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this book but also to use them in the future. Besides, at the end of this Grammar Review, you will find a list of verbs that will also help you. GOOD LUCK! 1 Adjectives 1.1 Modifying adjectives You use modifiers to increase or reduce the strength of gradeable adjectives. Gradeable adjectives express qualities which exist in different strengths, e.g. tall, dirty, angry. Here are some modifiers arranged roughly from weak to strong: a bit/fairly rather/pretty really/very extremely/incredibly
“I thought the film was really good.” “Did you? I thought it was pretty boring.” Sue can be a bit annoying sometimes, but generally I like her. I’m incredibly excited about our holiday! You can make comparative adjectives stronger by using much and a lot. My brother is much more artistic than I am. You can make comparative adjectives weaker by using a bit and a little. The weather is a bit colder than yesterday, isn’t it? Spoken English In spoken English, a bit, a little, pretty and really are particularly common. 1.2 Comparative and superlative adjectives Here are some of the basic rules for forming comparative and superlative adjectives. One-syllable adjectives adjective + -(e)r/-(e)st large larger hard fast harder faster largest hardest fastest
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One-syllable adjectives ending in a vowel and a single consonant adjective (double final consonant) + -er/-est thin big wet thinner bigger wetter thinnest biggest wettest
Two-syllable adjectives ending in “y” adjective (drop the y) + -ier/-iest tidy happy pretty tidier happier prettier tidiest happiest prettiest
Two or more syllable adjectives more/most + adjective wonderful honest tiring Irregular adjectives Good bad little far old better worse less further elder best worst least furthest eldest (people only) more wonderful more honest more tiring most wonderful most honest most tiring
You can form some two-syllable adjectives using either -er/-est or more/most, e.g. shallow, gentle, clever, tired. Notice the way you use prepositions with superlatives. With places, you use in and with people and things, you use of. She is the cleverest girl in the class. He is the shortest of the four boys.
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1.3 Adjective order When you use more than one adjective before a noun, you have to put them in a certain order. The rules are complicated but here is the most usual order. 1 opinion (lovely, nice, boring)
2 size/weight (huge, tiny, light) 3 age 4 shape 5 colour 6 origin 7 material 8 purpose (ancient, young, brand-new) (round, long, triangular) (grey, blue, ivliite) (German, Spanish, Greek) (plastic, leather, stone) (student hook, can opener, walking hoots)
I saw some lovely, old, gold earrings in a jeweller’s yesterday. She's just bought a brand-new, red, sports car. An archaeologist has recently discovered a collection of ancient Greek, gold coins. Note You usually don't use more than three adjectives before a noun. Spoken English In spoken English we rarely use more than two adjectives before a noun. In writing we might say: I bought an expensive, black, leather jacket on Saturday. In speaking, we are more likely to say: I bought a black, leather jacket on Saturday. It was really expensive.
ending in -ed and -ing
Many adjectives formed from the past participle (ed) (E.g. annoyed, disappointed, interested, worried) describe a feeling or a state. He was very frightened by the experience. I am shocked by your attitude.
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Many adjectives formed from the present participle (ing) (e.g. amusing, exciting, surprising, terrifying) describe the thing, experience or person which produces the feeling. It was a very frightening experience. Your attitude is shocking. 1.5 Compound adjectives Compound adjectives are made up of two parts. The second part can be:
a past participle (suntanned, old-fashioned, outspoken). Helen looks very relaxed and suntanned after her holiday in Spain. a present participle (easy-going, hard-working, outgoing). You have to have an outgoing personality if you want to be a successful salesperson.
a preposition (broken-down, well-off, worn-out). Her family is very well-off and lives in a large house in a smart suburb.
Compound adjectives are usually written with a hyphen (-), but some can be written as one word. There are no clear rules for writing them. If in doubt, look them up in a dictionary. 2 Describing a sequence of events You use tenses and a time expression (when, until, after, before, as soon as, once, the moment etc) to describe a sequence of events. a) When you talk about the past, you use the time expression + past simple or past perfect simple. b) The past perfect simple emphasizes that one action was completed before the other. a) The moment I saw him, I felt very nervous. b) After I had left university, I travelled round the world.
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a) When you talk about the future, you use the time expression + present simple or present perfect simple. b) The present perfect simple emphasizes that one action has to be completed before the second action can take place. a) As soon as I get home, I’ll call you. b) When you have had your lunch, we will start work.
3 Expressing wishes and regrets
You can use wish or if only + could or past simple/continuous to talk about something you would like to be different, but can't change. If only is stronger than wish. I wish I’d studied harder at school. If only I could speak English fluently! To talk about something you regret in the past, you can use: • wish or if only + past perfect I wish we had bought that sofa we saw in the sales.
should have + past participle She should have told him the truth before he found out for himself.
4 Linking and contrasting ideas You can contrast ideas in one sentence by using:
but I didn't go to the party but Martin did. Julia likes working there, but I don't.
although, though, even though. You use these at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence. You use even though to contrast the ideas more strongly. Although he felt ill, he went to work. He doesn’t drive, even though he has passed his driving test.
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despite, in spite of. These words are prepositions, so you must use a noun or an -ing form after them. You use the fact that to introduce a clause. Despite the fact that they arrived late, they enjoyed the concert. They went to the beach in spite of the bad weather.
Whereas, while While Stephen really enjoys listening to music, his brother can't stand it. Jennie loves living in the city, whereas her husband Simon would prefer a home in the country.
You can contrast ideas in two sentences by using:
However, nevertheless. a) You use however at the beginning or at the end of a sentence. b) You use nevertheless only at the beginning of the sentence. Nevertheless is more formal. a) I’ve never been to Canada. However, I’d like to go there one day. b) The staff in my company doesn’t get paid for overtime. Nevertheless, it is common for employees to work after five o’clock.
On the other hand He didn’t want to go to the cinema with his friends. On the other hand, he didn't want to stay at home.
If you read the WHOLE Grammar Review carefully, you’ll succeed in solving the book!
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5 Inversion You use inversion in formal English, especially formal written English, for emphasis. You use inversion after:
Negative or restrictive adverbs or clauses (never, scarcely, rarely, seldom, hardly ever, not until, no sooner, nowhere, under no circumstances).
Restrictive expressions beginning with only (only when, only if, only by).
When you use inversion, you use the same word order as in a question: negative/restrictive expression + auxiliary + subject + verb. Seldom did he leave the house after the accident. Never before have I met such an interesting person. Only by working hard will you succeed. Note when you use when and than in sentences beginning with hardly and no sooner. Hardly had I left the house when I realized I had forgotten something. No sooner had he finished his first song than the crowd started to boo. 6 Ellipsis You can leave out words when it is not necessary to repeat them for the meaning to be clear, and in other situations where you can understand the meaning without using the words. This is called ellipsis. You use ellipsis:
In short tag answers beginning with so, neither, nor. “I didn’t 'see Ann.” “Neither did I.” “I’ve visited Rome.” “So have I.” “I wouldn’t like to be here on my own.” “Nor would I”.
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After an auxiliary or a modal. You can leave out the verb phrase. If there is no auxiliary, you use do/does/did. Pete enjoyed the film hut I didn't. (= but I didn’t enjoy the film.) Sarah and Luke are coming to the party, but Matt isn’t. Stuart can’t swim, but his sister can.
In short reply questions. You use a positive question after a positive statement and a negative question after a negative statement. “They play tennis nearly every day.” “Do they?” “He hasn’t seen that film.” “Hasn’t he?”
In short answers. “How old is he?” “25.” “Have you seen that film?” “Not yet.”
In sentences where the verb would be repeated in the infinitive form. You can leave out the infinitive and you use to. I’ve never heard him sing, but I’d like to. I never play basketball now, but I used to.
7 Modals 7.1 Obligation and necessity (must, have to, need) Must You use must + infinitive for strong obligations which express the authority of the speaker. You use it for:
Rules or laws. You must give in your homework by Friday. For advice or recommendations. You must take your medicine every three hours if you want to get better for the weekend.
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For obligations or necessities that the speaker imposes on him or herself. I must get up early tomorrow so I don’t miss my flight.
You use mustn’t to talk about something you are not allowed to do, or something that is inadvisable. You mustn’t wear jeans to work. You mustn’t go out if you’re not feeling well enough. Note You can only use must and mustn’t to talk about the present and future. You use had to talk about the past. Have to
You use have to + infinitive for strong obligations that express the authority of a third person, rather than the speaker. I have to work late tonight because my boss is away. You have to go outside if you want to smoke that is the company rule.
You use don’t have to to talk about a lack of obligation. (You can also use needn’t and don’t need to, see below). You don’t have to pick me up from the station- I’ll get a taxi.
You use had to for past obligations. We had to wear a uniform when I was at school.
Note You can use have got to instead of have to. It is informal, and more common in British English. Sorry, I’ve got to go now; I’m meeting Mark in half an hour.
Need, need to
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You use need to + infinitive to talk about necessities, rather than obligations. You need to get your hair cut. Do we need to prepare food for the party, or shall we just provide drinks?
You use don’t need to + infinitive or needn’t + infinitive to talk about a lack of obligation or necessity. You don’t need to/needn’t buy a sleeping bag for the holiday. I will lend you one.
You use needn’t have + past participle to talk about an action in the past that was unnecessary. We needn’t have arrived at the airport so early. We still had to queue for three hours.
You use didn’t need to + infinitive to talk about an action in the past that was unnecessary, without saying whether the person did it or not. He didn’t need to fill in the form.
7.2 Certainty and speculation (must, may, might, could, can’t) You use must or can’t + infinitive to say you are fairly certain about something; you have some evidence to reach this conclusion. You use must to indicate “positive” certainty (you are sure something is true) and can’t to indicate “negative” certainty (you are sure something is not true). You do not use mustn't or can to talk about certainty. It must be five o'clock; everyone is beginning to leave. (People usually leave at five; they’re leaving now, and therefore I conclude that it’s five o’clock.) She must he terribly unhappy. That can’t be Sheila; she said she couldn’t come today.
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You use may, might or could when you are speculating that something is possible. I don’t know where he is; he might be out to lunch. I'm not sure whose pen this is but it could be Teresa’s. You use a modal + have + past participle to express certainty or speculate about the past. It’s very late; he must have forgotten we were meeting. He may have been delayed by the traffic. He could have arranged another appointment. You can also use the main verb in the continuous form: (be + -ing or have been + -ing). He can’t be coming. He might have been planning something different. 7.3 Ability (can, could) To talk about general ability, you use can for the present and could for the past. I can speak three languages. He could swim when he was six years old. To talk about an ability to do a specific thing in the past, you use was/were able to or managed to, not could. It took three hours, but in the end they managed to put out the fire. For other tenses, you use be able to. He’s been able to ride since he was very young. “Will you be able to copy this for me?
8 Gerunds (-ing forms) Gerunds are nouns formed from verbs. You form them by adding -ing to the infinitive. You use the gerund:
As the subject of sentences. Flying was his favourite hobby.
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• • •
As the object of sentences. I’ve always enjoyed sailing. After certain verbs and verb phrases. (See the list on p222.) I couldn't help noticing you were pale. After prepositions and combinations of adjective + preposition and verb + preposition. On arriving at the airport, go straight to the transfer desk. I'm interested in learning more about this subject. I'm thinking of visiting Rome next month.
9 Present tenses 9.1 Present Simple Form Affirmative Form: Only in the THIRD PERSON (he, she, it) you MUST add an “s” to the verb E:G: I eat an apple. He eats an apple.
Negative Form: Only in the THIRD PERSON (he, she, it) you MUST add “es” to the auxiliary verb: Do E:G: I don’t eat an apple. He doesn’t eat an apple.
Interrogative Form: Only in the THIRD PERSON (he, she, it) you MUST add “es” to the auxiliary verb: Do E:G: Do I eat an apple? Use You use the present simple: Does he eat an apple?
to talk about routines and habits. I go to the theatre about once a month. to talk about facts. Light travels at about 186 000 miles a second.
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to talk about permanent situations. My father runs his own business from home. You often use adverbs of frequency with the present simple (e.g. never,
rarely, seldom, sometimes, occasionally, usually, frequently, often, always). Adverbs of frequency usually go before the main verb and after the verb to be. Longer adverbial expressions usually go at the end of the sentence. I often go to the cinema. I am rarely late for work. The committee meets once a month. Spoken English The present simple is often used in spoken English:
to give instructions and directions. “First you boil some water in a saucepan; then you add the powder ..” “You go straight on and keep on going till you come to the traffic lights; then you turn left.”
to tell stories or jokes. “Anyway, I look for my car keys for an hour, but I can’t find them. So I walk home, which takes me another hour- and what do I find when I get home? My keys are in my pocket, they’ve been there all the time!”
to comment on events, such as sports events. “Becher passes to Kidd, who manages to get past March ...and he scores!”
9.2 Present Continuous Form is/are + present participle Use
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You use the present continuous to talk about:
actions that are happening now or around now. “What are you doing?” “I’m trying to fix the door.” I’m working very hard at the moment, so I won’t be able to see you until next week.
temporary actions or situations.
We’re living in a caravan at the moment while our new house is being redecorated.
changes and developments. The weather is getting cold again, isn’t it? Your English is improving all the time.
Spoken English In spoken English we use the present continuous to talk about something that happens often and is usually unplanned or irritating (with always). It’s always raining in this country. My boyfriend is always buying me surprise presents.
9.3 Present perfect simple Form has/have + past participle Use The present perfect connects past actions or situations to the present in some way. You use the present perfect simple to talk about:
Actions or situations that began in the past and continue in the present. A past time reference must be included (often with for and since). I've lived in this house for twenty years.
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I've lived in tins house since 1978.
Finished actions or situations that happened in unfinished time (often with time expressions, e.g. today, this week, this year and words like already). I’ve already had six cups of coffee today, and it’s only lunchtime!
Finished actions or events that happened at some unspecified time in the past. It is the experience that is important, so we are not interested in when the action happened. I’ve been to most countries in Europe, but I’ve never visited Spain.
Finished actions or situations (often from the recent past) that have a result in the present, or a relevance to the present (often with just). I’ve just spilt some coffee on the rug. Could you get me a cleaning, cloth from the kitchen?
Recent news, when the exact time of the event is not mentioned. Compare with the past simple: The government have announced new laws to try to reduce the crime rate. Last night, the government announced new laws to try to reduce the crime rate.
Note In American English the past simple is usually used where the present perfect is used by British English speakers. “Did you ever see Star Wars?” “Yes, I saw it twice.” (American English) “Have you ever seen Star Wars?” “Yes, I’ve seen it twice.” (British English) Spoken English In spoken English the present perfect is often shortened. “Been to England?” (= “Have you been to England?”) “Done that!” (= “I’ve done that!”)
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9.4 Present perfect continuous form has/have + been + present participle Use You use the present perfect continuous:
To talk about actions or situations that began in the past and continue in the present. Used in this sense, the present perfect continuous is very similar to the present perfect simple. However, because the present perfect continuous emphasizes the continuity and duration of the action, it tends to be more common. For example: I have been working for Heinemann since 1995. is more common than: I have worked for Heinemann since 1995.
Remember that certain verbs are not usually found in continuous tenses (see p 220) and some verbs do not suggest duration, and are therefore usually only found with the present perfect simple, e.g. decide, finish, stop.
To indicate that an action is unfinished. Compare: I’ve been reading that book you lent me. I’ve read that book you lent me.
To suggest that an action or situation is temporary. She’s been cycling to work recently because her car broke down.
To talk about a recent action (that may or may not be finished) that has a result in the present. I’ve been digging the garden — that’s why my boots are covered in mud. I know, this is a bit boring for you but it is very USEFUL for you!
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10 Past Tenses 10.1 Past simple Use You use the past simple to talk about:
events or actions in the past. Our teacher came into class late yesterday. habits in the past. When I lived in Spain, I went to the beach every weekend.
situations in the past. I lived in England for twenty years.
Remember that you use the past simple for actions and events in the past that are finished, and happened at a specific time or over a specific period of time. The past time reference must be included or must be clear from the context. Here are some of the adverbs and time expressions you can use with the past simple: all night, at six o’clock, between 1992 and 1995, for ten years, in 1945, last Spring, recently, this morning, yesterday
10.2 Past continuous Form was/were + present participle Use You use the past continuous:
to talk about actions in progress around a specific time in the past. I was studying for my exams this time last year.
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to talk about an action that was in progress when another action happened. The second action is in the past simple. You join the parts of the sentence together with when or while. While I was shopping in the supermarket, I met my old boss. I was shopping in the supermarket when I met my old boss.
to talk about two or more actions in progress at the same time in the past. I was watching TV while my husband was doing the washing-up.
to give background information when telling a story. It was snowing outside as people arrived for the party.
Spoken English The past continuous is often used:
with reporting verbs. “Brice was just telling me about his new job, it sounds great.”
to introduce what you are going to say. “I was just thinking ... Wouldn’t it be nice if we could buy a new car?”
to express a future intention that may or may not be fulfilled. “I was thinking of going to the cinema tonight. Do you want to come?”
10.3 Past Perfect Simple Form had + past participle
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Use You use the past perfect simple:
To talk about an action or event in the past that happened before another action in the past. The second action is in the past simple. Julie had eaten her lunch by the time I arrived at the house.
To talk about an action or event in the past that happened before a definite time in the past. I had never been to France until this year.
To give a reason for a past event or action. He arrived late because he had missed the bus.
10.4 Past perfect continuous Form had + been + present participle Use You use the past perfect continuous for an action in the past that was in progress up to or near a specified time in the past. Using the continuous form of the past perfect emphasizes the continuity or duration of the action. You often use it with for and since. It had been snowing all night and everything in the garden was white. I had been working for the firm for five years before I got a promotion.
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11 Relative clauses Defining relative clauses Form subject person who (that) thing object possessive (that, who, whom) whose whose (of which)
that (which) (that, which)
The pronouns in brackets are less common. No commas are used before and after the relative clause. You can often leave out the relative pronoun when it refers to the object of the sentence, particularly in informal language. The woman (who/that) he married was tall and beautiful. Use You use a defining relative clause to identify or “define” the subject or object of the sentence. (The information is essential to the meaning of the sentence.) Students who pass the exam will be given a certificate. That’s the man whose car was stolen.
Non-defining relative clauses Form subject object person who who, whom thing which which possessive whose whose (of winch)
You cannot use that in non-defining relative clauses. Commas are used Use before and after the relative clause.
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You use a non-defining relative clause to give extra, non-essential information about the subject or object of the sentence. Mr. Brown, who lives next door, is a talented artist. The play at the Lyric Theatre, which is now sold out, has been getting wonderful reviews. In non-defining relative clauses, you can use which to refer to the whole clause before. Most of the class passed the exam, which made the teacher very proud.
You can also use when, where and why as relative pronouns to refer to a time, a place or a reason. You can leave out when and why in defining relative clauses, but not in non-defining relative clauses. Saturday is the day (when) most people do their shopping. I try to leave work at six, when the rush hour is over.
The same relative clause can give the sentence two different meanings, depending on whether it has commas (non-defining) or hasn’t (defining). Compare: All my friends, who like sport, play basketball. (All my friends play basketball.) All my friends who like sport play basketball. (Only some of my friends play basketball.) Spoken English In spoken English, non-defining relative clauses are not as common as they are in written English, because they sound very formal. It is more usual to use shorter sentences. Compare: I met Jackie Sutton, who is the new teacher at our school, at a party last night. (Written English) I met Jackie Sutton at a party last night. She’s the new teacher at our school. (Spoken English)
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12 Word formation You can use prefixes and suffixes to make different word-types. Prefixes You can use a prefix to give an adjective the opposite meaning:
disagreeable, illegal, impossible, inactive, irregular, unlikely
You can use a prefix to give a verb the opposite meaning:
disagree, misunderstand, untie
You can also use other prefixes with verbs:
• • •
reheat, reread (re- = do again) oversleep, overcook (over- = too much) underestimate, undercook (under- = too little)
Suffixes You can use a verb + suffix to make nouns:
• • • •
teacher, manager, dishwasher, pencil sharpener, actor (-er, -or = the person or thing that does an action) action, collection, persuasion excitement, enjoyment, employment attendance, appearance
You can use a noun + suffix to make abstract nouns:
friendship, membership, relationship childhood, brotherhood
You can use an adjective + suffix to make abstract nouns:
happiness, goodness, sadness, carelessness
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You can use a verb + suffix to make adjectives:
• • • • •
interested, shocked, married boring, encouraging, frightening drinkable, washable, countable flexible forgetful, helpful
You can use a noun + suffix to make adjectives:
• • • •
careful, tactful childless, cloudless professional, national hopeless, useless
13.1 Collective nouns Singular nouns that refer to groups of people can be used with either singular or plural verbs and pronouns. You often use plural forms when you talk about the group as a collection of individuals doing something together (the relative pronoun is who). You often use singular forms when you talk about the group in an impersonal way (the relative pronoun is which). Our football team have worked really hard this season. The team which wins the championship will represent the country abroad. The average family goes to the supermarket once a week. The family next door to us have decided to emigrate to Australia. Here are some of the most common collective nouns: class, club, committee, enemy, family, government, jury, party, public, school, staff, team 13.2 Countable and uncountable nouns
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Countable nouns are separate things, people and ideas that can be counted. They have a singular and plural form and are used with words such as the, a, several, many, a few and numbers. Uncountable nouns are things which are thought of as “masses” and not as separate objects. They usually don’t have a plural form and are used with words such as some, much, a little. You can’t use numbers with them. These words are usually uncountable: advice, anger, beauty, bread, English (and all languages), food, health, help, information, love, luggage, music, news, paper, rain, sleep, traffic, travel, weather, work. Some nouns can be countable or uncountable, depending on how they are used. Some nouns are countable if you talk about the thing and uncountable if you talk about the substance or material. Last weekend I visited a factory that makes glass. It was really interesting. Could you put six wine glasses on the table, please?
Abstract nouns are countable if you talk about something particular and uncountable it you talk about something more generally. I had a fantastic time at your party last week. Mr Brown is very busy this morning, but he’ll have time to talk to you this afternoon. Note When words for drinks are used as countable nouns, you often miss out the quantifying words. Would yon like a (bottle/glass of) beer? Let’s stop for a (cup of) coffee and plan what to do next.
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14.1 Stative and dynamic verbs Most verbs describe actions or events. These are “dynamic” verbs. You can use these verbs in either simple or continuous tenses. Some verbs describe states, not actions. These are “stative” verbs. You cannot use these verbs in the continuous tenses. Here are some common stative verbs: Be, believe, belong, cost, exist, hate, hear, imagine, know, like, love, mean, need, own, prefer, realize, remember, seem, sound, understand, want, wish. Some verbs have two meanings: one meaning describes an action or event, and the other meaning describes a state. When the meaning of the verb is “dynamic” you can use either the simple or continuous tense. When the meaning is “stative” you can only use the simple tense. Here are some verbs which have both stative and dynamic meanings:
have He has three cars. (stative meaning = own, possess) He’s having a bath. (action)
think I think you’re right. (stative meaning = have an opinion) What are you thinking about? (action of thinking)
see I see. You aren’t interested. (stative meaning = understand) I’m seeing him next week. (dynamic meaning = meeting)
look It looks as if the situation is getting worse. (stative meaning = seem) What are you looking at? (action)
depend It all depends on what he says. (stative meaning = is decided by)
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I’m depending on you to do the right thing. (dynamic meaning = relying)
smell This rose smells wonderful. (state) I’m smelling this new perfume to see if it is suitable. (action)
taste Lemons taste sour. (state) I’m tasting the soup to see if it’s salty enough. (action)
14.2 Used to/would + infinitive Form subject + used to/would + infinitive
Note the negative and question form of used to: subject + didn’t + use to + infinitive did + subject + use to + infinitive Use You use used to + infinitive to talk about past habits that are now finished, repeated actions in the past or past situations which no longer exist. I used to play ice hockey, but I don’t anymore. We used to live in an apartment in the city centre. I always used to get up at seven o 'clock. You also use used to to talk about actions and states which did not happen or exist before, but do now. I didn’t use to watch football. (But I do now.) He didn’t use to be so helpful. (But now he is.) Note
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You do not use used to and a time period. When you say how long, you use the past simple. When I was a child, we lived in London for five years. You can use would + infinitive to talk about repeated actions in the past. You cannot use would + infinitive to talk about past states or situations. When we were children, our father would read us stories every evening. We would always go to the beach for our holidays in the summer.
14.3 Be/get used to + -ing Form be/get + used to + -ing Use You use to be used to -ing something to mean to be accustomed to -ing it. You use to get used to -ing something to mean to become accustomed to it, often something which at first was unusual or strange for you. At the interview, he said he wasn’t used to working in a team, but he’d try to get used to it. I’m used to driving on the left, so I find driving in Greece quite stressful. At the start of the new school year, everyone has to get used to being at school again after the holidays. I’m getting used to my new job now; it hasn’t taken long at all. 14.4 Verbs followed by infinitive (with/without ) or -ing form (gerund) You use different patterns after different verbs; it is a good idea to learn these combinations together. Some verbs have more than one possible pattern.
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Verbs followed by infinitive with to agree, arrange, attempt, begin, choose, decide, expect, help, hope, intend, learn, manage, offer, pretend, promise, refuse We arranged to meet at the station. He always pretends to be interested, but I know he isn’t. Verbs followed an object + infinitive with to advise, allow, ask, encourage, expect, forbid, force, get, help, invite, oblige, permit, persuade, prefer, recommend, remind, tell, want, warn My parents always encouraged me to work, as hard as I could. I would prefer you to stay here. Note When you use not, it goes before to + infinitive. He told the children not to throw stones. Verbs and expressions followed by infinitive without to modal verbs, auxiliary verbs, would sooner, would rather, had better You really should visit your grandmother more often. Would you rather stay in or go out this afternoon? I think you’d better apologize, hadn’t you? Verbs followed by an object + infinitive without to let, make, know, feel, help They didn’t let me forget my promise. She helped me carry my bags. Note If you use these verbs in the passive, they take the infinitive with to. He was made to do his homework. Verbs followed by -ing form
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avoid, admit, can’t stand, can’t help, consider, like, finish, forgive, give up, involve, mention, practise, suggest He admitted stealing the money. I’m going to give up eating chocolate. Verbs followed by -ing form or infinitive:
With no change of meaning, (e.g. begin, continue, start). He continued to study throughout his life. He continued studying throughout his life.
With little change of meaning (e.g. hate, like, love, prefer). With these verbs, you usually use the -ing form to refer to a difference in meaning is very small. I don’t usually like getting up early but when I’m on holiday I like to get up at sunrise. situation in
general and you use the infinitive to refer to a more specific situation. The
Note Would like etc must be followed by the infinitive.
With a change of meaning. forget/remember + -ing = to remember (or forget) the moment when you did something. I’ll never forget meeting him for the first time. forget/remember + infinitive with to = to remember (or forget) something you have to do Did you remember to post the letter?
regret + -ing = to be sorry about something you did (or didn't do) I regret not going to her party. regret + infinitive with to = to be sorry about something you are going to do/say etc We regret to tell you your application has not been successful. stop + -ing = to stop an action
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I must stop losing things. stop + infinitive with to = to stop an action in order to do something else They stopped to have lunch in a country pub and then walked another five miles. try + -ing = to experiment, perhaps as a way of solving a problem Why don’t you try getting up earlier? try + infinitive with to = to make an attempt to do something which is possibly difficult I tried to learn all the vocabulary, but 1 couldn’t. mean + -ing = to involve Will your new job mean moving to London? mean + infinitive with to = to intend What do you mean to do when you finish the course? Verbs of perception After verbs such as feel, hear, notice, see, watch, you use the -ing form to emphasize the progress of the action. You use the infinitive (without to) to suggest completion of the action. I saw him running along the road. (= When I saw him, he was running.) I saw him win the race. (= I saw how he won the race.) I watched everyone leave the stadium. 15 Prepositions It is useful to learn combinations of verb/noun/adjective + preposition together. Sometimes you use a different preposition for different meanings, and sometimes different prepositions have similar meanings. If you use a preposition followed by a verb, you use the -ing form (see p 211). Verb + preposition accuse of agree about/on/to/with apologize for/to arrive at/in ask for believe in belong to borrow from care about/for charge with congratulate on cover with
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crash into depend on die of divide into dream about/of dress in drive into explain to fill with hope for insist on laugh about/at learn about/of/to listen to
look after/at/for/forward to meet at/with participate in pay for prevent from rely on remind about/of refer to search for send to share with shout at/to smile at
speak to/with succeed at/in suffer from swap with take part in talk about/to/with tell to/about think about/of throw at/to travel in/to/with tremble with warn about worry about write to
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Adjective + preposition accustomed to afraid of angry about/with anxious about/for bad at bored with capable of clever at committed to connected to dependent on different from/to disappointed about/at/with excited about fond of full of independent of infected with interested in kind to near to nice to pleased with polite to prepared for proud of reliant on Noun + preposition addiction to admiration for agreement about/on anger at answer to attack on ban on comment on connection with contrast with control over crime against cure for damage to decision about/on demand for desire for difficulty in/with discussion about/on dislike of effect of/on escape from exception to expert in idea of interest in influence on introduction to involvement with lack of link with love for loyalty towards marriage to need for quarrel with reason for relationship with reply to respect for responsibility for return to satisfaction with search for skill at solution to success at/in sympathy for thought of threat of responsible for rude to scared of shocked at similar to skilful at sorry about successful at/in surprised at tired of typical of worried about wrong about
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