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Disasters Management and Monitoring using RFID and GSM Technology


1 1,2

ECE Department, 2ECE Department

Affiliated to Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Anantapur , Andhra Pradesh, India.

1,2 1

Sistk, Puttur, chittoor, Andhra Pradesh, India., 2E-mail:

Abstract Taking advantage of the technology of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), the radio frequency identification (RFID), global system for mobile communication (GSM), this paper constructs a wireless communication and intelligent application system. RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) and Wireless sensor network (WSN) are two important wireless technologies that have wide variety of applications and provide unlimited future potentials. RFID is used to detect presence and location of objects while WSN is used to sense and monitor the environment. Integrating RFID with WSN not only provides identity and location of disaster zone but also provides information regarding the condition of the disaster zone carrying the sensors enabled RFID tag. It can be widely used in detecting natural disasters, environmental monitoring and forecasting, military, warehouse management, and precision agriculture. Global position system (GPS) is used to provide satellite localization information to locate disaster zone, such as coordinates latitude, longitude .GSM provides a communication channel to transmit product tag message, geography location message and the disaster zone environment message .Then the values are sending to PC section through GSM modem. In the PC section the messages are received and the values are update in the internet through from the PC itself. The whole intelligent system detecting natural disasters and efficient way to



It is important to send relief supplies timely and manage the process intelligently after the ocean storm surge disaster. The application for WSN most focused on is for purpose of detecting natural disasters. WSN can be useful to disaster management in two ways. Firstly, WSN has enabled a more convenient early warning system and secondly, WSN provides a system able to learn about the phenomena of natural disasters. Natural disasters are increasing world wide due to the global warming and climate change. The losses due to these disasters are increasing in an alarming rate. Hence, it is would be beneficial to detect the pre-cursors of these disasters, early warn the population, evacuate them, and save their life. However, these disasters are largely unpredictable and occur within very short spans of time. Therefore technology has to be developed to capture relevant signals with minimum monitoring delay. Wireless Sensors are one of the cutting edge technologies that can quickly respond to rapid changes of data and send the sensed data to information processing subsystem center in areas where cabling is inappropriate II .THE BASIC CONCEPTS OF THE INTERNET OF THINGS, RFID AND WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS Internet of Things is defined as: A network makes any article connect to the Internet in order to exchange information, communicate and achieve identify, locate,

provide relief supplies in disasters zone.

Keywords-wireless sensor networks; RFID system; GPS; GSM; the Internet of Things

monitor and manage intelligently by the radio frequency identification (RFID), sensors, global positioning systems, and other information sensing device, according to the agreed protocol.RFID [1], that is radio frequency identification technology, is a short-range wireless communication system. A basic RFID system consists of three parts, labels, antennas and readers. Wireless sensor networks are composed of varies nodes in various applications, but generally they include four parts: the data acquisition, data processing, data transmission and power [4]. Data acquisition unit is formed by various sensors, responsible for sensing some material environmental data; data processing unit with an embedded CPU, is responsible for data coding and processing; data transmission unit is composed of the wireless communication module or the radio frequency module; power unit generally use lithium batteries or AC power connected III. TOTAL DESIGN OF THE INTELLIGENT SYSTEM A. Design Framework The system consists of the following sections. One is RFID section, other is receiver section, and last one is PC section. . In the RFID section, we have temperature sensor, pressure sensor, humidity sensor. These sensors provide an analog value depend upon the parameter it suffers. These sensor values are processed and written to the RFID tag. These are placed in the locations where the disasters are frequently happened. The GPS locations are also written the tag to transmit. GPS chip which has the satellite positioning function is transmitted to RFID reader via the serial port. The MCU module in the RFID reader make a summary process for information and transmit it through the GSM chip to the GSM receiver, finally through the GSM receiver to PC section. In the PC section the messages are received and the values are update in the internet through from the PC itself. Specific structure is shown in figures 1 IV. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF KEY MODULES A. Communication between wireless sensor network node and RFID reader system The process of wireless sensor network node interacts with RFID reader as shown in Figure 2: Wireless sensor network node and RFID reader interaction module consist of wireless sensor network nodes and RFID readers. The wireless sensor node contains a variety of sensors, a data processing unit, MCU, memory, antenna, radio frequency modules and power supply unit; while RFID reader, the CPU, RF module, antenna, serial interface module and power supply unit.

C.GSM-based wireless communication module In this paper, the collected data is transmitted to GSM Wireless network to the data center sever host, the specific Process as shown in Figure 3 A GSM modem is a wireless modem that works with a GSM wireless network. A wireless modem behaves like a dial-up modem. The main difference between them is that a dial-up modem sends and receives data through a fixed telephone line while a wireless modem sends and receives data through radio waves. The working of GSM modem is based on commands, the commands always start with AT (which means Attention) and finish with a <CR> character. For example, the dialing here command the is ATD<number>; Fig 2: The interaction between WSN and RFID reader The process of wireless sensor network nodes communicate with RFID reader is as follows: temperature, humidity and pressure sensors collect environmental data of disaster zone, and then transmit the data to the CPU through the serial port. The data is encoded by the CPU, and transmitted to the memory through the serial port, and then send the date to the wireless RF module which the memory is connected by the serial port. The sensor and attribute data through the antenna is passed to the RFID reader and the reader transmit it to MCU through the serial port, which encodes and processes the data, interacts with external computer through the RS232 serial port in twoway. Besides wireless sensor network nodes and RFID readers power unit is a lithium battery B. Obtaining coordinates information of the disaster zone GPS chip based on satellite positioning, GPS module achieves the message (latitude, longitude) of disaster zone. Which make the real-time interaction with satellite and then transported to RFID readers for processing through the serial interface. Thus the information processed by MCU is transmitted to the data center server using a wireless network. GSM modem which transmits short message or information encode by wireless networks in a certain time interval to a GSM receiver equipped with SIM card device. The device sends the information to data processing center server by GSM wireless network and then analyses and processes the data ATD3314629080; dialing

command ends with semicolon. The AT commands are given to the GSM modem with the help of PC or controller. The GSM modem is serially interfaced with the controller with the help of MAX 232. Here max 232 acts as driver which converts TTL levels to the RS 232 levels. For serial interface GSM modem requires the signal based on RS 232 levels. The T1_OUT and R1_IN pin of MAX 232 is connected to the TX and RX pin of GSM modem

D. Design and implementation of information processing subsystem The Information processing subsystem consist information collection, information storage and map information display. Specific structure is shown in Figure 4:

provides a number of online resources when connected to the Internet. My Profile tab , this tab enables to customize the Visual Studio.NET environment to resemble the structured environment. V. CONCLUSIONS In summary, the paper designs a system using sensors, RFID system and GPS positioning chips collecting environment data(temperature, pressure and humidity) of disaster zone and disaster zone location(latitude, longitude) , which is transmitted to data processing center server through GSM wireless communication network realtimely. The whole intelligent system detecting natural disasters and efficient way to provide relief supplies in disasters zone. The information processing subsystem in the server makes a comprehensive analysis and assessment on the data. This system can be improved as following, the stability of wireless network, transmission delay

Figure 4 : The Information processing subsystem Information collection modules function is collecting all the data include disaster zone environmental data which a variety of sensors sensing, basic property data stored in RFID tag, coordinates information of disaster zone collected by GPS chips and satellite. All the data is transmitted to the host through GSM wireless network. Information storage module stores the basic information, coordinates values and environmental data of disaster zone using Hibernate framework to the oracle 10g database. By using the .Net, to design the window and to display GPS information (latitude, longitude) and environmental data(temperature, pressure and humidity) of disaster zone. The Start page offers three tabs at the top of the window that enables to modify Visual Studio.NET as well as find important information. The tabs are Projects tab, Online Resources tab, and My Profile tab. Projects tab , this tab is the one to start new projects and launch projects that already exists. This tab lets you to create a new project or open an existing project. Online Resources tab, this tab

phenomenon, lessening power consumption of RFID module and the MCU. REFERENCES
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