Specular Reflection (Mirror-like Reflection)
Gloss is determined by the difference between specular and diffuse reflection
Effect of Particle Shape & Alignment on Gloss
Plates (clay) Irregular (diatomaceous earth)
alignment of pigments during drying
.Effect of Filler & Binder on Gloss
60 Degree Gloss
Dolomite / CaCO3 BaSO4 / CaCO3 Mica / CaCO3 Talc / CaCO3 Kaogloss 90 / CaCO3 EG-44 / CaCO3 Control .CaCO3 Epoxy / Cymel Urethane Acrylic Acrylic Vinyl Acrylic PVAc Control .00
8.CaCO3 Epoxy / Cymel Urethane Acrylic Acrylic Vinyl Acrylic PVA PVAc Control .EVCL
0.Effect of Filler & Binder on Gloss
85 Degree Gloss
Dolomite / CaCO3 BaSO4 / CaCO3 Mica / CaCO3 Talc / CaCO3 Kaogloss 90 / CaCO3 EG-44 / CaCO3 Control .00
01. engineering and technology. l
.nano. ……………encompassing nano nano-scale scale science science.What is Nanotechnology?
• Nanotechnology gy is the understanding g and control of matter at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 nanometers. nanotechnology involves imaging.org/Standards/E2456. 2008.astm. “Standard Terminology Relating to Nanotechnology”. http://www. where unique phenomena enable novel applications…. modeling.gov)
• ASTM Subcommittee E56. and manipulating matter tt at t this thi length l th scale.
reduces chance of light scattering
.Nanocomposites: Optical Clarity
•Size and refractive index of particles are important •Nanoparticles are smaller than the wavelength of visible light.
Particle P ti l diameter (nm) 200 20 2 Particles P ti l per gram 6 x 1013 6 x 1016 6 x 1019 Surface S f area per gram (m2) 7.8 x 1020
.5 75 750 Surface S f Area / Volume 1.8 1.8 x 1012 1 8 x 1016 1.Surface Area
Volume = 4/3*π*r3 Surface area = 4*π*r2
• 1 gram of TiO2 Volume = 0.
Bulk B lk Vs S Surface rface Properties
Bulk properties are not scalable to nanoscale
3 in all cases
.04 200 0.03 250 0.10 50 0.22
10 nm Interfacial Layer
Dispersed particle volume fraction is 0.05 150 0.06 100 0.Interfacial Material Content
Particle Diameter ( ) (nm) Interfacial Volume Fraction 300 0.
Extensive interfacial area
103 to 104 m2/ml
Large number density of particles
106 to 108 particles/m3
Low percollation threshold
~0.1 – 2 volume%
Bulk B lk material i l properties i not scalable l bl Optical clarity
.1 – 2 volume%
Short distance between particles
Interfacial Material Properties p
P l Polymer molecules l l at ti interface t f
S f t t at Surfactants t water/air t / i interface i t f
47 1267. Phys. Schadler. R. p 25oC drop p in Tg g with less than 1% 38nm and 0. B. and L. P l 47. J. 42. K Kontou and dM M.5% 17 nm. E. 1267 2006 . Ash. 4371. Up to 10% further addition did not lead to additional Tg reductions •
.Glass Transition in Nanocomposites
• “Thermo-mechanical properties of LLDPE/SiO2 nanocomposites”. 2004. Siegel. N Niaounsikis.: Part B: Polym. S. J. k Polymer.Tg T i increases of 25 to 30oC observed with up to 10% nano silica Glass Transition Temperature Behavior of Alumina/PMMA “Glass-Transition Nanocomposites”.. W. – Nano alumina / PMMA composites. Sci. Polym.
Clay/Polymer y y NanoNano-composites p
Nylon/Clay Nanocomposites (Toyota/Ube. 2004)
. 1980’s) )
70% higher tensile modulus 125% higher flexural modulus Heat distortion temperature increased from 65 oC to 152 oC
Epoxy / Layered Silicate (Vaia – Materials Today. ( y .
.W.D. H D Materials Today Today.J..Layered Structure of Vermiculite Clay
X-ray diffraction pattern
•Pinnavaia. Materials Today.. H. R.. “Polymer-Clay Nanocomposites”.A. November 2004 •Vaia R •Vaia. A and Wagner Wagner.). T. and Beall and G. (Ed. Wiley (2000) •Gao F.
t etc.NanoNano -Clays: Benefits
W Water. t
Retardancy Mechanical Properties p
Microcomposite Aspect Ratio 25:1
Nanocomposite Aspect Ratio 250:1
In-Situ Generation of Nanophases p
Sol-Gel Hybrid Nano SolNano-Composite Coatings
OC2H5 Si C2H5O OC2H5 OC2H5
Si H3CO OCH2CH2CHCH2 OCH3
O C O O H2 C
Inorganic g / Organic g Nanocomposite p
In2O3 Fe2O3 Al2O3. TiO2 . TiO2. ATO. ZrO2 TiO2 .Nanoparticecles: p Current Availability y
C i Property Coating P
Anti-microbial G B Gas Barrier i Corrosion Electrical Conductivity. ATO. ZnO TiO2 . CeO2
. Scratch Resistance Photocatalysis. ZnO. boehmite ITO. y . SiO2. SnO2 Nanoclays ITO. ZnO N Nanoclays l Nanoclays. self-cleaning g UV stability
N Nanomaterial i l
CuO . BaSO4. Static Charge Dissipation Fire Retardant IR-Absorption/Reflection Magnetic Mechanical.
Gloss Retention after Single Scratch Cycle: Low Solids PU
100 %G Gloss Retention (20 )
90 80 70 Alumina C 60 50 40 0 05 0.%) Alumina D Silica A
.5 3 35 3.5 2 25 2.5 1 15 1.5 Nanoparticle Content (Wt.
Abramzon. Annals of Botany (1997)
. et al. Chemistry & Life (1982) Barthlott et al...Lotus Effect
Rainwater cleans lotus leaves because of their bumpy surface.
Zero Contact Angle
Spontaneous Wetting & Spreading
.Contact Angle – Wetting
(A) The profile of a water drop on a smooth i i-PP PP surface that has a contact angle of 104° ± 2°. 28 February 2003
Figure 1. 1B
. 4. Vol 299. Science. The iPP was dissolved in a 60% p-xylene/40% MEK mixture by volume at an initial concentration of 20 mg/ml at 100°C. The morphology of the i-PP coating is shown in Fig. Issue 5611. Fig 4 SEM picture of an i-PP coating obtained using the nonsolvent MEK as described in Fig.
Fig. The i-PP film was prepared by melting at 200°C between two glass slides and crystallizing at 100°C. (B) The profile of a water drop on a superhydrophobic i-PP coating on a glass slide that has a contact angle of 160°.Nano-Structuring Methods
Transformation of a Simple Plastic into a Superhydrophobic Surface
Erbil. 1377-1380 . Demirel. and Mert. 4. Avci. The solvent mixture was evaporated at 70°C in a vacuum oven.
Photocatalytic TiO2 Nanoparticle A li ti Application
Self Self-cleaning cleaning
surface Antibacterial Activity
Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Latex Polymers • BASF COL.9 Nano-binder (Example)
– – – – Herbol (Germany) Façade coating Major US Paint Manufacturer Low dirt pick-up pick up and better durability claimed Composition: Nano-silica embedded in polymer latex particle during synthesis
• Avoids dispersion by formulator • Minimum interference with polymer particle coalescence