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Chapter 7

Logic Notations

Does logic represent well knowledge in structures?

2

Logic Notations

Frege’s Begriffsschrift (concept writing) - 1879:

assert P not P if P then Q for every x, P(x) P P Q P

x

P(x)

3

Logic Notations

Frege’s Begriffsschrift (concept writing) - 1879:

“Every ball is red” x red(x) ball(x) red(x) ball(x)

“Some ball is red”

x

4

Logic Notations

Algebraic notation - Peirce, 1883:

Universal quantifier: ΠxPx Existential quantifier: ∑xPx

5

Logic Notations

Algebraic notation - Peirce, 1883:

“Every ball is red”: ∏x(ballx —< redx) “Some ball is red”: ∑x(ballx • redx)

6

Logic Notations

Peano’s and later notation:

“Every ball is red”: (∀x)(ball(x) ⊃ red(x)) “Some ball is red”: (∃x)(ball(x) ∧ red(x))

7

Logic Notations

Existential graphs - Peirce, 1897:

Existential quantifier: a link structure of bars, called line of identity, represents ∃ Conjunction: the juxtaposition of two graphs represents ∧ Negation: an oval enclosure represents ~

8

Logic Notations

“If a farmer owns a donkey, then he beats it”:

farmer

owns beats

donkey

9

Logic Notations

EG’s rules of inferences:

Erasure: in a positive context, any graph may be erased. Iteration: a copy of a graph may be written in the same context or any nested context.

Insertion: in a negative context, any graph may be inserted.

Deiteration: any graph may be erased if a copy of its occurs in the same context or a containing context. Double negation: two negations with nothing between them may be erased or inserted.

10

Existential Graphs

Prove: ((p ⇒ r) ∧ (q ⇒ s)) ⇒ ((p q) ⇒ (r s)) is valid

11

Existential Graphs

Prove: ((p ⇒ r) ∧ (q ⇒ s)) ⇒ ((p q) ⇒ (r s)) is valid

p r

q s

p q

r s

12

Prove: ((p ⇒ r) ∧ (q ⇒ s)) ⇒ ((p q) ⇒ (r s))

Erasure: in a positive context, any graph may be erased. Insertion: in a negative context, any graph may be inserted.

Existential Graphs

Iteration: a copy of a graph may be written in the same context or any nested context. Deiteration: Deiteration: any graph may be erased if a copy of its occurs in the same context or a containing context.

Double negation: two negations with nothing between them may be erased or inserted.

13

Prove: ((p ⇒ r) ∧ (q ⇒ s)) ⇒ ((p q) ⇒ (r s))

Erasure: in a positive context, any graph may be erased. Insertion: in a negative context, any graph may be inserted.

Existential Graphs

Iteration: a copy of a graph may be written in the same context or any nested context. Deiteration: Deiteration: any graph may be erased if a copy of its occurs in the same context or a containing context.

p r

q s

Double negation: two negations with nothing between them may be erased or inserted.

14

Prove: ((p ⇒ r) ∧ (q ⇒ s)) ⇒ ((p q) ⇒ (r s))

Erasure: in a positive context, any graph may be erased. Insertion: in a negative context, any graph may be inserted.

Existential Graphs

p r

q s

Iteration: a copy of a graph may be written in the same context or any nested context. Deiteration: Deiteration: any graph may be erased if a copy of its occurs in the same context or a containing context.

p r p r

q s

Double negation: two negations with nothing between them may be erased or inserted.

15

Erasure: in a positive context, any graph may be erased. Insertion: in a negative context, any graph may be inserted.

Existential Graphs

p r p r q s

p r

q s p q r

16

Double negation: two negations with nothing between them may be erased or inserted.

Prove: ((p ⇒ r) ∧ (q ⇒ s)) ⇒ ((p q) ⇒ (r s))

Erasure: in a positive context, any graph may be erased.

Existential Graphs

p r q s p q r

Insertion: in a negative context, any graph may be inserted.

p r

q s

Double negation: two negations with nothing between them may be erased or inserted.

pq

r q s

17

Prove: ((p ⇒ r) ∧ (q ⇒ s)) ⇒ ((p q) ⇒ (r s))

Erasure: in a positive context, any graph may be erased.

Existential Graphs

Insertion: in a negative context, any graph may be inserted.

p r

q s

pq

r q s

p r

q s

Double negation: two negations with nothing between them may be erased or inserted.

p q

r s

18

Prove: ((p ⇒ r) ∧ (q ⇒ s)) ⇒ ((p q) ⇒ (r s))

p r q s p r p r p r q s p r p q r s pq r q s p q r

19

Existential Graphs

q s

q s

p r

q s

Existential Graphs

• • α-graphs: propositional logic β-graphs: first-order logic γ-graphs: high-order and modal logic

•

20

Semantic Nets

• Since the late 1950s dozens of different versions of semantic networks have been proposed, with various terminologies and notations. • The main ideas:

For representing knowledge in structures

The meaning of a concept comes from the ways it is connected to other concepts

**Labelled nodes representing concepts are connected by labelled arcs representing relations
**

21

Semantic Nets

Mammal isa Person uniform color has-part

Nose

instance Owen team Liverpool

Red

team(Owen, Liverpool)

person(Owen) ≡ instance(Owen, Person)

22

Semantic Nets

John height H1 value 1.80 greater-than Bill height H2

23

Semantic Nets

“John gives Mary a book”

Give John agent g instance object beneficiary Book instance b

give(John, Mary, book)

Mary

24

Frames

• A vague paradigm - to organize knowledge in highlevel structures • “A Framework for Representing Knowledge” - Minsky, 1974 • Knowledge is encoded in packets, called frames (single frames in a film) Frame name + slots

25

Frames

Alive Flies

Animals

T F

isa

Legs Flies

Birds

2 T

Mammals

Legs 4

isa Penguins

Flies F

Cats

Legs Flies

Bats

2 T

instance

Name Friend

Opus

Opus

Name Friend

Bill

Bill

Name

Pat

Pat 26

Frames

Hybrid systems:

Frame component: to define terminologies (predicates and terms) Predicate calculus component: to describe individual objects and rules

27

Conceptual Graphs

• Sowa, J.F. 1984. Conceptual Structures: Information Processing in Mind and Machine. • CG = a combination of Perice’s EGs and semantic networks.

28

Conceptual Graphs

• 1968: term paper to Marvin Minsky at Harvard. • 1970's: seriously working on CGs • 1976: first paper on CGs

• 1981-1982: meeting with Norman Foo, finding Peirce’s EGs • 1984: the book coming out • CG homepage: http://conceptualgraphs.org/

29

**Simple Conceptual Graphs
**

concept type (class) concept relation relation type

CAT: tuna

1

On

2

MAT: *

individual referent

generic referent

30

Ontology

• Ontology: the study of "being" or existence • An ontology = "A catalog of types of things that are assumed to exist in a domain of interest" (Sowa, 2000) • An ontology = "The arrangement of kinds of things into types and categories with a well-defined structure" (Passin 2004)

31

Ontology

top-level categories

domain-specific

32

Ontology

Aristotle's categories

Substance Property Inherence Directedness Being Accident Relation Containment

Quality

Quantity

Movement

Intermediacy

Spatial

Temporal

Activity

Passivity

Having

Situated

33

Ontology

Geographical categories

Area Block Terrain Country Wetland Mountain Dam Town Bridge Airstrip Heliport Geographical-Feature Point Line On-Land Road Border Railroad Power-Line River On-Water

34

Ontology

Relation

35

Ontology

Relation

36

Ontology

ANIMAL Eat FOOD

PERSON: john

Eat

CAKE: *

37

CG Projection

PERSON: john 1 Has-Relative 2 PERSON: *

PERSON: john

1

Has-Wife

2

WOMAN: mary

38

Nested Conceptual Graphs

Neg

CAT: tuna

On

MAT: *

¬

CAT: tuna On MAT: *

**It is not true that cat Tuna is on a mat.
**

39

**Nested Conceptual Graphs
**

¬

CAT: *

¬

CAT: * On MAT: *

coreference link

**Every cat is on a mat.
**

40

**Nested Conceptual Graphs
**

¬

Poss PERSON: julian Fly-To PLANET: mars

Past

**Julian could not fly to Mars.
**

41

**Nested Conceptual Graphs
**

¬

Poss PERSON: julian Fly-To PLANET: mars

Past

**Tom believes that Mary wants to marry a sailor.
**

42

Exercises

• Reading:

Sowa, J.F. 2000. Knowledge Representation: Logical, Philosophical, and Computational Foundations (Section 1.1: history of logic). Way, E.C. 1994. Conceptual Graphs – Past, Present, and Future. Procs. of ICCS'94.

43

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