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Radiographic Film Systems

W O R L D W I D E

R E S P O N S E

CONTENTS
AGFA NDT YOUR SUPPLIER OF COMPLETE NDT SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 AGFAS INNOVATIVE QUALITY, YOUR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

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STRUCTURIX FILM SYSTEMS . . . . . . 5


RUGGED QUALITY FILMS
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OPTIMUM IMAGE QUALITY

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CONSISTENT PRODUCTION QUALITY

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CONSISTENT PROCESSING QUALITY . . . . . . . 7 PROTECTIVE COATING


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DARKROOM LIGHT SENSITIVITY

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OPTIMIZED PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 IMAGE QUALITY AND FILM SYSTEM CLASSES CHARACTERISTICS APPLICATIONS

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EXPOSURE DIAGRAMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 SPECIAL APPLICATIONS Structurix F8


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Structurix Intensifying Screens

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THE RIGHT PACKAGING FOR EVERY STRUCTURIX FILM

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Pb Vacupac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Pb ETE DW ETE


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Pb Rollpac

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4 5 6 7 8 8 10 12 13 17 17 18 20 21 21 22

DW Rollpac

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Rollpac Precut NIF FW BLR

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OPTIMAL STORAGE OF STRUCTURIX FILMS

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STRUCTURIX EQUIPMENT
STRUCTURIX NDT Si STRUCTURIX NDT U

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STRUCTURIX NDT M eco

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STRUCTURIX FEEDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 STRUCTURIX DRYER


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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

STRUCTURIX CHEMICALS . . . . . . . . . . 42
MANUAL/AUTOMATIC PROCESSING CLEANING PRODUCTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

STRUCTURIX QUALITY ASSURANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44


STRUCTURIX CERTIFIED PMC STRIP

(Processing Monitoring Control) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

STRUCTURIX (CERTIFIED) DENSTEP

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STRUCTURIX THIO-TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 ISO 9001 QUALITY LABELS FOR AGFA NDT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 CONCLUSION
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AGFA NDT IN THE WORLD

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23 23 24 24 25 26 27 28 31 35 39 46 49 51

AGFA NDT YOUR SUPPLIER OF COMPLETE NDT SYSTEMS


Best known for its photographic product business, which dates back to 1894, today Agfa is the leading supplier of imaging solutions across many applications Graphic Systems, Consumer Imaging, HealthCare, Industrial Imaging, and Non-Destructive Testing (NDT). Agfa NDT now offers an expanded product assortment which includes conventional and digital radiography, digital network solutions, X-ray equipment, ultrasonic testing instruments and automated inspection systems. Agfa NDT has achieved leading positions in these areas through its customer focus and stands ready to meet its customers needs today and in the future with ongoing innovations, new products and an extensive worldwide support and service organization.

Agfas Krautkramer Ultrasonic Systems is the worlds largest developer, manufacturer and supplier of high technology ultrasonic equiment and product specific testing systems. The product line includes ultrasonic flaw detectors, complete testing systems, thickness gauges, portable hardness testers, transducers and application software. We can also offer specially prepared training courses and customized application solutions.

Agfas Pantak Seifert X-ray Systems offer a single source for all customers X-ray requirements. The advanced design of the ERESCO portable and ISOVOLT HS stationary units results in the highest output power for film radiography applications, allowing the shortest of exposure times. Employing two modern applications laboratories in Europe and the US, solutions to customers most difficult X-ray inspection problems can be determined and a system designed to meet their exact needs. This also includes high-end 3D-CT applications and those that require extreme high-speed automated defect recognition (SABA). Agfas RADView Digital Systems is an industry leader in Direct Radiography (DR) technology, which, instead of film, uses an amorphous selenium imaging plate to create digital images. The images are viewed on the RADView Digital Systems workstation. Powered by the RADView software, the workstation provides rich image enhancement, analysis functions, flexible information management, which leads the world in its user friendliness. Other RADView products available are Computed Radiography (CR) readers, NDT Phosphor Imaging Plates & Cassettes and Film Digitizing Systems. Agfas Structurix Film Systems is a manufacturer and supplier of a fully integrated range of X-ray films, chemicals and processing equipment. The STRUCTURIX brandname, another industry leader has achieved international acclaim through product excellence, reinforced by wellqualified and experienced technical and service specialists. Lloyds, BSI and TV approvals and accreditations are held covering development, manufacture, supply and service of sensitized films for use in industrial radiography and processing equipment.

For further information about Agfas products and services, please visit our web site at AgfaNDT.com

AGFAS INNOVATIVE QUALITY, YOUR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

There is no substitute for quality


Agfa NDT offers innovative industrial X-ray film systems and services that give you the edge in quality control and customer satisfaction. With its worldwide response capability, Agfa meets your needs. No matter where they occur you get what you would expect from the market leader.

STRUCTURIX SYSTEMS

FILM
RUGGED QUALITY FILMS
STRUCTURIX film systems are the film types most widely used in industrial radiography, in which Agfa is the world market leader. Our customers worldwide are enthusiastic about our universal and reliable products. Compliance with ISO 9001 demonstrates Agfas goal of continuously striving for the highest product quality. Our Marketing and Research staff keeps close track of your needs, requirements and technological advancements. As a result, we can more precisely design and develop products and systems to meet increasing demands of the market. STRUCTURIX films for many years have enjoyed an excellent reputation, but have now further improved their quality as the result of a high cost, large scale research and development project lasting for several years. The STRUCTURIX family is based on Agfas advanced film technology, which has two main foundations of great importance in NDT: image quality and consistent rugged behavior.

OPTIMUM IMAGE QUALITY


IMAGE QUALITY

Technological axis of STRUCTURIX D family

D2

All the STRUCTURIX films benefit from an Agfa emulsion breakthrough that gives increased contrast and maximum detail perceptibility. In fact, it results in the highest intrinsic defect recognizability for each speed range. Even the smallest details can be interpreted easily. The finished X-ray film has a high quality with a brilliant surface, and the image has a pleasant blue tint.

D3

D4

D5

D7 D8

Faster SPEED

High image quality and perceptibility through optimization of the signal to noise ratio for every STRUCTURIX film.

Better LOCAL CONTRAST

Optimization of contrast
D2 D3 D4 D5

Theoretical maximum for linear detection D7

Faster

Contrast (signal) of all films is optimized to approach D8 the maximum contrast for a linear detector (industrial X-ray Film), thereby optimizing image quality and percepSPEED tibility. An exception to the rule is D2, a super linear detector, where image quality is optimized through more than linear (extreme high) contrast in combination with very low noise.

Better

CONSISTENT PRODUCTION QUALITY


Film density

STRUCTURIX NDT films are manufactured in large quantities. To ensure that they meet the most rigorous worldwide quality standards, they are produced at one facility under tightly controlled conditions in an ultramodern coating room. Agfas Total Quality Management (TQM) approach, certified by the ISO 9001 label, is the foundation of the system leading to this exceptional performance in production consistency. People, production equipment, and organization all become one system geared to consistency and continuous improvements. What we call the moving target quality philosophy.

5 4 3 2 1 2.10

Speed (Rel LogE)

0 -1 -2 -3

97%

95% 68%

2.00

1.90

Production process consistency

-4 -5

Film batches

Moving target means that to meet the increasing needs of our customers, quality has to be built into our products; not by additional testing, but by design. Agfas emulsion technology, for example, helps to provide a highly homogeneous emulsion over the total coating area.

Not only do the STRUCTURIX films have outstanding quality, they also have an exceptionally high level of batch to batch uniformity (see figure).

CONSISTENT PROCESSING QUALITY


For many years STRUCTURIX films have had the reputation of providing consistent and excellent results over a wide range of operating conditions. The Cubic Grain Plus technology is at the base of this consistent stable behavior. The extreme narrow grain size distribution, in combination with the cubic shape, assures that all exposed grains (latent image) will simultaneously develop the same density over a wide range of processing conditions. Moreover, they will do so rendering the very high contrast which is responsible for the high image quality.

Cubic Grain Plus technology

PROTECTIVE COATING
An important feature in the STRUCTURIX films is a special protective top coat resulting directly from Agfas Split Antistress Layer (SAL) technology. This top coat gives the Agfa films unique high resistance to pressure, scratching and creasing. Another advantage of the Agfa top coat is that surface roughness has been optimized for problemfree processing in automatic feeders such as the STRUCTURIX FEEDER.
STRUCTURIX quality... rugged performance

4 3 2

Split Anti-stress Layer


Emulsion Layer

Base

2 3 4

Emulsion Layer

Split Anti-stress Layer

Cubic grain plus Matting agent

The emulsion coatings are covered by two separate antistress layers (3+4). To achieve a rugged surface, the top layer has received the matting agent.

DARKROOM LIGHT SENSITIVITY


STRUCTURIX D films may be exposed to darkroom safelight conditions longer without sensitometric fogging (ANSI PH 2.22). This means that brighter safelight illumination can be used, resulting in more ergonomic and efficient working conditions. Recommended Agfa filters are R1 (orange-red) and G7 (green).

OPTIMIZED PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS


Sensitometric curves
D4 s.c. D8 D5 D4 D3 D2
3.5

D3 s.c.

D7

3.0

2.5

STRUCTURIX D2 D3 s.c. D4 s.c. D3 D4 D5 D7 D8 Exposure and processing parameters: 200 kV, Pb screens, autom. proc., 8 min. cycle, devel G 135, 28C - 82F

2.0

1.5

1.0

Blue-base
0.5

Log. rel. exp.


1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5

1) In accordance with ANSI PH 2.8, lSO 7004 without lead screens. 2) ln accordance with ANSI PH 2.8, lSO 7004 and EN 584-1 with lead screens 0.027 mm. 3) 8 mm Cu filtration, 0.1/0.2 mm lead screens. 4) Exposure with lead screens 0.1/0.2 mm. 5) Exposure with Fe screens front: 1 mm, back: 1 mm. Object Fe 160 mm. FFD = 2 m. (*) CONTRAST. The average gradient of the section of the characteristic curve between densities 1.5 and 3.5 (obtained at 200 kV in accordance with lSO 7004).

Relative exposure factors


100 kV (1) 200 kV (2) Ir 192 (3) Co 60 (4) LINAC/8 MeV(5) CONTRAST(*) STRUCTURIX D2 STRUCTURIX D3 s.c. STRUCTURIX D4 s.c. STRUCTURIX D3 STRUCTURIX D4 STRUCTURIX D5 STRUCTURIX D7 STRUCTURIX D8 9.0 9.5 5.4 4.1 3.0 1.7 1.0 0.6 7.0 8.0 4.8 4.3 2.7 1.5 1.0 0.65 8.0 5.0 3.0 1.5 1.0 0.6 9.0 5.0 3.0 1.5 1.0 0.6 9.0 5.1 3.1 1.5 1.0 0.6 6.0 5.3 4.6 5.5 5.4 5.4 5.4 4.3

Density

IMAGE QUALITY AND FILM SYSTEM CLASSES


TOWARDS A NEW FILM SYSTEM C L A S S I F I C AT I O N

The introduction of the Industrial Film Systems Classification Standards EN 584-1, ASTM E-1815, ISO 11699-1 and JIS-K7627 provide an important means to assign film systems (film types in combination with processing) to the appropriate film system class. These standards identify the various types of industrial X-ray film systems and classify them based on objectively quantified parameters that are the foundation of film imaging performance. The standards for control of film processing EN 584-2 and ISO 11699-2 provide the means to control the processing at the processor user level. The objective is to make sure that a classified system will also produce the expected capabilities in daily use. (See: Structurix Quality Assurance)

As a result of being able to objectively determine the performance of a specific Film System ( Film + Chemistry + Processing) film radiography remains the number one and most widely used NDT technique. The classification system classifies a film inclusive of processing (type and chemicals). This illustrates the importance of processing in relation to imaging.

These parameters are selected on the basis of insight into imaging theory applied to the industrial X-ray film systems. G is a measure of the signal gain factor and D indicates the noise, so that G/d represents the signal/noise ratio. In the context of growing quality awareness the new perception of film system classification, described in EN 584, ASTM 1815, ISO 11699 and JIS-K7627, is gradually flowing into the industry.

The parameters are:


G2 (contrast) G4 (contrast) D (noise) G/D Net Net Net Net density: density: density: density: D D D D = = = = 2 4 2 2

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Image Quality & Film System Classes


FILM TYPE STRUCTURIX D2 D3 s.c. D4 s.c. D3 D4 D5 D7 D8 CEN EN 584-1 C1 ASTM E 1815-96 special ISO 11699-1 T1 T1 T1 T1 T2 T2 T3 T4 JIS-K7627 T1 T1 T1 T1 T2 T2 T3 T4

C2 C3 C4 C5 C6

I I I II III

A/Automatic
Chemicals G 135/G 335 - development immersion time : 100 sec. Developing temperature: 28C - (82F) GRADIENT G D2 D3 D4 D5 D7 D8 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 T1 T1 T2 T2 T3 T4 special I I I II III 5.2 4.7 4.6 4.4 4.4 4.1 9.1 8.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 5.2 D 0.014 0.016 0.020 0.026 0.031 0.035 G/d DENS=2 371 294 232 169 142 114 ISO SPEED S 32 64 100 200 320 400 DOSE m Gy D=2 22.3 14.0 8.7 4.6 3.2 2.2

FILM TYPE CEN ISO ASTM DENS=2 DENS=4 DENS=2

B/Manual
Chemicals G 128/G 328 - development immersion time : 300 sec. Developing temperature: 20C - (68F) GRADIENT G D2 D3 D4 D5 D7 D8 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 T1 T1 T2 T2 T3 T4 special I I I II III 5.1 4.8 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.1 9.0 8.4 8.0 8.0 8.0 6.8 D 0.013 0.016 0.020 0.026 0.032 0.035 G/d DENS=2 392 303 232 177 144 117 ISO SPEED S 32 64 100 160 320 400 DOSE m Gy D=2 23.5 14.0 8.7 4.4 3.2 2.2

FlLM TYPE CEN ISO ASTM DENS=2 DENS=4 DENS=2

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CHARACTERISTICS
STRUCTURIX D2
Extremely fine grain film with very high contrast. Ideal for exposures requiring the finest possible detail rendering.

STRUCTURIX D3 s.c.

STRUCTURIX D4 s.c.

Single coated films with very high image quality, (accurate interpretability,) high contrast and pleasant image tint. The ideal films for optical enlargements. The colorless back coating prevents film curl under all conditions.

STRUCTURIX D3
Ultra fine grain film with very high contrast. This film obtaines a very high detail perceptability which meets the requirements of the most critical NDT applications. For exposure with lead screens using either X-ray, gamma rays or radiation from megavolt equipment.

STRUCTURIX D4
Extra fine grain film with very high contrast. Suitable for a wide variety of critical applications. For exposure with lead screens using either X-ray, gamma rays or radiation from megavolt equipment.

STRUCTURIX D5
Very fine grain film with high contrast. Excellent for visualization of discontinuities. This film is intended for use with lead screens using either X-ray or gamma rays.

STRUCTURIX D7
Fine grain film with high contrast and high speed. Designed for direct exposure or with lead screens. For exposure with lead screens using either X-ray or gamma rays.

STRUCTURIX D8
Medium grain film with high contrast and very high speed. Suitable for a variety of applications. This film can be used for direct exposure, or with lead screens. It gives good image quality with short exposure times. If even higher speed is required, fluorescent screens, in combination with Structurix F8 (not D8) should be used.

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APPLICATIONS
electronic components composite materials castings (light metals and alloys) multiple film techniques

electronic components composite materials neutron radiography

inspections whereby optical enlargement is required multiple film techniques

electronic components composite materials castings very high quality welds

nuclear quality aerospace and aircraft industry multiple film techniques

electronic components composite materials castings very high quality welds

defence and nuclear industry aerospace and aerospace industry multiple film techniques

welding castings shipbuilding

aerospace and aircraft industry multiple film techniques

welding and casting defence industry aerospace and aircraft industry

composite materials multiple film techniques

concrete and heavy construction work castings multiple film technique

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EXPOSURE DIAGRAMS
Exposure diagrams can be very useful for setting the correct exposure. The diagrams shown here are meant only as a guide, as the correct exposure will mainly depend on the variations of the object, the exposure equipment used and on the processing conditions.

Steel (Fe)

Type of X-ray tube: constant potential Pb-screens Density: 2 FFD: 1m Autom. proc.: 8 min. cycle G 135, 28C (82.4F).

STRUCTURIX D2
kV 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 m.A.min 140 160 180 200 220 240 260

STRUCTURIX D3
kV 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 m.A.min 120 140 160 180 200 220 240

STRUCTURIX D4
kV 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 260 m.A.min 100 120 140 160 180 200 220

260

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

10

20

30

mm 40

10

20

30

mm 40

10

20

30

mm 40

STRUCTURIX D5
kV 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 260 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 240 m.A.min 100 120 140 160 180 200

STRUCTURIX D7
kV 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 220 m.A.min 100 120 140 160 180 200

STRUCTURIX D8
kV 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 220 m.A.min 100 120 140 160 180 200

220

240

240 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 260 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

260

10

20

30

mm 40

10

20

30

mm 40

10

20

30

mm 40

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Aluminium (AI)

Type of X-ray tube: constant potential Density: 2 FFD: 1m Autom. proc.: 8 min. cycle G 135, 28C (82.4F).

STRUCTURIX D2
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 kV 50 m.A.min 70 90 110 130

STRUCTURIX D3
kV 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 50 m.A.min 70 90 110

STRUCTURIX D4
kV 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 m.A.min 50 70 90 110

130

130

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

mm 80

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

mm 80

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

mm 80

STRUCTURIX D5
kV 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 130 20 m.A.min 50 70 90

STRUCTURIX D7
kV 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 130 m.A.min 50 70 90

STRUCTURIX D8
kV 100 90 80 70 60 50 110 40 30 20 110 m.A.min 50 70 90

110

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

130

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

mm 80

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

mm 80

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

mm 80

15

Selenium 75
GBq.h Ci.h 1000

10000

100

D2 D4

D3 D5 D8

1000

D7
10

100

Pb screens Density 2 SFD 1m


1 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 mm Fe

Iridium 192
GBq.h Ci.h 1000

10000

D2
100

D3 D4 D5 D8

1000

D7
10

100

Pb screens Density 2 SFD 1m


1 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 mm Fe

Cobalt 60
GBq.h Ci.h 1000

10000

100

D2

D3 D4 D5 D8

1000

D7
10

100

Pb screens Density 2 SFD 1m


1 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 mm Fe

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SPECIAL APPLICATIONS
STRUCTURIX F8
Designed as a high quality film for fluorometallic (RCF) screen exposure when the speed obtainable with Pb screen system is insufficient or radiation safety is of prime importance. Sensitive to all UV and blue-emitting screens. Calcium tungstate with lead or lead oxide backing, so called fluorometallic screens (STRUCTURIX RCF Screens) are most suited for industrial applications. F8 with fluorescent screens is used in a variety of heavy construction applications, concrete, in line examination of piping, where X-ray energy has to be limited, flash radiography and microfocus enlargement techniques. STRUCTURIX F8 is well-suited for off-shore pipelines and similar applications. Those areas need short exposure time through the use of fluorometalic screens and fast processing cycles. F8 is preferably processed in short cycle (90 sec.). If needed standard 8 min. cycle can be used alternatively.

Relative exposure factor with fluorometallic screens depends on:


temperature radiation energy exposure time (see page 20 for more details) When maximum speed is important the use of very fast screens such as the Agfa NDT 1200 screen can further reduce the exposure time 3 to 6 times compared to RCF screens. F8 is the ideal fast, high contrast, high definition film for fluorescent screen applications. When higher sharpness is required we advise the use of D8 with Pb screens.

Sensitometric curves with RCF fluorometallic screens.

3,5

F8 + RCF D8 + Pb

3 2,5 2

Blue base

1,5 1 0,5 0

-0,5

0,5

1,5

2,5

(at 200 kV, F8 + RCF, 5 sec.)

Log. rel. exp.

F8
High speed, high contrast fine grain film, for exposures in combination with fluorometallic (RCF) screens or fluorescent screens high system speed is main requirement on stream corrosion/erosion radiography concrete and heavy constructions low dosage output, e.g. microfocus

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Density

STRUCTURIX INTENSIFYING SCREENS


The STRUCTURIX range offers two intensifying screens. The STRUCTURIX RCF fluorometallic screen and the high speed STRUCTURIX NDT 1200 fluorescent screen.

STRUCTURIX intensifying screens: features


When excited by X-rays or gamma-rays the STRUCTURIX RCF fluorometallic screen becomes blue emitting. The screen has an incorporated filter of lead oxide for scattered radiation. The emission spectrum is matched to the spectral sensitivity of the STRUCTURIX F type films. The strong fluorescent STRUCTURIX RCF screen offers the ideal compromise between detail perceptibility and working efficiency. The extra strong Electron-Beam-Cured (EBC) protective coating and the polyester support make the screen particularly durable. One of the most important applications of the STRUCTURIX RCF screens lies in the inspection of offshore pipelines. Combining the screen sensitivity and rapid processing of the STRUCTURIX F8 film provides an ideal film-screen system. In the in line as well, the use of the STRUCTURIX RCF-screen in combination with the STRUCTURIX F8 film means a considerable amount of time-saving.

STRUCTURIX intensifying screens: Advantages


The STRUCTURIX fluorometallic (RCF) and fluorescent screens (NDT 1200) based on the conventional phosphor material calcium tungsten (CaWO4) reduce radiation exposure, and/or the necessary level of radiation energy. They detect the radiographic penetration of thick objects. Being a more productive and effective testing method the use of the STRUCTURIX RCF and NDT 1200 screens reduces the exposure equipment load. The flexible screen enables radiography of curved objects.

The blue emitting STRUCTURIX NDT 1200 fluorescent screen has an extremely high absorption and conversion efficiency together with acceptable detail perceptibility. The combination with a STRUCTURIX F8 film makes this film-screen system convenient for high-energy applications like the non-destructive testing of heavy specimens, the examination of large concrete structures (bridges and buildings). The STRUCTURIX NDT 1200 screen can also be a solution for flash radiography by which exposure times are extremely short and for microfocus-enlargment techniques by which radiation doses are very low.

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Treatment of STRUCTURIX intensifying screens


The STRUCTURIX screens should be protected from moisture, heat and ultra-violet radiation. Dust and marks should be removed from the screen immediately using an approved Screen Cleaner. The Agfa Screen Cleaner obviously cleans the screen but also contains an antistatic element which provides dirt and dust on the screen caused by static electricity.

Relative Exposure Factor


When making exposures with fluorescent screens it is important to understand the potential impact of variables such as temperature, exposure energy and exposure time: Intensifying screens fluoresce more brilliantly at low temperature. Therefore the screen efficiency will drop with increasing temperature. With increasing energy, the absorption of fluorescent screens is reduced and, as a result, the intensifying effect is diminished. Due to the reciprocity effect with fluorescent screen systems, the gain in exposure time compared to lead screen systems, diminishes with increasing exposure length.

Spectograms
400 200 100 80 60 40 20 10 8 6 4 2

uJ ) S = (cm
100 80 60 40 20 10 8 6 4 2

300

350

400

450

500

550

Spectral sensitivity of STRUCTURIX F8 (for density 1.0 above fog) Relative emmission spectrum of intensifying screens

Relative Exposure
F8 100 kV NDT 1200 RCF No screen NDT 1200 + Pb RCF Pb NDT 1200 + Pb RCF Pb NDT 1200 + Pb RCF Pb 0.010 0.030 1.000 0.008 0.022 1.000 0.007 0.035 1.000 0.006 0.040 1.000 D7

300 kV

Ir 192

Co 60

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THE RIGHT PACKAGING FOR EVERY STRUCTURIX FILM


PRACTICAL D AY L I G H T PA C K A G I N G SHEET FILM IN D AY L I G H T PA C K A G I N G

Time saving
Agfa packages its STRUCTURIX films on ultramodern packaging machines. This ready to use packaging can be placed directly on the object to be X-rayed. This saves valuable time which would otherwise be used to place the film manually in cassettes in the darkroom. Agfa has a very wide range of different forms of packaging, which are in accordance with the ISO 5655 norm. For every application of industrial radiography there is the right STRUCTURIX film in the right packaging. No object is too large or too small, an X-ray film of the appropriate size is available for every exposure. STRUCTURIX films are supplied in all standard sheet and roll sizes (special sizes on demand) and in darkroom or daylight packaging.

P b VA C U PA C
Completely light tight, airtight and moistureproof

A N A G FA I N N O VAT I O N

Improved quality
Agfa packages all its films automatically in an ISO 9001 environment using new lead screens for every packaging. This method guarantees optimal quality. By excluding all so called film faults, such as dust in the packaging and faults caused by the lead. Reshots due to these faults are a thing of the past.

Pb VACUPAC is the perfect daylight packaging. The STRUCTURIX X-ray films with Pb screens, with a standard thickness of 0.027 mm, are vacuum packed in a completely light tight, airtight and moistureproof foil complex. The foil, a spin off from space technology, is a metalized polymer involving the deposition of vaporized aluminium under vacuum. The synthetic foil ensures that VACUPAC can be used under extremely dirty and damp conditions. Pb VACUPAC is ideal for applications with energies higher than 100 kV.

More economical
The time is money principle means that ease of use, both during exposure and in the darkroom, and the avoidance of reshoots lead to increased productivity. On all daylight film packages the film type is clearly marked. Pb means the film is sandwiched between lead screens (.001/ 0.027 mm). Daylight packed sheets have a center cross on the envelope to allow for easy positioning. Sheets are provided in an easy to use strong fliptop box. Rolls are supplied in a rigid dispenser box.

Optimal image quality


As a result of the vacuum, contact between the STRUCTURIX film and the lead screens is perfect guaranteeing optimal image definition. Even if VACUPAC is placed around a spherical or curved workpiece, film/screen contact is retained fully.

Easy to use
Either side of the wrapper can be placed on the object to be tested. A center cross on the envelope allows easy positioning. In addition, VACUPAC can be opened in one movement thanks to the easy peel-off effect.

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Pb ETE
(EDGE T0 EDGE)
The edge to edge Pb versions are still available for the less popular sheet sizes for which a VACUPAC version does not exist. A specific advantage of the edge to edge is the double sided edge. This makes it possible to place the film against or between elements of a workpiece easily and accurately. Opening the edge to edge packaging is easy: by tearing open the wrapper using the thread included for this purpose, the film is easy to remove via the long side. The Pb edge to edge version is designed for exposures with energies higher than 100 kV and isotopes.
A N A G FA I N N O VAT I O N

Extra vacuum protection


Each pack of 100 sheets is also supplied in vacuo to preserve the vacuum well beyond the expiry date.

DW ETE
(EDGE T0 EDGE)
Light tight, moistureproof and greaseproof packaging without Pb screen. Ideal for exposures using radiation energy lower than 100 kV. The envelopes can easily be cut and taped for use in odd shaped angles and corners. They are also easy to tape to the workpiece.

21

R O L L S I N D AY L I G H T PA C K A G I N G :

Whether you have to X-ray pipelines, pressure vessels, airplanes or storage tanks, with the roll film packaging you can determine the length of film yourself so that your radiographs can be made in one piece.

Can be opened quickly and easily


The special design of the ROLLPAC wrapper means that it can be opened quickly and easily. The film is removed by taking the unprinted wrapper together with the lead screen and the film in one hand and the printed wrapper and the other lead screen in the other. In this way the film can be easily stripped from the packaging. The packaging of Rollpac in wider formats (>10cm) has a tearstrip on either side of the wrapper. This enables the film to be removed from the packaging easily and above all quickly.

P b R O L L PA C
Light tight, moistureproof and greaseproof

Easy to use
Cassettes are not necessary with ROLLPAC packaging. The film is packed in accordance with the edge to edge system with which ROLLPAC can be placed accurately on the object, for example a long weld, to be tested, or right into the corner of a flange. ROLLPAC is placed around the object and attached with adhesive tape. Identification of the exposure needs only occur once. This time saving ROLLPAC packaging is supplied in a convenient dispenser box.

The film is sandwiched between two .001/0.027 mm lead screens. ROLLPAC packaging is completely light tight. Because the packaging is also resistant to moisture and grease it may come into contact with damp or greasy objects without affecting the film.

A N A G FA I N N O VAT I O N

Optimal image quality


The unique way of packaging ROLLPAC on our ROLLPAC machines ensures that excellent contact between the film and lead foil is retained when applied to spherical or tubular objects, even those with a small diameter. Because the screens are only used once optimal results are guaranteed.

Length indication on the wrapper


This allows you to easily determine where to cut the film, it enables you also to see how much film is left. The film can be cut to any length. This should be done in the darkroom.

22

D W R O L L PA C
DW ROLLPAC packaging is specifically intended for material testing using low to very low radiation energy (<100 kV).
A N A G FA I N N O VAT I O N

Widths-up-to 35 cm (14 inches) are available. For testing at higher radiation energy levels (>100 kV), e.g. welding in boilers, storage tanks and pipelines, Pb ROLLPAC is used.

R O L L PA C P R E C U T
Even more economical
If specially ordered, the films in ROLLPAC packaging can also be supplied in precut lengths from 70 cm (27.5) on. This exclusive form of packaging saves you a considerable amount of time and money. Ideal for pipeline projects, which generally consist of large series of pipes of the same diameter. We can supply ROLLPAC precut in the length required for your project.
A N A G FA I N N O VAT I O N

23

SHEET FILM IN DARKROOM PA C K A G I N G

Films for use with reloadable metal or plastic cassettes and exposure holders. The high level of darkroom lighting tolerated by STRUCTURIX D films allow more comfortable loading and unloading conditions. Film type and size are clearly marked on bottom, top and side of each box for easy storage. In the first instance, darkroom packaging appears to be the most economical solution because this is the cheapest to buy. However, before deciding on what to use, the total radiography cost should be considered. The film handling costs, for example in the darkroom, and the cost of reshoots are important factors to consider. The extra cost of cassettes and screens should also be taken into account. The total of this cost price calculation also depends of course on the local conditions. The conclusion is therefore: less costly is not always economical A quality evaluation can also be made in addition to this cost evaluation. VACUPAC image quality cannot be obtained with the standard cassette system.

NIF
(NON INTERLEAVED FILMS)
This is the most economic way to buy sheet film. The intrinsic film quality is the same as that of prepacked film. Sheets of film are packed per 100 (except extremely large sizes) in a paalpo bag inside a cardboard box. The paalpo bags allow for easy film removal and re-closure.

FW
(FOLDER WRAPPED)
Each film is wrapped in a paper folder to prevent handling faults in the darkroom. The paper folders can also be used to make it easy to store the films and protect them after processing. This form of packaging is also a solution when boxes remain in use for some time after opening in areas with a high relative humidity and temperature as it prevents the films from sticking together. Sheets of film are packed per 100 in a sealed bag and placed in a strong cardboard box.

24

ROLLS IN DARKROOM PA C K A G I N G :

BLR
(BULK LOAD ROLL)
Packaging with bare film on a cardboard core. This film can be cut to any length and loaded with or without lead screens in reloadable cassettes, in the darkroom. Available in a standard width of 70 mm and in lengths of 550 ft. (167.75 m) and 1000 ft. (305 m).

TA I L O R M A D E PA C K A G I N G In addition to the aforementioned standard products special orders can also be made, such as non standard sheet sizes, other forms of packaging, e.g. Bi and Tri Packs. For the special order procedure, please contact your Agfa agent. Bipack is an ETE daylight packaging containing 2 films. The Tripack contains 3 films in one envelope. Combinations with lead screens are possible. Bipacks can also be supplied in DW Rollpac packaging.

25

OPTIMAL STORAGE OF STRUCTURIX FILMS


Handling and storage of X-ray film is a very important aspect of the radiographic process. Guidelines are given in several international standards e.g. ASTM E1254-98. The recommendations for unexposed X-ray film are described in the paragraphs below. First of all, storage facilities for unexposed X-ray films should provide adequate protection from any penetrating radiation. If the films are stored for longer than 3 months, background radiation may not exceed 90 nGy/h (18 x 10-10 C/Kg/h). Films in containers sealed by the manufacturer should be stored with the films on edge, whenever possible. Storage temperature should be between 40F (4.4C) and 75F (23.8C) at a relative humidity range of 30 to 60 %. As higher temperatures accelerate certain physicochemical processes in the emulsion, STRUCTURIX films should always be stored in a cool place (within the above mentioned temperature range). While films in opened packages are also affected by humidity, it is advisable to ensure that the relative humidity in the storage room remains under 60 %. It is also recommended that the films are not stored in the immediate vicinity of X-ray chemicals. If STRUCTURIX films are handled and stored in accordance with the directions given above, Agfa guarantees their good quality at least until the expiry date on the box.

26

STRUCTURIX EQUIPMENT
The Agfa STRUCTURIX NDT system consists of an innovative assortment : films, equipment and chemicals are perfectly geared to one another. That is why the STRUCTURIX processors are supplied as a standard 100 secs. immersion in each processing section, with developer and fixer temperatures controlled at 82.4F (28C). Together with STRUCTURIX films, Agfa STRUCTURIX processors and STRUCTURIX chemistry are widely used in industrial radiography as a total system. The satisfaction of our customers is the best example of the reliability and performance of the STRUCTURIX equipment. Several decades of experience and know-how in equipment design and construction are the basis. Moreover all STRUCTURIX NDT equipment comply with VDE, UL and CSA safety regulations and are EMC-compliant according to VDE. All units are supplied with the GS label and CE label as well as the CE Declaration of Conformity and are manufactured to ISO 9001. These are extra proofs of our commitment to quality and reliability.

27

STRUCTURIX NDT Si
ECOLOGY AND ECONOMY GO HAND IN HAND Building on its years of experience, Agfa now introduces the STRUCTURIX NDT Si film processor. The NDT Si film processor forms the basis of a NEW Structurix High Capacity Film System that boasts a revolutionary design and takes Xray film processing to the next level. The STRUCTURIX NDT Si is a leading-edge processor that brings speed, operational flexibility, money-saving innovations, and environmentally friendly design together in a single package. Agfa is an industry leader in processors that use a leading edge "Cascade-Fixing" system. Featuring a double-fixing tank, the STRUCTURIX NDT Si generates improved results, yet requires few resources to achieve those results. Comprised of Optimized Film, industrial Chemistry, and a New Processor, the High Capacity Film System extracts the maximum in economic and ecological benefits by delivering: Higher processing "throughput" (on the order of 20 percent) when compared to its predecessor, the NDT3 A reduction of fixer replenishment is possible. Check with your local legislation requirements. Optimized archiving results Less handling of the products Dramatically lower silver level in the waste water, representing a reduction of 90 to 95 percent Fewer chemical waste resulting in lower disposal cost

Lower warehousing and handling costs and less packaging waste due to the need for fewer chemicals Substantially lower costs for energy and water usage At the same time, the Structurix High Capacity Film System is certified to the following Industrial Film Systems Classification Standards (100 sec developer immersion time, G 135, 82.4F) EN 584-1 ASTM E-1815 ISO 11699-1 JIS-K7627

High Capacity
The throughput or processing rate, of the STRUCTURIX NDT Si is designed to meet the needs of a wide range of users, including those with large film processing demands and companies with high production peaks. Set to an eight-minute cycle, the NDT Si boosts the processing speed to 20 inches of film per minute, or 70 films (size 14x17") per hour.

28

A NEW REVOLUTIONARY TECHNOLOGY "CASCADE FIXING"


D IW

F1

F2

Agfas new Cascade Fixing System delivers consistently high-quality images. What makes the system special is that it delivers those images at a higher throughput rate, while reducing the environmental impact. Thanks to a design that features two successive fixing tanks that are replenished on the counter-flow principle, the STRUCTURIX NDT Si significantly reduces the silver residue present in the waste water. The exposed film is first developed in the developer tank and then rinsed in the intermediate-washing tank. Intermediate washing ensures that little of the developer solution carries into the fixing tanks, thus keeping the fixer bath in optimum condition. At the same time, the intermediate washing process helps to prevent faults from occurring on the film being developed.

The operating method of the Cascade Fixing System is simple but effective.
The film is 100 percent fixed in the first fixer tank and rinsed in the second fixer tank. With fixer replenishment being executed in the second fixer tank, the concentration of silver in that tank stays low. As the silver carryover into the water tank is minimal, waste water from the STRUCTURIX NDT Si processor readily complies with stringent standards for silver content.

Silver recovery is also optimized by the STRUCTURIX NDT Sis design. The first fixer tank being replenished by overflow from the second fixer tank, nearly all of the silver released in the fixing stage ends up in the overflow from the first tank, providing optimum silver recovery. This unique film processing system ensures that the amount of silver in the wash water is up to 25 times lower than found in conventional processing systems.

respect to drying rates and film sizes, so that no matter which option is selected it delivers the same high-quality output.

Precise Replenishment
The design of the STRUCTURIX NDT Si minimizes replenishment demands thanks to a unique scanning feature. Instead of relying only on a measurement of film length, the STRUCTURIX NDT Si precisely maps the film surface area by using 11 detection rollers, assuring accurate minimum replenishment usage.

Superior Image Quality


The STRUCTURIX NDT Si was designed to satisfy applications that demand the highest image quality. Agfas innovative rack construction and roller configurations contribute significantly to the topof-the-line performance delivered by the NDT Si. A "smart" microprocessor embedded in the NDT Si controls all process functions and ensures superior film drying at an even rate under all ambient conditions. The STRUCTURIX NDT Si offers maximum flexibility with

29

Minimum Processing Costs


The more precise that control of the replenishment process is, the lower the consumption of processing chemicals is, and thus the lower costs are. One of the key ways the STRUCTURIX NDT Si achieves this low-cost profile is by automatically switching to standby mode once all films have left the processor. Thus electricity is saved and water conserved. Moreover, the less water used for processing (13l/m2) the greater the environmental benefits. The design of the STRUCTURIX NDT Si incorporates a low-energy infrared drying technology. Additionally, when in standby

mode the STRUCTURIX NDT Sis drive cycle activates its rollers for short periods. This means that energy consumption is minimized and the life of the processor maximized.

Processing Cycles
The NDT Sis microprocessor also features six pre-programmed processing cycles that vary from 2.5 to 12 minutes. As with all Agfa processors, standard cycles are easily set. Once the desired cycle time has been selected, the other processing parameters namely temperature, dryer level, fixing temperature, and replenishment rate are adjusted automatically by the STRUCTURIX NDT Sis microprocessor.

Variable speed mode is another proprietary feature of the STRUCTURIX NDT Si. Along with the standard cycle settings, the NDT Sis processing speed can also be manually adjusted in 30-second steps (2.5 - 12 min.). In addition these settings can be locked and protected by a password.

Reliable Electronics
The STRUCTURIXNDT Sis highperformance microprocessor is durable, featuring the reliability and security and ease of operation for which Agfa products are famous.

Operating diagram:
1 Film feed table a LCD display b Menu selection c Increase setting d Decrease setting 2 Film area scanning Developer tank Intermediate wash tank Fixer tank F1 Fixer tank F2 Final wash tank Removable top rack parts Distribution rollers Infrared dryer Film output Film receiving tray Replenishment pump for developer Replenishment pump for fixer

3 7

5a 7

5b 7

6 7 8 9

10 11

3 4 5a 5b 6 7 8 9

16 15

10

14a 14b

11 12 13

12

13

14a On/off switch 14b Earth leakage circuit breaker (ELCB) 15 Three-way valves for draining the machine tanks 16 Overheating protectors for developer and fixer

30

User Comfort
Three-way drainage valves are a new feature of the STRUCTURIX NDT Si that makes it simple and easy for photochemicals and cleaning chemicals to be diverted to the correct collection tank or drain.

Ease of Maintenance
The STRUCTURIX NDT Si was designed as the ultimate in easeof-maintenance systems. The top sections of the NDT Sis racks can be easily removed for separate cleaning, eliminating the need to remove an entire rack from a tank. While the film sensor rollers on the feed tray require regular cleaning, the STRUCTURIX NDT Sis design makes even this task a breeze. The rollers can be readily reached by removing the feed tray. And to prevent growth of algae, the wash water automatically drains when the NDT Si is switched off.

becomes a very practical daylight processing system. The Feeder will automatically follow the processing speed of the NDT Si, even after the processors speed is adjusted. And when an NDT Si is used without a feeder, an optional lighttight cover is available from Agfa. In this configuration, once films are positioned on the film feed table the cover may be closed and the darkroom illuminated.

Clear Operating Panel


The operating panel provides clear displays about all processing parameters. Incremental controls are available for the temperature of both the dryer and developer. Messages may be displayed in 12 languages.

Adjustable Film Receiving Tray


The film tray of the STRUCTURIX NDT Si may be easily adjusted to any sheet film size, welding formats, and roll film of up to 16 ft in length. Processed films are always collected in the correct order in the multifunctional output tray.

Unique Daylight System


When combined with the STRUCTURIX Feeder, the NDT Si

31

STRUCTURIX NDT U
UNIVERSAL RELIABILITY With the STRUCTURIX NDT U you have at your disposal the most universal processor from our assortment. STRUCTURIX NDT U combines simplicity, reliability and universal use in one processor. It is specially designed for customers with medium sized quantities of film. The ease of use, the ease of maintenance and the fact that it is usable for almost every application are the main advantages of the STRUCTURIX NDT U. The high reliability of our processors and our years of practical experience have led to the development of this unique processor.

Reliable
The STRUCTURIX NDT U is a dependable processor, no matter where it is installed. Built with solid components, the construction uses only simple and modern techniques.

User-friendly
Thanks to the functional design the processor operation is easy to control. An audio and visual signal indicates when the next film can be fed into the processor. The dryer level and the developer temperature level can simply be set in steps.

Selectable processing cycles


Upon delivery the STRUCTURIX NDT U is set at the cycle time of 8 minutes. An optional cycle time from 1.5 to 12 min., can be set quickly and simply by an approved service technician.

Universal use
The STRUCTURIX NDT U is very versatile: it processes sheet film as well as roll film up to 5 metres. The standard version of the NDT U can easily be switched to an offshore version by using a longer developer rack. This suits the specific off-shore conditions and satisfies the demands with regard to processing time (90 sec.) and reliability. Easy trouble shooting and repair make this processor especially suitable for use on remote sites. Moreover the built in developer cooler allows operation in warm climats.

Minimal running costs


During film processing only an ecologically justified volume of water per m2 of film being processed is used. The consumption of electricity is also particularly low, due to the infrared drying system, among other elements.

Perfect processing quality


The design of the STRUCTURIX NDT U is based on the core technology used for STRUCTURIX processors, which is why high film quality can be guaranteed. Three infrared drying units ensure uniform drying, in accordance with the principle of direct heat absorption. The fixer has its own heater element which reduces the fixer warm up time considerably. This temperature control guarantees the film archival quality.

32

Replenishment by area
Forward of the film feed slot 5 magnetic rollers accurately measure the surface area of the film. This unique film area scanning ensures a more precise economic and ecologic replenishment operation than if the film were only scanned lengthwise.

automatic daylight film feeding system.

Accessories
Darkroom panel Feed tray cover (light tight) Replenishment tanks 2x8 gallons (30 l) or 2x20 gallons (80 l) External speed control Feeder speed adaptor kit

Feed tray cover (light tight)


The STRUCTURIX NDT U can easily be equiped with a light tight feed tray cover. Once the films are positioned on the film feed table, the light tight cover can be closed. From then on the darkroom can be illuminated. In addition, the feed tray cover prevents the intrusion of dust.

Low heat emission


The infrared drying system not only guarantees the uniform drying of your films but also means that a minimal amount of heat is produced in the darkroom. So, a pleasant working temperature is maintained.

Peripherals
STRUCTURIX Feeder (50/60 Hz) with Universal or Fliptop magazine

Adaptable film receiving tray


Depending on the kind of film processed, the tray can be adjusted for roll film or sheet film.

Automatic daylight feeding


The STRUCTURIX NDT U can easily be fitted with the STRUCTURIX feeder. Just remove the feedtray and connect the feeder in its place. With the STRUCTURIX FEEDER you can convert the STRUCTURIX NDT U into a unique, practical

33

Features
Mainly electro-mechanical functions

Advantages
High functional reliability Not sensitive to voltage fluctuations (which can occur in an industrial environment) Choice of development time while keeping the required image quality

Processing cycle time: choice between 5/6/7/8/9/10/11/12 min. for off-shore applications choice between 1.5/2.5 min. Lower liquid level in the processor tanks Double liquid overflow (on both sides of each processing tank) Extra floor closing plate and air filter

Prevents the liquids from overflowing the tank Sufficient drainage with abnormal sea state on large movement Optimal protection from the intrusion of so-called off-shore dust into the processor

3 1

4 7

5 7

6 7

Operating diagram:
1 2
9

Film feed table Control panel Film area scanning Developer tank Fixer tank Wash tank Removable upper racks Infrared dryer Film receiving tray Processor drain

3 4 5

10

6 7 8 9 10

34

STRUCTURIX NDT M eco


C O M PA C T A N D ECOLOGICAL The STRUCTURIX NDT M eco processor is the smaller version of the NDT Si. This compact film processor occupies a minimal amount of space in your darkroom. The STRUCTURIX NDT M eco is versatile, in the laboratory or transportable in a mobile site darkroom. It processes sheet film as well as roll film up to 16(5 metres). Specially designed for consumers of small and medium sized quantities of film. The ease of use and the problem free maintenance make the STRUCTURIX NDT M eco an extremely user-friendly and reliable processor.

Ecological design
The STRUCTURIX NDT M eco also lives up to expectations ecologically with: the economical consumption of water and electricity the infrared drying which reduces the amount of heat produced in the darkroorn to a minimum the optimal replenishment system as a result of film surface scanning the intermediate washing system which ensures that there is hardly any carry-over of developer into the fixing tanks, thus keeping the fixer bath in optimum condition. This system also prevents development faults occuring on the film.

Cascade fixing
The cascade fixing system is an entirely new concept for processing X-ray films. The STRUCTURIX NDT M eco processor is built with two successive fixing tanks replenished on the counterflow principle. The result is nothing less than revolutionary in terms of the amount of silver in the wash water. The cascade fixing principle is basically very simple: the exposed film is first developed in the developer tank and then washed in the intermediate wash tank. The film is then 100% fixed in the first fixer tank and rinsed in the second fixer tank. Since fixer replenishment is carried out in the second fixer tank, the concentration of silver in this tank remains very low. There is also very little carry-over of silver into the water tank, so that the waste water complies with the most stringent standards. This unique film processing system ensures that the amount of silver in the wash water is up to 25 times lower than found in conventional processing systems.

Exact replenishment
Forward of the film feed slot, 5 magnetic rollers accurately measure the surface area of the film. This unique film area scanning ensures a precise economic and ecologic replenishment operation.

35

Minimal running costs


The accurate replenishment, as described above, implies low chemical consumption. In addition, during film processing only an ecologically justified volume of water is used and the consumption of electricity is particularly low due to the infrared drying system.

Low heat emission


The infrared drying system ensures uniform drying of your films and keeps heat accumulation in the darkroom to a minimum. As a result, a convenient working temperature is maintained.

Accessories
Feed tray cover (light tight) Support Replenishment tanks of 8 gallons (30 litres) Darkroom panel

User information
The display shows information on the process, such as actual developing temperature. The dryer level can be set incrementally.

3 1 2

5a

5b

10

Operating diagram:
1
9

Film feed table Film area scanning Developer tank Intermediate wash area

2 3 4

5a Fixer tank F1 5b Fixer tank F2 6 7 8 9 Final wash tank Infrared dryer Film output Film receiving tray

10 Overheating protectors for developer and fixer

36

STRUCTURIX FEEDER
A U T O M AT I C F I L M FEEDING AND D AY L I G H T S Y S T E M S The STRUCTURIX FEEDER converts the STRUCTURIX processors NDT Si and NDT U into a unique and practical daylight system. At the press of a button you can feed in 240 films fully automatically! With the STRUCTURIX FEEDER you can save even more time and expense in the darkroom.

Complete daylight system


The STRUCTURIX FEEDER feeds film into the processor in the daylight thus keeping work in the darkroom to an absolute minimum.

Multiple film sizes


All film sizes from 2.4" to 17" (6 to 43 cm) wide and from 4.7" to 19" (12 to 48 cm) long can be accommodated. The handy film magazine, in which up to 4 film lanes can be set up, makes the STRUCTURIX FEEDER ideal for processing films of welds. Up to 240 films per magazine (60 films/4 lanes max. width 3.9") can be loaded!

Dimensions
without film magazine 12.5"/15.6 32/42 cm 21 53.5 cm 10.8 27.4 cm with film magazine 24,8"/29.5 63/75 cm 21 53.5 cm 10.8 27.4 cm

Length* Width Height

Timesaving
The compact STRUCTURIX FEEDER feeds the exposed films into the processor fully automatically.

User-friendly
Thanks to the unique portable film magazine the films, grouped per film size per project and per work piece, can be loaded easily in any darkroom. The film magazine acts as a perfect miniature darkroom so that all further activities can take place in daylight, including automatic film feeding into the processor.

Weight
Feeder: Feeder with film magazine: 48.5 lbs.(22 kg) 55 lbs.(25 kg)

Reliable
When the FEEDER is switched on it carries out a self-diagnosis. When in operation built in electronic checking functions guarantee high reliability. In this way, for example, a double film is detected, returned and fed in again separately without any intervention from the user.

Power Supply
110 V-240 V, 50/60 Hz Separate mains connection.

* depending on the feeder type

Simple installation
Because of its light weight, the STRUCTURIX FEEDER can be mounted on (or removed from) the STRUCTURIX processors NDT Si and NDT U quickly and easily.

37

Choice between two magazines


The STRUCTURIX FEEDER is supplied without a magazine. You now have the choice between two types of magazine: the Universal or the Fliptop. Which one you prefer will depend on the type of work performed and the formats of the films to be processed. The unloading procedure is similar for both magazines for daylight handling.

The Fliptop magazine can remain in the FEEDER when loading the films, avoiding the repeated manipulation of the magazine. This prevents wear and tear of equipment and facilitates the task of the operator.

The Universal magazine can be opened completely so that it can easily be set up for different film sizes, even the smallest ones. Once the films are loaded in the magazine, it acts as a light tight container.

Universal magazine Film sizes: min. max. 2.3 x 4.7 (6 x 12 cm) 17 x 19 (43 x 48 cm)

Fliptop magazine 2.3 x 4.7 (6 x 12 cm)* 17 x 19 (43 x 48 cm) (*) from 7 (18 cm) length on, loading without removing the magazine 60 films/stack max. 4 lanes easy fast loading on the feeder non transportable in-house work (manufacturing companies)

Loading capacity: Priority film loading: Use:

60 films/stack max. 4 lanes possible time consuming decentralized loading transportable on-site work (inspection companies)

38

STRUCTURIX DRYER
FAST AND EFFICIENT FILM DRYING The STRUCTURIX DRYER is very useful for NDT stations without automatic processors. The STRUCTURIX DR is a very reliable, practical unit that will dry your films quickly and without problems. The DRYER is inexpensive and economical to run. Compared with the conventional drying cabinet, the STRUCTURIX DRYER offers the following advantages: the films dry more rapidly; the unit is compact and easy to move; drying starts at once with no warm-up required; the heat output is low, helping your darkroom to stay cool.

Easy-to-operate
Simply insert the thoroughly washed X-ray film into the DRYER and after a few minutes the dry film will emerge. It is important to use a fixer with hardener, such as STRUCTURIX G 335. The STRUCTURIX DRYER is provided with a wash tank for the film to pass through prior to drying. The film passes through the washing tank, then into the drying section. Most water is removed from the film by means of squeegee rollers prior to the drying section. In the drying section, the film is hot air dried from both sides and is then fed into the adjustable collection tray.

Excellent results
The STRUCTURIX DRYER guarantees fast and even drying of X-ray films. It produces excellent results, especially when G 335 fixer is used.

Technical specifications
Dimensions Length: 23.6 (60 cm) with extended receiving tray: 32.7 (83 cm) Width: 24.8 (63 cm) Height: 13.8 (35 cm) with bottle: 17.9 (45.5 cm) Weight: 53 lbs. (24 kg) Electrical connection: 220-240 V/50/60 Hz (fuse 10 A) Power: max. 1600 W (USA model: 120 V / 60 Hz) Recommended speed level: level 1 Recommended dryer level: level 5

39

Technical specifications STRUCTURIX NDT Processors


Table below shows standard values (modifications possible)

NDT Si
Preprogrammed Cycles Optional Cycles min. 6 2.5 upto 12 (steps of 30 sec.) 8 100/100/67/67 280 70 51 23/8x53/4 1.3 17 5 16 16 >12 9.8 (37 l) 9.8/7.1 (37/27 l) 7.1 (27 l) 900 1200 13 G 135 + G 135s G 335 63.7 (162 cm) 43.7 (111 cm) 27.9 (71 cm) 48.5 (123 cm) 8.5 657 (298 kg) 939 (426 kg) 16 50 / 60 208 / 230-240

NDT U
1 3 upto 12 (steps of 1 min.) OS-cycles : 1.5/2/2.5 8 100/100/-/100 106 34 23 23/8x53/4 1.3 17 5 16 16 >12 6.3 (24 l) 5.3 (20 l) 5.3 (20 l) 900 1200 13 G 135 + G 135s G 335 47.2 (120 cm) 28.7 (73 cm) 26.7 (68 cm) 41.3 (105 cm) 5.3 385 (175 kg) 551 (250 kg) 16 50 / 60 200 / 240

NDT M eco
1 3 up to 12 (steps of 1 min.) 8 100/100/72/72 92 30 20 23/8x53/4 1.3 17 5 6 16 >12 2.6 (10 l) 2.6/2.3 (10/9 l) 2.3 (9 l) 900 1200 13 G 135 + G 135s G 335 57 (145 cm) 33.8 (86 cm) 25.9 (66 cm) 23.6 (60 cm) 6 257 (117 kg) 352 (160 kg) 12 50 / 60 100/120/200/208/230-240

Standard Processing Cycle Immersion time D/F1/F2/W Capacity film/hour (8 min. cycle) 3.5 X 17 in. (4 films side by 14 X 17 in. Transport speed Film sizes Format min Width min max Length min max (1.3 wide) with (2.3 wide) Rollfilm curl O / Tank capacities Developer tank Fixing tank (F1/F2) Final wash tank Standard Consumption Developer Fixer Water Chemistry developer fixer Dimensions Length bottom Width Height Surface on floor Weight Empty With chemicals Power supply

min. sec. side) cm/min. in. in. in. in. ft. ft. in. gallons gallons gallons ml/m2 ml/m2 litre/m2

in. in. in. in. sqf. lb. lb. Ampre Hertz Volt

40

STRUCTURIX CHEMICALS
STRUCTURIX chemicals are designed to obtain the best processing quality with STRUCTURIX X-ray films. Together with the films and processors they form part of the dedicated Agfa NDT systems.

Safety seal
The concentrate bottles are fitted with a safety seal. This seal is welded to the bottle during production to form a perfect air-tight seal. When you remove the screw cap, a skin of polyethylene remains on the neck of the bottle. That's why a bottle can be placed upside down on a mixer.

Handy packaging
Agfa has introduced shipping cartons for its products, made from 60% recycled materials. The cardboard shipping cartons are userfriendly: each carton has two handles which make it easier to transport. In addition, all boxes are color coded with colored adhesive tape so that the content can easily be identified. Red is used for boxes containing developer, blue is the color for boxes containing fixer, brown is used for all the other chemicals.

"exp. date"
Agfa also introduced an indication for the shelf life of the STRUCTURIX NDT chemicals. The 'exp.date' mentioning the year and the month of expiry, can be found on all the STRUCTURIX NDT shipping cartons as well as on the concentrate bottles.

Safety measures
Consult the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for information on safety, health and environmental aspects of the chemicals. Follow the safety instructions. Follow the user instructions on the bottles. Make sure there is adequate air exchange in the preparation room in order to prevent too high concentration of chemical fumes building up. An air exchange of 10 times the room volume per hour is required. Consult your local Agfa representative if in doubt.

Recyclable bottles
The STRUCTURIX NDT chemicals are supplied in containers made from clear polyethylene. The labels on the containers are made of clear polyethlylene.

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MANUAL PROCESSING
STRUCTURIX G 128 developer STRUCTURIX G 335 fixer

AUTOMATIC PROCESSING
STRUCTURIX G 135 developer STRUCTURIX G 135 starter STRUCTURIX G 335 fixer

CLEANING PRODUCTS
STRUCTURIX DEVCLEAN
DEVCLEAN is a highly efficient, two-part maintenance product for the thorough cleaning of the developing area of both processors and tanks along with the accessories used for manual development. Silver deposits and sludge on all parts are dissolved effortlessly, completely and rapidly. 5+5 litres (part A/B) are diluted to make 30 litres of ready to use solution.

STRUCTURIX G 128 DEVELOPER


Developer for the manual processing of industrial X-ray fils. G 128 is a one-part bath and is available in a quantity of 4x1 gal. (4 x 3.78 litres) concentrate and will make a total of 20 gallons working solution.

STRUCTURIX G 135 DEVELOPER


Developer for the automatic processing of industrial X-ray films. G 135 consists of three parts (A, B, and C) which must always be used together. G 135 is available in a quantity of 2 x 5 qt. Part A concentrate (4.73 litres), 2 x 8 oz. (236.5 ml) part B concentrate and 2 x 16 oz. (473 ml) part C concentrate will make 10 gallon working solution. One A, one B and one C will make 5 gallons of working solution. The G 135 S starter solution is supplied separately in bottles of 32 oz. (946 mal). When making up the developer, 3 oz. (90 ml) starter solution per 1 gal. (3.8 litres) working solution is added. This developer is very stable, both in the concentrated and the readyto-use form, thanks to efficient protection form oxidation.

STRUCTURIX G 335 FIXER


STRUCTURIX G 335 Fixer can be used for manual processing applications. G 335 fixer is a 2 part (5 Qt + 32 oz bottle) concentrate and will make 5 gallons of ready to use fixer. G 335 fixer is packaged in 2 x 5 Qiuart quantities to produce 10 gallons of working solution.

STRUCTURIX FIXCLEAN
AGFA offers its own liquid cleaning product for regular maintenance of fixer and wash water areas in processors and chemistry mixers: FIXCLEAN. This cleaning compound is based on sodium hydroxide. It is not only highly efficient, but it does not contain any chlorine based substances, so that the rinsing water can normally be drained as waste water. 5 litres of FIXCLEAN are diluted to make 50 litres of ready to use solution.

STRUCTURIX G 335 FIXER


STRUCTURIX G 335 Fixer can be used for automatic processing applications. G 335 fixer is a 2 part (5 Qt + 32 oz bottle) concentrate and will make 5 gallons of readyto-use fixer. G 335 fixer is packaged in 2 x 5 Quart quantities to produce 10 gallons of working solution.

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STRUCTURIX QUALITY ASSURANCE


During the 1980s there was a growing awareness of the need to value and manage QUALITY of products and services. Companies installed Quality Systems to control all the activities of their organization. QA manuals and programs were written. Suppliers were audited to assure conformity of incoming products and parts. The ISO 9000 standards were developed to provide uniform, worldwide quality assurance requirements. The European Union adopted these standards as part of their modular approach to conformity assessment procedures, for several product categories. This includes the development of standards (specifications), which define what the purchaser wants and what the supplier agrees to provide, as well as quality system registration (certification) which increases confidence in the suppliers ability to produce consistent quality. Compliance with the ISO 9001 Quality Management System demonstrates Agfas goal of continuously striving for the highest product quality. The quality requirements are typically most rigorous for regulated products that have a major impact on health and safety i.e. film radiographic systems. This is the main reason for making available the necessary QC tools in film radiography to comply with QA specifications and guarantee the required consistent performance. These tools can only give satisfying support if they are dedicated, easy to use, precise and cost effective at the users level.

Standard for Control of film processing by means of reference values


ASTM E94 states: To produce a satisfactory radiograph, the care used in making the exposure must be followed by equal care in processing. The most careful radiographic techniques can be nullified by incorrect or improper darkroom procedures. Therefore EN 584 and ISO 11699 consist of two parts. EN 584-2 and ISO 11699-2 describe how the user should control his processing system. For instance, to guarantee the designed film system performance, calibrated pre-exposed strips provided by the film manufacturer, have to be used. Agfa has designed a set of practical, dedicated tools for the radiographer to control and to prove compliance of his entire system.

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STRUCTURIX CERTIFIED PMC STRIP


The STRUCTURIX Certified PMC strip is a handy, fast and reliable tool for monitoring the quality of the film processing system, and to prove compliance with existing standards on systems classifications.

(Processing Monitoring Control)

to monitor the performance of the STRUCTURIX processing system, in order to guarantee consistent high quality to enable early corrective actions to be taken in case of deviations

X-ray pre-exposed film strips


These X-ray pre-exposed film strips are produced under Agfas Quality Management System (Q.M.S) conditions according to ISO 9001.

Contents
Every STRUCTURIX Certified PMC pack contains: 25 X-ray exposed, undeveloped PMC strips in individual daylight packaging. Each strip bears a unique serial (ID) number, even after processing. PMC chart to record test results. Instructions for use. Certificate EN 584-2 for compliance and ISO 11699-2.

STRUCTURIX CERTIFIED PMC STRIPS according to EN 584-2 and ISO 11699-2.

STRUCTURIX PMC STRIPS without certificate that can be used to monitor the performance of the STRUCTURIX processing system in order to guarantee consistent quality. Every STRUCTURIX PMC pack contains: 50 X-ray exposed, undeveloped PMC strips in individual daylight packaging. PMC chart to record test results. Instructions for use.

Purposes
The purpose of these PMC strips are: to demonstrate conformity with the certified Agfa STRUCTURIX standard film system, as laid down in European standard EN 584 part 2 and ISO 11699-2

Example of Agfas pre-exposed PMC-strip with reference to EN 584-2 and ISO 11699-2
THIO-TEST FOG+BASE

X + 4

speed index Sr : average value of net densities of step X contrast index Cr : positive difference of the average densities of step X and X + 4

Reference speed step contrast

Reference contrast step

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STRUCTURIX CERTIFIED DENSTEP


The STRUCTURIX CERTIFIED DENSTEP is a density step wedge film to verify the calibration of optical transmission densitometers used in the NDT X-ray field.

Each STRUCTURIX CERTIFIED DENSTEP is :


packed in a light-tight waterproof package to guarantee a shelf life of at least 4 years a calibration certificate and a copy of the NIST certificate S.R.M. 1001 The density values reported, cross referenced by serial number to the certificate, are traceable to NIST (the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology) through traceable calibrations of the instrumentation and procedures in accordance with our ISO 9001 approved QA system.

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STRUCTURIX THIO-TEST
Archivability check
Finally the archivability of the processed film is evaluated by measuring the residual thiosulphate in the emulsion layers. The Agfa STRUCTURIX Thio-Test provides the means for performing the control of fixing and washing as described in EN 584-2 and ISO 11699-2.

The STRUCTURIX Thio-Test kit consists of :


the Thio-Test Color Stepwedge with 4 steps, which relate to the archivability expressed in number of years. one dropper bottle of Thio-Test reagent, of 35 ml (about 1.000 drops) The Agfa Thio-Test correlates also perfectly with other international standards (ISO/ANSI) for determining the archival quality of industrial X-ray film. It is a quick and simple method to determine the Life Expectancy of processed films and warns of poorly fixed and/or washed films.

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ISO 9001 QUALITY LABELS FOR AGFA NDT


ISO seems to have become a constant theme. And justifiably so we always maintained that obtaining an ISO certificate was only the beginning. Agfa was the first radiographic film manufacturer to achieve ISO certification for its STRUCTURIX films in 1990. Since then we have come a long way. We can now proudly say that the entire STRUCTURIX system - films, equipment and chemistry - is produced with a Quality Management System approved to ISO 9000. Thats your guarantee of the high consistency of the Agfa STRUCTURIX products.

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CONCLUSION
For the first time ever, a harmonized model for the classification of film systems has been introduced worldwide. The objective parameters identifying film system performance for ISO, CEN, ASTM or JIS utilize the same fundamental criteria. This will make film radiography totally ready for the global requirements placed on it into the future! Through the set of proposed or official standards in combination with the classification certificates, radiographic users are able to certify that they use classified film systems with a guaranteed intrinsic minimum imaging performance. Thus the control of film processing will produce the expected optimum film performance in every day practice. Quality Assurance and control of the radiographic film system are part of the total Quality Management. Each step in the chain must be maintained to arrive at the final goal QUALITY.

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PERSONAL NOTES

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PERSONAL NOTES

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Agfa NDT Inc. 50 Industrial Park Road Lewistown, Pa. 17044 U.S.A. Phone: 866 AGFA NDT (866 243-2638) www.AgfaNDT.com The information in this brochure is given by Agfa in good faith and reflects the latest situation. Agfa reserves the right to make changes without prior notification. ROLLPAC, STRUCTURIX and VACUPAC are trademarks of Agfa-Gevaert N.V., Belgium. AGFA and the Agfa-Rhombus are trademarks of Agfa-Gevaert AG, Germany.

Printed in Belgium Published by Agfa-Gevaert N.V., B-2640 Mortsel-Belgium NETTC USA 01 2002/09

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