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Towards a Postmodern Theory of The Hipster and Hipster Style
By Alexa Gould-Kavet – FdA Fashion Styling & Photography – Cultural Studies
(written in Helvetica, for obvious reasons)
To speak of our world as post-modern means, in a consumer context, to see there is increasing choice and access to commodities to represent both our individual taste and our social status. The hipster—not referring to a style of trousers, but rather a contemporary youth culture— has come, I will argue, to exhibit these aspects of post-modernity, and has shown the breakdown of subculture itself. It is no longer appropriate to label the Hipster a subculture, for various reasons to ensue. However, we can discuss it as a meta-subculture: a subculture that constantly appropriates and values obscure, eclectic elements from all kinds of subcultures as well as out of sync mainstream objects that are then fetishized and elevated by the hipster taste. To be hipster is to curate one’s tastes to speak a language that communicates irony to other hipsters and confusion to the outer, mainstream world—thus causing dismissal, disapproval and criticism from those outside. However, this does not explain why hipsters themselves hate the word “hipster”, which has more to do with the paradoxical nature of the hipster identity. The hipster, ideally, feels their tastes to be un-self consciously unique, expressions of their true self, which goes against the mainstream. However, because this image can and has been repackaged and marketed back to the hipster demographic as well as those perhaps aspiring to a unique and niche identity by mainstream fashion, the signifiers of ‘hipsterdom’ quickly lose their potency and very quickly they are no longer marginal, due to their visibility and as their presence as a spectacle (as hipster dress is arguably costume –like). At the moment the hipster is labeled as such, their authenticity is lost. Through their identifiable fashion, hipsters arose as an identifiable subculture, but are now defunct by the very fact they are recognizable—a particularly post-modern trope. Within the discourse of fashion as a cultural identity, subcultures in western society seem to be dissolving into a major youth subculture; and it is pertinent to investigate why today, a new subculture is based not on the actual culture but the
it seems both are now labeled hipsters by the mainstream. including their marking of difference through fashion. therefore it is fundamentally important to look at 3 . in so far as a subculture is resistant to the mainstream culture. This is only beginning to be considered in academic research. The first camp have written their defenses. the most “indie. here begins an inquiry into the failure of hipster to become a subculture. but the scathing critiques subsume one into the other. The latter seem fairly oblivious to the whole discussion. Countless Youtube videos. Chris Barker states that “Subcultures do not exist as authentic objects but have been brought into being by subculture theorists” (Barker. on a competition to be the most obscure.” and the most anti-mainstream. where only ironic play in the form of a graphic t-shirt serves as their self-commentary. but it is already a well-documented topic in popular media. It is important to differentiate between young artists and those from wealthier youth demographics that imitate their dress. Perhaps the latter gave the former the unfavorable reputation. and positing hipsterdom as a product of postmodern tropes in expressing individual difference. in both the United Kingdom and United States. news articles and blog posts lament the cultural black hole of the hipster.notion of taste itself. in hidden corners of indie and academic websites. 2000: 322). Taking a further informed. it is necessary to situate their cultural grouping within the larger topic of Subcultural style and its theoretical discourse. cultural studies approach would aid an understanding of more substance than merely pointing out the ‘scene kids’ are obnoxious to those outside their clique. it would seem. Through tracing the disparity between subcultural modes of style (as defined by cultural theories) and hipster style. In the chapter Youth. Style and Resistance. and perhaps beyond. MarkingSubculturalStyleout of the PostmodernEra Insofar as the discussion of the hipster is a cultural study.
cultural prescriptions for society. or grand narratives: philosophies of history. importantly here. which make ethical political. and. thus regulating what is considered truth and a hegemonic structure of society (Lyotard. static theory on a subculture problematic. theory overlooks the “dynamic quality” of subcultural styles. “discussed as though they were immutably fixed phenomena” (Muggleton. To be as precise as possible. It is arguable that all subcultures resist this hegemony in differing ways. If subcultures are born from resisting the mainstream. This ability to change and take on new meanings makes any determining. here. as all too often. 2000: 64). through which the theorist Jean Francois Lyotard has called metanarratives. There is not universally accepted “intellectual propositions” about the human subject. 2000: 321). which developed into a consumption of goods within a capitalist framework to exhibit modes of this individual identity. 2000: 50-51). 10). we can speak of the world as in a postmodern era insofar as proposing that there is a “cultural logic (Frederick Jameson’s term)” to our historical moment. 1984). Indeed. The grand narrative of Modernism presents the bourgeois notion of valuing the presentation of one’s unique identity and selfexpression. becomes a “subculture. However.the usage and the construction of the term as classificatory (Barker.” if this theoretical construction of culture is assumed. let us set out with the understanding that “it’s not the world that is postmodern. it is the perspective from which that world is seen that is postmodern”(Bertens. thus forging new and continuing inquiry into subcultures in the postmodern context (Muggleton. which enables an “interpretation of postmodernism as the 4 . language. or truth and meaning. youth itself “is a discursive construct” (Barker. let us first examine the postmodern understanding of the birth of the mainstream (in which understanding the mainstream can only exist relatively. The mainstream is formed through processes of legitimization. 2000:322). Equally significant is the recognition that they are not fixed. Any alternative lifestyle. then. in that it requires an opposite. an alternative).
by which I mean subcultures of the latter half of the 20 th century (often referred to in fashion theory discourse as the ‘postwar period’). In his article ‘Dressed in History: Retro Styles and the Construction of Authenticity in Youth Culture. Authenticityand the SubversiveIndividual/ Collective In the realm of privileging marginal status. 99). The fact that a subculture is resisting bourgeois culture through a “popular” aesthetic signifies an anti-modernist. thus situating the 20th century Subcultural movements (such as beatnik or punk) within the postmodern discourse (Bertens.”(Bertens. it is “others who dress up. 2004). In The Idea of the Postmodern. In recent subcultures. and increasing self-reflexivity as deconstructionalist theory (Foucault. ‘we’ just are” (my italics). commodification. Navigating the tension between the individual and the collective identity.’ Heike Jenß states that “the authenticity of appearance is immediately linked with the self. 1995: 100). Fashion and Performativity. however. in rock (music) culture. 1995: 10). in both the public and private spheres. and the body becomes the site of identity and authenticity” (Jenß. seems to have brought to the forefront the notion of authenticity as a construct. Hans Bertens argues that effective subcultures that resist hegemonic culture have two key characteristics in play: they hold a “marginal status” as well as being “popular” (as opposed to elitist) (Bertens. Derrida. there is evidence to support the theory that postmodernist themes play a central role to how subcultures have operated.superstructure of the current socio-economic order” due to “the ever-increasing penetration of capitalism into our day-to-day existence […]. a key aspect of Subcultural identity is authenticity. and so forth) encourages awareness of these structures and resistance to hegemonic power. As Noel McLaughin discusses in Rock. This translates into the explosion of consumer choice. 1995. deconstructionalist aim. The ‘self’ versus the ‘other’ in 5 .
1986). These self-proclaimed authentic individuals are still within the confines of the previously mentioned Modernist construction.” However. then. those who ideally dress as self-expression. Thus. What unites subcultures is. means there is an economy of lingustic and symbolic value that informs identity (Bourdieu. 61). CulturalCapital: Styleas Code Pierre Bourdieu pioneered the term “cultural capital” which is particularly useful to the discussion of sartorial expression in subculture. their aim of non-conformity to the mainstream. have been seen to use fashion as a language to symbolically express alternatives to the mainstream. paradoxically. in a “cultural” framework. as opposed to those who consciously dress to follow a culture or subculture. where selfexpression is viewed as possible aculturally. 60).subcultural style is the authentic against the inauthentic. depending on their “subjective conception” of what it means to be a particular Subcultural identity. not as a product of culture but as the creative agency of the individual. the conflict here is resolvable. Literally. as individuals. Bourdieu iterates that capital beyond an economic context. David Muggleton explores the extent to which youth align themselves with a movement and the degree to which they self-label—“the prime reason for the dislike of labeling [being] restriction. thus social or cultural capital. particular apparel and 6 . when “subculturalists are attempting to re-characterize their social group as one of ‘anti-structure’” (Muggleton. subcultural style uses particular modes of dress. an subcultural identity is problematic to varying degrees. In Inside Subculture: The Postmodern Meaning of Style. therefore. This requires a very diverse definition that also includes “collective aspects” (Muggleton. Subcultures of the latter half of the 20th century. we can conceive of the choices made of fashioning the dress on the body as a kind of value that then translates to power as social means: the “capital” being one’s representations of taste.
1998. These subcultures were problematized in the 1990’s when the nostalgia for a prominent western youth subculture turned into the commodification of these “idealized” subcultures. 2000). From the new teenage consumer came a diversity of subcultures with strongly identifiable fashion statements. the safety pin. 2000: 321). attempting an alternative to “the perceived boredom of everyday life. as body jewelry or clothing adornment (Kratz & Reimer. the ‘youth’ market grew out of “a commodification of youth…forged on the back of the surplus cash which working class youth was thought to have at its disposal” (Barker.” as the example of the punk’s use of bricolage (giving familiar symbols new meanings through contextual strategies) to express the individual’s impetus to counter the mainstream and subvert it. there are several post-war (World War II) subcultures that exemplify alternatives to the mainstream that (albeit somewhat conflictingly) resisted capitalist consumerism: beatniks in the 50’s and 60’s. Cultural groups are always in a competition over cultural capital in attempting to legitimize a particular style as the most valuable in terms of “cool” (Muggleton. such as wearing an every day household object. is a formal demarcation of the moment of realizing 7 . In terms of economic capital. 2004). 2000) was. 2000: 64). such as tattoos and piercings) to communicate specific codes of Bourdieuian cultural capital. and punks in the ‘80’s (Muggleton. This ‘consuming teenager’ (Barker. Cultural capital means that dress is always “context specific. The postmodern. However. This paradox seems to have carried into youth subcultures across the postwar period. hippies in the 60’s. it is no more authentic than any other self consciously created identity” (Jenß. in the 1950’s. “Since authenticity is a cultural construction. then. paradoxically.” yet participating in it through the mundane practice of consumerism. This has resulted into a purchased lifestyle through fashion and other goods—and the construct of authenticity has been once again brought into question. 199).accessories (including adornment of the body. such as the Mods in the 1960’s.
the line between mainstream and non-mainstream is increasingly blurred. as I will argue. and the increasing “inter-textuality” requires more and more cultural literacy. collage. The hipster. but due to the 8 . 2000:322). as technology increases visibility in a global scale. symbols.the presence of the Modernist structure and. 64). To be as precise as possible as to whom I am referring. is the manifestation of this play in an age where obscurity becomes more valuable as the darker corners of culture are revealed through the technology of the digital and internet age. Hence. yet it has intergenerational participants. the idea of an inauthentic mass produced mainstream or dominant culture” (Barker. 1998). But “subcultural tastes remain exclusive only for so long as they are unknown or inaccessible to the majority” (Muggleton. It is thought of as a youth culture. Being able to appropriate and reinterpret mass culture to create new meanings is a particular characteristic of the post-modern era subcultures. particularly any past “niche” cultural objects. With this knowledge comes the ability to play with signs. and modes of discourse that satirize. The Impossibilityof Hipsterto EmergeAs A SubculturalIdentity In terms of the word ‘subculture. However. and signifiers and their meanings. “Fashion is less of a language than a limited set of prefabricated codes” (Miles. living. and re-appropriate modes of culture past and present. producing higher and higher standards of being able to interpret and understand the complex languages of dress. This phenomenon occurs mainly in the dominant western societies in Europe and North America. in its contemporary form.’ “the ‘sub’ has connoted notions of distinctiveness and difference from the dominant or mainstream society. therefore. Here. “hipsters” appear to have waves from different generations. the “hipster” is a person who adopts a certain style of dress. the notion of an authentic subculture depends on its binary opposite. alternatives to it. and this is where we see the dissolution of contemporary cool.
a uniquely “hipster” trope that could only emerge in the postmodern environment. blogged. turned into a trend.” a new cultural formation under postmodernity.” Here we see “a glut of revivals. However. What I am calling the hipster has been discussed by Muggleton in Inside Subculture as “the post-subculturalist. obscurity and references that become ironic appropriation. other grand narrative historical moments. The hipster is. the hipster aesthetic can be found worldwide (the knowledge of understanding the meaning of this term is debatable. with a wink. There is decreasing ability to mark “difference” by engaging in the play of symbols. the themes in hipster fashion have thus developed as any form of eclecticism. Clayton concurs that “the rise of the hipster is intrinsically linked to widespread internet use and the dwindling time in which a fashion moves from an expression of individual style to something photographed. the cultural manifestation of the tension of irony and authenticity at play. and is worthy of a larger academic investigation itself). in effect.. the problem is that the mainstream now does accept this mode of spectacle. al. as we can see in the popularity of artists such as Lady Gaga (her name itself a pop culture reference). Therefore. an (arguably hipster) literary journal. 2000: 47). and sold” (Greif. one can take pleasure in referencing. The lack of any new subculture thus produces nostalgia for all subcultures of the past. marketed. This theory is supported in an essay by Jace Clayton for the book “What Was The Hipster?” published by n+1. reported on. 2010: 27).increasing mobility and dispersing of media through the internet.” but even this mode of resistance has been commodified and found its way into the mainstream. The hipsters have taken up the project of attempting to create difference through a kitsch pastiche of past “difference.” “Subcultural fragmentation and proliferation” and overall “Style Surfing” (Muggleton. as if the only 9 . His post-subculturalist “revel in the availability of Subcultural choice” and “no longer have any sense of Subcultural ‘authenticity’[…] which is tied to underlying structural relations. Because the postmodern era lacks a ‘grand narrative’. et.
1984. Frederick Jameson describes this as “modernist styles…[becoming] postmodernist codes” (Jameson. and the intersectionality of these terms. especially fluidity within categories. which is increasingly chronicled by annoyed hipsters with supposed less economic privelege. Hipsters seem to include and accept racial difference and queer identities. 65). hipsters are most problematic. race and class. Female hipsters can operate similarly through modes of androgynous style. Male hipsters. and there is a distinctive privileging of a malnourished looking body that is akin to fashion’s obsession with the ultra thin. The failure of the hipster as subculture also includes a discussion of access in terms of gender. or faux artistes pretending to be scruffy and yet having loads of money from their parents” (Hujic. “Skinny jeans” themselves imply the wearer should convey a waifish appeal.space for innovation is in reinterpretation and intertexuality. there fails to be a foundational authenticity that creates a significant social movement. and by nature of presenting themselves through fashion to the “gaze” can be viewed as challenging assumptions about sexuality and gender. middle class youth fakes disenfranchisement. appropriating working class symbols to gain cultural capital as ‘authentic’ and express difference from their peers and/or parents. However. To resist consumerism and commodification is proving harder than just avoiding mainstream retail and goods such as Primark or Starbucks. At the height of inauthenticity. The hipster’s emphasis on ‘resistance’ through consumerist choice (choosing fair trade coffee or vintage clothing over mainstream brands) fails to create a significant statement of change or rebuttal to 10 . use of color. As the hipster has no major agenda except resisting the identity of normative consumers. as well as the site of the body. In terms of class. An example follows from Lida Hujic for the Guardian: “The Shoreditch Twat distinguished between the genuine creatives who were drawn to the area in search of similarly minded people and the fakes . 2006).opportunists who wanted to cash in on this creative hub. through wearing skinny jeans.
In an interview with the Boston Pheonix. hipster fashion trickling up and trickling down (a term used by Elizabeth Wilson among many fashion theorists to denote mobility) is important to mention here.com (a lifestyle guide for the trendy Brooklyn borough). Those who were originally “hipster” now have their look ‘ripped off’ and their sartorial signifiers are seen everywhere from tourists in SoHo (as fashion trickles down) to Bryant Park at New York Fashion Week (as fashion trickles up). The youth that once identified each other through dress now cannot rely on this method of self or group identification. As clearly a much larger discussion that deserves its own in-depth inquiry. as markers of distinction” (Jenß.capitalism. the grunge/trash/dada/ironic look is further diluted and the power to represent a cultural identity of an alternative. anti-consumerist. the ‘nerd’ look suggests someone following trends. the second-hand look that once implied a lifestyle and a cultural capital is now reduced to a sartorial statement. new commodities. as these consumers have the capital to purchase much more expensive. Either way. A young person wearing a tweed jacket and black framed glasses would suggest an intellectual in the past. editor of FREEwilliamsburg. 2004). and actual intellectuals’ dress comes into question.1 and 2. As a marker of taste. Robert Lanham. Hipster fashion is copied and repackaged by both high street and couture designers (figure 2.2). 11 . 2003). the hipster seems to claim a counterculture presence. because it now lacks authenticity. for mainstream and elite markets. but stripped of any grand narrative and a recently appropriated by luxury designers and high street chains. The contemporary liberal youth is thus significantly complacent and yet. “Today’s original vintage clothes function like designer labels. respectively. remarked that “the surplus of fancy schools in Boston leaves the thrift shops barren since upper-class hipsters rush to buy clothing to give themselves the bohemian look” (Mahoney. counterculture is negated. an example of the trickle up effect.
to a collective absurd effect. commercial and individual. because the mimicry lacks their ironic subversion of low culture and mainstream style and instead becomes a commodified. The youth who wear hipster styles but lack the informed play of their dress is where we find the irritation of ‘authentic’ hipsters. scarves worn a particular ‘in’ way. sit on grimy floors. underworked dilettantes” (Mahoney. mainstream style. in the authority of the sign than in the element it represents…one’s identity is defined in terms of the image that one creates through one’s consumption of goods. and so forth. The cultural studies theorist Llewellyn Negrin confirms that “the modern individual is fashioned. tattoos. 2008. “Even if youth styles are globally available via the media. 2003). As soon as it’s noted in the media. there seems to be a particular development of hipster fashion victims—the imitators or followers of hipster fashion.’ They wear 1970’s eyeglasses. disgusted by an empty mimicry of their style.” seem to be victim to subscribing to multiple trends identifiable to the hipster lifestyle and aesthetic for the sake of attempting to be ‘cool.) The double irony of the hipster is that a person intending to create irony through wearing purposefully “unfashionable clothing” ( for example. an academic’s garb) is that in today’s age of technology. it’s already uncool—thus the rule that uncool is the new cool is 12 . including the clothes one wears” (Negrin. 2004).The Hipster:An EasyTargetfor CulturalParody Just as there are “fashion victims” in the mainstream. This is where the mainstream and alternative media both take swings at “today's overeducated. and is more interested. wearing the appropriate headphones. 46. crucial to active identity formation” (Jenß. the irony of whatever they deem ‘fashionably unfashionable’ will so quickly be appropriated by ‘cool seekers’ in the mainstream. to perform a style convincingly is part of a more complex process of involvement and engagement. The youth chronicled (both elevated and parodied) in blogs such as “Look At That Fucking Hipster.
and here we find their irritating quality and an easily parodied selfseriousness. 2004). In two very recent television series. which satirizes the many ways in which youth uses and abuses fashion and lifestyle to create cultural capital and articulates the irritation this causes (hence. Oregon. This makes hipsters an easy target for the media. USA and London. the ‘dickhead’ label). “at a time of individualization and an idealization of singularity (Eberlein 2000). At it’s worst. music. There are countless youtube videos parodying the hipster and marking its existence. and so on. United Kingdom. figure 3.already a failure of contemporary attempts at subcultural style. the hipster is presented with absurd hyperbole in their ‘habitat.2). respectively).” As Jenß argues further. which points out the contradictions in the hipster cultural identity. Cross-culturally today in the western world. the fact that these young people are buying in as much as anybody else. though it seems some are under delusions otherwise. The hipster is not outside of this aspect of western identity. A glimpse into self-parody can be seen on websites such as the nowdefunct www. the world of commodities provides key tools for identity construction. redefined post modern world.shoreditchtwat. social communication and navigating the self within groups and communities” (Jenß. more authentic hipster to his new-wave hipster market (figure 3. Nathan Barley in particular plays on the relationship of an aging. art. it marks the failure of the established subculture structure in a sped-up. we work on producing it.’ where the locale is key to their identity (Portland. We see this parody of the hipster in media such as television and online videos—just two examples within media including film. it seems that “instead of finding an authentic self. Portlandia and Nathan Barley. where the individual is forced to localize itself. the height of this culminating in a much-viewed video titled “Being A Dickhead’s Cool” (still from moving image. rather.1). hipsterdom “marks the end of western civilization” (from an article from AdBusters) I would posit the idea that.com where the painfully self aware hipster club 13 .
1998). Nothing could so perfectly encapsulate the hipster’s attempt to rise above mainstream critique and visibility. To be nauseated by this word “hipster”. and play of genre—has come to symbolize an elitist pretentiousness. as it seems many are. articulated the publication’s possession of cultural capital in an interview with The Independent: "If anything. hipster’s self parody can be seen through underground publications such as ‘Sleazenation’ (1996-2003). Once this became overly visible. in line with the overtly self-aware and self-analyzing modality of an ideal intellectual lifestyle of the hipster. The hipster ensemble—outfits that present a spectacle of ironic references. those wanting to gain the cultural capital through wearing the outer signifiers of what encapsulated the contemporary bohemian lifestyle easily reproduced it through a frenzy of consumption. niche interests. where cover blurbs sneered. Finally. A later editor. we can acknowledge this essay itself as in accord with hipster tastes and. clearly with no cause” were poised to be the main site of ridicule and critique in the media. but you have to know how to be stylish to be unstylish. Conclusion:WhereCanAuthenticityRemain? Once hipster style was a pronounced style. Steve Beale. One of the greatest assets of the members of our team is the way they can analyze popular psychology and culture” (Rodger. In an effort to reclaim coolness in the midst of the mainstream media’s critique. is to experience nausea at the hand of both rampant consumerism as well as postmodern labeling and critique ad finitum.promoter Neil Boorman advertised to those in the know of the East London scene. and clear that there was a movement of downward mobility. these “barely rebels. and herein lies the group’s fatal error as a youth counterculture. we are an anti-style magazine. Vintage and retro clothing can no longer function as the original bohemian 14 . “Now even more superficial/Over 100 pages of hype & lies" and "Absolute sell out" (2001).
Stella & Gibson. Hans. who now literally buys into the lifestyle of ‘indie’ vinyl records. “we just have to understand how it is invested with meanings in the different social and cultural contexts” (Jenß. The Fashion System. “our culture of global mass media feeds us so much information that a massive cultural eclecticism is the only possible response” (Wilson 1992: 6). Berkeley. 241-258. Pierre. this style of dress now “reads” as a signifier of snobbery and elitism. 99-101. the antithesis of the mainstream-resistant ethos of subcultures. ed.” We cannot rid ourselves entirely of the question of authenticity. and the cultural crisis resulting reaches an apex in the cultural phenomenon of the hipster. The Forms of Capital. Roland.message. 1995 (first edition). Bourdieu. Calif. 2006. As Elizabeth Wilson notes. But this group becomes self defeating when “anti-mainstream” is touted through alternative commodities. 2000. in attempting to be anti-mainstream. 15 . seeking authenticity can only result in inauthenticity. 2004). Routledge: London.: University of California Press. thus still requiring the consumer. J.) Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education (New York. and 1930’s briefcases. is anti-consumerist.] ed. The original intent of the contemporary hipster. However. worn sneakers. [Nachdr. Ultimately. Bertens. Bruzzi. 1986. Fashion Cultures: Theories. it seems the hipster aesthetic is a natural collective cultural response to globalization. (ed. Pamela. In: Richardson. Symbolically. Bibliography AcademicSecondarySources: Barthes. by definition. G.a. 3-19. [u. The Idea of the Postmodern. Greenwood).
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bostonphoenix. ‘Why the hipster must die’.guardian.html > [Accessed 18 Feb 2011].co.org/magazine/79/hipster. Jennfer. ‘Sleaze hits the high street’.uk/life-style/sleaze-hits-the-highstreet-1147171.timeout.com/boston/news_features/this_just_in/docum ents/02753365.php> [Accessed 20 Feb 2011]. ‘Hipster: The Dead End of Western Civilization’. Donald.uk/lifeandstyle/2006/mar/31/fashion [Accessed 1 Mar 2011].co. Available at < http://www. [online] Available at <http://laist. ‘Why Does Everyone Hate Hipsters Assholes?’ Laist. Available at <http://www.html> [Accessed 10 Mar 2011]. OnlineMedia: ‘Being a Dickhead’s Cool’ Youtube.independent. Hujic.com. Lorentzen. ‘Tragically Deck’. 2008. 2010. Douglas.com/watch?v=Xzocvh60xBU>[Accessed 13 Feb 2011].The Guardian [online] Available at http://www. 1998. Lida. Boston Pheonix: March 13 .htm> [Accessed 1 Mar 2011].PrimarySources: Haddow.html>[Accessed10Mar2011>]. Time Out New York. 2006. Christian. Mahoney.com/2008/02/20/why_does_everyo. ‘My name is Lida and I am a Hoxtonite ’. AdBusters [online] Issue #79. Rodger.uk/kn_inspcovers.com/things-to-do/this-week-innew-york/8355/why-the-hipster-must-die> [Accessed 18 Feb 2011]. Available at <http://www. 2007. The Independent [online] Available at <http://www.mhigham. Interview with Robert Lanham. 17 . <http://www.co. Uploaded Sept.20. 25.adbusters.youtube. Elise. 2003. [online] Available at <http://newyork. Thompson. ‘Sleazenation’ Magazine cover. October 2001.
Appendix. 2010. 02. <http://www. Uploaded Apr.1 18 .com/watch?v=6eKnSGn914M>[Accessed 13 Feb 2011].Images Figure 1.“Confessions of a Hipster” Youtube.youtube.
Figure 1.style.com) 19 .2 (both from Pigeons & Peacocks. 2008 (www.2 Tracy Reese. 2010) Figure 2.
Figure 2.1 H&M advertisement. 2009 (hotbeautyhealth.com) 20 .
1 Still from television series Nathan Barley.Figure 3. Channel 4 (2011) Figure 3.2 Still from “Being A Dickhead’s Cool” (Youtube) 21 .
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