BAHAGIAN PEMBANGUNAN KURIKULUM

KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA

2012

Pada akhir sesi ini, guru dapat:
• menerangkan HOTs dalam Sains,

• pendedahan awal tentang pelaksanaan HOTs dalam Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran (PdP)

Sesi taklimat ini mengandungi DUA komponen:
1) Penerangan & Perbincangan 2) Perbengkelan

Creativity & Innovation

Communication

Information Literacy

CRITICAL SKILLS

Collaboration

Problem Solving

Responsible Citizenship

Apakah LOTs dalam Sains? .

Resnick (1987) Lower-order thinking (LOT) is often characterized by the recall of information or the application of concepts or knowledge to familiar situations and contexts. .

It DOES NOT require the student to work outside the familiar” . or solve a familiar type of problem. perform a simple operation .Schmalz (1973) LOT tasks requires a student “… to recall a fact.

Thompson 2008 generally characterized LOT as solving tasks while working in familiar situations and contexts. . or. applying algorithms already familiar to the student.

explanation. & Thompson (1997) LOT is involved when students are solving justification. or proof required. Beckman.k n o w n a l g o r i t h m . often with NO . and where only a single correct answer is possible tasks where the solution requires applying a w e l l .Senk.

Apakah HOTs dalam Sains? .

non-algorithmic thinking to solve a task in which there is NOT a predictable. or a worked out example. well-rehearsed approach or pathway explicitly suggested by the task.” .Resnick (1987) characterized higher-order thinking (HOT) as “nonalgorithmic.” HOT Stein and Lane (1996) describe as “the use of complex. task instruction.

et al (1997) characterized HOT as solving tasks where no algorithm has been taught. and where more than one solution possible.Senk. where justification or explanation are required. . may be Thompson (2008) generally characterized HOT involves solving tasks where an algorithm has not been taught or using known algorithms while working in unfamiliar contexts or situations.

“Higher-order” questions promote learning because these types of questions require students to apply. analyze. and evaluate information instead of simply recalling facts. synthesize. .

produk atau cara baharu) Evaluating .explaining ideas or concepts (menerangkan idea atau konsep) Remembering .generating of new ideas. konsep dan teori kepada komponen) Applying . concepts and theories into component parts (mengenalpasti corak dan menggelas maklumat.using information in another familiar situation (menggunakan maklumat dalam satu situasi lain) Understanding .Creating .justifying a decision or action (mewajarkan keputusan atau tindakan) Analising – seeing patterns and classifying information. products or ways of viewing things (menjana idea.recalling information (mengingat kembali maklumat) .

• Secara amnya HOTs adalah dari aplikasi ke atas. mewajarkan. • Walau bagaimanapun LOTs dalam HP/SP seperti ‘menerangkan…’ juga boleh di capai melalui aktiviti HOTs Kata Kerja Proses . menaakul dalam HP/SP bermaksud ia memerlukan HOTs.• Penggunaan kata kerja seperti membuat inferens.

MENGAPA HOTs dalam SAINS? .

Stein & Lane 1996 .Menghasilkan modal insan yang cerdas. If we want students to develop the capacity to think. cognitively complex tasks. reason. kreatif dan inovatif bagi memenuhi cabaran abad ke-21 agar negara mampu bersaing di persada dunia. and problem solve then we need to start with high-level.

. • Penyiasatan saintifik memerlukan HOTs.• Berubah daripada amalan hafalan kepada pemahaman yang mendalam. • Meningkatkan tahap kesedaran dengan menganalisa. menyelesaikan masalah dan menilai serta mencipta • Belajar mewajarkan penyelesaian dan penemuan • Konsep sains boleh dipelajari dengan berkesan melalui HOTs.

Bagaimana meningkatkan penguasaan HOTs dalam kalangan murid dalam Sains? .

• berfikir • menyoal bagi mencungkil idea murid • Memotivasi murid • menekankan aktiviti hands-on • mengubah jenis tugasan • mentaksir untuk pembelajaran • berkomunikasi secara berkesan .

Memastikan setiap murid melibatkan diri secara aktif dalam PdP. Mengemukakan soalan membina.Menggalakkan pemikiran kritis. kreatif dan inovatif 1. Mempelbagaikan strategi. 4. memimpin. bertanya dan memberi pendapat. . Memberi peluang murid berbincang. 22 2. 3. terbuka serta menggalakkan penaakulan serta berfikir pada aras tinggi.

Inkuiri dalam Sains .

• Inkuiri berlaku apabila terdapat kaitan antara konsep sains dengan soalan yang murid kemukakan dan mereka mencari jawapan melalui penyiasatan.• Murid belajar konsep sains berdasarkan penemuan yang mereka sendiri peroleh. .

• Belajar dengan berkesan melalui aktiviti hands on dan berasaskan inkuiri. • Seronok menyelesaikan masalah yang bermakna • Memberi respon kepada soalan yang bermakna • Belajar lebih baik melalui galakan berbanding hukuman • Melihat dunia dari kaca mata mereka • Memahami idea berkembang secara berperingkat dan berurutan Murid: .

Murid teruja apabila diberikan masalah luar dari kebiasaan. ketidakpastian. persoalan atau dilema. Penyoalan HOTs KPS/KBSB Belajar secara hands-on menghasilkan kefahaman yang mendalam untuk membolehkan mereka mengaplikasikannya dalam situasi yang Inkuiri baru. .

Contoh Soalan TIMSS .

TIMSS is assessing student learning in particular topics. • What should the student know? ( what knowledge does this item allow a student to show? ) • What should the student be able to do? (What cognitive processes does this item require a student to demonstrate?) .

.

.

Soalan LOTs and HOTs .

Rajah di bawah menunjukkan 2 blok di dalam 1000 cm3 air dan jadual di bawah menunjukkan ketumpatan bahan X dan Y Jadual Rajah Bahan Isipadu (cm3) Jisim (g) Ketumpatan (g/cm3) Bongkah X Bongkah Y Air 8 8 1000 2 16 1000 0.25 2 1 .

4. Berikan satu inferens mengenai kedudukan bongkah X di dalam air. LOTS LOTS LOTS HOTS 5. Ramalkan keadaan bongkah Z di dalam air jika ketumpatan Z ialah 0. Apakah ketumpatan bongkah Y? 3. HOTS . Perihalkan keadaan bongkah X dan Y di dalam air.8g/cm3.1. Apakah ketumpatan bongkah X? 2.

Ramalkan keadaan bongkah Z di dalam air jika ketumpatan Z ialah 0. Apakah ketumpatan bongkah X? 0. Ketumpatan X kurang tumpat daripada air HOTS 5.1. Berikan satu inferens mengenai kedudukan bongkah X di dalam air.8g/cm3. Bongkah X timbul manakala bongkah Y tenggelam LOTS 4. Perihalkan keadaan bongkah X dan Y di dalam air. Apakah ketumpatan bongkah Y? 2 (g/cm3) LOTS LOTS 3. Bongkah Z akan berada di tengah antara bongkah X dan bongkah Y HOTS .25 (g/cm3) 2.

. HOTs SOALAN LOTs SOALAN HOTs • • Tidak memerlukan murid untuk menggunakan kemahiran berfikir pada aras tinggi. Berupaya membentuk murid yang kreatif dan inovatif Memerlukan masa yang mencukupi untuk diselesaikan.SOALAN LOTs VS. Jawapan dan prosedur yang perlu digunakan tidak serta merta jelas. Meningkatkan kemahiran menaakul. Menggalakkan perbincangan dalam kumpulan dalan mendapatkan penyelesaian. • • • • • • • • Memerlukan tahap pemikiran pada aras tinggi. Terdapat lebih daripada satu jawapan. Menggalakkan lebih daripada satu cara penyelesaian dan strategi. Operasi yang perlu digunakan adalah jelas.

Apakah tahap soalan ini? .

In living things. large and complex molecules are broken down into small and simple molecules. What is this process called? A B C D Excretion Absorption Digestion Circulation Domain: Knowing .#1.

#2. Domain: Knowing . Explain how soil is formed.

. Explain how soil is formed.#2.

that travel through the object that are absorbed by the object that are reflected by the object that travel around the object Domain: Applying . The colour of an object such as an apple is the same as the colour of the light waves A. C. B.#3. D.

One of his friends caught influenza but the other did not. He played a game with two friends. What could have been the reason why one of his friends did NOT catch influenza? Domain: Applying . Keith had influenza.#4.

.

In the table below.Sarah fell off her bicycle and spilled the bag of salt she was carrying. describe the steps used by Sarah to separate the salt from the mixture of salt. sand and leaves. Step Description of step Reasons for carrying out the step 1 2 3 4 Domain: Reasoning . State a reason for doing each step. The first step has been done for you. She collected the salt off the ground together with the sand and tree leaves and put the mixture in a plastic bag.

.

Contoh Soalan PISA .

.

............ ....................................................... .................................................. ....Give one reason why it is recommended that young children and old people.......... .................. should be vaccinated against influenza (flu)........................................................................ in particular................................................... ....................

Also. Scoring Comment: The reason(s) given must refer to young or old people in particular – not to everyone in general. • They need help to fight the flu. • Old people get sick more easily. that these people have weaker immune systems than other people– not just that they are generally “weaker”. • These people have less resistance to getting sick. the response must indicate. No Credit Code 0: Other responses. • The young and old can’t fight off disease as easily as others. • If they get the flu the effects are worse in these people. directly or indirectly. • They are weaker.Full Credit Code 1: Responses referring to young and/or old people having weaker immune systems than other people. or similar. • They are more likely to catch the flu. . • So they don’t get the flu. • Because organisms of young children and older people are weaker.

Sediakan soalan HOTs rangsangan yang diberikan. . Bentangkan.

2.1. Adakan taklimat dalaman di sekolah masing-masing kepada semua guru Sains dan Matematik. Soalan dan skema pemarkahan Gerak Gempur akan disediakan secara berpusat dan pelaporan disediakan. Semua guru Sains & Matematik menggunakan soalan HOTS dalam pdp. . 4. Gunakan aturcara dan tempoh masa taklimat seperti yang diterima. 5. 3. Guru Sains dan Matematik Tingkatan 1 perlu mula menyediakan murid untuk Gerak Gempur HOTsSM pada Jun dan Oktober 2013 dan 2014 untuk persediaan murid ke TIMSS 2014 dan PISA 2015.

Terima Kasih .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful