vehicle if there are objects or vehicles behind. The aim is to prevent the violation or accident. The frame structure is constructed of steel. This system is an increase in the braking system. This system can also be used on automatic transmission vehicles. Components involved are sensors, power window motor, PIC micro-controllers, switches, brake pedal, cable, control unit, buzzer, and plywood.


Problem Statement a) Minor accidents often occur when reverse. b) The driver forgot to pull handbrake when the car is on hilly roads. c) Avoid collision. d) Reduce accidents.



Produce a safety system to stop the vehicle in reverse to avoid a collision or accident.



a) To produce a prototype. b) Increase the security system. c) Used to stop the vehicle. d) Used in vehicle automatic shifters.





Before starting a project, various aspects should be taken into consideration so that the project is running smoothly without any interruption. This study is based on accidents that often occur on the users of vehicles. This study was carried out starting from the design to the identification of problems that may be encountered. Therefore, careful planning and systematic will be arranged to get the best results. All of this was the result of the ideas discussed in the group. Then, created a design project.


Preliminary ideas

Review of existing components markets and how to use it. Complete details and limitations are used for projects that will be produced.

i. ii. iii. iv. iv.

Function - can do brake operation to achieve the objectives. Components - use of existing components and modify easily transferred. Construction - the construction of a relatively simple process. Durability - can withstand the brake pedal speed production. Security - not harmful to consumers.

After the problem is clearly identified, as much as possible the information obtained as a result of the observations, problems experienced, analysts, trial and related resources. Based on the information gathered, the ideas in the form of preliminary sketches. Conducted ideas, suggestions will be selected to be analyzed and refined further before making a prototype designed for.


Design Concept

Selection of an appropriate design is essential. Various aspects should be taken into account. Selection should be in accordance with the project of use and functionality. Selection of design prototypes factors are as follows: i. ii. Form of structural members because it represents the power structure. Good structural shape and fit to give maximum strength and stability of the components during operation. iii. iv. iv. Components selected must be appropriate and not too onerous. Selection of a strong connection to connection and long-lasting results. Safety features should be in good condition.


Base Selection

Site is rectangular in shape more balanced and stable. It is suitable for use on the project components to accommodate the load. The site for this prototype is rectangular shaped which aims to support and strengthen the stability of the product.


Selection Framework Project

Selection of an appropriate project framework is very important to produce the basis for ensuring that the prototype is strong and stable. It is very important to produce solid construction and quality.


Accident History

About 30 percent of all accidents occur when vehicles moving in reverse. Based on the high frequency of accidents and the fact that all accidents are often unavoidable support, emphasis must be placed on safe procedures. The accident occurred when the vehicle is going in the back is costly to the company. Element of risk resulting in bodily injury happened when supporting any vehicle. This is a key factor when considering why the cost is so high accident support.

Figure 2.6: The accident happened at the back

There are many dangers that need to be considered when reverse parking:

a) Inadequate view on both sides. b) Objects directly behind the vehicle when it started back. c) The object moves into the path of the vehicle. d) Blind spot created by vehicles.


Components Selected


The components we chose:






Used to make body.

Reverse Parking Sensor


Used to detect objects behind the vehicle.

Power window motor 3 i. Power window motor is used to move the cable and the brake pedal. ii. This motor has a diffusion.




Pic Microcontroller


That cans are electronic circuits be programmed to carry out a range of Vast Tasks.


Used to program to be timers or to control a production line and much more.

Brake pedal


Force from driver to brake system to stop the car.






Power sources to move the power window motor.


12 volt battery.

Switch on/off i. A switch simply opens a circuit. ii. Stopping the flow of electricity. iii. Has normally open and normally close.




Strip Board


Is a widely-used type of electronics board. prototyping

Voltage regulator


Is designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level.

Transistor 10 i. Is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals and electrical power. ii. It is composed of semiconductor material with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit.


No. 11 Resistor




Is a passive twoterminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.


The current through a resistor is in direct proportion to the voltage across the resistor's terminals.


Component Medium range infrared sensor i.

Explanation Small LED as indicator for detection status.



Obstacle detection up to 10cm.





It is flexible, inexpensive, workable, re-usable, and can usually be locally manufactured.


Is a manufactured wood panel made from thin sheets of wood veneer.


Ic Wire


Is the primary method of making interconnections between an integrated circuit (IC) and a printed circuit board (PCB) during semiconductor device fabrication.

No. Component




Can be use such as mechanism actuator to pull pedal brake in auto reverse brake project.

12 Cable brake


Bread board


Is commonly used to refer to solderless breadboard (plugboard).


Usb Pic Programmer


To program the circuit.


Bolt And Nut Bolt is a tightening device categorized by helix ridge, known as an external

thread, around a cylinder. Some bolt threads designed to match the thread mate, known as threads, usually in the form of nuts. Other bolt threads are designed to cut a helical


groove in a softer material such as wood. Normal function of the bolt is to hold objects and placing objects.

Figure 2.8: Bolt Bolts usually have a head, which is usually found at the end of the bolt that allows it to be rotated or driven. Tools commonly used to rotate the bolt includes a screwdriver or spanner. The head is usually larger than the body screws, which prevent the screw from the driven too deep than long bolts.


Nut Nut is a type of thread fastening holes. Nat usually used against the bolt to bind

together the stack. Two couples are placed together by a combination of friction on both threads. In applications where vibration or rotation may cause the nut open, locking mechanisms apply: adhesive (adhesive), safety pins, or oval-shaped threads.

Figure 2.9: Nut


Nut graded by the strength of the bolt, for example, the nut with the ISO class 10 capable supporting bolt with 9.10 without the ISO class off. Similarly, nuts are SAE Grade 5 bolts capable of supporting a load of SAE Grade 5, and so on.





This prototype Emergency Reverse Brake system was created to show how it could work in a vehicle. The main purpose is to avoid violations or accidents from the rear. This situation often occurs when the conditions in the reverse situation. The selection of the components involved are selected to suit the size of the prototype design so that it does not interfere with the space.



Project Flow Chart


Problem Statement

Literature Review Product Design

Detailed Design Selection of Components Mechanical Components


Analysis and Results



Figure 3.1.1 : Flow Chart Project


Selection of components

After paper work is done for the implement design framework of this project by selecting the type of main components to build a prototype projects have been


made. Appropriate types of components have been selected to obtain a strong project and tools that can work well for this project. Below are the components that will be used for this project:


Reverse Sensor Types

Parking sensors are generally divided into two categories: Ultrasonic Parking Sensors and Electromagnetic Parking Sensors.


Ultrasonic Parking Sensor (AutoSonar)

AutoSonar system is a safety device that accurately detects all objects, children, toys, pets, and others that are behind your vehicle when you reverse. Sound 'beep' and the LCD display in the car warns the driver of dangers and prevent potential accidents. But, the most important thing is that by installing this system, you can prevent injuries to adults or worse children. These statistics confirm the increase in this type of accident. According to the Department of Transportation, 27% of all accidents occur in the back. Further research showed that 70% of these accidents can be avoided with the use of collision avoidance systems as AutoSonar.

How to work

The system is activated automatically when you enter the gear 'R'. Sensors located at the rear of the vehicle to send and receive ultrasonic radio waves, which bounce off obstacles and alert the control unit. There is a buzzer that gradually increase in frequency of vehicles approaching object. A continuous tone indicates that the vehicle is 0.35m from obstacles.


Figure 3.3.1 : Ultrasonic parking sensors


Electromagnetic Parking Sensor These rely on the vehicle moving slowly and smoothly towards the object to

be avoided. Once detected the obstacle, if the vehicle momentarily stops on its approach, the sensor continues to give signal of presence of the obstacle. If the vehicle then resumes its maneuver the alarm signal becomes more and more impressive as the obstacle approaches. Electromagnetic parking sensors are often sold as not requiring any holes to be drilled offering a unique design that discretely mounts on the inner side of the bumper preserving the 'new factory look' of your vehicle. This type of parking sensor system is also highly recommended for vehicles fitted with externally mounted wheels or accessories - a spare wheel on the back of a 4x4, for example, or a cycle rack. These can cause false triggering or inaccurate warnings when used with ultrasonic systems. Electromagnetic systems ignore fixed items that are already present and look for changes to the surrounding area. How to work Indicates object distance with different beeping frequencies. The sensor antenna activates 3 types of acoustic signals during approaching an obstacle at different distances. Zone 1: A long interval sound of Beep approximately between 0.7-0.5m Zone 2: A short interval sound of Beep approximately between 0.5-0.3m Zone 3: A continuous sound of Beep approximately between 0.3-0m


Simple and concealed installation. The sensor antenna is entirely installed inside the bumper without any drilling work. Maintenance free, no cleaning or washing is required. Fit for any car, truck, RV or mini-van. Peel & Stick Antenna foil tape sensor for vehicles bumpers. Wires to Reverse Lamp (12 Volts DC) High output Piezo buzzer alert you with a beeping sound Detects object at 3 feet or less Detection in all directions without dead angle. Minimize bumper damage. Totally built-in installation without impair overall appearance.

Figure 3.3.2 : Electromagnetic parking sensors 3.4 Motor


Power Window Motor

Most consumers prefer cars with power windows. Power window motors are mechanisms installed inside of the car door which control the function of the window glass enabling them to go up and down. The motor power window in a car is the control that allows someone in a car to roll the window up or down. This function can be accomplished in one of two ways. In early model cars, the window in a car or truck was rolled up and down manually, by use of a turn-handle that connected to various gears within the door of the car. Now, however, it is far more common to


see car windows that operate with a switch or a button. These power window regulators operate under electrical power.

How it work With inset of motor and gear reduction The linkage has a long arm, which attaches to a bar that holds the bottom of the window. The end of the arm can slide in a groove in the bar as the window rises. On the other end of the bar is a large plate that has gear teeth cut into it, and the motor turns a gear that engages these teeth. The same linkage is often used on cars with manual windows, but instead of a motor turning the gear, the crank handle turns it. In the next section we'll learn about some of the neat features some power windows have, including the child lockout and automatic-up.

Figure 3.4.1 : Power window motor


Motor wiper

The wipers combine two mechanical technologies to perform their task:i) A combination electric motor and worm gear reduction provides power to the wipers.


ii) A neat linkage converts the rotational output of the motor into the back-andforth motion of the wipers.

How it work Motor and Gear Reduction It takes a lot of force to accelerate the wiper blades back and forth across the windshield so quickly. In order to generate this type of force, a worm gear is used on the output of a small electric motor. The worm gear reduction can multiply the torque of the motor by about 50 times, while slowing the output speed of the electric motor by 50 times as well. The output of the gear reduction operates a linkage that moves the wipers back and forth. Inside the motor/gear assembly is an electronic circuit that senses when the wipers are in their down position. The circuit maintains power to the wipers until they are parked at the bottom of the windshield, then cuts the power to the motor. This circuit also parks the wipers between wipes when they are on their intermittent setting.

Figure 3.4.2 : Wiper Motor


Pic Microcontroller PIC is a family of modified Harvard architecture microcontrollers made by

Microchip Technology, derived from the PIC1650 originally developed by General Instrument's Microelectronics Division. The name PIC initially referred to "Peripheral


Interface Controller". PICs are popular with both industrial developers and hobbyists alike due to their low cost, wide availability, large user base, extensive collection of application notes, availability of low cost or free development tools, and serial programming (and re-programming with flash memory) capability. They are also commonly used in educational programming as they often come with the easy to use 'pic logicator' software. Function PIC microcontrollers (Programmable Interface Controllers), are electronic circuits that can be programmed to carry out a vast range of tasks. They can be programmed to be timers or to control a production line and much more. They are found in most electronic devices such as alarm systems, computer control systems, phones, in fact almost any electronic device. Many types of PIC microcontrollers exist, although the best are probably found in the GENIE range of programmable microcontrollers.

Figure 3.5 : Pic Microcontroller

3.6 3.6.1

Battery Car Batteries


Figure 3.6.1 : Car batteries

An automotive battery is a type of rechargeable battery that supplies electric energy to an automobile. Usually this refers to an SLI battery (starting, lighting, ignition) to power the starter motor, the lights, and the ignition system of a vehicles engine. Automotive SLI batteries are usually lead-acid type, and are made of six galvanic cells in series to provide a 12 volt system. Each cell provides 2.1 volts for a total of 12.6 volt at full charge. Heavy vehicles such as highway trucks or tractors, often equipped with diesel engines, may have two batteries in series for a 24 volt system, or may have parallel strings of batteries.

Function i) A car battery supplies power to the starter and ignition system to start the engine. ii) A car battery supplies the extra power necessary when the vehicle's electrical load exceeds the supply from the charging system. iii) A car battery acts as a voltage stabilizer in the electrical system. The battery evens out voltage spikes and prevents them from damaging other components in the electrical system.


Motorcycle Batteries


Figure 3.6.2 : Motorcycle batteries

Motorcycle batteries vary by engine size on any particular motorcycle. Motorcycle engines range in size and are measure by cc. A small engine could be a 100cc for example, where as a larger engine size can be 1200cc. The higher the number, the more powerful the engine. All motorcycle batteries are lead acid batteries. There are completely recyclable and should never be thrown away with regular waste. Motorcycles are easy to check charge with a voltmeter. Function A motorcycle battery has three main functions: i) It enables the engine to start with the electrical starter. ii) It works as an extra power supply when your bike needs it. iii) It works as an absorber for high surges of electricity.


3.7 Project planning

Month Weekly No . 1

Dis 2012

Jan 2013

Feb 2013

Mar 2013

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Activity Discussion topics project Determine the project title Initial sketch Final drawings Analysis and research projects







3 4 5


Selection of project Initial installation Initial testing and identify problems Improvements Installation and final testing Achieving the objectives and final preparations End Table 3.7 : Project planning

9 10




Project Costs

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Type of material PIC Strip board Project board tester Motor Power Window Brake Pedal Reverse Sensor

Quantity 2 2 1 1 1 set 1

Price Per Unit RM 30.00 RM 5.00 RM 15.00 RM 45.00 RM 30.00 RM 120.00 RM 15.00 RM 30.00

Total RM 60.00 RM 10.00 RM 15.00 RM 45.00 RM 30.00 RM 120.00 RM 15.00 RM 30.00

Medium range infrared sensor 1 Iron 1 set


9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Bolt and Nut Spray can Cable Plywood Bracket Perspect Electronic component Other

1 set 1 can 2 ft. 5 ft. 2 ft. 1 set 1 set

RM 10.50 RM 6.00 RM5.00 RM25.00 RM4.00 RM12.00 RM40.00 RM25.00 TOTAL

RM 10.50 RM 6.00 RM5.00 RM25.00 RM4.00 RM12.00 RM40.00 RM25.00 RM 452.50

Table 3.8 : Project cost





Analysts and make learning process for a project that is produced is very important to know and evaluate the effectiveness of the project. Ability to achieve the objectives of the project can be proved by tests performed. 4.1.1 Car Reverse System A sensor is placed on the rear bumper of the car, which is capable of both emitting and detecting ultrasound. As it pulses, a computer measures the time it takes


for the sound of it emits to be heard again. Parking sensors operate at a close range and some sensors have a minimum operating range. When the user set distance threshold is passed, the sensor will emit an audible sound alerting the driver that is getting close to an object. The distance threshold is useful for those who may want to leave more room behind their vehicles, and those who like to squeeze in as tight as possible. Some more expensive models may also have an extra unit inside the car which can also visually alert the driver.

Figure 4.1.1: Component of car reverse system 4.1.2 Limitations The ultrasonic parking sensor is considered the cheapest form of a parking sensors, thus it comes with several problem with other technologies address. The first is that it can miss small objects or objects which lay below the sensors cone-shaped operating range and sometime requires multiple sensors to be attached to the bumper to get full coverage on both side car. The sensors can also be mistriggered on steep slopes when the ground itself is seen by the system and wrongly considered to be an obstacle. Dimension of Reverse Sensor


Figure 4.1.2: Reverse sensor dimension

Figure 4.1.3: Reverse sensor installation 4.2 Distance that Reverse Sensor Detect Usually reverse sensor that have been install in the car can detect distance while reversing a car. The limit distance that reverse sensor can detect is from 160 to 0 cm. This table below show how the reverse sensor detect distance and make buzzer voice.


Table 4.2: Distance detect by sensor to operate


Motor Power Window Power window are mechanisms installed inside of the car door which control

the function of the window glass enabling them to go up and down. When the power window motor fails the window ceases to operate in whatever position it was in


when the power window motor failed. It can be a security concern if the window is open when the motor fails.

Figure 4.3: Power Window Motor

Figure 4.3.1: Component inside motor power window

4.4 4.4.1

Specification Power Window Motor No load specification


The no load speed or speed when no torque is applied to the motor shaft is 95 rotation per minute (rpm) and the no load current is less than 1.5 amperes. 4.4.2 Basic specification The power window motor has four mounting hole positions. There is a working voltage of 12 volts DC current. The unit is waterproof and ISO 9001 certified. Rated torque is 3 N.m (30 and it rated speed is 65 rpm (55-75).Besides that the stall current is 28 A and stall torque is 25 Kg. The noise of the power window motor is 55 DB.

Table 4.4.3: Example table of power window motor operation


Performance Curve of Power Window Motor


Figure 4.5: Example of performance curve of power window motor


Dimension of Power Window Motor


Figure 4.6: Dimension of Power Window Motor



Pedal Brake The brake pedal is a simple class 2 layer attached to the master cylinder

piston by a rod. As force is applied to the brake pedal, it is multiplied through leverage.

For example: The brake pedal has a ratio of 3 to 1.The force is multiplied by 3, i.e, a force of 100 psi becomes 300 psi at the master cylinder.

Figure 4.5.1: Car pedal brake Conclusion The force of the pads clamping on the rotor, or shoes pressing against the drum, now can convert the kinetic energy of the moving vehicle into heat energy. As the kinetic energy is converted, less and less of it is available for conversion and the vehicle slows and eventually stops.


Analysis Data

4.8 4.8.1

Force Definition

In physics, a force is any influence that causes an object to undergo a certain change, either concerning its movement, direction, or geometrical construction. It is measured with the SI unit of newton and represented by the symbol F. In other words, a force is that which can cause an object with mass to change its velocity (which includes to begin moving from a state of rest), i.e., to accelerate, or which can cause a flexible object to deform. Force can also be described by intuitive concepts such as a push or pull. A force has both magnitude and direction, making it a vector quantity. The original form of Newton's second law states that the net force acting upon an object is equal to the rate at which its momentum changes with time.[1] If the mass of the object is constant, this law implies that the acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on the object, is in the direction of the net force, and is inversely proportional the mass of the object. As a formula, this is expressed as:

Figure 4.8.1: Forces are also described as a push or pull on an object. They can be due to phenomena such as gravity, magnetism, or anything that might cause a mass to accelerate.



Car pedal brake ratio

In a sitting position (diagram below), the average driver can comfortably generate 70 lbs. of force on the rubber pad at the end of the brake pedal. The brake pedal is nothing more than a mechanical lever that amplifies the force of the driver. This is where the pedal ratio comes into play. Pedal ratio is the overall pedal length or distance from the pedal pivot to the centre of the pedal pad divided by the distance from to the pivot point to where the push rod connects. The optimal pedal ratio is 6.2:1 on a disc/drum vehicle without vacuum or other assist method. This means that the 70 lbs. the driver has applied now is amplified to 434 lbs. (6.2 x 70 lbs.) of output force. The problem is that the travel of the pedal is rather long due to the placement pivot point and master cylinder connection.

Figure 4.8.2.: Diagram of sitting position



Brake Boosters

A booster increases the force of the pedal so lower mechanical pedal ratio can be used. A lower ratio can give shortened pedal travel and better modulation. Most vacuum boosted vehicles will have a 3.2:1 to 4:1 mechanical pedal ratio. The size of the boosters diaphragm and amount of vacuum generated by the engine, will determine how much force can be generated. Most engines will generate around -8 psi of vacuum (do not confuse with inches of HG or Mercury). If a hypothetical booster with 7-inch diaphragm is subjected to -8 psi of engine vacuum, it will produce more than 300 lbs. of addition force. Here is the math: (3.14) X radius(3.5)2 = 38.46 sq/inches of diaphragm surface area X 8 psi (negative pressure becomes positive force)= 307.72 lbs of output force To keep things simple, lets return to our manual brake example. The rod coming from the firewall has 434 lbs. of output force. When the force is applied to the back of the master cylinder, the force is transferred into the brake fluid.

The formula for pressure is force divided by the surface area. If the master cylinder has a 1-inch bore, the pistons surface area is .78 square inches. If you divide the output force of 434 lbs. by the surface area of the piston, you would get 556 psi(434 lbs. divided by .78 inches) at the ports of the master cylinder. Not bad for a 70 lbs. of human effort. If you reduce the surface area of the piston you, will get more pressure. This is because the surface area is smaller, but the output force from the pedal stays the same. If you used a master cylinder with a bore of .75 inches that has a piston that has .44 inches of piston surface area, you would get 986 psi at the ports for the master cylinder (434 lbs. divided by .44 inches).



Torque, moment or moment of force, is the tendency of a force to rotate an object about an axis, fulcrum, or pivot. Just as a force is a push or a pull, a torque can be thought of as a twist to an object. Mathematically, torque is defined as the cross product of the lever-arm distance and force, which tends to produce rotation. Loosely speaking, torque is a measure of the turning force on an object such as a bolt or


a flywheel. For example, pushing or pulling the handle of a wrench connected to a nut or bolt produces a torque (turning force) that loosens or tightens the nut or bolt. The symbol for torque is typically , the Greek letter tau. When it is called moment, it is commonly denoted M. The magnitude of torque depends on three quantities: the force applied, the length of the lever arm connecting the axis to the point of force application, and the angle between the force vector and the lever arm. In symbols:

Where is the torque vector and is the magnitude of the torque, r is the displacement vector (a vector from the point from which torque is measured to the point where force is applied), and r is the length (or magnitude) of the lever arm vector, F is the force vector, and F is the magnitude of the force, denotes the cross product, is the angle between the force vector and the lever arm vector. The length of the lever arm is particularly important; choosing this length appropriately lies behind the operation of levers, pulleys, gears, and most other simple machines involving a mechanical advantage. The SI unit for torque is the newton metre (Nm). For more on the units of torque.

Figure 4.9: Example of Torque

The torque (T) required is:

To select the proper motor, we must consider the worst case scenario, where the robot is not only on an incline, but accelerating up it.


Note now that all forces (F) are along the x and y axes. We balance the forces in the x-direction:

Inserting the equation for torque above, and the equation for mgx, we obtain:

Rearrange the equation to isolate T:

This torque value represents the total torque required to accelerate the robot up an incline. However, this value must be divided by the total number (N) of drive wheels to obtain the torque needed for each drive motor. Note that we do not consider the total number of passive wheels as they have no effect on the torque required to move the object aside from adding weight.






Generated from the project, hoped that this will show and demonstrate a new system was introduced. The prototype was created to show that the system design to avoid violations of the right to withdraw from the current back to reduce the rate of accidents often occur among drivers less attentive while driving a vehicle.

Planning costs incurred is one aspect that is quite important in this project. As a result of the planning and implementation of projects correctly and systematically minimize the cost of the project without defacing project produced. Studies of purchased components can reduce production costs by purchasing capital goods and components that are correct and accurate.

Workshop work involved in this project is the production of welding, drilling, measuring, grinding and cutting. In this work, the machines used are as welding machines, drilling machines, grinding machines, metal cutting machines, tools and other workshop. Almost all of these projects involve the use of iron.

Analysis and findings that have been conducted show that this ideal Emergency Brake Reverse applied to vehicles to improve safety.

Overall, many aspects of which have been collected from the projects that have been implemented. In addition, it is hoped that this project will meet the needs of the automotive field (PSMZA). With production of Emergency Brake Reverse could help in some way to develop technology in the automotive field in the future.




Since this project capable of commercialized to the market then some suggestions made for improvement of the market place, the improvements that should be done is:

1) Using a better drive mechanism Mechanism to pull the brake pedal needs to be more neat and safe. It should be designed so that if anything goes wrong in the system, it will not have a problem to be serviced or replaced.

2) Creating a special type of motor that is smaller and stronger In further increase the current strength of the braking process, the type of power window motor cannot provide a guaranteed strength. Therefore, a special motor should be built to be the driving force for this system. The construction should be small and strong to pull the brake pedal.

5.3 5.3.1

Reference Rujukan Daripada Buku Panduan Penulisan Laporan Projek Pelajar Semester Akhir, Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin,2013.


Rujukan Daripada Internet




Figure 5.4: Programming using MPLab software