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Air Duct Design








.
.
.
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. 20 o

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.
.

)(Methods of Air Duct Design



.

.

.
.

) . P1 2 = 0.5 (V12 V22

10 m / s .
)(Equal friction method



) (-

) (-
) (- .

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Table (10-1) Recommended maximum main duct velocity in m/s.


Application
Residences, Homes
Hotels, Hospitals
Offices
Theatres
Banks, Restaurants

Main Duct
Supply
Return
5
4
8
7
10
8
7
6
10
8

Branches
Supply
Return
3
3
6
5
8
6
5
4
8
6

Table (10-2) Air dynamic viscosity and density


Temperature, o C
10
20
25
30
40
50

Pa.s
17.708 x 10-6
18.178 x 10-6
18.413x 10-6
18.648 x 10-6
19.118 x 10-6
19.588 x 10-6

kg/m3
1.247
1.204
1.184
1.164
1.127
1.092

Table (10-3) Surface roughness of some duct materials


Material
Cost Iron
Steel commercial
Concrete
Wood
Galvanized Iron
Aluminum
Fiber glass
Smooth Glass, Plastic

Roughness, , mm
0.26
0.046
0.3 3.0
0.18 0.9
0.15
0.04
0.10
0.00

Example 10-1
An air duct system shown below, determine the size of main duct and branches
using equal friction method.

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Main Duct AB
.
Qt = Q1 + Q2 + Q2
Qt = 4 + 3 + 1 = 8 m3 / s


10 m / s .
Assume the velocity in main duct AB
V = 8 m/ s
2
d V
4

= Qt

48
= 1.128 m
8

=d


fL V 2
d 2

P =


0.00015
=
= 0.000133
d
1.128

.
Vd 1.184 8 1.128
=
= 5.80 10 5
6

18.413 10

= Re

Moody chart Re / d f
.
f = 0.0145
fL V 2
0.0145 30 8 2
= 1.184

= 14.61 Pa
d 2
1.128
2
P 14.61
=
= 0.487 Pa / m
L
30

P =

Pa / m

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.
Branch BE
f V d
.
2
d V
4
8Q 2
V2
= 2 4
2
d

= Q = AV

16Q 2
4Q
2
, V = 2 4
=V
d2
d

P
f V2
f 8Q 2
8Q 2
=
=
=

f
L
d 2
d 2d 4
2d 5
8 fQ 2
8 1.184 0.0145 1
=5
= 0.491 m
2
P / L
2 0.487

d =5

4Q
= 5.281 m / s
d 2

=V

d V Re Moody chart f

.
First correction of d and V
Vd 1.184 5.281 0.491
=
= 1.66 105
6

18.413 10
0.00015
=
= 0.000305
d
0.491

= Re

f = 0.016

d = 0.501 m
V = 5.073 m / s

Second correction of d and V


Vd 1.184 5.073 0.501
=
= 1.63 10 5
6

18.413 10
0.00015
=
= 0.000299
d
0.501
f = 0.016

= Re

V d .
d = 0.501 m
V = 5.073 m / s
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V d
.
2

d V = 0.5012 5.073 = 1.000069 m3 / s


4
4

= Qcal = AV

Acceptable value of d and V for Q = 1 m3 / s .


Branch BC
f V d
.
8fQ 2
8 1.184 0.016 7 2
5
=d
= 1.091 m
=
2 P / L
2 0.487
4Q
47
= V= 2
= 7.489 m / s
d
1.0912
5

d V Re Moody chart f

.
First correction of d and V
Vd 1.184 7.489 1.091
=
= 5.25 10 5
6

18.413 10
0.00015
=
= 0.000137
d
1.091

= Re

f = 0.0146

d = 1.071 m
V = 7.768 m / s

Second correction of d and V


Vd 1.184 7.768 1.071
=
= 5.35 10 5

18.413 10 6
0.00015
=
= 0.00014
d
1.071
f = 0.0146

= Re

V d .
d = 1.071 m
V = 7.768 m / s

.
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d V = 1.0712 7.768 = 6.998 m3 / s


4
4

= Qcal = AV

Acceptable value of d and V for Q = 7 m3 / s .


Branch CF
f V d
.
8fQ 2
8 1.184 0.0146 3 2
5
= 0.7632 m
=
2 P / L
2 0.487
4Q
43
= V= 2
= 6.557 m / s
d
0.76212
d =5

d V Re Moody chart f

.
First correction of d and V
Vd 1.184 6.557 0.7632
= 3.22 10 5
=
6

18.413 10
0.00015
=
= 0.000197
d
0.7632
f = 0.0163

= Re

d = 0.780 m
V = 6.275 m / s

Second correction of d and V


Vd 1.184 6.275 0.780
=
= 3.15 10 5

18.413 10 6
0.00015
=
= 0.000192
d
0.780
f = 0.0164

= Re

.
d = 0.780 m
V = 6.275 m / s

.
2

d V = 0.78 2 6.275 = 2.9984 m3 / s


4
4

= Qcal = AV

Acceptable value of d and V for Q = 3 m3 / s .


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Branch CD
f V d
.
8fQ 2
8 1.184 0.0164 4 2
5
= 0.8764 m
=
2 P / L
2 0.487
4Q
4 4
= V= 2
= 6.630 m / s
d
0.85512
d=5

d V Re Moody chart f

.
First correction of d and V
Vd 1.184 6.630 0.8764
=
= 3.74 10 5
6

18.413 10
0.00015
=
= 0.000171
d
0.8764
f = 0.0157

= Re

d = 0.869 m
V = 6.747 m / s

Second correction of d and V


Vd 1.184 6.747 0.869
= 3.77 10 5
=
6

18.413 10
0.00015
=
= 0.000173
d
0.869
f = 0.0159

= Re

d = 0.869 m
V = 6.747 m / s

V, d .
.
2

d V = 0.869 2 6.747 = 4.002 m3 / s


4
4

= Qcal = AV

Acceptable value of d and V for Q = 4 m3 / s .


.
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Results
)P / L = 0.487 (Pa/m
Section

) Qcal (m3 / s

)d (m

)V (m / s

) Q ( m3 / s

)L (m

0.0145

8.000

1.128

8.00

30

A-B

0.0146

6.998

1.071

7.77

15

B-C

0.0159

4.002

0.869

6.75

75

C-D

0.016

1.000

0.501

5.07

30

B-E

0.0164

2.998

0.780

6.275

15

C-F



T = 20 o C
P = 1.01325 bar .
Qt = 8 m3 / s

.
V = 8 m/ s

Q = 8 m3 / s V = 8 m / s
) (- P = 0.5 Pa / m
.

Fig. 10-1 Duct friction chart

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.
Results
)P / L = 0.5 (Pa/m
Section

) Qcal (m3 / s

)d (m

)V (m / s

) Q ( m3 / s

)L (m

8.094

1.135

8.00

30

A-B

7.145

1.080

7.80

15

B-C

4.149

0.875

6.90

75

C-D

0.999

0.515

4.80

30

B-E

3.010

0.780

6.30

15

C-F

)(Velocity reduction method




.
.
Qt = 8 m3 / s

.
V = 8 m/ s

.
d = 1.135 m
P = 0.5
Pa / m

.
Assume the velocity in each branch with gradually reduction.
V = 7 m/ s
V = 7 m/ s
V = 6 m/ s
V = 6 m/ s

BC:
BE:
C D:
CF:

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Results
)P (Pa/m

) Qcal (m3 / s

)d (m

)V (m / s

) Q ( m3 / s

)L (m

0.50

8.094

1.135

8.00

30

A-B

0.38

7.020

1.130

7.00

15

B-C

0.38

4.032

0.925

6.00

75

C-D

1.35

1.017

0.430

7.00

30

B-E

0.45

3.016

0.800

6.00

15

C-F

Section

BE

) 4.5 (m / s
.
Results after decreasing the velocity in branch BE
)P (Pa/m

) Qcal (m3 / s

)d (m

)V (m / s

) Q ( m3 / s

)L (m

0.50

8.094

1.135

8.00

30

A-B

0.38

7.020

1.130

7.00

15

B-C

0.38

4.032

0.925

6.00

75

C-D

0.40

1.031

0.54

4.50

30

B-E

0.45

3.016

0.800

6.00

15

C-F

Section





.
0.625
(
) ab
d = 1.3
(a + b )0.25

)(10-1
)(Air outlets



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1.8 m 1 o C
0.15 m / s 0.3 m / s

.
)(Types of Air Outlet
)(Grille outlets

.
)(Ceiling diffuser


.
)(Slot diffuser
) (-
.

Fig. 10-2 Types of air outlet


2.5 ~ 3.5 m / s
0.25 m / s

Blow or Throw, X
) (- X
L .
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Table (10-4) Blow or throw length of some outlets


X/L

) Q (W / m2

250
190
125
65

0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8

Outlet

Ceiling diffuser
Round or Square

Q (W / m2 ) X / L

1.8
1.8
1.6
1.5

250
190
125
65

Outlet

Grille wall

)(Air Fan




.
:
P1 V12
P V2
+
+ gZ1 = 2 + 2 + gZ 2

)(10-2

V 2
+ gZ = C
2

Or, P +

PS + PV + PZ = PT

)(10-3

If no difference between two sections, dZ = 0


PS + PV = PT

)(10-4

Where, PS static pressure, PV , velocity pressure and PT total pressure.


:

PS1 + PV1 = PS 2 + PV 2 + PL

)(10-5

Where, PL total pressure drop of friction and minor losses between 1 and 2.

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PS1 + PV1 + FTP = PS 2 + PV 2 + PL

)(10-6

Where, FTP is the pressure rise due to fan work and is called Fan Total Pressure.
P L
.
P L = P F + P M

)(10-7
fL V 2
d 2
V 2
2

Friction losses, PF =
Minor losses, PM = K



:
PF
PM Ve2
&
Power = m
+
+

L V2
V 2 Ve2
& f
=m
+K
+

2
2
2
d

)(10-8



)-
(
.

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Table (10-5) pressure drop in air handling unit and fitting coefficient
Component
Damper
Filter
Cooling coil
Eliminator
Heating coil
Air washer
Mixing to air fan

P (Pa)

50
100
150
50
150
100
50

Fitting
Round inlet
Fan discharge to main duct
Branch from main duct
Standard 90 o elbow
Expander
Reducer
Damper
Exit grille

0.4
0.3
0.4
0.75
0.75
0.05
0.2
0.5

(Fan Power)



:

Fan Power by applying Modified Bernoullis Equation as


2
P
LV2
V 2 Ve
&
Power = m

+ f
+ K
+

2
2
d 2
Air Handling

P
V2
1 P

&
=m

+
L
+ K
Air Handling
L
Friction
2

Fitting

V

+
2 Exit

(10-9)

2
e

Example 10-2
In example 10-1, reshape the duct system and estimate the required power of the
air fan.
Solution
After reshaping the air duct system and making a clear layout, with applying the
energy equation, the power required for air fan can be obtained.

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Reshaping the air duct system with air handling unit

P
L V2
V 2 Ve2
&

Power = W = m
+ f
+K
+

d 2
2
2
Air Handling
P
V2
1 P

&

=m
+
L
+ K
Air Handling
L
Friction
2

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V2

+ e
Fitting 2 Exit

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P
Ve2
V2
1 P

&

Power = V
+
+
L
+ K
Air Handling
L
Friction
2 Fitting 2 Exit
50 + 100 + 150 + 50 + 150 + 50

1.184

Air Handling

Power = 1.184 8
30 0.487

82
+

+ 0.3
2 A B
1.184

15 0.487
7.77 2
+ 1.184 7
+ 0.05
2
1.184

B C

75 0.487
6.75 2
+ 1.184 4
+ (0.05 + +0.2 + 0.75 + 0.5 + 1)
2
1.184
30 0.487
5.07 2
+ 1.184 1
+ (0.4 + 0.2 + 0.5 + 1)
2
1.184

CD

B E

15 0.487
6.28 2

+ 1.184 3
+ (0.4 + 0.2 + 0.5 + 1)
1
.
184
2

C F
Power = 4607.811 + 63.644 + 415.83 + 46.566 + 169.005 = 5302.856 W
Power = 5.303 kW

Problems
1- For air duct system shown below, calculate the size and air velocity in each
branch with using equal friction method. Estimate the power required for air
fan. Assume air flow rate per exit is 1 m3 / s .

2- Calculate the size and air velocity with velocity reduction method of each
branch in the below air duct system and air fan power required.

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3- For system shown below, size the main duct and branches with friction pressure
drop of 0.75 Pa / m and the air fan power.

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