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Adam Baddeley

Battlefield Sensors
From high altitudes and space, an ornithological view of the battlefield can be gained, which is vital, valued, and very expensive to establish, protect, and maintain, not least against peer competitors. It is not without its disadvantages either that the limit of our technology means that, with the exception of the highest-end systems, most ISR sensors may detect, but often simply cannot successfully identify targets at these distances. Critically, it is the hurdle of successful identification that militaries need to overcome.
In creating a web of battlefield sensors that aren't simply limited to those installed upon a small number of air- and space borne platforms, ground based ISR assets have seen a recent and very rapid proliferation, due primarily to the need to quickly field systems to forces in Iraq and Afghanistan. This in turn has driven the state of the art forward in terms of reducing the size, weight, and power of devices; and through economies of scale it has driven down prices, prompting further demand, and in turn, reducing unit costs further in a virtuous circle. On the ground the endurance of the sensor is guaranteed only by the availability of power, as the ability of a sensor to observe should be functionally limited only by the endurance of the patrol. Power efticient solutions are also driving forward the abilities of unattended sensors. Because sensors have to be carried by dismounted patrols or mounted on legacy and already crowded platforms, weight and volume are both vital specifications that have to be addressed. Given the strict envelopes of size, weight, and power that requirements ofticers and industry designers have to work with, the question being faced is how to squeeze the "quart" of requested and expected capability into the reality of the "pint pot."
Adam Baddeiey is a defence ournaiist, who traveis wideiy in Europe, North and South America, and writes on an ongoing basis for MT speciaiising in C4i and land power. This artide indudes additional material by the MT Editor.

Military Technology MILTECH 3/2011



Above: The Sagem JIM LR Is a long range, cooled, multifunction binoculars intended for infantry platoon leaders and special operations forces. (Photo: Mnch / DPM) ;TAr. . Below: EVP Defence's SIRIUS Stationary Monitoring and Surveillance System for long observation (up to 20 km). (Photo: EVP)

the worn C2 systems goes via wireless or cable. Vinhog's TYR laser designator and spot imager, jointly developed with Thaes and based on the French firm's LF28A solution, has been integrated into Norway and Sweden's FOI2000 programme.

Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS)

Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS) provide the self evident benefit of a leave-behind battlefield sensor capability akin to a trip wire using acoustic, piezo-electric, and seismic sensors. When coupled with a cued EO capability, it also provides a clear identification capability. Press reports in the Middle East recently reported on covert unattended surveillance system found on Mount Sannine and Mount Barouk, two mountains surrounding Beirut. Described as Israeli in origin, based on the writing on the device, they were named MINI CLOUD and attributed to Beam Systems Israel Ltd. lAI/Elta's EI7I-6001 UGS network is a combination of two sensor units a combined acoustic seismic UGS unit weighing 3kg and an optional EO spread, which can detect individuals at 100m. The systems have a further option of the integration of an ELyM-2107miniature radar, which has range accuracy of 1m, weigh just 3.5kg, and being able to detect individuals and vehicles at 300m. Honeywell, who provide the COTS communications for Textron's Urban-UGS have also launched their own portable perimeter UGS consisting of a communications gateway and separate intrusion and imaging sensors, the latter two are linked by a 300m range 802.15.4 short haul radio with each sensor weighing 170g. Under its REM-sense family, L-3 Communications East fters two UGS products. The company's Remotely Monitored Battlefield Sensor System, Version II (REMBASS-II) uses seismic/acoustic, IR, and magnetic sensor to detect targets, and is able to communicate that data up to 15km using Low Probability of Intercept/Low Probability of Detection VHF burst transmissions. Relay devices can extend the range to 15km. A US Army variant known as the Battlefield Anti-Intrusion System (BAIS)/ Platoon Early Warning Device II, is issued at platoon level, which sends information from three Seismic/Acoustic Sensors to a hand held device carried by the operator.
Miiitary Technoiogy MiLTECH 3/2011

Dismounted Operations
Even the briefest glance at current new reports will emphasise the importance Armed Forces are placing on dismounted close combat. Eftectiveness in that domain is increasingly dependent upon the ability to quickly detect and engage the enemy, whether that is with the ever more sophisticated firepower available organically or via a robust tactical internet directing supporting fire from a distance. Carl Zeiss' OPUS-H provides complex surveillance and reconnaissance capability in a single lightweight package, which replaces stovepipe single systems, previously carried separately. Weighing 2.9kg, it combines a uncooled 640x480 IR and visual channels, which use a real bi-ocular glass channel rather than a CCD daylight channel, near IR day camera, 20km range laser range finder, and digital magnetic compass GPS. Elbit System's CORAL family of hand held thermal imaging viewers family are widely used, including in Canada where it is an integral part of the country's ISSP soldier modernisation

programme and has been deployed to Afghanistan. ELCAN's oft-the-shelf PHANTOM IR was selected by the USMC for their Medium Range Thermal Bi-Ocular requirement in 2009. The device uses a 640x480 detector, LRF, IR laser marker, and an on board image and video recording capability. Jenoptik's hand held multifunctional thermal imager is part of the ldZ-2 programme for the German Army and uses two colour OLED displays and an active 3-5fjm thermal imager, which provide night detection ranges of 5,000m and identification ranges of 2,100m. Sagem's JIM-LR multifunction binocular used for targeting and the smaller JIM-MR used at platoon level in programmes such as FELIN are in widespread use across the world. The JIM-LR has been acquired by Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, UK, and the US. Selex Galileos' LINX hand held all weather target acquisition systems can detect a moving man at 2.3km with a wide field of view and weighs 2.35kg. Communicating information to



Selex's HYDRA networked UGS surveillance system consists of a common sensor network, linking acoustic sensors capable of detecting a tracked vehicle at 1km and remote imaging sensor, the lafter communicating at a range of 16 frames per second. Harris' path into baftlefield ISR is the RF5400 FALCON WATCH UGS and Surveillance system, which includes a range of typical UGS sensors and is also tightly integrated with the company's FALCON II radio product line for communicating sensor information. Textron Defence Systems primary GS activity produces two UGS variants designed to cover a wider areas and both urban and rural environments - Tactical-UGS (T-UGS), small, robust ground-based ISR networked devices that provide an eariy warning system capable of remote operation under all weather conditions; and Urban-UGS (U-UGS), representing another category of BCTM UGS that have been optimised for use in urban environments (Textron and Honeywell have collaborated to design these low-cost, lightweight sensors). The company is also the provider of the USMC's Advanced Air Delivered Sensor programme launched from manned or unmanned platforms drops from the air as a "dart" and then impacts into the sou, ieaving oniy the sensors above ground. The company's hand held and highly covert MICRO OBSERVER has an endurance of up to two years. Thaes' Miniature Intrusion Sensor (MIS) is described by the company as a low-cost solution based around an internal seismic transducer that also acts a based unit into which other MIS family sensors can be added, with alarms sent covertly to the user's personal monitor with personnel reliabiy detected at 20-60m. Thaes' INSIGHT is an UGS based Covert Surveillance solution, designed to provide a 24 hour optical surveillance capability. The company's CLASSIC and more recent CLASSIC 2000 UGS have been sold to over 20 countries. Aslesan's ASKARAD radar is operated with Turkey's RN-94 6x6 armoured reconnaissance vehicles, and their X-band ARS-2000 ground surveillance radar is part of the company's Modular Armoured Reconnaissance/ Surveillance Vehicie (MARS-V), able to integrate multi-sensor solutions for reconnaissance vehicles, being able to detect a range of targets inciuding shell impacts, individuals, and vehicles. Cassidian's TRGS soiution is an active phased array design intended for fixed and mobile implementations and mounted on vehicles such as the DINGO 2, capable of detecting infantry at 23km with a target location accuracy of 50m, CEP at 30km.

Ground Surveillance Radars (GSR)

Ground Surveillance Radars (GSR) provide a key, wide areas surveillance capabiiity. Often man packable or at least dismountable, greater prominence is being placed on their ability to detect individuals against highly cluttered environment, such as a mountainside or rocky valley.

A Elbit Systems Elop's CORAL thermal imaging systems have gained worldwide recognition in recent years. Based on the company's advanced, proven 3-5mm FPA InSb detector technology, CORAL can be optimised for a wide range of applications, including night sights and target acquisition for infantry, scouts, and special units for security and perimeter defence. (Photo: Elbit Systems)

< Textron Defense Systems' Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS) is a core US Army Brigade Combat Team Modernization (BCTM) programme that uses advanced communications and technologies to link soldiers with both manned and unmanned platforms and sensors. This system of sensors is capable of detecting, classifying, locating, and tracking vehicles, personnel, and aircraft in both rural and urban environments. For rural operations, Tactical-Unattended Ground Sensors (T-UGS) components can be used to perform perimeter defence, surveillance, and target acquisition while providing improved situational awareness. (Graphic: Textron Defense Systems)



Elta's Eb'M-2129 MDSR selutien is alse eftered by Telephonies as the ARRS. The man portable system has been selected by a number ef Armed Ferces including India, Israel, and Nerway. Weighing 30kg it can detect heavy vehicles at 24km. The cempany's heavier, 65kg E17M-2140NG AGSR eperates in the I/J band and can detect persennel at 15km. Magna BSP creates a radar eftect threugh the stereescepic use ef EO sensers, which use twe cameras staring at the same point at the same time and with the same field of view, providing details such as lecatien, speed, distance, elevatien, size, and azimuth. Plextek's BLIGHTER electrenically scanned radar family was originaily conceived for use by Special Forces but since 9/11 it has found an expanded role in areas such as force protection. The mest compact version, the B202 can detect a crawling individual at 1.5km. In 2008, the BLIGHTER was selected by the UK for an UOR. Budapest's Prepatria Electronics have sold their PGSR-2 BEAGLE radar to Malaysia in 2005, which can detect individuals at ranges ef 8km with the radar unit weighing 15kg. The radar is also integrated into the MGS-3 Mobile Greund Surveillance Selutien vehicles. The US's ageing PPS-5 design was updated by Syracuse Research Corporation (SRC) for the US military to create the D- and E-medels, which can detect vehicles at 20km and individuals at 10km with big reductiens in size, weight, and pewer; and alse features advanced electrenics, reducing maintenance dewntime. The company's SR HAWK radar is seen as a follow on eftert te this werk. Terma are best knewn fer their SCANTER naval radars, but have develeped this technelogy to preduce the low profile LPI Ku band SCANTER GSR, which is a Doppler high resolution radar, weighing roughly 30kg and capable of tracing up to 100 simultaneous targets. It has been trialled in Europe and the Middle East with a launch customer scheduled to receive the radar in 2010. One of the latest radars to come on the market is Thaes Germany's LYNX, now called GROUND OBSERVER 12. A pulse-Deppler Ku-band GSR, weighing just 25kg with senser triped, pewer and cabling, it is designed as a ene man lead and can detect targets at 27km in tests, altheugh more normally ranges of 17km against larger targets and individuals at 6km are typical. It can operate in wind speeds of up to 130km/h. The GROUND OBSERVER 12 makes use of the same software used in larger BOR-A550 and BOR-A560 radars from the company and features automatic target classification algorithms. Thaes' SOUIRE radar, launched in 2002, is another man portable solution and is in service with the Dutch and other militaries, including two in the Middle East via Thaes' partner, DRS Technologies. Other radars en the market includes Samel9O's STAR S-90, SRC's LSTAR, and Aselsan's Surveillance and Fire Adjustment radar.

No sensor or sensor network will provide the level of prescience about the enemy's intent so as to entirely prevent aftack. As a consequence, ISR assets acress the baftlefield are being used te detect the lecatien ef shooters. Increased use of ambush as the engagement "mtier du jour" has led to small arms detection capability being deployed down to the individual soldier and vehicle level. The systems, in widespread use, work by detecting bullet Shockwaves and muzzle blast frem incoming small arms rounds, calculating their point ef erigin and immediately transmifting that data. Detecting Small Arms Fire Depleyed te Iraq and Afghanistan is AAl's PD Cue systems censisting ef sensers en each cerner ef the vehicle. Metravib's PILAR gunshet detectien system censists ef a number ef elements with the external sensers censisting ef a feldable Aceustic Senser Array (ASA) with embedded sensers and electrenics. These systems are all vehicle er plafterms mounted, as well as supporting installation at fixed sites such as deployed bases. Militaries are now seeking the same capability in a worn format for deployment with patrols. Developed for the protection ef persennel in hestile environments, Microflown's Sniper Localisation System detects and lecalises hestile gunfire using cempact Aceustic Vecter

1 0 - 1 2 May 2011

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GROUND OBSERVER 12 is Thaes' answer to growing demands for a light-weight compact Ground Surveillance Radar. This radar, the company has created a package tending to all those requirements while also incorporating outstanding features of their high performance long and medium range Ground Surveillance Radars. (Photo: Thaes)

Sensors (AVS). Incoming supersonic projectiles trigger fhe defecfion software wifh bofh the supersonic Shockwave and subsequenf muzzle blasf being measured. With a single AVS, all of fhe relevanf informafion including bearing, elevafion and range of the shoofer are calculafed and reported. The sensors are ground deployable in either mobile or semi-permanent locations. The integrated 3D compass and inerfial sensors allow fhe sysfem fo be deployed wifh minimal set-up fime. In a nefworked configurafion, the calculafed sniper locafions are senf fo C2. In addifion, the sensors can also be vehicle mounfed for gunshof defecfion on fhe move. Other worn solutions include OinetiO's EARS/SWATS soiufion, which requires 1W of power to operate and can provide a complefe soiufion fo the shooter in less than a second and also feeds fhaf info a wider C4I sysfem. Rayfheon BBN's BOOMERANG sysfem is capable of defecfing more than 95% of all supersonic projecfiles wifh a response fime of less fhan 1.5 seconds. The sysfem is capable of defecfing shofs while on vehicles moving at 60mph. The UK has opted to acquire fhe BOOMERANG WARRIOR-X, fhe man worn varianf for fesfing following sfudies by DSTL. The sysfem is infegrafed info the vesf and provides warning via an ear piece and shoofer locafions via a compact display. Rheinmefall Defence's Sniper Locafing Sysfem (SLS) is desfined fo defecf enemy sniper scopes using optical sensors and has been used by participants in IFOR, KFOR, and ISAF. (For further technoiogies on detecting small arms fire, please see Counter Sniper Systems articie in MILITARY TECHNOLOGY issue 2/2011. -The Ed.) Detecting RAM Rounds Againsf incoming Rockef, Artillery, and Mortar (RAM) rounds, acousfic sysfems are sfill used fo detect fhe location of incoming rounds alfhough larger radar systems are, if anything, more widely used for weapon locafion tasks. Euro-Art's COBRA counter-battery radar in service wifh Germany, France, fhe UK, Turkey, and fhe UAE and has been deployed operafional in fheafre (Afghanisfan, Iraq, and fhe Lebanon). The UAE is acquiring fhree of fhe lafesf hardware/software configurafions in a $240 million confracf signed in 2009. One of fhe recenf additions fo fhe capabilify, Lockheed Marfin's EQ-36 counfer-fire fargef acquisifion radar can be operafed by four
Miiitary Technology MILTECH 3/2011

soldiers and provides complefe 360 coverage, disfinguishing if from fhe capabilifies of fhe currenf AN/TPO-36 FIREFINDER radar, which provides a 90 segment of coverage. The EO-36 was delivered in mid-2009. With currenf orders at 35 sysfems, fhe company announced fhaf the firsf sysfems were deployed fo Iraq and Afghanisfan in Ocfober2010. An acousfic based sysfem is Microflown Technologies' Sound Ranging Artillery Localisation Sysfems wifh a response fime of less fhan five seconds. Saab Microwave's ARTHUR (Arfillery Hunfing Radar) was designed as a lighfweighf counfer-baffery radar and is in widespread use fo defecf incoming RAM rounds af ranges of up fo 40km. In October 2009, Singapore deployed fwo sysfems fo Afghanisfan in fhe Uruzgan Province; and fhe Army of fhe Czech Republic currenfly operafe fhe radar in support of Polish forces in Afghanistan. Selex's HALO (Hosfile Artillery Locating) sysfem is an acousfic based weapon defecfion sysfem, which detecfs and friangulafes fhe sound of fire from artillery guns, mortars, fanks, and heavy cannons, alfhough in recenf operafions ifs abilify fo use fhe same fechnology to defect fhe defonafion of mines, bombs, and lEDs has very much come fo fhe fore. Ifs fhree "ears" cover an area of over 2.000sqm over 360. The range accuracy is greafer fhan 99 percenf. SRC's Lighfweighf Counfer-Mortar Radar, fhe AN/TPQ-48, provides fhe same 360 coverage of ofher sysfems, buf in a highly portable format, which is compatible wifh airborne operafions. If can be deployed in a door bundle, and can be puf up and faken down quickly by fwo soldiers. A feafure of the radar is its ability to frack lighf aircraft while simulfaneously scanning and locafing enemy fires.

Multi-Sensor Systems
To extract the greatest synergies in terms of eftecf, multi-sensor sysfems have been fielded, their inevitable size and power requiremenfs lending fhemselves fo plafforms mounfed insfallafions, providing manoeuvre forces with a long range reconnaissance capabilify. In December 2010, Elbif Sysfems was awarded a $16 million confracf in conjuncfion wifh fhe Polish Milifary Communicafion Insfifute and ofher local partners to integrate an Elbit mulfi-sensors sysfem including fhermal ima-

gers and radars, as well as an organic UAV, onfo elemenfs of Poland's ROSOMAK 8x8 AFV fleef. Rheinmefall's B/\A observafion and reconnaissance sysfem is insfalled on the FENNEK reconnaissance vehicle is designed to locate targets af range of 20km using a 3-5|jm or 8-12 pm SAPHIR fhermal imaging device and highresolufion dayfime camera. The sysfem can be used mounfed or dismounfed 40m from the vehicle. The Rayfheon/DRS AN/TAS-8A Long-Range Advance Scouf Surveillance System (LRAS3) is a long-range mulfi-sensor sysfem for the US Army scouting forces, providing the real-time ability fo detect and idenfify fargefs and provide fo precise locafion of disfanf targets, af 10km if has an esfimafed CEP of 60 mefres. Rayfheon's Transportable Multi-Domain Surveillance systems is a trailer mounfed combined EO/IR- and masf mounfed radar, which can rise fo over 38m and ifs onboard diesel generators power fhe sysfems for up fo seven days. Selex's All-Terrain Mobile Surveillance Vehicle is Pinzgauer based and matches fhe company's own 640x512 Cooled MW fhermal imager wifh a BLIGHTER radar. To manage multiple sensor fypes. Thaes' Local Area Control System is designed fo infegrafe mulfiple sensor fypes around a sight offering a C2 and communicafions capabilify, and would be used around a specific sife rafher fhan a mobile environmenf. If has been used in France's Specfre programme, fhe German MoblDS perimefer detecfion sysfem, and fhe Dufch DISCUS sysfem in Afghanisfan. Vinhog's VINGTAOS infegrafed sysfem has been insfalled on wide range of plafforms for the IVECO LMV to a rear mast mounfed solution on a CV90. The US Department of Homeland Securify recenfly awarded FLIR Sysfems a contract valued at up fo $101.9 million for fhe company's HRC-X ulfra long range fhermal imaging camera, which will be infegrafed on vehicle mounfed surveillance fowers. A similar capabilify is provided by lAI's EL/l-3302 RADMIP platform mast mounfed soiufion fhaf can be fitted fo lighf vehicles such as fhe LAND ROVER and includes radar and EO/IR sensors. Anofher Israeli soiufion is Elbif's plafform agnosfic V-SOS, designed for real fime infelligence gafhering and rapid communicafion and disseminafion beyond fhe platform. Thaes' MARGOT 5000 Infegrafed Surveillance Soiufion is an EO/IR based soiufion integrafed on vehicles such as the VBL scout car. The company's RAVEL (Radar Vehicle Lighf) soiufion mafches an 80km range. BOR-A 560 Long range GSR is in service wifh 15 counfries world wide - on a 4m exfendable mast.

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