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ParasiteControland Managementin Ruminants

Anthelmintic treatment + On Minimally contaminated pasture Drench at parturition + weaning + when most worm population is in hypobiosis = protecting animals on pasture Treat when conditions are suitable for transmission of large # parasites or when #s approach pathogenic levels. Target individual animals with greatest #s of parasite contaminating environment.

Pasture Management
Better for grazing, nutrition, pastures, and controls parasites if allowed to rest adequate time. Must manage improved pastures. 50% Larvae within 2.5cm of ground so Dont Overgraze. temporary pasture + hay pastures after harvest = Clean Pastures

- Merrill System : - 4pasture 3herd system - 1Herd to clean pasture after 4months - Pasture is rested a different season every 3 years - Valuable: areas with <20in annual rain - NOT in high rainfall improved pastures - Short Durationhighintensitygrazing : - Many animals on limited area - Livestock moved frequently - Pastures rested 2-4weeks

- Ostertagiaostertagi - most common and takes years to build up immunity (may see older cattle with disease in Texas) - Treat during late spring or summer to kill worms before they do damage. Residual effects of macrolides will kill incoming larvae of Ostertagia for two to four weeks or longer. - Hornflies (Haematobiairritans) are the second most important parasite in beef cattle (#1 ectoparasite). The small fly breeds in cattle dung on pasture (piercing/sucking mouthparts). They interrupt grazing, weight loss, decrease milk production. On host majority of the time; prefer dark colored and bulls. - Flukes are primary concern in poorly drained clay soils, Fasciolahepaticaor Fascioloidesmagna . F. magna does more damage, accumulates over the year, and not easily killed. Drugs are good against adult flukes (12w or longer). Treat cattle in autumn / early winter with Albendazole or Clorsulon. Treating cattle for F. magna may help you get another years production. - Tabanuscan be major annoyance and difficult to treat. Suckling calves, 3 months or older benefit from deworming, but deworming becomes essential after weaning. Calves may become infected with parasitic gastroenteritis and lungworm. Disease from lungworms may be seen in stocker calves that have not built up immunity in arid areas and are moved to an area with higher levels of the parasite. Calves from herds in arid areas are at a greater risk than others because they have not been able to build up and immunity. Baby Calves in Dairies - Cryptosporidiumparvum(1stmonth)- from contaminated feed and water; treat by spreading calves out and removing from contaminated environment. Treat diseased with supportive care. - Eimeriaspp. (first threemonths)- from exposure to contaminated environment; treat by spreading calves out, sanitation, and coccidiostats. Sanitation is essential! Coccidiostats in feed or water may help. Problem in Stocker Calves and Dairy Replacement Calves - Ostertagiaostertagia*emphasized* - Cooperiaspp. - Haemonchusplacei - Dictyocaulusviviparus

Spread calves out, do not pasture where previous group of calves have grazed. OR treat with macrolide after approximately three weeks of exposure to pasture; will kill most of worms and provide a level of resistance for the next month from incoming worms. Follow up treatment at 2 month intervals should allow some immunity to establish. - Macrolides used for internal parasites should control Lice. - Use back rubber sprayers or pour-ons for HornFlies. - Sanitation around barn for flies. DairyCows - Neosporacaninumis primary cause of abortions. It is important to dispose of aborted fetus, placentas, and dead cattle in such a way that we are not feeding local coyotes and vultures. Also keep cattle away from canine feces. - OstertagiaostertagiandHaematobiairritanscan lower milk production especially during first lactation. Treat during dry period or at parturition with APPROVED anthelmintics and pesticides. Beef Cattle - area will determine which parasites will have to be considered. - Climate, stocking density, nutritional and reproductive status, and age of cattle determines the level of parasite establishment. - Tritrichomonasfoetus- purchased bulls should be tested for infection; heifers and cows should not share bull; vaccination of heifers may aid in control. - Neosporacaninum- may cause abortions; discourage dogs, coyotes, and fixes from eating placentas and aborted fetuses to help prevent spread - Ostertagiaostergi- cause economic losses in cattle especially in first 3 years; failure to gain weight, decreased milk production, lowered reproductive efficacy. Treat cattle in southern states in late spring or summer to kill arrested larvae as well as adult worms - Haematobiairritans - constant irritation of cattle on pasture; failure to gain weight because of activity to avoid flies and not grazing. Ear tags, pour-on insecticides or endecticides (macrolides), sprays, forced use dust bags, or combination may all aid in control but flies fly and become resistant to many pesticides Flukes: must have suitable habitat for lymnaed snails - Fasciolahepatica- will damage tissues for proliferation of bacteria (ex: bacillary hemoglobinuria), lessen feed efficacy, retard reproduction, cause condemnation of livers. - Fascioloidesmagna- wanders in liver, lungs, uterus, etc. Black tracts and pigment deposition in many organs, fat, lymph nodes, damage for bacterial proliferation. Treatment may help cow thrive for a bit longer. - Lice and Mites can be a problem in the winter. Treatment is on a local basis. SucklingBeef Calves - acquire infection while grazing to supplement milk - acquire sufficient numbers to stimulate immune response but will not be adversely affected if they are receiving milk. - When calves reach 3 months of age they are grazing more and acquiring less milk and will gain more weight if dewormed. - Cooperiaspp., Haemonchus,Ostertagia,(Dictyocaylus),lice, ticks, hornflies, Eimeria(especially just following shipping) StockerCalves - Ostertagia- most important - Cooperiaspp. - macrolides are less effective, but control through developed immunity - Haemonchus - problem in high density summer grazing. There is some evidence of macrolide resistance. - When gathered, a coccidiostat may provide sufficient protection for stress and exposure to new coccidia never encountered. - Treat with anthelmintics before being released onto seasonal pastures. - Treat before and several weeks after being released onto permanent pastures. - Timing of treatment depends on residual effects of anthelmintic used. - Ectoparasite control of mites and lice can be accomplished with endecticides when treating internal parasites. FeedlotCattle - Depending on where they came from, they may or may not be parasitized sufficiently to require treatment; so treat with macrolides just in case - Mites, flukes, nematodes may enter feedlot with cattle - Acquire flies, coccidia, Oesophagostomumin feedlot

- Sanitation and parasitoids fly control

Anthelmintics - Kill adult worms: Levamisole and Morantel - Kill adult worms and some arresting larvae: Albendazole, Fenbendazole, Oxfendazole - Kill adult worms and arrested larvae, and have residual effects: Doramectin, Epromectin, Ivermectin, Moxidectin Use Albendazole to kill adults of Fasciola hepatica and Fascioloides magna. Clorsulon can kill adult and immature Fasciola hepatica.

Controlof InternalParasitesof Sheepand Goats

- Resistance is an ability to limit parasite survival - Resilience is an ability to limit parasite damage Eimeriaspp. - All goats and sheep are infected by Eimeriaspp, and disease can occur as a result of stress, parturition, weaning, moving, change in feed or water, periods of inclement weather, or exposure to large numbers of virulent species of Eimeria in short time (heavy exposure). It is largely a disease of confinement. - Shaded ares that retain moisture are their ideal environment for development. - Sanitation is the key to control. - Coccidiostats can also be used to inhibit development of parasites in host cell. They slow reproduction of Eimeria spp. and lessen damage while immunity is established. They include Sulfonamides, Amprolium, Decoquinate, Monensin, Lasalocid. They should only be used at times of risk, though, because resistance will develop. GastrointestinalNematodes - Immunity can be established but takes repeated exposure and can be overcome. Immunity also relaxes at the time of parturition. - Infective larva live 1 to 8+ months dependent on temperature, and require moisture to exit fecal pellet and ascend forage 50mm (2 in) / month. - Kids do not develop immunity until 3-5months of age if ever. They are genetically programmed to develop / or not resistance to specific worms. Focus of control programs - Cool moist climates = Teladorsaigacircumcinctaand Trichostrongylusspp. (transmission in spring and autumn) Between 6 and 20 Celsius = > 50mm ppt/month - Warm humid climates: Haemonchusspp. transmission (summer, autumn, or rainy season) >15 Celsius = > 50mm ppt/month Haemonchuscontortus- is the most important parasite of small ruminants in Southeastern US, and death loss is the most important aspect of infection. - Immunity is usually not acquired until 4-6months of age - Undergoes winter arrest in sheep with any level of resistance to parasite.

- Controlof Haemonchusrequireseffectiveremovalof arrestedlarvaeduringthe winterif thereis goingto be any hopeof controlwhenthe transmissionseasonarrives.
- Especially treat ewes to keep the pastures safe for lambs after parturition. (strategic treatment) - Repeat treatment in warm humid areas after the onset of grass growth (3-6weeks after onset of warm up)! This may select for resistance, though. - After weaning, lambs should be dewormed before the enter a clean pasture. - Tactical Control can be used later in the year by monitoring egg counts, rainfall, anemia, etc. - Marking the treated animals is helpful because if some individuals are treated multiple times they should be removed from the flock as they are unable to resist worms.

- The mostimportantconsiderationin controlof Haemonchusis to knowthat the anthelminticadministered actuallyworked.Clinicalresponseis not sufficient. Responseshouldbe judgedby a larval development assayor fecal egg reductiontrial at eachand everyfarmwith sheep.

Coccidiosis- can be devastating to lambs in feedlot conditions. (Goats are more susceptible). - You can prevent this by raising self-feeders so that lambs cannot get into them and by fixing water leaks. - Coccidiosats can be helpful during stress periods. Prevent Fly Strike by controlling diarrhea, timely shearing or crutching, tail docking, foot trimming, and phenotype selection to prevent buildup of bacteria. It is important to note that GOATS are more selective in daily foraging and prefer forbs or grass, and are, therefore, more susceptible to worms when forced to graze on same forage as sheep. Important parasites to goats in the south are: Haemonchuscontortusand . Trichostrongyluscolubriformis

Most resistance begins in goats and then follows in sheep. In the southernUS, Haemonchuspopulationsresistant

to anthelminticsis the rule. Trichostrongylusis primarilya cool seasonparasite. Treatfor this in the winterto lowerpasturecontaminationanddisease

in the spring. Goats can also acquire Muelleriusand Parelaphostrongylustenius(fatal - from white tailed deer). Bovicolacrassipes(chewing lice) on Angora goats is economically important and common. Treat a few weeks after shearing.

Strategic Control: - Treat when the highest proportion of the worm population is in the sheep or goat and not on the pasture. - Move animals onto safe pastures at parturition. Tactical Control: - Treat when potential for disease is increasing but not yet present - Treat 2weeks after rainfall when goat is exposed to larvae but these are not developed enough to reproduce yet - Treat when avg. worm count is increasing but not yet critical - Treat when moving to safe pastures Opportunistic Control: - treat when livestock re available and you think about it - Treat when money or labor are available - You feel better having done something Individual Treatment: - Treat those which contribute to greatest contamination to pasture - This is based on egg counts or level of anemia - This strategy should not be used in young - Save the life of heavily parasitized individuals (which preserves genetics of animal and may not be good long term) - Does not select for anthelmintic resistance Suppressive Treatment - Treat to remove parasites from environment by treating at 3week or monthly intervals - When anthelmintics work, there are few parasites - Strong selection for resistance - Suppresses immune response Salvage - Save lives - Will have to repeated if management does not change Pasture Rotation - Short duration rest will only intensify pasture exposure to larvae, but will result in high quality palatable forage and increased nutrient value. - In humid tropics, 30 day rest will kill most larvae - In cool moist temperate areas, you will need 8months - Rotate between classes of livestock: Susceptible animals graze first followed by resistant animals. There will be fewer larvae available when susceptible animals return to pasture. - Shared grazing between species will dilute the exposure to parasites. Each species has its own preferred forage so that more livestock can share pasture without putting undue pressure on environment.

Anthelmintic Resistance - Goats metabolize anthelmintics faster than other species so bioavailability is lower and shorter than with other hosts. Therefore, goats require 1.5 to 2 times the dose compared to sheep or cattle. Theres alsoa lack of effective anthelminticsavailablein the US approvedfor goats. Whentreatinggoats,increaseddosesandevaluationof dewormersare essential. - Resistance to benzimidazoles, levamisole/morantel, and macrolides in sheep and goats in North America. - Haemonchus contortus is resistant in North America and Trichostrongylus / Teladorsaiga elsewhere. - Benzimidazole resistance will not revert to susceptibility - Levamisole resistance will revert in several generations Rotation must be between classes of anthelmintics not within as side resistance occurs rapidly. Rapid rotation (within grazing season) selects for resistance, but slow rotation (between grazing seasons) may delay onset of resistance, No rotation use until ineffective then switch may be as good as rotation. Egg counts can help determine efficacy of anthelmintics and management schemes.

Controlof Parasitesin OtherRuminantSpecies

- Haemonchus- important to cameloids, antelope, some deer in southern US - Warm season parasite - Ostertaginae- most important in some locations (devastating to exotic deer) - Cool season parasite - Trichostrongylusspp. - Cool season parasite - Treat arrested worm populations! - Administering an adequate dose of correct drug to individual animals is most important constrain in treatment of gastrointestinal nematodes in this group of animals - Cervids and antelope are like goats and need 1.5 to 2 X dose - Dewormer in feed seems to be the most effective way to administer (except alpacas and llamas can be individually dosed usually). - Fascioloidesmagna,Parelaphotostrongylustenius, and Elaeophoraschneideriare normally found in white-tailed deer, but can kill sympatric hosts. - Cryptosporidium,Haemonchus,and various ostertagidsmy be a problem in farmed white-tailed deer. - Young animals are at greatest risk, so there is an emphasis toward controlling parasites in young.

Resistance to deworming agents is not a matter of if but of when. There is a direct relationship between the number of times a worm population is exposed to an anthelmintic and the advent of anthelmintic resistance as a clinical problem. Under dosing is probably the MOST powerful selection mechanism. One practice that encourages under dosage is the subcutaneous administration of cattle dewormers in small ruminants. This practice selected for Ivermectin resistance. Rotation of drugs within a grazing season selects for resistance to all of the drugs in the rotation. This insures that multiple resistance will occur faster than if a single drug was used until no longer effective then changed. It is recommended to change your anthelmintic drug each year. FERT (fecal egg reduction test) is most common method for evaluating herd or flock. If you do not see at least a 95% reduction, you do not have an effective drug against the adult nematode present. Larval development assays is an in vitro test that can detect very small populations of resistant worms. See page 240, third paragraph, if you want to know specific drugs and the best method of delivery. If resistance is to one or more classes, you can use a combination of drugs from different classes and with different control mechanisms. Again: - Benzimidazole resistance will not revert to susceptibility - Levamisole resistance will revert in several generations (3-6 years) - Ivermectin resistance of Haemonchus may lack cold tolerance. (maybe reason resistance isnt seen in northern US). Targeted or selective deworming of high milk producing females, young animals, or individuals with signs of disease may lower the chances of selecting resistance.

FAMACHA - technique of evaluating ocular mucous membrane color for anemia to select which individuals to treat Maintainingnewlypurchasedanimalsin a barnor dry lot until they havebeenevaluatedafter treatmentwith an effective anthelminticor combinationof anthelminticsis an essential part of herdhealthmanagement. Anthelmintic resistance is less a problem in cattle.

Evaluationof Fecal EggCounts

- McMastereggsper gramtechniqueis not the gold standard, just a handy way of evaluating level of parasitism. - Wisconsindoublecentrifugationtest is used to detect low egg counts (ex: cattle) - Rule of thumb is that approximately 20% of the flock or herd will contribute 80% of the worm eggs to the environment. - The most important thing about egg counts is consistency in the laboratory. - The book goes into more detail.

ArthropodControlProgramsfor Cattle
1. Dipping - most effective method of complete coverage of cattle (especially Rhipicephalus/Boophilus ticks) - Disadvantages: cost of dip vat, cost of insecticide, cost of insecticide disposal, vat is not portable, animals may be injured - To provide highly effective control of horn flies, 50% of herd must be dipped at 30 day intervals (not calves) - Non systemic insecticide - Dip 5-6 times between March and November depending on season - Normal treatment interval 30 days 2. Spraying - Advantages: unit is easily transported, cost of insecticide is lower, no need to dispose of insecticide that is not used, least costly and one of the most effective techniques of range animals - Disadvantage: cattle must be gathered and handled - Spray 50% of hear every 30days for horn fly season (not calves) - Modification in non systemic insecticide for cattle grubs 3. Self Applicators:Backrubbersand Dustbags - Free-choiceor Forceduse - Advantages: Cattle dont have to be handled, applicators are easily inspected and refilled, effective against horn flies - Disadvantages: higher cost than spraying (but really equal if forced-use), cost of extra fencing to force use 4. Ear Tags - Tags are effective for about 6months - They are highly cost effective to control horn flies - Resistance to insecticide can occur 5. Oral Insecticides - Feedthroughor Sustainedreleaseboluses - Insecticide passed with feces so it can kill developing larvae - Control for horn fly is very poor - Not cost effective (Feed-through is worse) 6. Pour-on Insecticides - Strongly selects for resistance - Almost as cheap as spraying - Maybe more effective against nematodes and cattle grub than spray or dip. - Not routinely used against horn flies 7. InjectableInsecticides - Ivermectin and Doramectin - No horn fly control, but Avermectin kills horn fly larvae Horn Fly Control - Target adult and larvae in feces - Concentrate on early spring, middle of summer, and fall