This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
(10-12), Demi Adejuyigbe (13-15), Ragini Mistry (16-18), Saud Ahmed (19-21), Tiffany Shieh (22-24), Tom Caligiuri (25-27), Justin (28-30), Charles Basile (31-33), Igor Kushner (34-36), Nikhil (37-39), Michelle Samadzada (40-42), Max Glover (43-45), Gokul Mani (46-47), Chris Russell (48-49) *disclaimer*- There may be errors in this review. If you think something’s wrong, we suggest you look it up. This is shared with others with the current understanding that it cannot be used to cheat in any way. We do not authorize this review to be used for cheating of any kind.
1. Joseph Stalin- Communist leader of the Soviet Union, called the "Man of Steel". He came
to power by killing Leon Trotsky. The Soviet Union was a member of the Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact, but became Germany's enemy when Hitler invaded in 1941. German advances were stopped and reversed at Stalingrad. Benito Mussolini- The nationalistic and fascist leader of Italy, called 'Il Duce'. He stressed loyalty to the state after he came to power. He was elected to the house of representatives, then used a military takeover to become ruler. He was very incompetent and ended up ruining Italy's economy. Adolf Hitler- The nationalistic, fascist, and autocratic leader of Germany. Wrone 'Mein Kamph' while in prison. He was legally appointed chancellor, after which he used the Enabling Act of 1933 to legally consolidate his power. He killed off political enemies in the Night of the Long Knives. He left the League of Nations, remilitarized the Rhineland, annexed Austria (called the Anschluss), took the Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia, then took all of Czechoslovakia, then invaded Poland. This final act started WWII. Employed blitzkrieg tactics committed suicide at the end of the war. Nazi Party - The National Socialist German Worker's Party, it existed from 1919 to 1945. The final leader of the party, Adolf Hitler, was appointed Chancellor in 1933 (legally) and quickly established a fascist government known as the Third Reich. Nazi Party beliefs stressed the problems and faliure of capitalism. They also believed in the racial purity of the German people, who they referred to as Aryans (blond hair, blue eyes.) They also persecuted those who they deemed unworthy of life, ex: Jews, Gypsies, homosexuals etc. On the politcal axis, they are the complete opposite of communism. Rome-Berlin Axis - Used to refer to the friendship treaty signed by Italy and Germany in 1936. It was said this axis would be the one that all other European nations would revolve. This relationship was strengthened in 1939 when Germany and Italy signed the Pact of Steel. The term "axis powers" was created when the two countries signed the Tripartite Pact with Japan. Emperor Hirohito - Similar to the Queen of England, he was more a symbol of the state than an actual ruler. Was emperor of Japan during World War II, The decisions that led to the war in 1941 were made unanimously by the cabinet, the emperor was fully informed about them, they were often made in his presence, he knew in advance of the plan to attack Hawaii, and he even made suggestions about how to carry it out. Reigned in Japan until 1989, when he died. Hideki Tojo- a General of the Japanese army and a strong supporter of Nazi Germany, Tojo lead a group of extreme right-wing militarists. Tojo was appointed the Japanese minister of war in July 1941 and retained that position until he resigned after the loss of Saipan in July 1944 Francisco Franco- an established General in the Spanish army and the leader of the Fascist rebellion in Spain, Franco successfully took control of the Spanish government. He maintained this control after World War II and established a diplomatic relationship with America over mutual distrust of the Soviet Union.
9. Spanish Civil War- From 1936-1939, a coup d’état in which a fascist group, supported by Germany and Italy, ousted the left leaning republican government, which was supported by the Soviet Union. It served as a proxy war in which German arms, weapons, and tactics were being battle tested. During this war, America retained it’s neutral foreign policy, disregarding the fact that many Americans traveled to Spain to fight. 10. Winston Churchill – Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during WWI and was the leader in English politics at that time. During his time he took many military matters into his own hands and was highly Pro-WWII. He worked in part with Franklin D. Roosevelt to defeat Germany in such policies including the Lend Lease which allowed Britain to order war goods from the United States on credit. One of the major contributions made by Churchill to eventual victory was his ability to inspire the British people to rally their efforts by making public broadcasts similar to Roosevelt’s fireside chats. 11. Good Neighbor Policy – The foreign policy name used for Roosevelt’s administration in regards to Latin American nations. In its ideal it pushed for friendly relations with its neighboring countries in a conflict with the caliber as WWII had become. This changed the normal policy which usually consisted of military force, and instead began to use more indirect tactics such as financial supervision and support for an American influenced style of government. 12. Neutrality Acts – Came into effect due to an increase in need for isolation in foreign conflict. The laws passed between 1935-1939 severely hindered the United States in helping the British war effort against Germany. Eventually they all were repealed in response to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941. 13. “Quarantine” speech - Oct. 5th, 1937 - A speech given by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt that called for a policy of neutrality against aggressive nations. 14. “cash and carry” - The policy put forth by the United States saying that anyone would be allowed to purchase weapons from them, provided that they paid with cash, and they transported the weapons themselves. This protected American ships from being sunk. 15. Lend-Lease Act - The act that allowed the United States to give war materials to foreign countries in exchange for goods and/or services. 16. Atlantic Charter- The Atlantic Charter was a document announced by Churchill and Roosevelt that laid out eight goals for the world (open trade, economic cooperation, freedom of the seas, no territorial gains were to be sought by the US or Great Britain, disarmament of aggressors, trade barriers lowered, freedom from want and fear, and territorial adjustments based upon the people concerned). It called for self determination and was aimed at freeing the countries under Axis influence. 17. America First Committee- It was a non-interventionist group that was against US entry into WWII. It peaked at 800,000 members. It had four basic principles: build up the defense of America, no power can successfully attack a prepared America, American democracy can only be preserved if the US stays out of the war, and US aid to Euro countries weakens America and threatens to get the US involved in the war. 18. Douglass MacArthur- He was an American general who played an important role in the Pacific theater of WWII. During the attack on Pearl Harbor, he was the Allied commander in the Philippines and his inaction led to Japanese air superiority over the Philippines. He was later forced of retreat to Australia. In 1944, he returned to the Philippines and retook the islands from Japanese control. On Sept 2 1945, he accepted the formal Japanese surrender aboard the Missouri officially ending WWII. 19. Chester Nimitz-Navy--Commander in Chief, United States Pacific Fleet ("CinCPac"). Commander in Chief, Pacific Ocean Areas (CinCPOA), Both Navy positions during WWII.Leading US submarine Athority, and Chief of ’39 Navy Beureau Of Investigation. Responsible for the halt of Japanese forces in the Pacific Theater. 20. Dwight Eisenhower-Army--34th President. Five Star General in US Army. Supreme Commander of the invasion of Germany and France (AKA D-Day) that proved successful. Also oversaw the invasion of Sicily, and consequently, the Italian mainland. 1st Supreme Commander of NATO.
21. George Patton- Army--Very controversial 4-star general. Known for strong opinions. Advocated armored warfare. Sent rescue mission deep into enemy lines for son in POW camp-failed. Slapped a soldier in a hospital recovering from “fatigue”, was well publicized, resulted in Roosevelt dismissing him from duty. 22. Robert Oppenheimer- is remembered as the father of the atomic bomb. Was also a theoretical physicists and also a professor of physics. 23. Manhattan Project-was a project in order to first develop the atomic bomb. Specifically between the time period of 1942-1946 under the U.S Army of Corps Engineer and was directed by Robert Oppenheimer. 24. Casablanca Conference-(codenamed SYMBOL) was held at the Anfa Hotel in Casablanca, Morocco. Called for the Allies to seek the unconditional surrender of the Axis Powers. It also called for Allied aid to the Soviet Union in the invasion of Sicily and Italy, and the recognition of joint leadership of the Free French by de Gaulle and Giraud. 25. Teheran Conference- Meeting in late 1943 between the Big Three (Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill). Was the first meeting of the three in which Stalin attended. They met to determine the final strategy for the war. 26. Potsdam Conference- Held in Potsdam, Germany from July 16 to August 2, 1945. Agreed on post war order, most notably the division of Germany and it's capital, Berlin, into four occupational zones, one each for the Soviet Union, the United States, Great Britain, and France. 27. Pearl Harbor- December 7, 1941. A surprise attack on the naval base in Hawaii, was technically before a formal declaration of war reached the White House, but not before the declaration was planned to be delivered. Roosevelt used this attack as one of the primary reasons for entering the war. 28. Midway-Battle of Midway- major naval battle; The United States Navy decisively defeated an Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) attack against Midway Atoll, inflicting irreparable damage on the Japanese carrier force and seizing the strategic initiative 29. Island Hopping- US military strategy of invading and taking over a Japanese Island, setting up a base there to take over the next island, invading the next island, and so on until Japanese islands in the South Pacific were conquered by US forces 30.Eastern Front- the "contested armed frontier" between lands controlled by Germany to the west and the Allies (Russia) to the east 31. Western Front- Term for the conflict between Germany and the western Allies: France, the United Kingdoms, and later the United States. Conflict on this front began in 1939 with the invasion of Poland and ended in 1945 with the surrender of Germany. This front saw the first usage of blitzkrieg, which combined with the over devotion of forces to the Maginot line, a series of fortresses stretching the border between Germany and France, led to the swift defeat of the French army when German forces went around the Maginot line through Belgium. Forces deployed here comprised an estimated 45% of all Axis forces in Europe, and became stagnant when the German air assault on the United Kingdoms failed to result in either side gaining an advantage. The Allied forces received a large boon in December of 1941, when the United States declared war on Japan and its allies, Germany and Italy. 32. D Day- Allied assault on the beaches at Normandy, began June 6, 1944 and involved massive mobilization with a large air force parachuting and gliding in during the night concurrent with air raids and naval bombardment and the amphibious landings which began early in the morning. The assault on Normandy involved assaults on 5 beaches: Utah, Omaha, Gold, Juno, and Sword. 33. V-E Day & V-J Day- V-E Day, or Victory in Europe Day, is May 8, 1945 when Germany surrendered, in response to the capture of Berlin and the suicide of Adolph Hitler. V-J Day or Victory over Japan Day, is August 15, 1945 when Japan finally surrendered in response to the dropping of the atomic bomb on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and invasion of Manchuria by the Soviet Union. 34. War Production Board- The WBP was a U.S. government agency that oversaw the production and distribution of materials and equipment used by the military in World War
37. 38. 39.
II from January 1942 to November 1945. The WBP converted almost all civilian operation into war production. Civilians also could not use raw materials for their own purposes. Schedules were set all over the country for the production of war equipment at a maximum efficiency. Office of Price Administration- The OPA was created in order to stabilize prices and control rations after the outbreak of World War II. Prices of many items were fixed at the highest prices charged to limit inflation. The point and price system created by the OPA was a very important part of the U.S. rationing system during the war. War Labor Board- The board was reestablished by Roosevelt in 1942 to take care of labor-management dispute cases. This was done in order to prevent work stoppages which could slow down the war effort. Wage control in many national industries was added as well. Fair Employment Practices Commission-(also Executive Order 88020) -- required that companies with government contracts not discriminate on the basis of race or religion. Rationing- is the controlled distribution of resources and scarce goods or services. Used stamps for gas, food, and other appliances during WW2. Issei & nissei- Issei are first born generation of Japanese Americans which Nisei is second generation Japanese Americans Internment- Japanese Internment Camps during ww2. About 100,000 Japanese Americans were forced out of their homes and forced into internment camps. The attack of Pearl Harbor resulted in Japanese Americans being forced into these camps. Korematsu v. US- this was a Supreme Court case concerning the constitutionality of the Executive Order 9066. This required Japanese Americans to be excluded from a West Coast Military area. The results of the case was that the Order was constitutional. Double V Campaign-In a 1942 letter to the Pittsburgh Courier, James G. Thompson called for a Double V Campaign to achieve two victories: over the Axis powers in World War II and over racial prejudice in the United States. This campaign was a WW2-era effort of black Americans to gain “a Victory over racism at home as well as Victory abroad.” Tuskegee Airmen – This group of World War II fighter pilots was the first African American air combat unit to exist in the US Army Air Corps. Originally designed to be a military failure, this group greatly exceeded their expectations and became one of the most decorated associations in the Air Corps. A. Philip Randolph – he was a 20th century African American civil rights leader who played a vital role in the movement of black labor organizing and civil rights. Randolph founded the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, a group which aimed to gain collective bargaining rights for workers in the Pullman railroad company. Collective bargaining was the process by which workers would meet together to compromise upon the work environment of their employer. WAVES – this group was a World War II-era division of the US Navy that consisted entirely of women. It stands for Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service and their primary purpose was to serve with the army (not necessarily in it). The “Emergency” in their name most likely means that it is a division reserved for solely unusual conditions; however, this group was still a large step forward towards greater rights for women, as they gained permanent status in the armed services. WACs- As the likelihood that the United States would join the war intensified, many American women expressed an interest in assisting the U.S. military. However, reluctant to give women military recognition equivalent to that granted to men, the War Department ensured that the bill under consideration did not entitle women to full military benefits. Economic incentives motivated many, as women enjoyed having employment and professional opportunities unavailable to them in peacetime. Some considered wartime service as a valuable work experience that would be helpful in acquiring jobs in the future. n 1948, the Women's Armed Services Integration Act incorporated the WAC as a
corps within the U.S. Army. Thirty years later, the separate corps came to an end and female soldiers joined the army directly instead of the WAC. 47. Rosie the Riveter- The Character was a cover illustration by Norman Rockwall of the May 29th issue of Saturday Evening Post in 1943. It is a sandwich-munching, brawny, yet innocent-looking women in coveralls, cradling her rivet gun in her lap, goggles pushed up onto her forehead and her foot rests on a copy of Mein Kampf. Rockwell’s Rosie is an admiring tribute to the more than 6 million women who have entered the job force during the war, many of them taking up positions in what was considered “man’s work,” including the defense industries. 48. Bracero program- In the 1940s many undocumented workers were legalized to be able to help the famers in the war effort. Growers happy because Mexicans were cheap and unorganized labor. Mexicans got paid and legalized but got low wages, no schooling for their kids and horrible living conditions. Congress terminated this program in 1964. 49. Zoot Suit Riots- Racial confrontations mainly against Mexican Americans who wore “zoot suits” or “drape shapes” in Los Angeles from June 3 – June 13, 1943. Caused by navy recruits and veterans at the Chavez Ravine Base claiming that the Mexican Americans were avoiding military enlistment. The police intervened by penalizing the victims and over policing their neighborhoods. US State Department finally called LA off limits for military personal and trials followed that ended with no convictions leaving the Mexican Americans very bitter.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.