~Cardiovascular System~

A) Consists of:
1) Heart: Acts as a pump to circulate the blood. B) Cardiovascular disease (CVD), primarily heart disease and stroke, is America’s leading killer for both men and women among all racial and ethnic groups.

Two Primary Functions –
A) Transportation: circulatory system transports: 1) Nutrients to cells. 2) Waste products to excretory organs. 3) Hormones and antibodies (white blood cells) throughout body. B) Maintenance of: 1) Body temperature. 2) Electrolyte balance.

Made Up of Two Main Organ Groups –
A) Primary: 1) Heart. 2) Blood vessels: arteries, veins, capillaries. 3) Blood. B) Supporting structures: 1) Spleen. 2) Lymphatic system.

The Heart –
1) Myocardium: term for the heart muscles.

2) Pericardium: protective sac around the heart. 3) Coronary arteries and veins: supply the blood to the myocardium. 4) Valves: separate atria from ventricles prevent blood from returning the atria: 1. Tricuspid valve: separates the atria from right ventricle. 2. Bicuspid valve (Mitral valve): separates left atria from left ventricle. 5) Semilunar valves: separates the ventricles from large arteries, which carry blood away from heart.

Four Types of Blood Circulation –
1) Coronary circulation: A) Circulation of blood through cardiac muscle tissue. 2) Pulmonary circulation: A) Circulation of blood through the lungs. 3) Hepatic circulation: A) Circulation of blood through liver. 4) Systemic circulation: A) Circulation of blood throughout tissues of body. • • Systole – occurs when the ventricles contract. Diastole – occurs when heart relaxes.

Three Kinds of Blood Vessels –
1) Arteries: A) B) C) D) Carry blood away from heart. Branch into smaller arteries called arterioles. Carry oxygen rich blood; exception is pulmonary artery. Largest artery in body is aorta.

2) Veins: A) Carry blood back to heart. B) Carry oxygen poor blood, exception is pulmonary vein. C) Largest veins in the body are: 1. Superior vena cava. 2. Inferior vena cava. 3) Capillaries: A) Oxygen and nutrients are exchanged for carbon dioxide and waste products through walls of capillaries.

Areas to Assess Pulse Include –
1) Femoral: thigh. 2) Pedal: top of foot.

The Five Primary Functions of Blood –
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Carries oxygen and nutrients to cells. Removed carbon dioxide and waste from cells. Maintains body temperature and electrolyte balance. Helps provide immunity through antibodies and clotting. Distributes hormones through body.

Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes) (RBCs) –
1) Contains hemoglobin that transports 02 to cells.

White Blood Cells (Leukocytes) (WBCs) –
1) Fights infection.

Platelets (Thrombocytes) –
1) Necessary for blood clotting.

Plasma –
1) Liquid portion of blood. 2) Contains nutrients, hormones, and waste products.

The Spleen –
1) Located in the upper quadrant of abdomen. 2) Filters bacteria and foreign substances from blood.

Lymphatic System –
1) Carries: A) Lymph: watery substance containing protein molecules.

Respiratory System –
1) Provides lungs for exchange of 02 and CO2 with RBCs.

Reproductive System –
1) Increase in blood volume to penis maintains an erection. 2) Estrogen maintains vascular health in women.

Disease and Disorders –
1) Aneurysm: A) Weakness in wall of blood vessel causing it to “balloon”. 2) Angina Pectoris: A) Episodes of constricting chest pain. B) Caused by insufficient oxygen to heart muscle. 3) Arteriosclerosis:

A) Thickening and hardening of walls of an artery. 4) Antherosclerosis: A) Form of arteriosclerosis. 5) Congenital Heart Disease: A) Congenital heart defects happen because of incomplete or abnormal development of fetus’ heart during early weeks of pregnancy. 6) Congestive Heart Failure: A) Condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood throughout the body. 7) Hyperextension (High blood pressure): A) Reading of 140/90 or higher. B) In untreated, can lead to stroke, heart attack, and kidney failure. 8) Myocardial Infarction: A) Heart attack. 9) Thrombophlebitis: A) Inflammation in a vein. B) Usually in a leg. C) Caused by a blood clot. 10) Varicose Vein: A) Developed when valves in veins, that allow blood to flow toward heart, stop working properly.