# Structured Knowledge

Chapter 7

Logic Notations
Does logic represent well knowledge in structures?

2

Logic Notations
Frege’s Begriffsschrift (concept writing) - 1879:
assert P not P if P then Q for every x, P(x) P P Q P

x

P(x)

3

Logic Notations
Frege’s Begriffsschrift (concept writing) - 1879:
“Every ball is red” x red(x) ball(x) red(x) ball(x)

“Some ball is red”

x

4

Logic Notations
Algebraic notation - Peirce, 1883:
Universal quantifier: ΠxPx Existential quantifier: ∑xPx

5

Logic Notations
Algebraic notation - Peirce, 1883:
“Every ball is red”: ∏x(ballx —< redx) “Some ball is red”: ∑x(ballx • redx)

6

Logic Notations
Peano’s and later notation:
“Every ball is red”: (∀x)(ball(x) ⊃ red(x)) “Some ball is red”: (∃x)(ball(x) ∧ red(x))

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Logic Notations
Existential graphs - Peirce, 1897:
Existential quantifier: a link structure of bars, called line of identity, represents ∃ Conjunction: the juxtaposition of two graphs represents ∧ Negation: an oval enclosure represents ~

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Logic Notations
“If a farmer owns a donkey, then he beats it”:

farmer

owns beats

donkey

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Logic Notations
EG’s rules of inferences:
Erasure: in a positive context, any graph may be erased. Iteration: a copy of a graph may be written in the same context or any nested context.

Insertion: in a negative context, any graph may be inserted.

Deiteration: any graph may be erased if a copy of its occurs in the same context or a containing context. Double negation: two negations with nothing between them may be erased or inserted.

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Existential Graphs
Prove: ((p ⇒ r) ∧ (q ⇒ s)) ⇒ ((p q) ⇒ (r s)) is valid

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Existential Graphs
Prove: ((p ⇒ r) ∧ (q ⇒ s)) ⇒ ((p q) ⇒ (r s)) is valid

p r

q s

p q

r s

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Prove: ((p ⇒ r) ∧ (q ⇒ s)) ⇒ ((p q) ⇒ (r s))
Erasure: in a positive context, any graph may be erased. Insertion: in a negative context, any graph may be inserted.

Existential Graphs

Iteration: a copy of a graph may be written in the same context or any nested context. Deiteration: Deiteration: any graph may be erased if a copy of its occurs in the same context or a containing context.

Double negation: two negations with nothing between them may be erased or inserted.

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Prove: ((p ⇒ r) ∧ (q ⇒ s)) ⇒ ((p q) ⇒ (r s))
Erasure: in a positive context, any graph may be erased. Insertion: in a negative context, any graph may be inserted.

Existential Graphs

Iteration: a copy of a graph may be written in the same context or any nested context. Deiteration: Deiteration: any graph may be erased if a copy of its occurs in the same context or a containing context.

p r

q s

Double negation: two negations with nothing between them may be erased or inserted.

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Prove: ((p ⇒ r) ∧ (q ⇒ s)) ⇒ ((p q) ⇒ (r s))
Erasure: in a positive context, any graph may be erased. Insertion: in a negative context, any graph may be inserted.

Existential Graphs
p r

q s

Iteration: a copy of a graph may be written in the same context or any nested context. Deiteration: Deiteration: any graph may be erased if a copy of its occurs in the same context or a containing context.

p r p r

q s

Double negation: two negations with nothing between them may be erased or inserted.

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Prove: ((p ⇒ r) ∧ (q ⇒ s)) ⇒ ((p q) ⇒ (r s))
Erasure: in a positive context, any graph may be erased. Insertion: in a negative context, any graph may be inserted.

Existential Graphs
p r p r q s

Iteration: a copy of a graph may be written in the same context or any nested context. Deiteration: Deiteration: any graph may be erased if a copy of its occurs in the same context or a containing context.

p r

q s p q r
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Double negation: two negations with nothing between them may be erased or inserted.

Prove: ((p ⇒ r) ∧ (q ⇒ s)) ⇒ ((p q) ⇒ (r s))
Erasure: in a positive context, any graph may be erased.

Existential Graphs
p r q s p q r

Insertion: in a negative context, any graph may be inserted.

Iteration: a copy of a graph may be written in the same context or any nested context. Deiteration: Deiteration: any graph may be erased if a copy of its occurs in the same context or a containing context.

p r

q s

Double negation: two negations with nothing between them may be erased or inserted.

pq

r q s
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Prove: ((p ⇒ r) ∧ (q ⇒ s)) ⇒ ((p q) ⇒ (r s))
Erasure: in a positive context, any graph may be erased.

Existential Graphs

Insertion: in a negative context, any graph may be inserted.

p r

q s

Iteration: a copy of a graph may be written in the same context or any nested context. Deiteration: Deiteration: any graph may be erased if a copy of its occurs in the same context or a containing context.

pq

r q s

p r

q s

Double negation: two negations with nothing between them may be erased or inserted.

p q

r s
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Prove: ((p ⇒ r) ∧ (q ⇒ s)) ⇒ ((p q) ⇒ (r s))
p r q s p r p r p r q s p r p q r s pq r q s p q r
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Existential Graphs

q s

q s

p r

q s

Existential Graphs
• • α-graphs: propositional logic β-graphs: first-order logic γ-graphs: high-order and modal logic

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Semantic Nets
• Since the late 1950s dozens of different versions of semantic networks have been proposed, with various terminologies and notations. • The main ideas:
For representing knowledge in structures

The meaning of a concept comes from the ways it is connected to other concepts

Labelled nodes representing concepts are connected by labelled arcs representing relations
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Semantic Nets
Mammal isa Person uniform color has-part

Nose

instance Owen team Liverpool

Red

team(Owen, Liverpool)

person(Owen) ≡ instance(Owen, Person)

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Semantic Nets
John height H1 value 1.80 greater-than Bill height H2

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Semantic Nets
“John gives Mary a book”
Give John agent g instance object beneficiary Book instance b

give(John, Mary, book)

Mary

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Frames
• A vague paradigm - to organize knowledge in highlevel structures • “A Framework for Representing Knowledge” - Minsky, 1974 • Knowledge is encoded in packets, called frames (single frames in a film) Frame name + slots
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Frames
Alive Flies

Animals
T F

isa
Legs Flies

Birds
2 T

Mammals
Legs 4

isa Penguins
Flies F

Cats

Legs Flies

Bats
2 T

instance
Name Friend

Opus

Opus

Name Friend

Bill

Bill

Name

Pat

Pat 26

Frames
Hybrid systems:
Frame component: to define terminologies (predicates and terms) Predicate calculus component: to describe individual objects and rules

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Conceptual Graphs
• Sowa, J.F. 1984. Conceptual Structures: Information Processing in Mind and Machine. • CG = a combination of Perice’s EGs and semantic networks.

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Conceptual Graphs
• 1968: term paper to Marvin Minsky at Harvard. • 1970's: seriously working on CGs • 1976: first paper on CGs

• 1981-1982: meeting with Norman Foo, finding Peirce’s EGs • 1984: the book coming out • CG homepage: http://conceptualgraphs.org/

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Simple Conceptual Graphs
concept type (class) concept relation relation type

CAT: tuna

1

On

2

MAT: *

individual referent

generic referent

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Ontology
• Ontology: the study of "being" or existence • An ontology = "A catalog of types of things that are assumed to exist in a domain of interest" (Sowa, 2000) • An ontology = "The arrangement of kinds of things into types and categories with a well-defined structure" (Passin 2004)

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Ontology
top-level categories

domain-specific

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Ontology
Aristotle's categories
Substance Property Inherence Directedness Being Accident Relation Containment

Quality

Quantity

Movement

Intermediacy

Spatial

Temporal

Activity

Passivity

Having

Situated
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Ontology
Geographical categories
Area Block Terrain Country Wetland Mountain Dam Town Bridge Airstrip Heliport Geographical-Feature Point Line On-Land Road Border Railroad Power-Line River On-Water

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Ontology

Relation

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Ontology

Relation

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Ontology

ANIMAL Eat FOOD

PERSON: john

Eat

CAKE: *
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CG Projection
PERSON: john 1 Has-Relative 2 PERSON: *

PERSON: john

1

Has-Wife

2

WOMAN: mary

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Nested Conceptual Graphs

Neg

CAT: tuna

On

MAT: *

¬
CAT: tuna On MAT: *

It is not true that cat Tuna is on a mat.
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Nested Conceptual Graphs
¬
CAT: *

¬
CAT: * On MAT: *

Every cat is on a mat.
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Nested Conceptual Graphs
¬
Poss PERSON: julian Fly-To PLANET: mars

Past

Julian could not fly to Mars.
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Nested Conceptual Graphs
¬
Poss PERSON: julian Fly-To PLANET: mars

Past

Tom believes that Mary wants to marry a sailor.
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Exercises