(
(
=
(
(
from which the spiral area can be computed,
4
s c
sp
d s
A
= (3)
Plugging equation (3) into equation (2) results in,
2
2
s y
f
f
= (4)
The compressive strength of the spirally confined core concrete has been found by experiment to
be closely represented by,
8
(5)
where 0.85
c
f is the compressive strength of unconfined concrete and
2
f is the confinement
stress provided by the spiral reinforcement.
The strength provided by the spiral can be computed realizing that the increase in
compressive strength as a result of spiral confinement is
2
4.0 f as computed using (5).
Therefore, multiplying by the area of the concrete core gives,
strength from spiral 4.0 2
2
s y
c s c y
f
A A f
(
= =
(
The strength contribution of the concrete shell is given by,
( )
strength from shell 0.85
c g c
f A A =
where
c
A is the area of the concrete core and
g
A is the gross area of the concrete section.
The basis behind spiral design by ACI 31899 is that the strength gained from the spiral
should be at least equal to the strength lost when the concrete shell spalls. Therefore,
(6)
Equation (6) can be simplified to,
0.425 1
g
c
s
c y
A
f
A f
 
=

\ .
(7)
which forms the basis of ACI Code section 10.9.3. This section states that the volume ratio of
spiral reinforcement to total concrete core volume shall not be less than,
0.45 1
g
c
s
c y
A
f
A f
 
=

\ .
(8)
Equation (7) is rounded up to an even value to form equation (8) which is ACI equation 106.
The last section of the ACI Code pertaining to column reinforcement is section 7.8, which
covers special reinforcement details for columns. The provisions pertaining to offset bars are
listed below and are pictured schematically in Figure 5.
a.) The slope of the inclined portion of offset bars with the axis of the column shall not
9
exceed .
b.) Bar portions above and below the offset shall be .
c.) Horizontal support at offset bends shall be provided by lateral ties, spirals or parts of
floor construction.
.
d.) Where a column face is offset greater than 3", longitudinal bars shall not be offset bent
and separate dowels shall be provided
LAP
min(3", s /2)
1
2
s
s /2
2
6" (max.)
s
1
(a ) Offset less than 3 inches
( b ) Offset greater than or equal to 3 inches
l
LAP
s
s /2
s
dc
2
Compression
Dowels
2
1
max. slope = 1:6
parallel to col. above
min(3", s /2)
1
Figure 5: Special Considerations for Column Dimension Offsets.
SHORT COMPRESSION MEMBERS
A short column has its capacity determined by the material strength of the components used in
the crosssection (steel and concrete). There is no detrimental behavior (added moments for
10
example) that results from the interaction of bending and axial thrust such as P or P effects.
The goal of this section is to present means of analysis and design for short columns subjected to
pure compression, compression with uniaxial (single axis) bending, and compression with
biaxial bending.
Concentrically Loaded Short Columns
All column members whether structural steel, wood or concrete have bending moments applied
to them as a result of outofplumb, imbalance of loading, or slightly offset beam to column
connections. As a result, a true concentrically loaded column subjected to zero bending moment
never occurs in practice. The effect of this is accounted for in the ACI Code when defining the
strength of a short concrete column subjected to pure axial load.
Consider the column section subjected to axial load and bending moment at its end in Figure
6.
P
M
e=
P
M
P
( a ) ( b )
Figure 6: Equivalent Column Eccentricity: (a) Axial Loading and Bending
Moment; (b) Equivalent System with Eccentricity.
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
The ACI Code utilizes the equivalent eccentricity when defining the strength of short
concentrically loaded concrete columns. Columns with relatively small eccentricity compared to
the concrete cross section are characterized as having compression over the entire cross section.
If this column is overloaded, it will fail under a combination of crushing of the concrete and
yielding of the steel in compression on the more heavily compressed side. Columns with large
eccentricity have tension over portions of the crosssection and therefore, at ultimate load, the
11
cross section may fail as a result of concrete crushing, tensile steel yielding or a combination of
both phenomena.
Design of concrete columns is based on the factored overload stage. At this stage, the
factored loads must not exceed the nominal strengths multiplied by reduction factors,
and
n u n u
P P M M
In the cases of uniaxial and biaxial bending of columns, the factored loads act in combination
with moments and therefore, the adequacy of the concrete cross section under combined loads
cannot be determined through the simple comparison shown above. The member must be
designed for the maximum bending moment that can accompany a given design axial load.
More elaborate techniques are therefore used.
The capacity of a concentrically loaded concrete column is derived from loads carried by both
longitudinal steel and concrete. Using an equation previously derived, this capacity can be
written as,
( )
0.85
o c g st st y
P f A A A f = + (9)
Failure for the concentrically loaded column occurs with uniform compression over the cross
section. As the result, the strains in the concrete and steel are uniform over the crosssection.
As discussed previously, columns are never really free from bending moment. Therefore, the
ACI Code limits the concentrically loaded strength of the column through an assumed minimum
eccentricity. Furthermore, it was previously shown that the type of lateral reinforcement also
affects the ultimate strength of the concentrically loaded column. ACI Code section 10.3.5 gives
the design axial load strength of tied and spiral reinforced concrete columns. The maximum
design strength allowed for a reinforced concrete column with lateral reinforcement consisting of
spirals is computed using,
(10)
which is ACI code equation (101). The maximum allowed design strength for a tied column is
determined by,
12
( )
(max)
0.80
n o
P P = (11)
It should be noted that the two factors, 0.85 for spiral columns and 0.80 for tied columns account
for minimum eccentricity ratios, e h , of 0.05 and 0.10, respectively. The factors for the
concentrically loaded member also take the type of lateral reinforcement into consideration.
Recalling previous discussion, the spirally reinforced concrete column has a slightly higher axial
load carrying capacity and greater ductility than the tied column. Therefore, the factors are
assigned as follows:
a.) ________ for the spirally reinforced column,
b.) ________ for the tied column.
Strain Compatibility Analysis
Consider the reinforced concrete column section with axial load acting at an equivalent
eccentricity e shown in Figure 7.
h
y
d
h
2
d
b
A
A
0.85 f
,
,
c
a
, = 0.003
C
C
T
e
e
P
N.A.
P.N.A
P.C.
s
s
s
s
s
c
s
n
c
c
( b ) Strains ( a ) Cross Section
( c ) Stresses and Internal Forces
Figure 7: Fundamental Concepts for Strain Compatibility Analysis.
The assumption that the strains in the concrete and steel are compatible as the member deforms
requires that the strain in the concrete is identical to that in the adjacent reinforcing steel. It
should be noted that the stresses are NOT THE SAME. Stresses in the materials are a
function of the modular ratio, n. The strains, stresses and internal forces in the column are also
shown in the figure. Several terms in Figure 7 need definition: PNA is the plastic neutral axis of
the section, NA is the neutral axis of the section corresponding to the geometric centroid
13
(obtained through momentarea principles), PC is the plastic centroid of the section and
s
A is the
area of the steel subjected to compressive stress.
Equilibrium for the short column depicted in Figure 7 allows the nominal axial force at failure
to be written as follows:
(12)
The nominal bending moment, which is rewritten for analytic purposes as
n
Pe , is obtained
through writing the moment equilibrium equation about the plastic centroid of the cross section,
( )
( ) ( )
2
n n c s s
a
M Pe C y C y d T d y = = + + (13)
It should be noted that the plastic centroid and the geometric centroid are the same for columns
with symmetric reinforcement layout. It is assumed that at ultimate load for the column
(combined uniaxial bending and axial load) the following hold true,
0.85
c c
s s s
s s s
C f ba
C A f
T A f
=
=
=
Substituting the above relations into equations (12) and (13) gives the axial load and bending
moment at failure of the column,
0.85
n c s s s s
P f ba A f A f = + (14)
and
( )
( ) ( ) 0.85
2
n c s s s s
a
M f ba y A f y d A f d y = + + (15)
The depth to the neutral axis, c , is assumed to be less than the effective depth, d, of the
crosssection and the tension steel is assumed to be in tension. If the eccentricity of the load is
very small, the total crosssection is in compression (including the Atension@ zone steel). In this
case, the contribution of the tension steel should be added to the compressive strength of the
column. That is, the minus sign in equation (14) should be changed to a plus sign. The signs in
equation (15) should also be watched to ensure there is tensile steel. In addition, it is also
assumed that the volume of concrete compression area displaced by reinforcing steel is
negligible. The error in this last assumption is not significant for small bar sizes, but could be
14
for large bar sizes. It should be noted that the axial load strength of the concrete column
computed using equation (14) cannot exceed that of the tied column given by (11).
The magnitude of the load eccentricity dictates whether or not the compression and/or tension
steel reach their ultimate stress,
y
f . If failure of the cross section occurs with yielding in the
tension area steel, the stress in the steel should be replaced with the yield stress. If the stresses in
the tension and compression area steel are less than yield, similar triangles can be used to
compute the necessary stresses,
( ) 0.003
s s s s y
c d
f E E f
c
= = (16)
( ) 0.003
s s s s y
d c
f E E f
c
= = (17)
Interaction Diagrams for Concrete Columns
As one might surmise, determining the state of stress in the reinforcing steel at failure can be
difficult and tedious when analyzing a short steel column. Furthermore, using strain
compatibility analysis becomes too tedious for design applications (of course, with computer
software nothing is too tedious). An alternate approach to design of concrete columns is to
construct interaction diagrams defining combinations of bending moment and axial load at
failure for a column for a full range of eccentricities. A column with zero eccentricity is
subjected to pure compression and a column with infinite eccentricity is subjected to pure
moment.
For any loading combination defining the failure of a concrete column, there is a unique axial
load and bending moment (eccentricity) that defines the state of failure. For a given column
crosssection and reinforcing steel layout, these combinations define a yield surface for the
reinforced concrete compression member. Such a surface is called an interaction diagram and a
schematic example is shown in Figure 8.
15
Figure 8: Interaction Diagram for Nominal Column Strength and UniAxial Bending.
The radial lines in the figure illustrate a constant eccentricity of axial load.
_______________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
For a load path defined by constant eccentricity; as the axial load (and corresponding bending
moment) increases, the load path will eventually reach the yield surface and failure of the
column will occur.
There are two distinct conditions of failure in a concrete as indicated in the interaction
diagram:
a.) Tension failure of the steel through yielding (corresponding to large eccentricities),
b.) Compression failure of the concrete (corresponding to small eccentricities).
A third condition ______________________________________________________________
Compressio
Controls
Tensio
Controls
P
P
P
Radial lines show
P
e
=
M
M
e
e,
o
n
n
n
M
o
n(max)
n
16
____________________________________________________________________________
The balanced condition is attained when the strain in the concrete reaches its ultimate value
( 0.003
c
in in = ) at the same time the strain in the reinforcing steel reaches its yield value
y
.
The eccentricity in the member corresponds to the balanced eccentricity and the axial load in the
member (on the failure) corresponds to the balanced axial load.
The limit state for members with large eccentricities is defined by yielding of the tension
steel. If the eccentricity is larger than the balanced eccentricity or the axial load (on the yield
surface) is less than the balanced axial load, failure will occur through yielding of the steel. The
stress in the compression steel may/may not be at yield, and the actual stress should be compute
using strain compatibility (similar triangles).
If the eccentricity is less than the balanced eccentricity and the stress in the tensile
reinforcement is less than the yield stress, concrete crushing will be the controlling failure
mechanism. The stress in the compression steel will most probably be at the yield stress and
therefore, compatibility of strain should be used to check the state of strain in the compression
steel.
17
EXAMPLE 1: CONSTRUCTING THE INTERACTION DIAGRAM
Consider a concrete column having the geometry listed below and crosssection shown below.
Assume that 6, 000
c
f psi = and 60, 000
y
f psi = .
3
11
14
12
(4)#11
0.003 in./in. 0.85 f
A f
C
A f
( a ) Cross Section
( b ) Strains ( c ) Stresses
,
c
s
s
,
s
s s
s
c
Solution:
1. The first point on the interaction surface to be created is that corresponding to the
concentric axial loading.
The strain and stress distribution for this case is shown in the figure above. The nominal
axial loading corresponding to pure axial compression is,
2. Another key point on the interaction surface is the balanced point defining the
balanced condition at failure.
Using strain compatibility we have,
( )
87, 000
11.0 6.51
87, 000 60, 000
b
c in
(
= =
(
+
6.51 3.0
0.003 0.0016 0.00207
6.51
s y
in in
(
= = < =
(
18
( ) 29, 000 0.0016 46, 400
s
f psi = =
The depth of the stress block can be computed as follows,
( )
( )
1
1
0.05 6, 000 4, 000
0.85 0.75
1, 000
0.75 6.51 4.88
b b
a c in
(
= =
(
= = =
The nominal axial capacity is then computed using equation (14),
( )( )( ) ( )( )
( )( )
0.85 6, 000 12.0 4.88 2 1.56 46, 400
2 1.56 60, 000 256, 224
nb
P
lbs
= +
=
The nominal moment capacity assumed to act in conjunction with the nominal axial
loading at the balanced condition is computed using equation (15),
14.0
7
2 2
h
y in = = =
The eccentricity corresponding to the balanced condition is therefore,
2, 689, 743
10.5
256, 224
b
lb in
e in
lb
= =
3.) The third point on the interaction diagram is that corresponding to the pure
bending condition (zero axial loading).
The contribution of the compression steel to the moment capacity is neglected and
therefore,
o
M can be computed as follows,
( )( )
( )( )
2 1.56 60, 000
3.06
0.85 0.85 6, 000 12
s y
c
A f
a in
f b
= = =
The nominal bending moment is computed in the usual manner,
( )( )
3.06
2 1.56 60, 000 11.0
2 2
1, 772, 784
no s y
a
M A f d
lb in
   
= =
 
\ . \ .
=
The remaining points on the interaction surface correspond to strain distributions that are
not as well defined as the three previously computed points. Two additional points will
19
be computed: one in the compression controls region and one in the tension controls
region.
4.) Compute a point in the compression controls region of the diagram.
The schematic strain diagram and internal forces are shown below.
3
11
14
12
(4)#11
0.003 in./in. 0.85 f
A f = C
C
A f = T
( a ) Cross Section
( b ) Strains ( c ) Stresses
,
c
s
s
, < ,
y
s s
s
c
s
s
s
When compression failure occurs, the depth of the neutral axis is greater than that at the
balanced condition,
14.0
7
2 2
h
y in = = =
Any arbitrary value for the depth of the neutral axis can be chosen. In the present case,
10 inches is chosen for c. The maximum compressive strain in the concrete remains
fixed at the ultimate strain ! It should be noted that ANY neutral axis depth could be
chosen as long as it is GREATER than the depth to the neutral axis at the balanced
condition. Using the assumed depth, 10 c in = , the strain in the compression steel can be
computed as,
The strain and stress in the tension steel can be computed in a similar manner to that done
previously,
( )
11 10
0.003 0.0003
10
0.0003 29, 000, 000 8700.0
s y
s
f psi
(
= = <
(
= =
The depth of the compression block is computed as,
20
( )
1
0.75 10 7.5 a c in = = =
The forces in the compression steel, tension steel, and concrete are therefore,
Using the above values, the nominal axial capacity is computed as the algebraic
summation,
459, 000 187, 200 27,144 619, 056
n
P lb = + =
The nominal moment capacity and eccentricity corresponding to the nominal axial
capacity shown above is computed using equation (15),
( ) ( )
7.5
459, 000 7.0 187, 000 7.0 3.0 27,144 11.0 7.0 2, 349,126
2
3.79
n
n
n
M lb in
M
e in
P
(
= + + =
(
= =
5.) Compute a point in the tension controls region.
3
11
14
12
(4)#11
0.003 in./in. 0.85 f
A f = C
C
A f = T
( a ) Cross Section
( b ) Strains ( c ) Stresses
,
c
s
s
, > ,
y
y s
s
c
s
s
s
The assumed strain distribution and internal forces are shown above. In this case, the
depth to the neutral axis will be less than that for the balanced condition. The strain
diagram will give indication as to why this must be the case. A value for the depth to the
neutral axis is assumed to be 4.2 inches. The depth of the compression block, the strain
in the compression steel, and the stress in the compression steel, are computed as,
21
The forces in the compression steel, tension steel, and the concrete are computed as,
( )( )( )
( )
( )
0.85 6, 000 12 3.15 192, 780
3.12 24, 857 77, 554
3.12 60, 000 187, 200
c
s
s
C lb
C lb
T lb
= =
= =
= =
The nominal axial loading and bending moment capacity are computed as,
The eccentricity corresponding at this condition is,
Five points on the interaction diagram have now been computed. These points can be used to
construct the nominal strength interaction diagram for the beamcolumn crosssection. It should
be noted that no ACI requirements have been satisfied to this point. The interaction diagram
computed is based purely on theoretical crosssection strength. The interaction diagram that we
computed is given below,
22
P (kips)
M (kip in)
1,231 k
(2,689.7 kin, 256.2 k)
(2,349.1 kin, 619.0 k)
(2,103.9 kin, 83.1 k) 1.772.8 kin
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
Computed Interaction
Diagram
Actual Interaction
Diagram
Nominal Strength Interaction Diagram
23
CIRCULAR COLUMNS AND OTHER ACI REQUIREMENTS
The interaction diagram just computed is based purely on crosssection strength and does not
include reduction (workmanship) factors. The ACI Code allows the reduction factor to change
(in a beneficial manner) depending on the magnitude of axial load in the column. Furthermore,
circular columns provide unique challenges in design and analysis. Each of these special
conditions will be addressed. The interaction diagram will then be modified to include reduction
factors and other ACI Code requirements.
Circular Column Analysis
A circular column poses unique challenges in the analysis of a column. Difficulty arises in hand
computations due to the following:
1.) ______________________________________________________________________,
2.) _______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________.
It obviously would be advantageous to create an equivalent rectangular (square) column to
simplify the calculations without sacrificing too much accuracy in the analytical results.
An empirical method is available for the creation of an equivalent rectangular column for
circular column analysis. This equivalent section can be created using the following steps;
1.) Thickness in the direction of bending set equal to 0.8h ;
2.) Width is obtained from the same gross area,
g
A , of the circular column with
0.8
g
b A h = ;.
3.) Area of reinforcement is replaced with (2) parallel layers placed at 2 3
s
D in the
direction of bending.
s
D is the diameter of the longitudinal steel placement
configuration.
4.) Special consideration for tension failure: Use the actual column (and strain
compatibility) for evaluating the compressive force,
c
C , but place 40 percent of the
total crosssection steel in a parallel layer at a distance 0.75
s
D .
The usual rectangular analysis techniques can be used if the above steps are taken in the
development of the equivalent rectangular column. The method provides satisfactory results for
most cases.
24
EXAMPLE 2: COMPUTATION OF EQUIVALENT RECTANGULAR COLUMN
Determine the equivalent rectangular column dimensions and steel layout for the circular column
shown below.
Assume that there are (8) #8 bars in the column with
#4 spiral ties and 1 1/2" clear cover.
Solution:
Following the procedure previously established, the area of the cross section and the diameter of
the reinforcement cage are,
( )
( ) ( )
2
20
314.2 . .
4
20 2 1.5 2 0.5 1.0 15.0
s
s
A sq in
D in
= =
= =
Thus, the dimensions of the equivalent rectangular section are:
( ) 0.8 20 16
314.2
19.6
16
h in
b in
= =
= =
The area and distance between the equivalent parallel reinforcement for the compression controls
section is,
( )
2
15 10
3
2
st
s s
d d in
A
A A
= =
= =
The distance between and the area of the parallel reinforcement for the tension controls case
are,
A = total area of steel
D
20
st
s
25
( ) 0.75 15 11.25
0.4
s s st
d d in
A A A
= =
= =
The equivalent cross sections for the compression controls and tension controls cases are shown
in the figure below. Incidentally, the balanced condition falls under the compression
controls condition for computation of the strength of the equivalent section.
st
A = A / 2
s
A = A / 2
19.63
st s
st s
A = 0.4 A
A = 0.4 A
s st
( a ) compression failure
( b ) tension failure
It should be noted that geometric relations are available for determining the area of the circle
segment depicted in figure (b). The steel manual (LRFD) or (ASD) has such relations as part of
section 6 in the design manual.
26
ACI REDUCTION FACTOR IN TENSION CONTROLS REGION
The ACI Code has made the evaluation of the design interaction diagram a little more
complicated in that the reduction factors change in the region of the diagram where the axial load
is small. One can think of the beamcolumn with small axial loading as a beam. Essentially, the
N factor is increased from that required for the axially loaded column (0.70 or 0.75 depending on
the ties) to that of pure bending, 0.90.
ACI Code section 9.3.2.2 covers this aspect of reduction factor increase. The increase in N
can occur provided that the effective depth between tension and compression reinforcement in
the column is not less than 70% of the total height and the yield strength of the reinforcement
does not exceed 60,000 psi. Two simple formulas can be used to compute the reduction factor.
These equations depend on the lateral reinforcement type: for tied columns,
0.90 0.20 0.70
0.10
n
tied
c g
P
f A
(
=
(
(
(18)
and the following for spiral columns,
0.90 0.15 0.75
0.10
n
spiral
c g
P
f A
(
=
(
(
(19)
The following criteria must be used when increasing ,
a.) If 0.10
nb c g
P f A < , use 0.10 0.70
c g nb
f A P = in equation (18) and use 0.10 0.75
c g nb
f A P =
in equation (19).
b.) No increase in can be taken above the balanced point.
27
EXAMPLE 3: COMPUTATION OF DESIGN INTERACTION DIAGRAM
Each point on the interaction diagram previously created as part of Example 1 will be addressed
and the correct reduction factors applied to develop points on the strength interaction surface for
the uniaxially loaded column.
Solution:
We will use the five points on the crosssection strength interaction diagram computed
previously and adjust to account for the appropriate strength reduction factor(s).
1.) The first point on the interaction diagram considered was the case of pure axial
loading. The nominal capacity and design capacity for this point are computed
below.
( )
( )
(max)
(max)
1, 231, 200
0.8 1, 231, 200 984, 960
0.7 984, 960 689, 472
n
n
n
P lb
P lb
P lb
=
= =
= =
2.) The second point on the diagram corresponded to the balanced condition. In this
case, all reduction factors are those for the tied column and therefore,
( )
( )
256, 224
0.7 256, 244 179, 357
2, 689, 743
0.7 2, 689, 743 1, 882, 820
nb
nb
nb
nb
P lb
P lb
M lb in
M lb in
=
= =
=
= =
3.) The third point on the diagram corresponded to the case of pure bending.
( )
1, 772, 784
0.9 1, 772, 784 1, 595, 506
no
no
M lb in
M lb in
=
= =
4.) The fourth point corresponded to a case where the failure was controlled by
compression (above the balanced point). The design axial loads and moments are
therefore,
( )
( )
619, 056
0.7 619, 056 433, 339
2, 349,126
0.7 2, 349,126 1, 644, 388
n
n
n
n
P lb
P lb
M lb in
M lb in
=
= =
=
= =
5.) The last point was for a case where tension controlled the failure. This is the place
28
where the reduction factor can be adjusted.
83,134
2,103, 884
n
n
P lb
M lb in
=
=
We now need to determine if the reduction factor can increase. Assuming that
0.70 = , we can compute the following,
( )
( )( )( )
0.70 83,134
0.10 0.1 12 14 6, 000 100, 800 179, 357
0.10 0.70
n
c g nb
n c g
P lb
f A lb P lb
P f A
=
= = < =
< =
It is also obvious that
0.10
nb n
c g
P P
f A
>
>
As a result, equation (18) can be used without modification. Several trials may be
required for the results to converge to the correct reduction factor. The first trial
yields,
( )
( )
0.20 58,194
0.90 0.785
100, 800
0.785 583,134 65, 222
n
P lb
= =
= =
The second trial is,
( ) 0.20 65, 222
0.90 0.77
100, 800
= =
which is sufficiently close to the first trial. Therefore, the design axial loading and
bending moment can be computed as,
( )
( )
83,134
0.77 83,134 64, 013
2,103, 884
0.77 2,103, 884 1, 619, 991
n
n
n
n
P lb
P lb
M lb in
M lb in
=
= =
=
= =
The design interaction diagram can now be generated. One should take note of the extra work
involved to increase the reduction factor from 0.70 to 0.77. As a designer, one should always
keep in mind whether or not effort is really providing added value to a design. However, if an
29
evaluation (or analysis) is being done, the extra 0.07 may be the difference between calling a
column adequate and telling a client to reinforce or replace. One should certainly appreciate
the added value in this instance. The strength and design interaction diagram for this column
crosssection is shown below.
P (kips)
M (kip in)
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
984.96 k
689.5 k
P  M diagram
u
n n
u
P  M diagram
0.7(1231)=862
30
HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT NUMBER 1
31
DESIGN AIDS FOR COLUMN STRENGTH
As illustrated through the previous examples, strain compatibility would be an extremely
cumbersome procedure to use for design of columns subjected to axial load and uniaxial
bending. (Biaxial bending using this procedure would be even more unthinkable in a design
office setting.) One does not know the shape of the interaction surface until the column is
chosen and one cannot choose the column size and reinforcement until the interaction surface is
known. This trial and error procedure makes the strain compatibility method undesirable for
design.
Design aids and/or computer programs are usually employed to facilitate design of concrete
columns. The two most popular are SP17 by the American Concrete Institute and the CRSI
Handbook by the Concrete and Reinforcing Steel Institute. Figure 9 illustrates an example of a
chart included in the SP17 Handbook. The chart is an interaction diagram for a given column
size and reinforcement configuration. The charts are generalized for many different cross
sectional sizes through nondimensional ordinates.
Figure 9: Design chart for column analysis and design.
32
The xaxis of the interaction diagram is the nondimensional bending moment written using the
moment or axial load acting at an eccentricity,
or
n n
c g c g
P e M
f A h f A h
The yaxis is the nondimensional axial load,
n
c g
P
f A
The diagrams are denoted WXY.Z indicating X ksi concrete, Y ksi grade steel, Z ratio of inside
dimension of reinforcement layout (center to center) to overall height of crosssection. W
indicates: R  rectangular tied column, L  rectangular column with reinforcement placed in (2)
layers parallel to the axis of bending, C spirally reinforced circular column and S  rectangular
column with spiral reinforcement layout.
Reinforcement ratios of 0.01 to 0.08 are given. Recall, that using ratios larger than
approximately 4 percent can result in excessive congestion of reinforcement in the concrete
columns and joints. Practical construction issues should always be considered in design of the
concrete column.
The alignment charts as included in SP17, allow the direct design of eccentrically loaded
columns throughout a wide range of practical geometry and reinforcement ratios. Use of the
charts can take place in two typical manners: (assuming factored axial load and moment or
eccentricity is given).
1.) Design total section: crosssection and steel.
a.) Select trial crosssection dimensions: b, h.
b.) Calculate the ratio ( based on cover, estimate bar sizes and tie requirements.
c.) Calculate P
n
/ f
c
A
g
and M
n
/ f
c
A
g
h.
d.) Plot the point corresponding to the values computed in part c.) on the interaction
diagram corresponding to the desired concrete strength, steel strength,
reinforcement layout and ( value computed in part b.) Read the required
reinforcement ratio. (Make sure the point plotted is within the interaction surface
corresponding to your reinforcement ratio.)
e.) Calculate the total steel are A
st
=D
g
bh and detail accordingly.
33
2.) Section sizes and steel based on assumed reinforcement ratio.
a.) Select a steel reinforcement ratio, D
g
.
b.) Choose a trial value of h and calculate the eccentricity rato (e/h) and ( .
c.) Using the reinforcement ratio, eccentricity ratio and the correct chart read off the
corresponding value of P
n
/ f
c
A
g
and compute the gross area of the cross
section.
d.) Calculate the corresponding width, b.
e.) Revise the trial cross section as required to obtain a well proportioned cross
section.
f.) Calculate the area of steel based on the crosssection dimensions and the assumed
reinforcement ratio.
The use of the SP17 design aids for column design for eccentrically loaded concrete columns
will be illustrated through several examples.
34
EXAMPLE 4  USE OF SP17 TO DESIGN FOR UNIAXIAL BENDING AND
COMPRESSION
A column is to be designed to carry a factored axial load of 518 kips and a factored moment
equal to 530 kipft. Use the assumed material strengths of 60,000 psi for reinforcement and
4,000 psi for concrete. A steel ratio of 0.03 is determined to be economical from cost studies
during preliminary design. Bending is assumed to occur about the major (strong) axis. Also,
assume that the reinforcement is located parallel to the major axis of bending.
Determine the required overall column dimensions and the total area of steel. Assume that
the reinforcement will be arranged in two layers adjacent to the outer faces of the column and
parallel to the strong axis of bending.
Solution:
Select a trial dimension perpendicular to the axis of bending. In this case choose h=24". Using a
concrete cover of 2.4 in. to the bar centers,
Therefore, using the concrete strength, steel strength, ( value and the reinforcement arrangement
given, the correct chart for this design problem is L460.9.
The eccentricity ratio for the load can now be computed as,
Using L460.9, the eccentricity ratio and reinforcement ratio are used to locate a point on the
interaction diagram (refer to the next sheet). The design charts have been created in such a
manner, that the ordinate and absissa can easily be used as ray lines or slopes.
35
The point on the chart corresponding to the intersection of the ray line e/h with the interaction
diagram for D
g
= 0.03 yields,
The section size required is . The total area of steel required is computed as,
Thus, a placed in two(2)
layers of four (4) bars parallel to the major axis as indicated in L460.9.
36
EXAMPLE 5 USE OF SP17 FOR UNIAXIAL BENDING AND COMPRESSION
DESIGN
An exterior column that is part of a two story structure is to be designed for a service axial
DL=150 kips, maximum service axial LL=347 kips, service dead load moment of 100 kipft and
a service live load moment of 192 kipft. The minimum live load compatible with the full
service live load moment is 106 kips. This last live load is obtained when no live loading is
placed on the roof, but a full live load is placed on the second floor. Architectural considerations
require that a rectangular column be used, with dimensions b=18" and h=24". Use 4,000 psi
concrete and 60,000 psi material strengths. Also, assume reinforcement to be distributed around
perimeter and that bending occurs about the major axis.
Determine:
1.) Compute the required column reinforcement for the condition of full live loading,
2.) Check to ensure that the column is adequate for the condition of no live load applied to
the roof framing.
Solution:
Part (a):
The factored axial load and bending moments for the full load condition are computed below,
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1.4 150 1.7 347 800
1.4 100 1.7 192 466.4 5600
u
u
P kips
M k in k in
= + =
= + = =
Quantities necessary for design aid use are calculated below:
Assuming 2.0" cover to the center of the longitudinal steel,
( ) 24 2 2.4
0.8
24
= =
37
The material strengths, reinforcement layout and ( computed above require that chart R460.8
be used. Plotting the point on the interaction diagram corresponding to the factored axial and
bending stresses above on the design chart (below) results in D
g
= 0.018.
Thus, the area of steel required in the 18"x 24" crosssection is,
Use a 18"x 24" column with (17)#8 bars spread out around the perimeter, five (4) each side as
shown below (this is more than is needed, but it will prevent field errors in placement).
38
Part (b):
Consideration of the absent roof live load is prudent as a result of the interaction diagram tending
to "become smaller" as the axial load in the member decreases. In a certain sense, the axial load
in the member is helpful in relieving tension stresses caused by bending moment. As the axial
load decreases, the tensile stresses will increase possibly deeming the crosssection inadequate.
The minimum axial load and corresponding bending moment are,
( ) ( ) 1.4 150 1.7 106 390.2
466.4 5600
u
u
P kips
M k ft k in
= + =
= =
Values to be used in the design chart are,
( )( )
( )( )( )
390
0.32
0.7 4 432
5600
0.19
0.7 4 432 24
u
c g
u
c g
P
f A
M
f A h
= =
= =
Plotting the two values on the design chart indicates that the required D
g
is approximately 0.023,
which greater than that previously required. We chose 12#8 bars, which provides 9.48 square
inches. This translates to 0.022
g
= . Well consider this adequate.
NOTE: The lateral tie layout size and spacing should be computed in addition to the
longitudinal reinforcement.
39
DESIGN AND ANALYSIS FOR BIAXIAL LOADING  SHORT COLUMNS
In addition to uniaxial bending, columns can have bending moments applied about both principal
axes. This case of applied loads is commonly termed biaxial bending. Biaxial bending is a
result of many different framing and loading situations, including,
1.) corner columns in tier buildings.
2.) unbalanced loading on the beams or slab system framing into the concrete column.
Using the basic principles of equilibrium and strain compatibility is difficult when a single axis
of bending is considered. If bending about two axes occurs, the resulting neutral axis is no
longer parallel to one of the sides of the member. It is inclined. As one might expect, utilizing
strain compatibility analysis in a situation such as this can be prohibitively difficult for practical
analysis and design.
It should be noted that circular columns (provided the reinforcement is spread equally around
the perimeter) posses polar symmetry so that a resultant moment can be created,
2 2
( ) u res ux uy
M M M = +
and design or analysis can proceed with the circular column with factored axial load, P
u
, and
uniaxial bending M
u(res)
defined above.
Failure Surfaces
The concept of the failure surface is used to facilitate design and analysis of reinforced concrete
columns subjected to biaxial bending and compression. The interaction diagram used to analyze
and design columns subjected to uniaxial bending is a portion of a three dimensional failure
surface. This threedimensional failure surface defining biaxial bending strength can be
visualized by revolving (spinning) the uniaxial interaction diagram 90 degrees about the axial
load axis.
Notation used to describe the failure surfaces needs to be developed. A rectangular
reinforced concrete column is subjected to bending moments about both of its principal axes.
The bending moments are assumed to be rewritten in terms of eccentricities about both the x
and yaxes as shown in Figure 10.
40
xaxis
yaxis
e
e
( Reinforcing bars not
shown for clarity )
P
M = P e
x
y
nx
ny
n
M = P e
n
x
y
n
Figure 10: Notation for Biaxial Bending of Compression Members.
Three types of failure surfaces have been defined in the literature. The most basic surfaces are
defined on a three axis coordinate system consisting of the nominal axial load or inverse of
nominal axial load and eccentricities about the x and yaxes. Figure 11(a) illustrates the first
failure surface and Figure 11(b) illustrates the second failure surface, which is commonly called
the reciprocal failure surface.
Failure Surface
S ( P , e ,e )
1 n x y
P
e
e
y
x
Failure Surface
S ( 1 / P , e , e )
1 / P
e
e
n
y
x
n y x 2
(a) Failure Surface,
1
S (b) Failure Surface,
2
S
Figure 11: Failure Surface
1
S and Reciprocal Failure Surface
2
S
The third failure surface is a three dimensional representation of the interaction diagram used
previously. In this case, the nominal axial load and bending moments about both axes are used.
41
The eccentricities present in Figures 11(a) and 11(b) are replaced by biaxial bending moments.
The three dimensional respresentation is slightly more intuitive as a result of our previous
discussions of the case of uniaxial bending. Figure 12 illustrates the more intuitive interaction
surface.
P
M
M
Failure Surface
S ( P , M , M )
P  M Interaction
Curves
n
y
x
n 3 nx ny
n
Figure 12: Failure Surface
3
S Commonly Used in BeamColumn Design.
The failure surfaces illustrated have been used in the creation of design and analysis
procedures. Three such procedures are:
1. The Bresler reciprocal load method,
2. The Bresler load contour method,
3. The PCA load contour method.
All methods are quite useful, however, we will concentrate on the load contour methods in this
course because their implementation is more closely related to the case of uniaxial bending.
Bresler Load Contour Method
The use of failure surface S
3
affords a much more feeling oriented approach to the design and
analysis of biaxially loaded columns. The failure surface looks more like the interaction diagram
discussed previously for uniaxially loaded columns and therefore, the load contour method is
consistent in its look and feel with the methods used for uniaxial bending.
The load contour method approximates the failure surface using a family of curves
42
corresponding to constant values of
n
P . Figure 13 illustrates the concept of load contours on
failure surface S
3
.
P
M
M
M M
P , M
noy
nx
ny
n
n n
M
y
Plane at constant P
n
Load contour
M
nox
n
P
M
x
Figure 13: Load Contours for Constant Axial Loading on Failure Surface
3
S .
Each layer (contour) represents all combinations of biaxial bending moment that will cause
failure at the axial load corresponding to the contour level. Therefore, the contour is nothing
more than a slice through the interaction surface. An approximate expression can be written for
each load plane as the interaction equation below,
(20)
nx
M and
ny
M are the nominal biaxial moment strengths in the direction of the x and yaxis,
respectively. These moments are the vector equivalent of the nominal uniaxial moment strength.
M
nox
and M
noy
are the nominal uniaxial moment strengths with bending considered in the
direction of the x and yaxis, respectively. The values of the exponents in (20) depend on the
amount, distribution and location of longitudinal reinforcement, the dimensions of the column,
and the strength and elastic properties of the steel and concrete. It is reasonably accurate to
43
assume that the exponents are the same variable and therefore,
1.0
ny
nx
nox noy
M
M
M M
 
 
+ =



\ .
\ .
(21)
The result of this is shown in Figure 14 as a range of contours,
Figure 14: Biaxial Moment Interaction Curves Defined by Equation (21).
A simplification to equation (21) that results in consistently conservative results is to set
equal to unity,
1.0
ny
nx
nox noy
M
M
M M
+ = (22)
Equation (22) becomes overly conservative when axial loads are large and there are low
percentages of reinforcement in the column. The linear simplification given by equation (22)
should only be used in situations where,
0.1
n c g
P f A <
This limit on axial loading ensures that one is within the upperreaches of the failure surface.
Upon examination of Figure 13, one should recognize that the upper portions of the failure
surface are not as buldgy as the lower regions.
PCA Load Contour Method
The third method for analysis and design of reinforced concrete columns subjected to biaxial
44
bending is an extension of the Bresler load contour method. This method, termed the PCA load
contour method (after a technique developed by the Portland Cement Association) is based upon
the Bresler interaction equation for a given axial load shown here as equation(21). A typical
load contour computed using equation (21) is shown in Figure 15.
Figure 15: Load Contour of Failure Surface
3
S Along Plane of Constant
n
P
The PCA method is defined in such a manner that at point B the biaxial moment strengths
nx
M
and
ny
M are in the same ratio as the uniaxial moment strengths;
nox
M and
noy
M . This can be
written as,
nx nox
ny noy
M M
M M
=
The load contour can be nondimensionalized as shown in Figure 16.
Figure 16: NonDimensional Load Contour
The load resistence of the concrete column can be plotted in a dimensionless form, with the
following parameters,
45
ny
n nx
o nox noy
M
P M
P M M
The second two terms above are designated as relative moments. The failure surface that can be
generated using the above parameters has the advantage of being symmetric about the vertical
plane that splits the two relative moment coordinate planes. This new failure surface
4
S is shown
in Figure 17.
Figure 17: NonDimensional Failure Surface
4
S Used in the PCA Load Contour Method
This procedure yields results sufficiently accurate for design for square and rectangular sections,
and for equal and unequal distribution of reinforcement along the faces of the member.
The relationship that relates the nondimensional coordinate to the exponent in equation
(21) is given below,
Equation (21) may then be rewritten in a nondimensional form as,
46
log0.5
log0.5
log
log
1.0
ny
nx
nox noy
M
M
M M
 
 
+ =



\ .
\ .
(23)
A plot of the curves implied by equation (23) is shown in Figure 18 (also in SP17 Handbook).
Figure 18: NonDimensional Biaxial Moment Strength Relationship.
Design charts giving values for for varying reinforcement layouts, material strengths and
axial load ratios are available (Figure 19).
Figure 19: Typical Biaxial Bending Design Chart (taken from SP17).
47
A method suitable for relatively rapid design of reinforced concrete sections can now be
developed. The design procedure can be expedited if the curves for $ are approximated using
two (2) straight lines as shown in Figure 20.
Figure 20: Bilinear Approximation of NonDimensional Load Contour.
Upon examination of Figure 20, it can be seen that the equation for the upper line is,
1
1.0 for
ny ny noy
nx
noy nox nx nox
M M M
M
M M M M
(
+ = >
(
which can be rewritten as,
(24)
For rectangular sections with longitudinal reinforcement distributed equally on all faces,
equation (24) can be approximately rewritten as,
1
noy
ny nx noy
nox
M
b b
M M M
h h M
     
+
  
\ . \ .
\ .
(25)
The equation describing the lower line of the figure is,
1
1.0 for
ny ny noy
nx
noy nox nx nox
M M M
M
M M M M
(
+ = <
(
or,
(26)
Once again, for rectangular sections with equally distributed reinforcement on all faces,
48
1
nx ny nox
b
M M M
h
   
+
 
\ .
\ .
(27)
Use of design equations (25) and (27) requires that the b/h or h/b be chosen and the value of
be assumed. can be assumed to be 0.65 for an initial guess in biaxial bending analysis
assuming a lightly loaded column is to be checked.
Manual Design Procedure for Biaxial Bending
The designer should develop a mechanical procedure for design of columns subjected to biaxial
bending. A procedure for manual design is included below for simplicity:
1. Choose the value of at 0.65 or use the design charts for to make an estimate.
2. If
ny nx
M M is greater than b h, use equation (25) to calculate an approximate
equivalent uniaxial moment strength
noy
M . If
ny nx
M M is less than b h, use equation
(27) to calculate an approximate equivalent uniaxial moment strength
nox
M .
3. Design the section using any one of the methods for uniaxial bending previously
described to provide axial load strength
n
P and an equivalent uniaxial bending moment
strength
nox
M or
noy
M .
4. Verify the section obtained using either load contour approach.
Design Examples for Biaxial Bending of Concrete Columns
Use of the load contour design and analysis procedures must be illustrated through several
examples. The following publication; Notes on ACI 31899  Building Code Requirements for
Reinforced Concrete with Design Applications, Edited by S.K. Ghosh and Basile G. Rabbat,
published by the Portland Cement Association is an excellent source for design examples for
biaxial columns. Therefore, two examples taken from this text will be used to illustrate the
design and analysis procedures for biaxially loaded columns discussed in this chapter.
49
EXAMPLE 6  DESIGN OF RECTANGULAR COLUMN FOR BIAXIAL BENDING
50
51
52
53
EXAMPLE 7  DESIGN OF CIRCULAR COLUMN FOR BIAXIAL BENDING
54
55
HOMEWORK NUMBER 2
56
This Page Intentionally Left Blank
57
SLENDERNESS EFFECTS
Up until this point, we have been speaking about short columns in which material failure of the
member has been the governing limit state. There are situations, however, where the member
can fail as a combination of overall member stability and material failure. The limit state at a
buckling failure of the member is the motivation for ACI Code provisions concerning
slenderness effects.
A typical eccentrically loaded column is shown in Figure 21. This moment can also result
from concentrated bending moments. Of course, this bending moment could then be written in
terms of the applied axial load at an eccentricity.
Figure 21: Eccentrically Loaded Slender Column.
The initial moment in the member (called first order moment) can be written as,
(28)
As the axial load, P , is applied, the bending moments induced in the member cause it to
displace laterally an additional amount, . As a result of this lateral deformation, the original
P
P
P
P
e
M = P ( e
58
moment in the member given by equation (28) is increased. Using the free body diagram of the
member taken up to the point of maximum lateral deformation, the maximum bending moment at
the member midheight can be written as,
( )
c
M Pe P P e = + = + (29)
The final bending moment at the member midheight is then a sum of the first order bending
moment, Pe , and what is often called the second order moment, P . Therefore, the moment
that the column is designed for must be that expressed in equation (29).
The effect that the second order moments have on the interaction diagram for the reinforced
concrete column can be seen in Figure 22.
B
C
A
A
Pe P*
O
P, axial load
M, bending moment
Short column
interaction diagram
Material failure
Short column
MM
MP
4
Stability failure
Figure 22: Slenderness Effects and the Interaction Diagram.
Various loadmoment curves are plotted on the short column interaction diagram shown in
Figure 22. Three separate columns are depicted in the figure, given by the load moment curves;
OA=, OB and OC.
59
1. Line OA=: (relatively short column: OA is approximated line). This column is termed a
short column and failure is through essentially material failure and secondary effects are
minimal.
2. Line OB: (column of moderate length). This column fails when the loadmoment curve
intersects the interaction diagram at point B and material failure occurs. This type of
failure is expected in most practical building columns
3. Line OC: (long or very slender column). Failure of this type of column occurs without
full crosssection strength being obtained as a result of very significant secondorder
effects.
Effective Length for Columns
In general, reinforced concrete columns reside within two types of frameworks. Each of these
frame types has significant bearing on the behavior of the members within. Frames can be
classified as;
1. Braced Frames where the ends of the columns are ________ allowed to translate with
respect to one another.
2. Unbraced (Sway) Frames where the ends of the columns _________ allowed to translate
with respect to one another.
Second order effects are commonly quantified based on the critical load for the column
(sometimes called the Euler buckling load),
( )
2
2 cr
u
EI
P
KL
= (30)
Various terms in the above equation will be defined for review purposes;
E = the modulus of elasticity of the member,
I = the moment of inertia of the member (minimum value for minimum critical load),
K = effective length of the column depending on the bracing at the member ends (should
be consistent with I),
L
u
= unbraced length of the column (should be consistent with I).
The determination of the effective length factor and the moment of inertia for a reinforced
60
concrete column becomes the challenge when considering slenderness effects and the critical
buckling load.
Reinforced concrete columns have end conditions that are similar to those in structural steel
columns. One might argue, however, that all concrete columns have nearly fixed end
conditions (or at least fully restrained no pins). Consider the four idealized column end
conditions shown in Figure 23.
K = 1.0
K = 0.50 K = 1.0 K = 2.0
* )
L
KL
L
KL
L
KL
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
*
)
L = KL
u
Figure 23: Idealized End Conditions and Effective Lengths for Braced and Unbraced
Concrete Columns
The pinpin column shown in Figure 23 has the end conditions for which the Euler buckling load
or critical load equation was derived. The effective length factor is introduced to modify the
critical load equation so that differing end conditions on the column can be introduced. The
effective length, KL
u
, is the length of a fictitious pinpin column that has the same critical load as
the column under consideration.
One should note that for members within an actual building frame, the restraints at the ends
of the columns are not fully fixed nor truly pinned. Therefore, an alternate means for computing
the effective length factors must be employed. For braced columns, the effective length factor
can be obtained using an alignment chart such as that shown in Figure 24(a).
61
(a) Braced Column (b) Unbraced Column
Figure 24: JacksonMoreland Alignment Charts
The following definition is in order,
which is the relative stiffness of the compression members to flexural members framing in a
plane at one end of the column. L
c
is the length of the compression member measured from
centerline of joint to centerline of joint. L is the length of the flexural member measured
centerline of support to centerline of support. The summation for the columns framing into the
joint should include the column under consideration. The alignment chart can be used to
compute effective length factors for the unbraced column (Figure 24(b)).
It should be noted that properly designed and detailed foundation systems never really
provide zero rotational restraint. Therefore, it is common practice to allow a value of = 10.0 at
the Ahinged@ end of the compression member for use in the alignment chart for unbraced
columns. The case of precast concrete columns should be carefully scrutinized.
62
Moment Magnification
As discussed previously, the interaction of gravity load and displacement results in additional
deformation and increased bending moments called secondorder effects. The current state of
design office practice requires that firstorder analysis be used as a basis for approximating
second order effects (Computer technology advances are changing this, and soon secondorder
analysis programs for individual member and frame analysis will be widely available.) The ACI
Code does allow second order analysis programs to be used to compute bending moments in
columns either individually or as part of structural frames. This section will discuss the typical
means and theory for magnifying first order moments for braced and unbraced columns (frames).
Moment Magnification for Braced Columns
The column shown in Figure 25 is considered braced. It is subjected to end moments and axial
compression as shown.
o
P
M
M
P
* *
M + P ( * + * )
P ( * + * )
s
o
o
o
M
o
s
o s
o
(a) Loaded column (b) First order
column moment
(c) Second order
moment
(d) Total moment
Figure 25: FirstOrder and SecondOrder Moments in Braced Column.
The deflection under the action of bending moment M
o
is considered to be the first order
deflection,
o
. This is the quantity usually obtained via standard computer programs and analysis
63
techniques. When the axial load, P, is applied, the deflection increases by the amount
s
. The
total deflection is termed the second order deflection and it is given by, =
o
+
s
. The primary
moment in the column is M
o
and the secondary moments are called P moments. The total
moment indicated in Figure 3.36(d) is the magnitude the column should be designed for. The
total moment can be obtained using the first order moment and application of a magnification
factor.
A magnification factor can be derived using conjugate beam principles. Assume that the
deflected shape of the column and moment diagram for the secondary moment is a halfsine
wave. The area under onehalf the second order moment diagram is given by,
( )
0
2
2
s
P L
Area
EI
(
= +
(
(31)
and the centroid of the area is located at L/ from the support. The second order deflection is
therefore,
( )
0
2
2
s s
P L L
EI
(
= +
(
( )
2
0
2
s s
PL
EI
= + (32)
One should notice that equation (32) contains the Euler buckling load (excluding the effective
length factor) as shown in equation (30). Thus,
Grouping terms in the above equation and solving for the second order deflection gives,
1
E
s o
E
P P
P P
=
The final deflection is a sum of first and second order deflections,
1
1 1
E
o s o o o
E E
P P
P P P P
= + = + =
(33)
Examination of equation (33) reveals that as the axial load approaches the Euler buckling load,
the deformation at the column midheight approaches infinity.
64
We can assume that the bending moments vary in the same way as the deflections.
Therefore, the maximum bending moment at the column midheight is given by,
1
o
o o
E
P
M M P M
P P
= + = +
(34)
The first order bending moment for the column shown in Figure 25(a) is given by,
2
8
o
o
M L
EI
=
The axial load may be written algebraically as,
2
2
E
P EI
P
P L
=
Substituting the above two equations into equation (34) gives,
(35)
where C
m
is equation (35) is a factor that depends on the end moments that the column is
subjected to. A
F
is the amplification factor for second order moments and M
nt
is the moment in
the column with no lateral translation of the ends. It should be noted that P
E
in equation (35) is
the result of the pinpin column being used in the derivation.
A value for C
m
can be easily derived for the condition of unequal end moments at the ends of
the column. It is assumed that no transverse loads exist between the ends of the column. The
expression for C
m
is the same as that used in the AISC Specifications for steel design. This
expression is given below,
1
2
0.6 0.4
m
M
C
M
= + (36)
The ratio
1 2
M M is ________ if the member is bent in single curvature and ________ if the
member is bent in reverse curvature.
65
Equations (35) and (36) are a fast and relatively accurate means for computing the bending
moment of a braced compression member with end moments. As stated previously, the
derivation of equation (35) assumes that no transverse loads exist on the column. If the
compression member under consideration has transverse loading, it is suggested that C
m
factors
corresponding to the loading conditions considered be obtained from the AISC Specifications or
a text on structural stability such as; Structural Stability  Theory and Implementation by Wai
Fah Chen and Eric M. Lui.
Moment Magnification  Unbraced Columns
Similar magnification of moments can occur for the case of unbraced columns. Consider the
unbraced frame shown in Figure 26.
P
P
H
)
1
2
L
L
b
Figure 26: Unbraced Frame Used for Moment Magnification Derivation.
The horizontal deflection of the frame (story) is given by . Each column has an axial load
applied at the joint. It should be noted that this axial load could be a result of many stories above
this one in question. There are two approaches to the computation of a magnification factor for
first order moments in sway frames. The first is utilizes the story stiffness concept and the
second uses the multiple column buckling concept.
The first method to derive magnification factors is the story stiffness approach. The basic
66
assumptions made in the derivation of the magnification term using this procedure are;
1. Each story can behave independently of other stories,
2. Additional column moments from the P effect are caused by a force P L .
The additional lateral force that is assumed to exist comes from equilibrium of the column(s) in
the deformed configuration of the frame as illustrated in Figure 27.
P
P
)
1
2
L
)
P )
L
i
3P )
P )
L
1
2
P )
L
2
P )
L
L
1
Figure 27: Equivalent Lateral Force(s) for SecondOrder Analysis.
The story stiffness (in sway mode) can be defined as,
horizontal force
lateral displacement
F
S =
It is assumed that we can set the first order stiffness equal to the final stiffness,
o
H H P L +
=
(37)
Using a little algebra, equation (37) can be solved for the displacement that includes second
order effects, , as,
1
1
o
o
P
HL
=
(38)
Assuming the moments in the member will be proportional to the lateral deformations of the
member. The final moments can be written as,
67
1
1
lt
o
M M
P
HL
=
(39)
where
lt
M is the moment as a result of lateral translation of the frame.
The second method to derive second order moment magnification terms utilizes the story
buckling concept. Equation (33) can be used (with a minor substitution) if it is assumed that
story instability occurs with all columns in that story become unstable simultaneously (in a sway
buckling mode). Using this assumption and replacing
E
P P with
E
P P , equation (33)
becomes,
1
1
o
E
P
P
=
(40)
where: P is the sum of all gravity loading applied to the columns in the story; and
E
P is
sum of all Euler critical buckling loads for the columns in the story. As before, with rigid joints
and elastic behavior, the moments that include second order effects are written as,
(41)
where all terms have been defined to this point.
General ACI Provisions for Moment Magnification
The approximate procedure allowed by the Code uses magnified moments from an "ordinary
first order" analysis. The ACI Commentary defines firstorder frame analysis as an elastic
analysis, which does not include the added internal forces resulting from deflection. This is
(was) the usual analysis standard. Computer programs are now beginning to utilize secondorder
solution algorithms. As a result, the magnification procedure will have a limited life as software
becomes more advanced. One should be very careful using secondorder analysis via
commercial software.
When structural steel members are used in the moment magnifier equations, the modulus of
elasticity and section properties are well defined. However, when reinforced concrete is used,
68
these quantities are not so easily determined. First of all, cracking in the columns and beams
affect the cross sectional properties significantly. Thus, all the moment magnification terms are
affected. Furthermore, the duration of loads applied to the members and corresponding creep
can also affect the slenderness and stability of a compression member.
ACI Code section 10.11.1 outlines simplified values of section properties and modulus of
elasticity for use in the expressions contained in the moment magnification procedure. The Code
allows the following properties for members within a structure;
a.) The modulus of elasticity for the members in the structure can be computed using,
1.5
c c c
E w f = (42)
and for concrete strength: 5, 000 12, 000
c
psi f psi ,
( )
1.5
6
40, 000 1.0 10
145
c
c c
w
E f
 
= +

\ .
(43)
b.) The moments of inertia can be taken as the following:
Beams: ________
g
I
Columns: ________
g
I
Walls Cracked: ________
g
I
Uncracked: ________
g
I
Flat plates and flat slab: ________
g
I
c.) Area: ________
g
A
The moments of inertia are to be divided by ( ) 1
d
+ when,
a.) sustained lateral loads act,
b.) stability checks are made with
d
as a creep factor.
The value of
d
is defined as,
maximum factored sustained load
total factored axial load
d
= (44)
Another section property needed when computing critical loads using the moment
69
magnification procedure is the radius of gyration. The radius of gyration for the cross section,
according to 10.11.2 may be taken as,
a.) 0.3 h for rectangular and members, where h is the overall height in the direction
stability is being considered,
b.) 0.25 D for circular members where D is the overall diameter,
c.) the computed radius of gyration for the gross concrete cross section for other shapes.
ACI section 10.11.3 defines the unsupported length of the compression member. The
unsupported length l
u
is taken as the clear distance between floor slabs, beams other members
capable of providing lateral support in the direction being considered for stability/slenderness. If
column capitals or haunches exist, the unsupported length must be defined using the lower
extremity of the haunch or capital.
Section 10.11.4 defines the sway and nonsway column. The definition of sway and non
sway extends to both stories and frames. A column and story within a structure can be
considered as nonsway if the following are satisfied.
a.) The increase in column end moments due to second order effects does not exceed five
(5) percent of the firstorder end moments.
b.) The stability index given by,
u o
u c
P
Q
V l
=
is less than 0.05.
u
P and
u
V are the total vertical load acting on the story and the story
shear, respectively.
o
is the first order relative story displacement and
c
l is the length
of the compression members within the story measured from center to center of framing
beams/slabs. One should note the stability index term within equation (39).
It is sometimes more useful to think of the amplification factor rather than the stability index.
Recalling the amplification for firstorder (sway) effects,
1 1
1.053
1 1 0.05
F
A
Q
= = =
it can be seen that when the stability index is at its limit for braced behavior, the second order
effects are 5.3% of the first order (relatively small). Thus, the stability index check is saying
70
that when second order effects are small, the frame can be considered as braced.
There is a limit as to how slender a compression member can be when using the moment
magnifier approach. The common measure is the slenderness ratio,
u
KL r . ACI section 10.11.5
dictates that if the slenderness ratio for a compression member exceeds 100, a second order
analysis considering material nonlinearity, cracking, member curvature, lateral loads, duration
of loads, shrinkage, creep, foundation interaction and factored loads shall be used in lieu of the
moment magnifier approach. In other words, if
u
KL r is greater than 100, the analysis required
may be too complicated for design. If possible, a larger section should be chosen.
Biaxial bending is a distinct possibility when a slender column is considered. As directed by
ACI 10.11.6, the moment about each principal axis shall be magnified separately based on the
conditions of restraint corresponding to that axis.
As was seen throughout the derivation of expressions used for moment magnification in non
sway and sway frames, the critical loads for compression members must be evaluated. The ACI
Code section 10.12.1 requires that the calculation of K be based on values of E and I used in
section 10.11.1. In lieu of using the alignment chart for evaluation of the effective length factor
for a braced column, the ACI Commentary allows the following two expressions to be used as an
upperbound estimate,
( )
( )
min
0.70 0.05 1.0
0.85 0.05 1.0
A B
k
k
= + +
= +
(45)
The smaller of the two expressions should be used.
The ACI commentary also allows upper bound solutions using equations for unbraced
columns. The expressions are broken down into two categories; columns with both ends
restrained, and columns with restraint at one end, and hinged at the other.
a.) Compression member restrained at both ends;
 
,
m A B
avg =
71
20
2 1
20
2 0.9 1
m
m m
m m
k
k
< = +
= +
(46)
b.) Compression member hinged at one end;
2.0 3.0
res
k = +
where
res
is the value at the restrained end.
ACI Moment Magnification for NonSway Frames
The ACI provisions for moment magnification in nonsway frames are contained in section
10.12 of the Code. The basic overall procedure and philosophy of the code is to determine
whether or not slenderness should be considered, and then magnify the moments in the
compression member in the appropriate manner. In a nonsway frame, slenderness effects and
hence magnification of moments can be neglected if,
1
2
34 12
u
kl M
r M
(47)
where
1 2
0.50 M M > . The term
1 2
M M is positive if the compression member is bent in
single curvature.
u
kl is effective length of the section and the radius of gyration, r, is evaluated
as outlined in 10.11.2.
The magnified moment in the compression member is written as an amplification term
multiplied by the larger of the two end moments that result in the member with no lateral
translation of the frame. This can be simply written as,
2 c ns
M M = (48)
where
c
M is the magnified nonsway moment,
2
M is the larger of the two end moments and
ns
is the nonsway amplification factor given by,
1.0
1
0.75
m
ns
u
c
C
P
P
=
(49)
where,
72
( )
2
2 c
u
EI
P
kl
= (50)
The similarity in the above expressions to those derived is apparent. The quantity, EI, shall be
taken as,
0.2
1
c g s se
d
E I E I
EI
+
=
+
(51)
where
se
I is the moment of inertia of the reinforcement about the member cross section
centroidal axis. The member stiffness can also be taken as,
0.4
1
c g
d
E I
EI
=
+
(52)
The factor,
m
C , which modifies the amplification factor according to the moments applied at the
member ends is taken as,
1
2
0.6 0.4 0.4
m
M
C
M
= + (53)
where
1 2
M M is positive if the member is bent in single curvature.
m
C can be taken as 1.0 if
transverse loads exist between the member ends.
2
M is the larger of the two end moments.
As one might expect there is also a minimum factored moment the slender nonsway member
must be designed for according to the Code. This minimum moment is computed as,
( )
2,min
0.6 0.03
u
M P h = + (54)
about each axis separately. The member height, h, is to be taken in inches. For members in
which
2,min
M exceeds
2
M , the value of
m
C in equation shall be taken equal to 1.0 or based on
the ratio of computed end moments.
ACI Moment Magnification for Sway Frames
A similar magnification procedure to that done for nonsway frames is performed for the case of
sway frames. The ACI 31895 procedure has been modified over that contained in previous
editions. The revised procedure consists of the following steps:
1. Compute the magnified sway moments,
s s
M . This calculation can be done using
73
secondorder elastic frame analysis, an approximate moment magnification technique
included in the Code, or sway magnifiers from previous editions of the Code.
s
M is the
first order moment as a result of frame sway.
2. The magnified sway moments,
s s
M , are added to the unmagnified nonsway moment
ns
M at each end of the column. The nonsway moments may be computed using a first
order elastic analysis.
3. If the column is slender and the loads on it are high, it is checked to see whether the
moments at points between the ends are higher than those at the ends of the compression
member.
The above procedure is imbedded in the ACI Code provisions contained in section 10.13 for
sway columns.
The effective length factor for the sway column shall be determined using the relationships
found in section 10.11.1. A main difference in the computation or attainment of K from the
alignment charts in the case of the sway column versus that of the nonsway column is in the
definition of
d
.
1. Except as provided below in (b),
max. factored sustained shear in story
total factored shear in story
d
=
the maximum sustained story shear could result from lateral earth pressure acting on a
portion of a frame. It will be zero for most building / bridge structures.
2. For stability checks of sway frames carried out in accordance with ACI 10.13.6,
max. factored sustained axial load
total factored axial load
d
=
In all cases, the effective length factor shall be taken as greater than or equal to 1.0.
Slenderness may be neglected for a member allowed to sway when the slenderness ratio
adheres to the following;
22
u
kl
r
<
74
The bending moments acting at each end of a beamcolumn need to be magnified for the
design. Therefore, the moments at the ends of plane frame compression members shall be taken
as,
1 1, 1,
2 2, 2,
ns s s
ns s s
M M M
M M M
= +
= +
(55)
The magnified moments at the ends of the member can be computed in two ways based on the
story stiffness or story buckling concept. Using the story stiffness method,
1
s
s s s
M
M M
Q
=
(56)
where Q is the stability index previously defined. If the amplification factor for sway moments,
s
exceeds 1.50, a second order analysis or the story buckling amplification factor shall be used.
The magnified moment computed based on the story buckling concept is given by,
1
0.75
s
s s s
u
c
M
M M
P
P
=
(57)
where
u
P is the sum of all factored vertical loads applied to the story under consideration and
c
P is the sum of all critical loads for the compression members contained in the story under
consideration.
c
P is computed using the effective length factors and methods already
established.
For slender columns with high axial loads, the point of maximum moment within the
member may not be at the ends of the member as is assumed thus far. The maximum moment
may actually reside within the ends of the member and this situation has not been addressed in
the code provisions to this point. Therefore, if an individual compression member has,
35
u
u c g
l
r P f A
>
(58)
it shall be designed for the factored axial load, P
u
, and the moment M
c
calculated using the non
sway magnified moment given by equation (48) in which M
1
and M
2
are computed using the
magnified moments for the sway column given by equations (55).
The strength and stability of the structure under gravity loads alone must also be maintained.
75
Therefore,
1. When the magnified moments are computed using a second order elastic analysis, the
ratio of secondorder lateral deflections to first order lateral deflections for 1.4 DL and
1.7 LL plus lateral load applied to the structure shall not exceed 2.5.
2. When the magnified moments are computed according to the story shear method given
by equation (56), the value of the stability index computed using 3P
u
for 1.4 DL plus 1.7
LL shall not exceed 0.60.
3. When the magnified moments are computed using the story buckling concept given by
equation (57), the amplification factor corresponding to factored dead and live loads shall
be positive and not exceed 2.5.
In all three of the cases above,
d
shall be taken as the ratio of the maximum factored sustained
axial load to the total factored axial load for the story under consideration.
One should always keep in mind that magnifying the moments acting on a column to account
for second order effects implies that the beams framing into the column must have their moments
magnified also.
Design Examples  Slender Columns
As one might expect, the design of a braced or unbraced slender concrete column is a rather
cumbersome task. The main issue is the fact that the effects of slenderness are not known until
the crosssection is chosen and the crosssection will dictate the effects of slenderness. As a
result, a semi iterative procedure is required for the design of slender columns.
A schematic procedure for the design of slender sway and nonsway columns can be
described as follows:
1. Select a trial column section to carry the factored axial load, P
u
, and the moment, M
u
=M
2
from the elastic first order frame analysis assuming short column behavior.
2. Determine if the frame (and column) is braced or unbraced.
3. Determine the unsupported length and effective length factor for the column.
4. Check for consideration of slenderness effects (depends on braced or unbraced nature of
the column).
76
5. If slenderness is not a problem, design as a short column and stop this procedure.
6. If moments in the frame are small, check to determine if minimum moments and/or
eccentricities control.
7. Depending on the bracing characteristics of the column, compute the amplified moments.
8. Check the adequacy of the column to resist the factored axial load and the amplified
factored moment. Use the SP17 charts in the usual manner. Revise the column
reinforcement and crosssection as necessary.
9. If the column crosssection is close to its capacity (slight overstress) refine the
calculations for effective length and amplified moments further and adjust column
accordingly.
The above procedure will be used in the design of braced and unbraced reinforced concrete
columns. It should be noted that the moments given in the examples are intended to alleviate the
time consuming attainment of bending moments through frame analysis. One should keep in
mind that these moments must be determined through analysis and this is often a major step in
concrete column design.
77
Example 8  Design of a Slender Column (Braced Case)
78
79
80
81
82
Example 9  Design of a Slender Column (Unbraced Case)
83
84
85
86
87
88
COMPUTER ANALYSIS FOR CONCRETE COLUMNS
The final stage in the saga of concrete columns is design and analysis via computer. As we have
seen, the strain compatibility method can be prohibitively cumbersome for column analysis and
even more so for design. The design handbooks are nice to use, however, in many cases the
situations that you run into in practice do not always fit the assumptions used to develop the
charts and tables. One could interpolate or make some conservative assumptions in order to fit
the situation at hand to the tables/charts, but the use of computer programs is probably the best
method for analysis and design. Furthermore, it is probably the most accurate method of all
(assuming no bugs in the program exist).
The concrete column analysis and design program called PCACOL will be introduced. The
Portland Cement Association in Skokie, Illinois publishes this program. We have obtained
authorization to distribute copies of the programs to the students for educational use.
Unfortunately, the program only designs and analyzes according to ACI 3889. For
demonstration purposes, this is okay. THE SOFTWARE IS NOT TO BE USED FOR
PROFESSIONAL (CONSULTING) PURPOSES.
The program is a onestop shop for complete column analysis and design. The programs
coverage includes irregular column analysis, biaxial bending, uniaxial bending and slenderness
effects and many other facets of reinforced concrete column analysis.
Use of the program will be illustrated through inclass demonstrations on the computer. Two
example problems will be illustrated. The data used in the examples is listed below. And the in
class demonstration will provide the knowhow to use the program for solving the examples.
89
Example 10  Design of a Slender Unbraced Column
A portion of a ten story office building is shown below. Design the first interior first story
columns.
Columns are not braced against sidesway and the column under consideration bends in double
curvature. First floor clear height is as shown above. Clear heights for the floors above and
below (basement level) is 11=0@. Building layout is 7 by 3 bays with 26 in. square beams
framing into the column in both directions. Material properties for the structure are: 5,000 psi
concrete and 60,000 psi steel.
Service loads on the interior column(s) are given below (moments about the xaxis  major axis):
P
D
= 363 kips P
L
= 128 kips P
W
= 0 kips
M
D
= 16.5 ftkips M
L
= 13.5 ftkips M
W
= 50 ftkips at top of column
M
D
= 42 ftkips M
L
= 34 ftkips M
W
= 50 ftkips at bottom of column
Assume the following values for moment magnification and effective length computation:
3P
u
= 13,422 kips 3P
c
= 38,472 kips P
u
= 544 kips P
c
= 1878
k
b
= 0.78 k
s
= 1.30
Use the computer program PCACOL to design the slender, uniaxially bent, unbraced column.
90
Example 11  Design for Biaxial Loads
Determine the size and reinforcement of a rectangular column with the following factored loads:
P
u
= 1700 kips, M
ux
= 2900 ftkips and M
uy
= 1200 ftkips. Assume that the reinforcing bars
are equally distributed on all column sides. Use the block stress profile, 4,000 psi concrete and
Gr. 60 steel. Assume that the column is nonslender. Architectural considerations have limited
the sides of the column to a minimum of 30 inches and a maximum of 48 inches. Use PCACOL
for the design.
91
HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT #3
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