A Discourse concerning the Methods of Approximation in the Extraction of Surd Roots. By John Wallis, S. T. D.

and Savilian Professor of Geometry at Oxford Author(s): John Wallis Source: Philosophical Transactions (1683-1775), Vol. 19 (1695 - 1697), pp. 2-11 Published by: The Royal Society Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/102270 . Accessed: 28/03/2013 18:50
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Of whichNve a1^1 fpeakmore-anon. Decimal Fradtions ( as they are nowwont to becalled) hate come intoPraAice. 28 Mar 2013 18:50:39 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Ctibe.eFc. as) neg!eAed Not thatif fuchApproaches by Decimals werealwa)rs the mo fpeedy. whereby the former Methods of Appro3ches hive been ( not fo muchforgotten. and hvilxanProX fe§or of Geornetry atOxford. wemuR corltene our felves with Approximations (Comewhat nqar tlletruth) whoueprerend* ^ lNg tO ACCtlraCy.or-FraAed.Newton's Method of Approximatlon fortheExtrs8ting Roots. X Dircoxrfe soncetning theh etbodw of Xp proximJtion in tbeExtraSioas of S8rd Roots. Butfince the Meehods of . (and.An(3 theretore. demonllrated by the thereotexplicable byRational Nunlberss Integers. but a moreAccurate defignation of the Square Root of 's.it hth been nfaaleo pmfecute fiuch lZxtraAions-(beyonal the placew of Unites) in the places of DecinlalP^rts to wvhat. H E fev-eral*N4ethads bf A<pproximationv whichhare been mentsoned of latcYearssffor Exera*ingthe Rootsof Sinxple or AffeEtes3-Etuations. not onlya more BrieE.I tflink. S.and more Intelligible Notation of that Quantity.105. or the moRexa&.Sccu racywepleaS. AndthelikeforSuperiour Po.of whaeis not a perfe9c Now tbevAncients ( beingawareof this ) had theirMethods of Approximation in fucllcaKes w whereoffiom have bednderiared downearen to thisday.w¢rs.evenof AffeEted Egnations. than0.44. in fuch caGes.( t ) I.l2<s.150 on Thu. for theCubick-Root. gives-llle occaflonof fayingfoniewhat *f thatSubieA. D. aremore convenientfor SubSeqtlentOperaX tsons.: u is in tainfor o hope forapft Q4adrxtick Rooe Ie is agreed hy a11.s butthat X is a more Simple. 7#. By JohnWallis. orTI^>oW * And.(for noMandoub. And So. I have givenfomeAccotant This content downloaded from 198. thano*33).) BURJ becauCe Fradtions redllced tO the Decimalform. Greeklongago) thatif a Nunlher profpoted benotua true Square.a3. Mr.whenthereis occafion for a further ProgreX.

whichI tleed tsothererepeat becauSe it iS tO be feenthere Sincewhichtinle.H411er. and by greater Lcaps. ( forMul vsplicaton. DiviJion. as is afrerward tobeCtlt off andttlrown awayasutelefs. and theAdvvntage of theotherMethods muchl¢Is confiderable.erallypradriSel ) theWork willbenuchab- This content downloaded from 198. than het.If raow we purfuethe wholeoperationto the As for inRance} if wewould Extra& theRootof an itn- bridged.105.That of DeL7agyuna Treatifiby it tUlf. -Method of Approximation. ) byraegleding Wo xnuch of tls Ivng Procefs. -Monfiewr DBL'vgty hathptlbliliacd his both publifl}t.(3 CoUhtof-in myDgS ) Algebra . perfe* SatSolid. Extrafticon ^f Rocats.Ougbtred's Expedient.In orderto this. wefare ao add (or fiuppote to be added ) fix PunEtations of Cypherss (er3 fix timesfiveCwsphees.in the INutsb. 28 Mar 2013 18:50:39 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . That is.olJr onYn. or EstraAing the PUOQt of a fingle Powerj An(l Mo.150 on Thu.AIart.. witha further Advantage. if zve EtlppotefuchExtradtions to be paurfised to thefullexcent.negledcing the followirg (which) pisibt- urmoR of thoSe Thirty places. I think. andfomewhat nzore fullg in theLattn Eelition : where 1 gireanhccollnt alfo of Mr.eSpccially as tO S.OgghtreS andMr. Rap* . is ge. (or a Power of fiveDimenfons) tQ hRz its Root trueas far as the hIxth placeof DecimalParts. (whicIJ. 2Io} for theMonth of Mat) X694.lbFr propa{ed. ButI need not repeat eitherof them becau(e theyare Thefie mayall. itImany ca(es. theWork would belongand redious. andby othersabroad. P^I/Dg. elnpecially asto Affcde(l Equations..HaGcl!hath finceimproved this Method.mp}X Equations. mr4^ifd2.*Mst Method. principally for fingleEquations. Eutif we make re of Mr.)6Mctlzed (pro fecuring theExtradrion in IDecil Parvs j purfued anditupro ved by A/lr. If (for aCcertaining thJ fixth placeof DecimX^tl Parts) we add fix Cyphers (inRea(lof tllirty) sLnd on: nr two nnore (the betterto fectlre what fronlthe conleqalent places nlayin theOperation betranrn3ittedhither.) na1p-y+ fiuw tlacOperation ehas far.Wt of c. and thatof . Mr. or anyof them) be cf goot3 uSe (eafih in their own way) formaking morefpdy Approache¢. thatis Th§rty Cyphers ) b) ondtheplaco of Uni esin tEse Ntu.44. and otheriiRe Vperations.

But (for av. in whishthe-Parodical Powers havegreat CoefficientsO As wil!foon appear in Pradice. fometime the orjegfonetinlethe orher . and well worthyencouragement) thatwhich I here intend is tO {hewthe truePoundation of theMe tho(lsuSed by theAncients. fkortned. WhichthoughAnciently fcarce applyed beyond theQuadratick. 28 Mar 2013 18:50:39 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .idingof Saco gative Numbers ) the latteris commonly dircEted. if we come to apply them to partscular cates.. I Gannor tell: For Esedoth nor deliverit as a new Inventionof llis own.tur De L'agny atXirms to be morertan zoo Years ole3:Anll it is to.105. for defigning the nearralueof E (the remaining partof theRont{oughe A + E _2 N) ) whofeDenominator or I)ivifor is to b: 2 A (r-0ne dotlbleRootof the fubtradked Sqt1are)or sA+ (tilat double Rootincreafed by X ) the truevalue fallil-g be tween theSe tWO.) And nt ) how mt3cholder than to. ( howeverfincenegle*ed ) and the jut} Improvement of them. (for wiih theHsgher Powers they did not much trouble thembelves) yet are equally applicable (by due ad uRments ) to the Superiour Powers alfo.ppofe fubtra<St -(in theutual manner ) the greateR Square in Irtegers therein convained ( SuppoSe Aq. for I find it iinL2c P4uiolzz . beingnearel} to tlle truevalue.Buts -witheut diSparaging thelE Methods( which arerealljr Sconfidelable. and derxved frortathe Maors or ArD* fromwhom thvy This content downloaded from 198.44.( ( 4 ) wich arenot llXely to influence the Pigpre due to thelGxth plactof Dectmal I3arts of theRoot fought:)thtslongPro Ik. but as a recAived PraAice. beforewe come to the prcEcribd Divifion for givingtheRoot defired. the Advantage (tholjgbconfiderable) will not be fogreae a may at firR be -app(ehended.) The remaitlder (fiuppoSe B= 2 AE + Eg ) is to be theNumerator of a Fradti-on. or perElaps theCllw biclk Root. Arldif we further confider.(otllerwite called Luca zleiUr:Q) &I' deBsrgQ S4rSi <Vepslshri) 3?rinted at Mesice In tht Yearx494( if notcYGn toOner thar? fo) for I findtl}Ore have been Severa] E1itions of it. 1 {hall begitiwith the Square Root: Forwhich the Anclent Methodis to thispurpofe. TllisMethod Mon(.will ba mtlch. . From the propoRed Non-quadrate ( El. whatPreparatire Operations are to be! madeintlomeof thofeother Methods. efipecially asto Aies9ced Equa rions.150 on Thu.

for being forEs ( theDivifior betoogreat xf ( to reEtifie E. . . blur than I. gives : But divided liitle forE.w-6 by 2 ^$-4.) BLge theQuotient be 2 A E.-o. wxll by 2 A.4. Ten Numeral-Figures Pradiml :.) z X (biow v X-e the . 'ssb contained Integer Square firu*ion) the greate(t not Aq.-= 2.os636 greatefi Integer too much. givesr. it then adding than I ) 2 A+ .If thQ . mationJ ( byCQR of theRuleis this: Aq bei-ng The trueground in N.E q. ( ornwllivllxsth.5 Aq= 4 ( the contained therein Square Integer the greateft leavesN&q whichbeing{ubtraded.X ( A+ E = v N ) is 1e-X trueRQO? foreth. (otherwtSe be lef$ ttlAt E muR evident betC would thanSo? greater of A + Iv 0 Come theSquare by t1w: of Arithlnetick or Pr-aftice they hadtheirAkorsfim.Uare iS thetetwo) berng laIe (betvveen lc G 4i999696.. 28 Mar 2013 18:50:39 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Square Bu6J-di<ided-by containedin N. and thlt as otst fameProcets necdary.oo.44. Andthere andthistOO great.Books.zx whofe Takenow for. to make tllelVivifors by increafing theQuorient. 2 t.150 on Thu. in the (econdplacezorI)CcsasanInceger ( now confidered fronl -.3 Ae* ( s ) £s wllichteachtiveExtradion in allLanguageh Arithmettck ^ofApprosv Rooe. For ( E being This content downloaded from 198.bocauSe ecomes t toit.Qf Andit.236proximen wluotX fq.84-Agv SquarP A.and (theziin) thisrMuhod the Square in ca(eof a Non quadrate.105.theReSult B . this ) we diminiJh theDivitvr toolittle. thanz A+ E.XTllattOD F) than2 ts= 2.iS cominxddownhitherF too big. mal Parts.ismore le{s is nowtoobig.e itgives--a.tthe trL.) This filbtradEed f£*on above the tormcra fame.e thougtzt AIlsiently than2 T _ 2. o 84 theexcetsof thisSguare ica*esanewrenl>stkeldi Iwhichwas tlzenthe renzzinder. an Approacti ebe be noc now thoughtn^arOnoug If thisApproach as is may be againrepeated. thoughE is 4. of A-2:) Square by -divided A E 4.in. z A _4.4} gives-4-+ -SB_o. prnpofed Notl-quadrateAs forinEance. mw in uSe.2 : Andthisuvas butgreater nearenough.) z . Wtwich _ I-B-2 -S-4 by 2 A I _ 4 q-I = S.2 AE->Eq bedierided mainder it ffiould tOO iittlO. and thereforc be 19= <.t6: which e3Xvided \ aiZ2 = °'° g 9:S S +s too littic.

) fubtr* t}]e geateA CubA in-Integers theretn containi-.uedto the fixthplace of Decimal iParts. for theDiviSor.O°°°O°: TheRemaitier B_oooo3e4. Wesich: tould make-it Xem more Intrscate and MyfleriousX to amufethe Reader: BucI choofe to mako lt the rema-nder (futopote B 3 AqE-->3 AEq+Ec. Subfira* this ukre fromS. Wf (in the:I)enominator or DitiSor) ve Sub joyIl3A theR&k will>anainly be too great for iE: becatlle the I)ivifor is too lietle: (For it ffiollld be . Andtirefom thislAtEr Re1u1e being ade3ed tO A.0tW This content downloaded from 198.) To this Nllmerator. m*suvh. andmaPlthcreforo be -at lealtrO 6}d. Aq + 3 AE E q. Pro^eed wenowto tIse Cabick 4a.) is tc) be thetdumetator of a Pradtion fordefxgning thae value cf Ex (the fenlainlng paFr of the Roa fqht A+ E-Pc N. byzn.tue gloltd of theProceSs.) Whict . older I cm8ot t.105.theReader ( forhis{atisfadtion ) mayclearly fev th: . diiviidby j A^. to givethetrue value of E. 3 that .Aq -> g A + x. bata. 1t weieeafieto coinpouml th: Procefs -of two:or more too l-ittle. gwcs(her way) o sooM8-. 28 Mar 2013 18:50:39 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . ( fuppofeDJ. willgiYd a Rose whoSe Cui may be fuStraAed firoln theNon-£gabick propoSeda n order tO qJ Xonanc av the QgtadratiPk ) the R¢ls-is-this :Fon1 -the Non-Cabick propoid. ( andoftis fo. 1Reps into ono a-ntl give ( fortheRule) thC RefuEof CLompofiltion. we take3 A q + z A) ( or even }wf. 13ut of thi-s tough. thanSO 3 theRefult may be t grekt j Qr ( iN CAfi B i . hr *c-h (con anotll-r fiep. ThisALzploaci} I findin [Ringate's Arithmetickl Publiffieel fn the Y^eal 630.) If.4?s t -or by 2 A+x-54. ( ForE.44.150 on Thu. if it-bethought ne¢dEu-lX wemay prseedfilr ther.Zg6067+wou14-be mshmor Whichgivesus alae Square Ract °f 5 ad. (fiuppoG Ac: ) asplainast can (and eherefore keep the Scveral Reps Separ-are.( 6 ) It' thiS benotthought nea-r gh.Ut3utif.tI'U&iQ" iS l>As thanIs ) It mufi therefore ( between thele linli*s^) be morsthan thislAtte. And by ffie bmw X4eched.ne Diviorvwe take. for t.47g.alalJ ) it maybWtoo litvle. it will cereanly be tOO littd. becauSe tbeDivifor istoogreat. tt threefreps. which adddd toA-j 236) sikes ^*XJ6o68} {omewhat toobg.

beczufe fro jhence mes to pars Whisb 3 A E ifs tan 3 A . though 0r3 At astobenegled£sd.o7asnottoobig: Or perhaps take lafely .q lt glVN g glVES A I.742-5 of A.g-8_E_ r=I9 3Aq+ 3A l= I2+6+ Buttllefamedividedby Or lf butby gAqA gA toO little.g I2. A.oooo84-.for tlle moll partv 3 A q maybe {afelyt too will thenbe tomewhat theRelillt I)ivifot: For.oS26g is but8. maybefofimall.be value. is 8-Ac. contained Cubetherein Integer The greateR . x } andtberefore tharw ) is le& §ruEiqn reU asthatthe addRi of -Eq willnor fomuch and/perhaps 3A q+ 3 X.o6> FortheGulte ittles wenzar it. isa bettcr w.-of svlllch toobxg tl. ( wluich 2. g.rG2 This content downloaded from 198. AEq E g B= 3Aq leave..o83 (or 1w so-°*°SSSS sven 3 fomewhat 3 +) too>) big lefs ytt for than tOo E. another Ieave m?y ) ( being fabtraAed Approach. 3AEmay i wstI 2.44.oooo84-.Divifof diviid =I2 + 6 by ehan _3Atl I8. that is hortof 9.O8. big. from foms be will which o.9989X2.ves by 3Aq_ sa.o80o8o4 weaddo. new a for likemanner takentorthe But.) be tO0 big) it Wlll t].o.upontryals cafewe are to {peak of 2.Ot bemuch it chatlce c svillb& atlon) And. drets ( though fohappen notalways it doth ) Butbecaufe either. fortheCtsbe iound (ubtraded ThisCube enough: tlepbcnotaear If thisfirflr distided whicb B_.whote a Cub as beingtO have.08} too littlef ( Aswil wpwill bemore a. w it fohwpens.= X. but p.v8.9796. b: [afely it ) may le(sthan that this.we may to take Andisfwechance take.+ o.150 on Thu. eheInvenience willbebalt tz bigX it fomewhat cate we willbea N¢gative.lways. ( lior whateoobigtbut more3 Sothat andEqmuch 1)e fifelynegledsed. Thus.Thedefign Cllbick in ordered be tO B. + gives t-9-o. aswSh dotih ler5 DomtheNtonv [ub.yettheexcefs ( fomewhat wi Ntta*mbsr judge the cafily lealf. Andfoinuchffiortof which if 2.i1^-o. 28 Mar 2013 18:50:39 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .o8oo83 tOQ big. ) Which CLabick ( whofe This + Ec. isbutS.fuch propofed.oooooo. CuSefubtraAed Raotis A = 2.give ethex. nottoobig.05 which B forthengxtRep anon. astll:t [ofrllall) E isalow tlOt mach.trafted Cubemay a.a.aotoS8> a nevu leaves g.o6. theRetallt it' tO 2.105. ( 7) E ( by Con.ahe ditedc it dah ) theRuledothrather forthemoll part tree lthe a Root than certaialy. An. Epeak {hall beg-N propofed if th Non-Clsbe forinlnratlae.

tbatit-mightbe fuhxatieil fronl theNumbernpropoSed. 19.ooooil.ooo88. gites thei trueRoot withinan Unite in the fixthplaceof Decimal hrts ButwhenI fayX -akE tbe CwJc of cacb. in Seeking. -X6y-7-. ( fo halre W& g AqE+ 3A8qA Ec. we halre no moreto try.s -Squate or-#CuSe ( andthelikeof other Powers ) always lefs thanthe jultvalue.thmXt jCk of Negatives is now fo wellun£3Wri{ood.and proceed as before. thereby avoiding Negative l!Jumbers.tioS8. andMllltiplythe wholeby E.if we tkkeE = o. And w-ictal clwnere Advif>v in-Seeking the Greatef Common Di<Usor olttwoNumbers.ooos24+.flSt whether 3AqE gAEq+ Ec be greater or.for finding B=3 AqE+3AEq+Ec. oth^..105. antlMultiply thisbyE.For. (orEbyit) fohavewe fAE+Ef. -ked there6rd ( if we--fiubtra&thSe trotn 23is ) theRemainder. To thisadd 3Aq. CommerciwmEpi/Folicum. ae the Second kep. to takethenextgreater ( in catethae be -X}carer cothecrnevalee) rather than the rext oleffierOf -wllich-l took n£:>tiX in nly J-n..o.that the thingmaybemoreclearly apprehended) it is not necefl ary tharwe trouble our[elves with the wholeCube. 3itittlerto 1 havepalrfued theMethodmoft affededby the Aacients.onoo84.Oooo84.979724 Which nlultiplied againby E = o.otoo84.ss3AE+Eq=o.) to See whfflher this i greater or leSs thanB.oooo84 S O. in order to the abbridging a Fradrion. ( which r do. Wlzich mayconveniently be doflie in :thgs manner:Take 3A->E. .150 on Thu. But fincetheAI. in the prefent caSe.X 6. 8 ) pearif we taketne CabEof ekch. if we takeE=oown83. 2.-wif.sooo83 for-E.¢. which-is ]elstIlanB. 1 o whichif we add .v^^ 3 A-qE + t4Eq +<iEe _ mooto77-+. ThatIS.oOIQ902 -> 3 t AqE+ g AEq + E4iwhich ismorethan b = But o. 28 Mar 2013 18:50:39 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .we tha11 ha. ic may in this ( and other Operations of like Naore ) be a{ivritable. ( This multiplied by E_o.44. n^a coe nlnveintricatethan this-is. leaving B-aPofitiveRe rnalnd&r.lets -than t ^AzG6rding as we take -o.) So that-eitherRof them.-will be another*B -for tIe next{-iCPI it we pleales to procced further.Azc btig already filbtradred. o.-240084-o3^^ +E. tr Accord- This content downloaded from 198. or o.z41 thetS is 6.andaddto -this 3 . Epi#. Aq= I2.9792n it 'iS 3Aq+3AE+Eq .

Butif xvewoulddo it atonce)we areEOtN N ( theN+uns ) eo SubtraA Aqq (the berpropoSed ()>ing not a 3Blquadare Remaintler greatell Biq._*. + we tO {hould be have auded B-J6 2+o8) o.0000023) rOS CEd ROGt tf 95 i According to thisNotion. theQSotient if -by 4zq-b. In the othercafe.0000t I -0. termet3iStt This content downloaded from 198. tatherthan o.e a> to fiiidv8y Divie3e B = + oXoooOoX) by 3 Aq= I 2 . Itcotcit tha of theNumber propoSee3. bnv too bit if we l)ivi(leby aAc.uadrare concaiJIed in it ) to find thv Iten.True ( at thethiriillep3 tO theEtgE+tb of cimalParts Andif thisba not near enougll.9SO236-.onin aleing rom^int . And io onu7ar1s <^afity asnplicable to t-s+ Now. in the Cubick Rootbeire us. .'. 802g6 for = the ° 0o0°°°8S nexttlep.)l<o-waavlWiiS tO b: added tO o. ans3 thvntheSquare Roor. uvillgisrc us annthis.li5 sJ wiil cWrtainly pleafe.aooo83.(though pertiap: no:auech:) belore mentoned! ) it vPill bertatniy bvtoo little( tor rcaf)ns And wc are to uie our ditcre. and enquire would fay. in ts hersto r)ivideby 1298->) or cssa by witha longDivifor) eix3. tilC Cvlbe propo2t1. without being incutnbreel 2. SoIazYe wx the Qotient ) whatis to bW abated 0.ooooU g zJ ilep.ain(let B_4AcE + 6AqEq + AEc-) Eqq. take[tJ.44.( .105.000002 of 6/zToS (r 8 48-0 oooo°° s + to b: ^haFed it nzayfuffice. Hour fiy.wbere. Thus.980248} of o.Xq*P4AFx) torE.tofincl(bytheQuotoca. whatis faidnf the lligherPowers. I woul<:l ntat (in the la0Enquiry)o.o8008 3 8f ther of which givesus fioreheRoot . 1)59tuSiere pArba. we a.Iougtlta placo of DeZ towsme. I hall omitchat c>ftl1e Bqut(lrae.it is ( z + ) Somewhat Rootof 83 I wold How much more? But for theSquare In the lAtttr cafeX we are tO Dvide B--tro^°oool by 3Aq-I2.oooo84-(where.150 on Thu. ) (9 ) than3.forthe Sqllare more chan 2 -.esoan * t X ()£ . 28 Mar 2013 18:50:39 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .sras zZc therB for the nextfiea. muchleSs?Taking(i£sbothcaGes) aheiuftValue.8. compared withtiseNumber ab 8. W[ic:t. we haveB--0.ooooU4. tO Extl-ah trje SguarA Re) it maybe thought moi}a(+Vs{able. and irlqllire. it is (-3-) fomewhat leSs thatwhichxsneaTert (.

Which if we --( IO ) t:ot to hlt otzthe Number.andE-3-r Oivideby sAqq_ T X 16 = So. too big Womewhat of 2. I=iAqqE z N 33.folsde) therein CQucained ) to Surfolide Aqc (the greaseft Subtra& + E-OAqEc + IO ^cg B-S AqqE find tllC Remainder AEqq>Eqc. The juk theRefilt will certainly thefe two. Equations cren forAffedcd Nlethoel. is Andif we examine tosE) butnot azzech. or of z-z+. in tlle preSxn. fiep.-or morethanWo. we Jhal-l it. are to uSe asit proYeS t00 greator too littlt. ehatourLeap will it might be.beingnota pvrfedrSu..weIhould tham. the Rfult -' =0. is toolittle:) If DiviSot be lefi thanthe trueE. therto another more lidvan( anduZith tnaybeapplied The likeMethod as theCompolition Powers.lacnisAqgt.for thenloft pal<q to be gained Advantage by sAqq 3 tO Diaride will be fafeenollgh( atldleaIttrouble too big: Wllichwe Illay whichgives a Quotient fomewhat Sonlewhat a Number ( bg taking atDiScretion eitherReEtifie as or NegatilreX B.the Inconvenitce will be bxltthis. Or st we thinkit confiderable. sr. tor ltibRance.CIsf.+ IO AcEqIoAqEs -t S AEqq+ Eqc.105.according in theHigher tage). theReSult by sAqq+IoAcAloAq'sA+r. hd if we clzance termediate neare0.If theNutnber Tlllls. Whtch greatas otherwife will not be -ro B at the nextllep by another be redified we areafromN (of fite-D£tnenfions) For the Sllrfolsde ta (theNumbcrpropo(ed.eAified NumS us in tlle choiceof fuchinternaediate If. And. Which( as bdore) if we Divxd:by tOO big) ( becauSthe will be fomdwhat yAqq. ( Whch is.44.150 on Thu. Number whatIntermediate ourdiRcretion. ( Affirmatiere to anotller ) or proceed leSs we the calba11 require)andfo onwardto what exa*nefs in a mannercoincident pleaSe. i5 tO be Whichaccording at ti next{?ep. by takitlgtheSurfoliils B (ttorthenextItep) butnot verycotlficSe finda Negative furwe may proceed rable. to direEt far fucllchoice Rules orPrecept§ Multiply ber.of eachPowerrequires. 28 Mar 2013 18:50:39 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Methodmaybe of ufie(with goodAelvan Andthe iwame fif duly applied)cven beforewe tageJin longNtlmbors ¢:ons This content downloaded from 198.0X2y. Raphfon's withWIr be propoSed caCe. wherewe -between valueof E beingIomewhat to take. would be more than vlae of obEervlng the Trouble it by r.

And to Multiply RuleJfort eachCaCe.)e the prelinF cate. And if I havedone thisX ie sswhatI did propoSe. according to theNumber Gi' Dis mcnfions to wlaich theyarife.D accoa2az0date that abovem5ntic3ned ( ouX of Commerc. would (I conceive)increaSe the Trollble.) tho GaSes will be more perplexed.Ee piRol. My dPfign being only tO Jhewthe erue Natural ground.105. WhichtheReadermay eafi}y apprehend withotlt a long Ditcourfe uponits How far thisMethodmae be ctincidentwith Wome of thoSe before mentioned.and fomeAffirmatives. In AffededEquations f eXpecially where the Coefiicients are great.150 on Thu.t J This content downloaded from 198. fronz whenceCuch Ralesof Approach are ( or mighthavebeen) derived. Or to makeuSeof Sotne of theMethod.0r if they pleatet. ate. allor anyof thofemaybo moreeligible.fd natlefsinkricate. %thish therefore I leaveto tlle Prudence of each (as occafim {hallrequ-ire J tO take ponze Intermedl0 delierered by orilers trOthis purpofe.with ns great Advantage.between a grmter and a lelEer. That Such Affe&ed Equatieris are capab8: of nloseRoots than on¢. norwhether.( 1! ) come to the place of Unites) for the lime will equally holdthere alSo.and by which(if therebe sc-cafion)tney may. othersNegatives. or for whatcauis. 28 Mar 2013 18:50:39 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . I de not trouble my Self to enqu-ire.44.^< I.be examined. Where rlais ( withal > is to be confideren3.which is thewe ap21lcd to a Ca.

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