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Isentropic Flow
— Formula Derivation
— Applications & Sample Problems
― Real flows are not entirely isentropic, but major
portions of the flow is isentropic
― In practice, many flows can be assumed as
isentropic flow
• No shock waves, no heat transfer, no friction
Overview
Core flow is
isentropic
― Example flows in ducts or nozzles:
• Friction or heat transfer effects are important only
in the wall boundary layer
• Use correction factors to handle nonisentropic
region
1. If area changes, how does if affect V, T, P, µ?
2. For compressible flows, use M instead of V.
3. Examples:
• Jet or rocket nozzles
• Convergentdivergent nozzles
• Airfoils
Isentropic
core flow
Chapter Objectives
For isentropic flow:
And:
So:
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
÷
÷


.

\

=


.

\

=
¸
¸
¸
µ
µ
P
P
T
T
RT a ¸ =
1
1
2
1
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
÷
÷


.

\

=


.

\

= =
¸
¸
¸
µ
µ
P
P
a
a
T
T
Governing Equations
2 2
2
2
2
2
1
1
V
T c
V
T c
p p
+ = +
( )
( )
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
2
2 1
2 1
T c V
T c V
T
T
p
p
+
+
=
Applying energy equation to relate between T & M:
RT
V
a
V
M
¸
= =
Mach Number:
Isentropic flow
So:
And:
1
1
2
1
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
÷
÷


.

\

=


.

\

= =
¸
¸
¸
µ
µ
P
P
a
a
T
T
2
2 2
2
1 1
2 2
M
R T
V
T c
V
p
÷
=
(
¸
(
¸
÷
(
¸
(
¸
=
¸
¸
¸
1
2
Governing Equations
( )
( )
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
2
2 1
2 1
T c V
T c V
T
T
p
p
+
+
=
2
2
2
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
1
M
M
T
T
÷
+
÷
+
=
¸
¸
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
1
÷
÷
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
+
÷
+
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
M
M
P
P
1
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
1
÷
÷
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
+
÷
+
=
¸
¸
¸
µ
µ
M
M
Sample Problem 1
Air flows through a convergentdivergent duct with an inlet area of 5 cm
2
and an
exit area of 3.8 cm
2
. At the inlet section the air velocity is 100 m/s, the pressure is
680 kPa, and the temperature is 60
o
C.
Find the mass flow rate through the nozzle and the pressure and velocity at the
exit section. Assume that the flow is isentropic throughout the nozzle.
Sample Problems
2 2 2 1 1 1
V A V A µ µ =


.

\



.

\

=
2
1
2
1
1
2
V
V
A
A
µ
µ


.

\



.

\

=
2 2
1 1
2
1
1
2
RT M
RT M
A
A
¸
¸
µ
µ
Using the relations µM and TM:
Where:
( )
( ) 1 2
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
1 2
1
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
1
÷
+
÷
+
÷




.

\

÷
+
÷
+
=


.

\

=


.

\



.

\

=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
M
M
M
M
K
K
M
M
K
K
K
K
M
M
A
A
2
2
1
1 M K
÷
+ =
¸
Governing Equations
To find relation between A & M:
― Flow stagnates when V changed isentropically to V = 0.
― Can be used to relate points 01 and 02.
(
¸
(
¸
÷
+ =
2
0
2
1
1 M
T
T ¸
1
2
0
2
1
1
÷
(
¸
(
¸
÷
+ =
¸
¸
¸
M
P
P
1
1
2
0
2
1
1
÷
(
¸
(
¸
÷
+ =
¸
¸
µ
µ
M
2
2
2
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
1
M
M
T
T
÷
+
÷
+
=
¸
¸
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
1
÷
÷
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
+
÷
+
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
M
M
P
P
1
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
1
÷
÷
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷
+
÷
+
=
¸
¸
¸
µ
µ
M
M
0
0
0
0
µ µ =
=
=
= =
T T
P P
M V
1
2
0
Stagnation Conditions
1
0
2
Stagnation point is point 0
0
0
0
0
µ µ =
=
=
= =
T T
P P
M V
Stagnation point is inside the chamber
Examples of Stagnation Conditions
Sample Problem 2
If Concorde is flying at a Mach number of 2.2, at an altitude of 10 km in the standard
atmosphere, find the stagnation pressure and temperature for the flow over the
aircraft.
Sample Problem 3
The pressure, temperature, and Mach number at the entrance to a duct through which
air is flowing are 250 kPa, 26
o
C, and 1.4 respectively. At some other point in the duct,
the Mach number is found to be 2.5.
Assuming isentropic flow, find the temperature, velocity, and pressure at the second
section. Also find the mass flow rate per square meter at the second section.
Sample Problems
V = 0
P
0
P
Incompressible flow (Bernoulli equation):
Compressible flow:
2
0
2
1
V P P µ = ÷
( )
µ
P P
V
÷
=
0
2
1
2
0
2
1
1
÷
(
¸
(
¸
÷
+ =
¸
¸
¸
M
P
P
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷

.

\



.

\

÷
=
÷
1
1
2
1
0
¸
¸
¸ P
P
M
(
(
¸
(
¸
÷

.

\

+
÷


.

\

÷
=
÷
1 1
1
2
1
0
¸
¸
¸ P
P P
a
V
Pitot Probe: Measuring Velocity
― Critical condition is when flow
is isentropically accelerated or
decelerated until M = M* = 1
M* = 1 T*, P*, µ*, a*, A* =
(
¸
(
¸
+
÷
+
+
=
2
1
1
1
2 *
M
T
T
¸
¸
¸
1
2
1
1
1
2 *
÷
(
¸
(
¸
+
÷
+
+
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
M
P
P
1
1
2
1
1
1
2 *
÷
(
¸
(
¸
+
÷
+
+
=
¸
¸
¸
¸ µ
µ
M
2
1
2
1
1
1
2 *
(
¸
(
¸
+
÷
+
+
= M
a
a
¸
¸
¸
1
Critical Conditions
2
3
4
A = A*
M = 1 only at throat
M < 1 M > 1
( )
( ) 1 2
1
2
1
1
1
2 1
*
÷
+
(
¸
(
¸
+
÷
+
+
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
M
M A
A
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0 1 2 3
Mach number
A/A*
5 5
M T
0
/T P
0
/P µ
0
/µ a
0
/a A/A* u
0.50 1.05000 1.18621 1.12973 1.02470 1.33984 
0.52 1.05408 1.20242 1.14073 1.02668 1.30339 
2.40 2.15200 17.08589 7.59373 1.50000 2.63671 36.74650
2.42 2.17128 15.08357 6.94686 1.47353 2.44787 37.22883
(
¸
(
¸
÷
+ =
2
0
2
1
1 M
T
T ¸
1
2
0
2
1
1
÷
(
¸
(
¸
÷
+ =
¸
¸
¸
M
P
P
1
1
2
0
2
1
1
÷
(
¸
(
¸
÷
+ =
¸
¸
µ
µ
M
( ) 1 2
1
2
*
1
1
1
2 1
÷
+


.

\

+
÷
+
+
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
M
M A
A
2
1
2
0
2
1
1
(
¸
(
¸
÷
+ = M
a
a ¸
Table of Isentropic Flow
Air flow moves from a reservoir into a cylindrical convergingdiverging nozzle. The
regions are labeled as reservoir, Region 1 (1), throat (t), exit (e), and the region just
outside the exit area (b). The flow condition is measured at Region 1 with M = 0.3,
static P = 70 kPa, and diameter d = 10 cm.
If the exit Mach number is 3.4, calculate the throat and exit areas necessary to produce
that exit condition. Calculate also the pressure at the exit.
Sample Problem 4
Sample Problems
Sample Question 5
A supersonic flow enters an inlet (Region 1) of a cylindrical convergingdiverging
channel. The flow decelerates to the throat of the channel at Region 2, where the
diameter d
2
= 0.5d
1
. The channel then diverges to a uniformarea tube at Region 3 with
a diameter d
3
= 0.8d
1
. The flow then faces a moving normal shock wave, where the
density increases by 3.8 across the moving shock.
1. Calculate M
3
, P
3
, and V
3
.
2. If the flow decelerates from R1 – R2, why is the flow at R3 still supersonic?
Sample Problems