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Submitted To Prof.Gitakrishnan Ramadurai

Submitted by N. Vishwaksen Raj CE09M131 M-Tech(Transportation Engineering)

A geographic information system (GIS) integrates hardware, software, and data for capturing, managing, analyzing, and displaying all forms of geographically referenced information. GIS allows us to view, understand, question, interpret, and visualize data in many ways that reveal relationships, patterns, and trends in the form of maps, globes, reports, and charts. A GIS helps you answer questions and solve problems by looking at your data in a way that is quickly understood and easily shared. GIS technology can be integrated into any enterprise information system framework. A special case of information system where the database consists of observations on spatially distributed features, activities or events, which are definable in space as points, lines or area. A geographic information systems manipulates data about these points, lines and areas to retrieve data for ad hoc queries and analyses. GIS handles SPATIAL information - Information referenced by its location in space. GIS makes connections between activities based on spatial proximity.

ARC GIS ArcGIS is a geographic information system (GIS) for working with maps and geographic information. It is used for: creating and using maps; compiling geographic data; analyzing mapped information; sharing and discovering geographic information; using maps and geographic information in a range of applications; and managing geographic information in a database. The system provides an infrastructure for making maps and geographic information available throughout an organization, across a community, and openly on the Web. Two applications of Arc GIS software were studied.

Exploring GPS data using Tracking analyst extension In this method the GPS co-ordinates on a route were taken, say foe ex. A GPS fitted in a bus plying on a particular route in a city. The co-ordinates in the GPS is in Decimal Degree format. Steps: 1). GPS data format is converted to MS excel format, date and time is combined in one single field/column, latitude & longitude in decimal degrees. 2). A geodatabase in Arc Catalogis created. 3). Add XY tool in ArcGIS is used to import the GPS file. 4).GPS file is converted to a feature class and stored in the geodatabase created before. 5). Feature class is imported using Add temporal data in Tracking analyst extension. The following analysis can be done:I. II. III. Route of the bus can be checked and it can be located or traced out. Numbers of trips performed by the Bus can be determined. Data loss if any can be checked as points missing will be shown and necessary changes or amendment in the calculation of travel time, delays etc. may be carried out. IV. V. The Travel time of the Bus can be determined. The start time of the bus from the depot can be determined and check on the driver can be enforced. Shortest path analysis using Network analyst extension This method is used to:I. II. To find the shortest/quickest path between a use defined origin and destination. To find the alternate routes in case of road blockage.

Required inputs are road network (links and nodes) with necessary information on name, type (classification), restriction (one way or not), signal timings at intersections (nodes), speed limit, max. height of the vehicle permitted etc. The following steps are performed to get the desired results:I. II. A scanned image/map is imported as a background map for digitizing the features. The scanned map is given a reference (known co-ordinates of locations on the scanned map) with respect to a particular location on the earth. At 4 nos. minimum co-ordinates or control points should be known for getting co-ordinates of the entire area. III. 4 control points are added. Throughout the map, the geographic coordinates will be assigned based on the four control points given. IV. V. VI. The map is converted from 3D to 2D. Now the map is digitalised. This is done by converting of data in analogue form, such as maps and aerial photographs, into a digital form that is directly readable by a computer. Ex. Point - Location of school, hospital, well, sampling location, weather stations etc. Line Roads, railway lines, contours, rivers, canals etc. Polygon Land use, soil class, village blocks, district boundary etc. VII. Attributes are added .For Ex. Road length, Speed, Signals, Road classification, Restrictions etc. VIII. The shortest path is created keeping either Travel time or distance as impedance for any O-D pair. IX. The other types of analysis which can be done in Network analyst are, finding the closest facility (say from patrol vehicle to accident spot and from accident spot to nearest hospital),drive time analysis, and creating O-D cost matrix.

Conclusion: ArcGIS is a set of comprehensive spatial analysis tools used for: creating and using maps; compiling geographic data; analyzing mapped information; sharing and discovering geographic information; using maps and geographic information in a range of applications; and managing geographic information in a database