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EVEN AND ODD FUNCTION

EXAMPLES 1 Show that f(x) = x2 cos x is an even function. Solution: Given that f(x) = x2 cos x Replace x by -x then, f(-x) = (-x)2 cos (-x) = x2 cos x = f(x) Hence given function is an even function.

Example 2: Show that f(x) = x cos x is an odd function. Solution: Given that f(x) = x cos x, replace x by -x then, f(-x) = (-x) cos (-x) = -x cos x = -f(x) So f is an odd function.

Half-Range Expansions

In many physical problems the function

is only known over a finite interval,

say . To express as a Fourier series means that we need to extend the function to be valid over all . If we choose to extend the function periodically, with period , then we retrieve the results of Section 2.4.1. However, we could also extend the function in an even manner, as shown in Figure 2.5 to get a cosine series or as an odd function to get a sine series.

Figure 2.5: (a) A function defined on a interval

, where

. (b) The even

extension of the function onto the interval is shown as a solid curve and the periodic extension of period is shown as a dot-dash curve. (c) The odd extension of the function, solid curve, and the periodic extension of period , dot-dash curve.

The odd extension of will generate a Fourier series that only involves sine terms and is called the sine half-range expansion. It is given by
(2.15)

where

and

is a positive integer.

On the other hand, the even extension generates the cosine half-range expansion
(2.16)

where

Example 1 Calculate the half range Fourier sine series for the function where .

Since we are calculating a sine series,

Now,

When n is odd, With the special case

When n is even,

thus

, hence the required Fourier sine series is

EXAMPLE 4
Problem : Find period of

sin2x. sin2x=1+cos2x2 sin2x=12+cos2x2

Solution : Using trigonometric identity,

Comparing with of

sin2x is :

af(bx+c)+d, the magnitude of b i.e. |b| is 2. The period of cosine is 2. Hence, period T=22=

EXAMPLE 5
Problem : Find period of function :

f(x)=sin3x
Writing identity for "

sin3x ", we have : f(x)=sin3x=3sinxsin3x4=34sinx34sin3x

We know that period of ag(x) is same as that of g(x). The period of first term of f(x), therefore, is equal to the period of sinx. Now, period of sinx is 2. Hence,

T1=2
We also know that period of g(ax+b) is equal to the period of g(x), divided by |a|. The period of second term of f(x), therefore, is equal to the period of sinx, divided by 3. Now, period of sinx is 2. Hence,

T2=23
Applying LCM rule,

T=LCM of2and2HCF of1and3=21=