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Organisation Behaviour Assignment-3

Submitted to: Dr. Hardik Saha

Kumar Abhishek PGPIM-2012-13

1) What is the key learning for you as leaders? 1. Leaders should not carry pre-conceived notions: Carrying pre-conceived notions can affect the decision making process adversely, giving prejudiced decisions. A leader should not be biased. He should give more priority or attention to evidences rather than opinions. The accused in the movie came from a poverty stricken background. In the movie we saw that juror no.3 and 7 were giving their opinions based on past experiences, thus undermining the whole process. It was evident in the movie that this preconceived notion had a big impact on their decision as they were stereotyping the accused based on his background. Here, we learn that every decision should be taken on the merit of the case and a good leader should learn to restrict pre conceived notions from having an impact on his decision. It is a good idea to take a step back and have a holistic view of the issue without any prejudice. 2. Integrity is the integration of outward actions and inner values. A person of integrity is the same on the outside and on the inside. Such an individual can be trusted because he or she never veers from inner values, even when it might be expeditious to do so. A leader must have the trust of followers and therefore must display integrity. Juror no.8 showed exemplary integrity. All of his arguments were based on facts and not on opinions. From the very beginning of the whole decision making process, he said that he was just not confident that the accused is the culprit, and he stuck onto it. All his decisions were based on facts rather than on prejudices. He tells the truth rather than taking an extreme stand. Also, Subhash Udagane shows integrity when he encourages Aziz Qureshi (advertising professional) to take a decision based on what he believed in rather than to just be with the majority. 3. Dedication means spending whatever time or energy is necessary to accomplish the task at hand. A leader inspires dedication by example, doing whatever it takes to complete the next step toward the vision. By setting an excellent example, leaders can show followers that there are no nine-to-five jobs on the team, only opportunities to achieve something great. Some of the jurors like juror no.7 and 12 were more interested in their personal life rather than in the process, thus losing the respect of the other jurors. Leadership wants commitment. 4. Openness means being able to listen to new ideas, even if they do not conform to the usual way of thinking. Good leaders are able to suspend judgment while listening to others' ideas, as well as accept new ways of doing things that someone else thought of. Openness builds mutual respect and trust between leaders and followers, and it also keeps the team well supplied with new ideas that can further its vision. A good leader should not be always directive. He should value the ideas and judgments of his followers. Here juror no. 8 was open to ideas of all other jurors. He shows openness and an ability to voice his opinion and believes in fair and wise decision. 5. Creativity is the ability to think differently, to get outside of the box that constrains solutions. Creativity gives leaders the ability to see things that others have not seen and thus lead followers in new directions. Juror no. 8 not only thought out of the box but also encouraged and influenced others to think like that. The act of enacting the whole process of how one of the witness could have acted on hearing the thud sound was very creative.

2) Describe all the 12 people and their leadership style taking any leadership model? Why you say so? I am describing the leadership style of all the people with the help of Situational Theory of Leadership proposed by Hersey and Blanchard. Juror-1 Deepak Kejriwal He displayed a Participating Style of leadership and a regulating behavior in the film. Although he did initiate the proceedings and was a good moderator but he lacked control over the group so as to ensure disciplined and peaceful approach towards decision. He was the facilitator and mediator of the discussion and was hence expected to guide the discussion forward and resolute conflicts, but he lost the control and the jurors themselves played the significant role in coming to the conclusion. Juror-2 Amitabh Srivastava He displayed a Delegating Style of leadership. He was relatively new in this situation and thus had certain inhibitions. He was shy and got easily influenced and convinced under stressed situations. He showed good analytical skills and was concerned about the culprit. He shared his ideas and facilitated in decision making. Juror-3- Pankaj Kapoor He displayed a Telling Style of leadership and a directive behavior. He emerged as a rigid proud person who is not open to new ideas and based his judgment on past experiences. He did not listen to any points raised by other jurors and was least concerned about the culprit and other jurors. He depicted an active-destructive personality, i.e. he was very active in the decision making but in a destructive way by having an attacking and commanding attitude. Juror-4- S.M.Zaheer He displayed a Participating Style of leadership and a consulting behavior. He is a well dressed broker, very conceited and unemotional. He based his decisions on hardcore facts and demonstrated an active constructive personality. He was very patient and calm throughout the process and based his decision on pure logic. He shared his ideas and facilitated in decision making whenever the discussion started to go astray. Juror-5- Subash Udghate He was the person who belonged to the same slum as the accused. He became defensive and did not react well to others prejudice. He was logical in his methodology and based his opinions only on facts, despite coming from similar back ground and empathizing with the accused. He showed a Selling Style of leadership. Juror-6- Hemant Mishra He played a secondary role in the movie, with no substantial contributions. He showed a Participating Style of leadership. He

was traditional by thinking, showed respect to elders. He also fought with a juror who was insulting older juror 9. Juror-7- M.K.Raina He showed a Delegating type of leadership. He was a self centered person who cared more for the movie than the life of a person. He showed least concern about the case even though a persons life was at stake. He was least bothered about the importance of the decision and showed no regard to protocols or justice. He did not actively support the decision making process. Juror-8- K.K.Raina He showed a Nurturing Behavior. He was the voice of reason and plays the most crucial role. At the beginning he was the only member of the jury who voted not guilty and withstood all the pressure from other jury members. He was calm and composed, was not afraid of voicing his opinion even though everyone in the group opposed him. He presented his points very boldly, with solid facts and great conviction. Juror-9- Anu Kapoor He showed a Supporting Type of leadership. He was the old and wise juror who proved to be open to difference in opinions and supported them. He brought along with him loads of wisdom and experience which eventually helped the jury members to come to the conclusion regarding the faulty witness. He showed a lot of patience but still got agitated sometimes due to inappropriate behavior of other jurors. Juror-10- Subbiraj He showed a Directive Behavior. He was the most actively destructive juror, had his preconceived notions about slum dwellers. He showed a lot of arrogance in his style and was trying to influence others in the favour of punishing the accused without going through the detailed facts. Juror-11- Shailendra Goel His behavior changed during the course of movie from Delegating to Consulting. Initially he did not seem to be contributing much to the discussion, showing a Delegating Behavior. But later on when logical facts were presented he switched sides. He was taking his role as a juror seriously. Juror-12- Aziz Quereshi He was the most indifferent character. He was least interested in the decision making process. During most of the discussion he was busy in solving puzzles and working on some advertisement ideas. He showed Delegating Behavior.

3. How different is Mr. K.K Raina's leadership Style? Discuss. K.K Rainas role was the voice of reason and played the most crucial role At the beginning he was the only jury member willing to give time and a chance to the guilty by voting in favor for him. Even though not fully convinced, he wanted to give the victim the benefit of doubt and wanted to contemplate over the facts and logic before arriving at a conclusion. His decision style was mainly like a thinker who wanted to go ever every little detail before arriving at a decision. He was not biased or prejudiced against the accused boy and wanted to give him a fair chance to prove himself free from the charges. He showed openness and an ability to voice his opinion and believed in fair and wise decision. He believed in himself and was not a follower, typically a trait of a leader. He sets a personal example by voting against all 11 jurors as the life of a 19 year old boy was on stake. He was also a risk taker. When first time he called for a vote, he said that if anybody did not come up in his support he would also change his decision. On one situation when juror 3 asked for anyone to come up so that juror 3 could show how the boy would have used the knife juror 8 took that risk to prove his point. This showed he had risk taking ability. While no other people of that group had such type of trait. His leadership could be classified as a democratic leadership. He involved other members actively and asked them their point of view and was ready to discuss their views as well, before the group took a final decision. His leadership could be classified as a supportive leadership. He provided a great deal of direction and led with his ideas. He also attempted to discover the groups feeling, as well as encouraged eliciting their ideas and suggestions. If we see the traits and skills of leaders from Stogdills characteristic trait table, we can associate several of the traits and skills to his character. His traits included adaptable to situations, assertive, cooperative, decisive, dependable, persistent, selfconfident and tolerant of stress. His skills included conceptually skilled, creative, organized, socially skilled, diplomatic and tactful and knowledgeable about group task. He also showed leadership traits identified by McCall and Lombardo like emotional stability and composure, good interpersonal skills and intellectual breadth. The leadership characteristics as suggested by Bennis and Thomas were displayed by him.. These include adaptive capacity, engaging others by creating shared meaning and voice (which showed his self-confidence, purpose and selfawareness). If we gauge him according to Vroom-Jagoo theory his leadership style can be seen as Group based. In this case acceptance of decision by all jurors is necessary. Here the discussion quality is very important and right decision is not likely to result from an autocratic approach there for he shaped his arguments in such way that he can convince everyone to feel the criticality of correct decision. But if we look at other jurors through same angle no one is in this category .They are either consultative or autocratic. Initially he is the only person who is interested in discussion and not in jumping in an illogical decision, but as the time passes he gathers more support. He does not have any kind of authoritative power over any other juror. And also they are not following any structured way of decision making. Therefore according to fiddlers theory we can say that initially he was showing Low LPC type of leadership but as

the time passes he emerge as a high LPC leader If we measure him on behavioral theories his leadership style can be seen as democratic. He tries to make consensus on the right decision. Analyzing as per Fiedlers theory, the three aspects which determines effectiveness of a leader are leader-member relations, task structure and leaders position power. These were poor, unstructured and strong respectively, in case of him. This suggests that given the circumstances, he was a task oriented leader. Under the Leadership function theory his leadership can be described as transformational leadership. He inspired the other jury members to transcend their own self- interest in order to have a meaningful and healthy analysis of the case. He also showed the following characteristic of transformational leadership. He had a profound impact on the other jury members with his view of the case. He managed to change the awareness of the members He also paid attention to the members issue and their point of view and then came up with counter-arguments. He excited and inspired jurors to put forth extra efforts, e.g. he enacted the scene where the old man came out of his bed to see the criminal running down the stairs. Here he inspired some of the jurors to help him enact the scene. He had clarity of mission right from the start of the jurys meeting. 4) What other areas of organizational behavior theories you may relate to the film? Discuss. Several areas of Organizational behavior theories can be related to the film. 1) Lifestyle Approach Type A: person is impatient with the rate of work. They move and eat rapidly. Juror No.3Pankaj Kapoor, Juror No.7-M.K.Raina, Juror No.10- Subiraj can be associated with Type A personalities, as they wanted to end the discussion quickly and move on to do their personal work. Type:B: person never feels urgency and is patient. Juror No.2-Amitabh Srivastava, Juror No.4S.M.Zaheer, Juror No.5- Subash Udghate, and Juror No.8- K.K.Raina can be categorized as Type-B personalities, as they were patient throughout the proceeding. 2) Transactional Analysis: (a) Adult Ego State: When a person comes from his adult ego state, he or she acts and behaves on the facts and realities of today. A person in adult ego state is able to see person and things as they are today and decides on information available to him rather than assumptions. In the movie Juror no:2 Amitabh Srivastava, Juror no 4-S.M.Zaheer, Juror no 5- Subash Udghate, Juror no 8K.K.Raina and Juror no 9-Annu Kapoor were in his adult ego state. (b) Child Ego State: When a person comes from his child ego state he/she thinks, feels and behaves like the child once he/she was. Juror no:7-M.K.Raina, Juror no:12-Aziz Qureshi were in child ego state. (c) Parent Ego State: When a person comes from his or her parent ego state, he or she thinks, feels, and behaves like whatever he/she learnt from one of her or his parents.. Parent Ego state is

the Taught concept of life. In the movie Juror No:3 - Pankaj Kapoor, Juror No:10-Subiraj were in the parent ego state. 3) Process of Interpreting: After the data have been received and organized, the perceiver interprets the data in various ways. Stereotyping Perceptual set Interpersona l context Other persons background Interpretation of data Halo effect

Perceptual Defense

Organization al Context

Stereotyping: is favorable or unfavorable opinion about a particular group of people. The last person who changed his opinion that the accused was not guilty was actually having a perceptual error of stereotyping. In the past, his son, a teenager once had (physical) fight with him & because of this incident he made a general perception that all teenagers are irresponsible & could indulge in crime very easily. Halo effect: is opinion or attitude towards a single person or object. One of the juror exhibited sign of halo effect, where he was overwhelmed with one aspect of evidence (such as the boy didn't remember character from the film that he watched that night) This juror continued to focus on only one or two aspect of evidence & missed on other aspects which he later realized & changed his opinion. Perception: One of the jurors had a very selective perception he just accepted the evidence on its face value & made up his mind which was easier for him to believe. He considered the evidence were sufficient enough to term the boy guilty without giving any proper thought on evidence as a whole. Projection: According to one of the juror the accused comes from slum & poor background. The boy also had a history where he was involved in some kind of theft etc. Hence according to these jurors in light of available evidence the boy is guilty for sure. They projected the slum background as most of the criminals come from poor & slum background. 4) Decision making Styles: Decisions are made by individuals either in personal matters, or in their roles concerning groups or organizations. Several decision making styles are used by leaders such as Autocratic or directive style, individual consultative style, group consultative style, group decision style, participative style and leaderless team. In the movie the decision making process was basically a participative style of decision making where the whole group proceeds through the entire decision making process. Also the group had no formal leader.