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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJECET)

International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March April (2013), IAEME

ISSN 0976 6464(Print) ISSN 0976 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March April, 2013, pp. 198-216 IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijecet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8896 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com

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ANALOG AND DIGITAL MODULATION FORMATS OF OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATION WITHIN AND BEYOND 100 GB/S: A COMPARATIVE OVERVIEW
S.K Mohapatra1 Department of ECE, Trident Academy of Technology. BPUT, Bhubaneswar,Odisha,India. R. Bhojray2 Department of ECE, Trident Academy of Technology. BPUT, Bhubaneswar,Odisha,India. S.K Mandal3 Department of ECE, Trident Academy of Technology. BPUT, Bhubaneswar,Odisha,India.

ABSTRACT For transferring data to increase performance and implementation simplicity different analogue and digital techniques are used in fiber optic communication channel. Different digital modulation formats maximizes spectral efficiency and also improves tolerance to transmission impairments. This paper reviews a comparative analysis for the different digital modulation formats within 100Gb/s and beyond the 100Gb/s. A brief overview over different transmission systems transmitting huge amount of data at channel bit rates up to 1Tb/s or beyond this. In this specific article we survey in a comparative tabular manner to analyse the advantages of digital modulation formats over old analogue modulation formats. Keywords: Optical fiber communication ,Analog modulation format, Digital modulation format , 100Gb/s , 100Gb/s.

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1. INTRODUCTION In communication technology, a large bandwidth was the universal demand for the industrial and consumer application. For this, advanced modulation techniques used in optical communication in terms of high bandwidth data communication. In advanced modulation formats, the ones that make use of not only amplitude but also other signal domains, such as phase and the state of polarization are more sophisticated techniques to encode the electrical data pattern onto an optical carrier. This produces an enhancement in the functionality and an increase in the spectral efficiency compared to the analogue modulation formats of fiber optic communication. The major advantage of using fiber optic digital modulation formats is that the use of digital signals reduces hardware complexity, noise and interference difficulties are compared to the analogue signal where large number of wave forms will be required resulting in a large bandwidth for the symbol to be transmitted [4]. Over the past years various digital modulation formats designed which are mainly consists of 2.5,10,25,40 and 100 Gb/s wave length channels. But for today optical communication systems, data rate per channel increases to beyond 100 Gb/s. The 100 Gb/s Ethernet (GbE) interfaces have been published by the IEEE standard 802.3ba [6] in 2010 for 10 Km and 40 Km reach, using 4 channels with 25 Gb/s. The line side bit rate of about 112 Gb/s (OTU4 bit rate) and the OTN multiplex with the client data and standard Reed Soloman FEC has been defined by ITU-T standard G.709 [7] published in 2009. Since 2010, 100 Gb/s bandwidth systems slowly progress in the different optical communication networks for industrial applications. The modern communication optical systems requires data transmission at a higher rate i.e beyond 100Gb/s (Exa:- 200Gb/s, 400 Gb/s, 1000 Gb/s and even 1T bit/s Ethernet). For short reach clients side applications 100 Gb/s transmission desired with 10 No. Of 10 Gb/s or 4 No. Of 25 Gb/s [6]. For high transmission capacity, serial transmission of a huge number of digital wave division multiplexing channels at narrow channel spacing is basically designed. This segment comparatively reviews the digital modulation technological options for serial transmission of within and beyond 100 Gb/s. In the introductory part we elaborate the bit rate in Mb/s with respect to the wavelength of optical source, the repeater spacing and optical carrier. Then in the first part we express on 40Gb/s optical systems and represent an overview on the modulation formats starting from binary amplitude shift keying to M-QAM.The second section is expressing on 100Gb/s systems and give an overview on the different features,system tolerances and main characteristics. In the third section we focus on the digital modulation formats for systems beyond 100 Gb/s.

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2. CLASSIFICATION OF OPTICAL FIBER MODULATION TECHNIQUES


Sl. No. 01. Modulation formats Analog modulation formats Type Amplitude modulation/Intensity modulation sub-carrier Frequency modulation/Intensity modulation sub-carrier Phase modulation ON-OFF keying/binary amplitude shift keying. Binary frequency shift keying Binary phase shift keying Differential phase shift keying Return to zero DPSK Quadrature phase shift keying Differential QPSK Return to zero DQPSK Return to zero DPSK-3ASK Polarization division multiplexing QPSK PM-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing QPSK Optical polarization FDM-RZ-DQPSK Polarization division multiplexingDQPSK M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation Minimum shift keying Gaussian MSK Single carrier modulation formats Multi carrier modulation formats Notation AM/IMSC FM/IMSC PM OOK/ BASK BFSK BPSK DPSK RZ-DPSK QPSK DQPSK RZ-DQPSK RZ-DPSK-3ASK PM-QPSK/DP-QPSK PM-OFDM-QPSK/DPOFDM-QPSK OP-FDM-RZ-DQPSK PM-DQPSK or DPDQPSK M-QAM MSK GMSK SC MC

02.

Digital modulation formats

3. ANALOG OPTICAL FIBER MODULATION TECHNIQUES The optic baseband transmission in which the signal is carried on a light beam modulated at the baseband frequencies of the information. In this analog modulation the optic power varies in proportion to the input current known as Intensity modulation. 3.1 AM/IM Subcarrier modulation Conventional AM places message on a carrier whose frequency is much greater than the messages . AM of a single sinusoid can be written as i = Is (1+m cosm) cossct (1) where sc is the subcarrier frequency.We can add a dc current I0 to the above current and drive an optic source with the result producing IM of a light beam by an AM signal. This is AM/IM modulation that generates optic power. P=P0 + Ps(1+m cosm) cossct (2)

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3.2 FM/IM Subcarrier modulation Adding a dc current to the FM equation , i = Is cos (sct+ sinmt) (3)

where is the modulation index and intensity modulating an optic source with it produces FM/IM modulation. For the sine wave optic power varies as P=P0 + Ps cos(sct+ sinmt) (4)

The detected current has the same waveform as the optic power. As the FM bandwidth is larger than the AM bandwidth , fewer FM messages can be fitted within the fibers limited range of frequencies. 3.3 PM Subcarrier modulation For analog optical communication , phase modulation is a advanced modulation format which is a electro-optic effect principle that generates a phase shift [3]. That phase shift is linearly proportional to the applied field. The phase demodulation process uses heterodyne detection which forces a sinusoidal non linearity on the demodulated signal as comparison to the amplitude demodulator [3]. 4. OPTICAL FIBER DIGITAL MODULATION TECHNIQUES Modulation is a method by which digital information is imprinted onto an optical carrier and in its most general sense also including CODING to present transmission errors. In optical fibers the electromagnetic waves with frequencies of nearly 200THz are used to transfer information from one point to another. In optical fiber communication systems the modulation of both amplitude and phase of the carrier allows for an improved utilisation of the complex plane, where information symbols are mapped, yielding an increased spectral efficiency. 4.1 OOK/BASK The original signals are modulated onto high frequency optical carriers in optical fiber communication systems. In ASK format the baseband signal is multiplied by a carrier frequency , thus the binary 0 is transmitted with 0Watt and binary 1 with A Watt. The demodulation process at the receiving end is performed efficiently by applying photodetectors, which converts the optical signal to the electrical signal. 4-ary ASK digital modulation formats are developed , having M=2b where b is the number of bits per symbol used to double the transmission capacity. Table-11 summarizes the gain factor with respect to DBPSK. Table-12 shows the poor information capacity and bandwidth efficiency. 4.2 BFSK BFSK is a data signal converted into a specific frequency in order to transmit it over optical fiber media to a destination point. The choice of the frequency deviation depends on the available bandwidth. The total bandwidth of a FSK signal is given approximately by 2f+2B where B is the bit rate. When , the bandwidth approaches 2f and is nearly independent of the bit rate. Table-12 compares the information capacity with OOK which is slightly better, but in Table-12 the bandwidth with OOK is not so efficient.
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4.3 BPSK In BPSK modulation technique, the binary data are modulated onto the optical carrier referring to the phase difference between binary 0 and 1. The binary 1is signed as sint and 0 is signed as -sint. Its demodulation process is so complex than other digital modulation formats.Table-9 summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of BPSK modulation format. It has small error rate as shown in Table-9. 4.4 DPSK In optical transmission systems, the DPSK is preferred because of its high robustness to non linear propagation[8] and to a smaller extent, to polarization mode dispersion(PMD) [9]. It is a fast and stable modulation format and well suited for many optical applications. It has some advantages to the binary PSK, as a lower phase error rate and a no need to know the absolute phase. The information capacity is twice the BFSK as pointed in Table-12. 4.5 NRZ/RZ-DPSK The multichannel parallel format conversions from the non return to zero DPSK(NRZDPSK) to the return to zero DPSK(RZ-DPSK) using a single semiconductor optical amplifier(SOA). The simultaneous conversions are based on the cross phase modulation (xpm) effect , which is induced by a synchronous optical clock signal with high input power. The XPM adds an identical phase shift onto every input bit, resulting in the phase difference unchanged [5].The input spectra are broadened and subsequent filter is utilized to extract the specific part to form a RZ pulse 6 channel NRZ-DPSK signals at 40Gb/s can be converted to the corresponding RZ-DPSK signals with nearly 0.8 to -1dB power penalty for all the channels. The OSNR sensitivity at BER=2 10-3 (dB) is very small, i.e. 12.5 according to Table-7. 4.6 QPSK In QPSK, two bits in the bit stream are taken and four phases of the carrier frequency are used to represent the four combinations of the two bits. There are different phases of the carrier are used to represent the four possible combinations of two bits : 00, 01, 10 and 11. It doubles the line rate compared to OOK by coding two bits in one symbol, applying 50Gbaud to get 100Gb/s. The output signal of the transmitter has mainly constant optical power and the information is carried in the four phase states of the optical phase of the emitted light. Table-7 summarizes that the PMD tolerance without compensation higher than different DPSK formats. It has better error performance over BPSK and BFSK according to Table-9. 4.7 DQPSK It is the four level version of DPSK. DQPSK transmits two bits for every symbol (bit combination being 00, 01, 11 and 10) and has an advantage over DPSK is that it has narrower optical spectrum which tolerate more dispersion (both chromatic and polarization mode), allows for stronger optical filtering and enables closer channel spacing. As a result, DQPSK allows processing of 40Gb/s data rate in a 50GHz channel spacing system. The bandwidth saving of DQPSK over both DD-OOK and DPSK suggest that DQPSK can improve the reach and efficiency of WDM systems according to Table-11.

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4.8 RZ-DQPSK To get RZ-DQPSK signal, two phase modulators are cascaded for the modulation of the optical phase by 0 to /2 and by 0 to /4 applying binary modulation signals or a single phase modulator driven by an electrical 4-level modulation signals. The 100Gb/s transmission using DQPSK modulation format has widely been demonstrated over either lab or field fibers at 100Gb/s[10-12], with FEC overhead at 107Gb/s[13-17] and at 111Gb/s[18] and at 112Gb/s OTU-4 channel bit rate[19, 20]. Table-8 compares the OSNR value of RZ-DQPSK with NRZ-DQPSK. Also Table-8 summarizes the modulated bandwidth which is doubles with respect to the NRZ-DQPSK format. 4.9 RZ-DPSK-3ASK This is a very fundamental mixer of ASK modulation and phase modulation. In RZ-DPSK3ASK modulation format 2.5 bits are coded in one symbol which leads to a symbol rate of 43Gbauds [21-24] for support of the OTU4 line rate [7] of 112Gb/s. The OSNR tolerance of this modulation format is limited, as a result, the transmission reach is also limited [25,26]. The main application area is in the metro where its estimated reach is less than 500 according to Table-13. 4.10 PM-QPSK or DP-QPSK The 100Gb/s PM-QPSK transmission process [27] running at a symbol rate of 25-28Gbaud is widely applied with off-line signal processing of the electrical signals which are measured by 4channel high speed real time oscilloscopes acting as fast A/D convertors[28,29]. As per Table-13, its compatibility with 10Gb/s and 40Gb/s is positive. The long haul OIF is the perfect application area for this modulation format. 4.11 PM-OFDM-QPSK or DP-OFDM-QPSK Another commercially available 100Gb/s transponder applies two narrow spaced (20GHz) optical carriers each modulated with PM-QPSK format based on 14Gbaud modulation [30,27]. This modulation format has been denoted as DP or PM-OFDM-QPSK and requires the hardware of two 50Gb/s PM-QPSK transmitters and receivers. The compatibility with 10Gb/s and 40Gb/s is negative shall be set according to Table-13. 4.12 OP-FDM-RZ-DQPSK To carry two optical carriers, there are two polarizations can be used to eliminate the fast automatic optical polarization demultiplexures [27]. The two carriers can be multiplexed and demultiplexed with optical fibers. This modulation format based on 28Gbaud and has been entitled as orthogonal polarization frequency division multiplex RZ-DQPSK. But also to the separation of two optical carriers in two polarizations only 100GHz channel spacing is supported. The compatibility with 10Gb/s and 40Gb/s is positive (which is negative in case of PM-OFDM-QPSK) shall be set according to Table-13. 4.13 PM-DQPSK or DP-DQPSK By applying polarization division multiplexing (PM), we can reduce the symbol rate. As a result the line rate is doubles or the symbol rate becomes half [27]. This leads to 100Gb/s polarization multiplexed DQPSK signals or dual polarization (DP) with a symbol rate of 28Gbaud to support the OTU 4 line rate. The 28Gbaud modulation formats supports the 100G DWDM transmission with 50 GHz channel spacing. The two DQPSK signals are combined orthogonally polarized using a polarization beam combiner According to Table-13 the symbol rate is summarized as 28 which is almost equal to OP-FDM-RZ-DQPSK optical digital modulation format.

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4.14 M-QAM Recently QAM scheme with polarization multiplexing is utilized to achieve a channel rate of 200Gb/s with 16QAM. In an M-QAM, m bits are transmitted in a single time slot [27]. Optimizing the SE of signals with M-QAM constellations by Nyquist filtering towards NyquistWDM [32] is currently of high research interest and has already been demonstrated at submarine transmission configurations[33] using RZ at PM-QPSK. Polarization multiplexed 16 QAM signals have been realized by multilevel generation using passive combination of binary signals to achieve 224 Gb/s channel rate(200G+FEC overhead)[45-47] and for 448 Gb/s channel rate [48]. Using polarization multiplexing and QAM modulation format transmission lengths between 670 up to 1500km have been demonstrated [45-47]. RF-assisted optical Dual-carrier 112Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 16QAM is applied to achieve 112Gb/s channel rate[49]. DP-64QAM format has been applied to achieve a 240Gb/s channel with 12 bits/symbol [50]. QAM modulation is reported for lower bit rate channels of 100Gb/s using 32QAM[51], 100Gb/s using 35QAM[52], 112Gb/s and 120Gb/s using 64QAM[53,54], 56Gb/s with a spectral efficiency of 11.8bit/s/Hz using DP-256QAM[55], 54Gb/s using DP-512QAM[ 56]. According to Table-15, we conclude a comparative analysis between different M-QAM modulation techniques having different bit rate (Gb/s). 4.15 MSK The new optical minimum shift keying modulation scheme have the high spectral efficiency as compared to other digital modulation formats. The transmitter for optical MSK based on two Marh-Zehnder modulators (MZM) similar to the transmitter for DQPSK. The MSK receiver with one delays and add filter (DAF) and photodiodes for direct detect detection is similar to the DPSK receiver. On the basis of error performance, the signal coherence and derivation ratio are largely unaffected which is reflected according to the Table-9. By the Table12, the information capacity is shown as doubles the capacity of BFSK signal. 4.16 GMSK Gaussian minimum shift keying is a simple optical binary modulation scheme which is viewed as a derivative of optical MSK modulation technique. In this format , the side lobe levels of the spectrum are further reduced by passing the modulating NRZ data waveform through a premodulation Gaussian pulse shaping filter. The bandwidth of a optical GMSK system is defined by the relationship between the pre-modulation filter bandwidth B and the bit period TB. The decision of BTB according to 0.2GMSK, 0.25GMSK, 0.5GMSK at 99.99% are 1.22,1.37 and 2.08 respectively. 4.17 Single carrier (SC) modulation formats For bit rates beyond 100Gb/s on a single carrier, higher level modulation schemes like QAM with PM is used to get a channel rate of 200Gb/s with 16QAM. In this format 2m bits are transmitted per symbol. Various constellations [27.31] can be applied for PM-QAM modulation format. Minimizing the SE of signals with M-QAM constellation by Nyquist filtering towards Nyquist-WDM[32] is currently of high research interest and has already been demonstrated at submarine transmission configurations[33] using RZ at PM-QPSK. Table-14 gives an overview on single channel M-QAM options from 200Gb/s to 1Tb/s [27]

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4.18 Multicarrier (MC) modulation formats: Optical OFDM transmission is a MC modulation format which approach to support high bandwidth channels [34]. To form the IFFT, DSP is applied in the transmitter. Due to the rectangular (almost) safe of O-OFDM signals high capacity transmission can be performed by close allocation of multiple OFDM signals in the frequency domain without guard bands A number of transmission experiments using polarization multiplexed O-OFDM and PMO-OFDM have been reported [27,35-41], transporting Tb/s super channels over submarine distances[41]. Recently field transmission trials over installed standard SMF applying PM-OFDM format in co-propagation with 112G DQPSK channels are reported using 253 Gb/s OFDM superchannels with subcarriers carrying QPSK signals and 400Gb/s super-channels 8QAM signals [42] over 768 Km and Tb/s super-channels over 454 Km [43] and 3560 Km [44]. This optical OFDM transmission with PM-QPSK modulation overview is depicted in Table-13 Generation Wavelength of Optical Bit rate Mb/s Repeater Spacing (Km) Loss source(m) I 0.8 4.5 10 1 II 1.3 1.7102 50 <1 III 1.55 1.0104 70 <0.2 Iv 1.55 1.0105 100 <0.002 V 1.55 >1.0109 >100 <0.002 Table-1: Generations of optical fiber communication which shows analysis between wavelength and bit rate within Mb/s.

Level Line rate DS3 channel OC-1 51.84Mbps 1 OC-3 155.52Mbps 3 OC-9 466.56Mbps 9 OC-12 622.08Mbps 12 OC-18 933.12Mbps 18 OC-24 1.244 Gbps 24 OC-36 1.866 Gbps 36 OC48 2.488 Gbps 48 Table-2: Optical interfaces related between Line rate with different DS3 channels.

Fiber Optical loss (dB/km) Size() Type 780 nm 850 nm 1300 nm 1550 nm 9/125 SM 3.0 2.5 0.5-0.8 0.2-0.4 50/125 3.5-7.0 2.5-6.0 0.7-4.0 0.6-3.5 62.5/125 4.0-8.0 3.0-7.0 1.0-4.0 1.0-5.0 MM 100/140 4.5-8.0 3.5-7.0 1.5-5.0 1.5-5.0 110/125 15 200/230 12 Table-3: Performance analysis of optical fiber loss of analog modulation schemes.

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PARAMETERS

CAUSES

CRITICAL POWER/CHANNE L

EFFECTS

COMPENSATION

Attenuation

Material absorption/system Wavelength dependent group velocity Polarization state dependent differential group delay Signal interference 10mW

Chromatic dispersion Polarization mode dispersion

.Reduced signal power levels .Increased bit errors Increased bit errors

Shorter spans, purer fiber material. Use of compensation fiber or material. New fiber with low PMD values; careful fiber layng;PMD compensators Use of the fiber with CD compensators; Unequal channel spacing

.Increased bit errors

Four wave mixing

.Power transfer from original Increased bit errors signal to other frequencies .Channel crosstalk .Spectral broadening .Initial pulse compression .Increased bit errors

Self phase modulation and cross phase modulation

Intensity dependent refraction index 10Mw

Use of the fiber with CD compensators;

Stimulated Raman scattering

Interaction of signal with fiber modulator structure

1mW

.Decreased peak power .Decreased OSNR .Optical crosstalk

Careful power design

Stimulated Brillouin scattering

Interaction of signal with acoustic waves 5mW

.Signal instability .Decreased peak power .Decreased OSNR .Increased bit errors

Spectral broadening of the light source.

Table-4: Analysis of analog modulation of fiber optic transmission phenomena.

Fiber type

DESCRIPTION

ZERO DISPERSION WAVELENGTH

DISPERSION AT 1550 nm -17 ps/nm/km 0 ps/nm/km 4 ps/nm/km

Dispersion slope at 1550 nm 0.057 ps/nm2/km 0.07 ps/nm2/km 0.045 to 0.1 to ps/nm2/km

G 652 G 653 G 655A-C

Non-dispersion shifted fiber Dispersion shifted fiber Non-zero dispersion shifted fiber

1300-1324 nm 1500-1600 nm Not specified but 14501480 nm

G 656

Negative Non-zero dispersion shifted fiber

Not specified

-5 ps/nm/km

0.05 to 0.12 ps/nm2/km

Table-5: Performance analysis of different types of fibers with dispersion at 1550nm.

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Bit rate per channel

Type of transmission

PMD delay limit(ps)

Max. CD at 1550 nm(ps) 18817

Insertion loss

return loss.

physical plant verification

Attenuation profile

2.5 Gbps DWDM 10 Gbps DWDM 40 Gbps DWDM 10 Gbps

OC48/STM-16 OC192/STM-64 OC768/STM256 Ethernet

40

1550/1625 nm 1550/1625 nm 1310/1550 nm 1310/1550 nm

1550 nm 1550 nm 1550 nm 1550 nm

1550/1625nm

15501625nm 15501625nm 15501625nm 15501625nm

10

1176

1550/1625nm

2.5

73.5

1310/1550nm

738

1310/1550nm

Table-6: Transmission rate performance for NRZ fiber modulation coding format within 40Gb/s.
Characteristics ODB/PSPT NRZ/DPSK NRZADSPK 13 1600 Yes RZ-ADPSK RZ-DQPSK PM-QPSK

OSNR Sensitivity at BER=2103 dB Nominal range using EDFA Filter tolerant (for 50 GHz channel spacing) PWM tolerance without compensation(PS) Sensitivity to nonlinear distortion Complexity/cost

17.5 700 Yes

12.5 1600 Affects range 3

12.5 2200 Yes

13.5 1400 Yes

12.5 1700 Yes

2.5

3.5

3.5

10

No Low

No Low

No Low

No Medium

Yes High

Yes High

Table-7: Comparative analysis of digital optical modulation formats for 40Gb/s.

Modulation techniques of PSK at 40Gb/s RZ DPSK

Modulators used in transmitter 2 Nos.

Modulators used in receiver

OSNR (dBm)

Chromatic dispersion

Modulated bandwidth

Clock recovery frequency 40

1 delay intero ferometer (DI) & 2 photo detectors(PD) 1DI +2PDs 2DIs + 4PDs 2DIs+4PDs

15.6

50

160

NRZ DPSK RZ DQPSK NRZ DQPSK

1 Nos. 2 Nos. 2 Nos.

18.5 17.7 20.5

74 161 168

80 80 40

40 20 20

Table-8: Performance analysis of different PSK digital modulation schemes for 40Gb/s.

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Sl. No. 1

Modulation techniques BASK

Demodulation performance Easy demodulation

Error performance Restricted in linear region Performs well

Advantages Hardware Implementations simple and low cost Same as bask

Disadvantages Poor BW

BFSK

Matched filter detectors used

BPSK

DPSK

Receiver circuit is complex due to phase shift detection Receiver requires memory Phase shift detection is used

Small error rate

Used only for satellite communication. Introduces the complexities of receiver design Bandwidth efficient than BPSK

Hardware design of receiver is complex Inefficient

QPSK

Required 3 dB less than BFSK Better over BPSK and BFSK

MSK

Direct inject to NRZ data to frequency modulator.

The signal Constant Envelope coherence and derivation ratio are largely unaffected by variations in input data Small error rate Same as QAM

Efficient less than coherent PSK Hardware design of receiver is complex The spectrum is not compact enough to realize data rates

Better transmission BW is same as than MSK ASK and PSK 8 16 QAM Coherent detection Producing a very BW is same as spectrally efficient ASK and PSK transmission. 9 64 QAM Coherent detection Same as Very efficient BW is same as QAM spectral efficiency ASK and PSK 10 GMSK Bandwidth time The carrier is Constant envelope, It promotes product lag or lead by spectrally efficient ISI at higher 0 performance is 90 over bit bit rate measured by SNR period w.r.t transmission Vs BER BT resulting BER Table-9: Modulation parameters of Digital modulation techniques in 40Gb/s modulation formats.

QAM

Coherent detection

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Modulation 2 DPSK 4 DPSK 2 PSK 4 PSK 8 PSK 16PSK 8 QAM 16 QAM

v/Rb 3.010-3 5.010-4 8.010-4 2.510-5 1.510-6 2.410-7 9.010-6 6.910-3

v for Rb = 10 Gb/s 30 MHz 5 MHz 8 MHz 250 KHz 15 KHz 24 KHz 90 KHz 69 KHz

Tale 10: Comparative analysis of the Laser linewidths required to implement various modulation techniques by assuming a 0.5 dB penalty. Symbol rate Energy Gain (dB) Vs (GHz) DD-00K DBPSK DD-00K 15/16 42.7 ---2.46 D-BPSK 15/16 42.7 2.46 --15/32 42.7 4.43 1.97 1/2 40.0 4.37 1.91 2/3 30.0 3.83 1.37 D-QPSK 3/4 26.7 3.40 0.94 7/8 22.9 2.41 -0.05 15/16 21.3 1.52 -0.94 Table-11: Performance analysis of bandwidth of DQPSK over DD-OOK and DPSK suggest that DQPSK can improve the reach and efficiency.
Sl.No. Modulation Points formats 01 BASK 01 02 BFSK 01 03 BPSK 02 Symbols Information capacity 01 Poor 01 Better than BASK 02 2 BFSK Derived form ASK FSK PSK BW efficiency Poor Not efficient

Modulation

Code rate

Only for high speed data transfer 04 DPSK 01 02 2BFSK PSK Only for medium speed communication 05 QPSK 04 04 2BFSK PSK High 06 MSK 04 04 2BFSK OQPSK Lower than QPSK 07 QAM 02 04 Better than ASK & Less than other BASK PSK techniques 08 16 QAM 04 04 Better than ASK & Less than other QAM PSK techniques 09 64 QAM 06 04 Better than ASK & Less than other QAM PSK techniques 10 GMSK 04 04 Same as QAM FSK Excellent Table 12: Parametric comparison of optical fiber digital modulation formats for 40Gb/s

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OOK Modulation formats Bits/symbol Spectral efficiency Estimated reach(Km) Compatibilit y with 10G & 40G Application area 1 0.5 < 500 Positive

OOK-VSB

DQPSK

RZ-DPSK-3ASK

PMDQPSK 22 2 600 positive

OP-FDMRZDQPSK 22 1 1500 positive

PMQPSK 22 2 1500 positive

PM_OF DM_QP SK 222 2 2000 negative

1 1 < 500 positive

2 1 1000 positive

2.5 2 < 500 positive

Short reach

Short reach

metro

metro

metro

Long haul

Long haul OIF

Long haul

Constellation 2

Symbol rate Coherent/non -coherent Product available Green field OSNR tolerance(dB) @BER410-3 CD tolerance(ps/ nm)@ 2dB penalty Max. DGD tolerance(ps) @ 2 dB penalty Power consumption Practical issues

112 Non-coherent No -----17.5

112 Noncoherent No -----18.5

56 Noncoherent No -----15.5

44 Non-coherent No ------>20

28 Noncoherent No -----15.5

28 Noncoherent Yes ------15.5

28 Coherent Yes Yes <15

14 coherent Yes Yes <15

20

30

90

90

>>

>>

10

18

18

>>

>>

Positive E&E/O Components CD and adapt. PMD copmensation

Positive E&E/O Component s CD & adapt PMD compensati on

positive CD & adaptive PMD-comp at old fibers

Negative CD & adaptive PMD-comp at old fibers

positive Opt. polarizatio n demux,C D& adaptive PMD comp at old fibers --------

Negative 250G

positive None superior solution

Negative 250G interface s

Effectiveness of cost

-----

------

For metro

-------

--------

For long haul

--------

Table13: Vital features of 100 Gb/s digital modulation formats.

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International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March April (2013), IAEME

Modulat ion format Bit rate(Gb/ s) Bits/Sy mbol

PM BP SK 100

PM QP SK 100

PM QP SK 400

PM8QAM

PM16QA M 200

PM16QA M 400

PM32QA M 400

PM32QA M 1000

PM64QA M 400

PM64QA M 1000

PM256Q AM 400

400

21

22

22

23

24

24

25

25

26

26

28

Constel lation 2
Symbol rate(Gb d) OSNR( dB)@ minimu m Baud rate OSNR( dB)@ maximu m Baud rate Channel Spacing No. of C-band channel s Penalty Vs. 100G(d B) Total capacity (Tb/s) 2832 10. 8 2832 12. 2 112 128 18. 2 75-85 28-32 56-64 45-51

2
112128 28.2

4
37-43

4
93107 30.7

8
28-32

20.2

19.2

22.2

24.2

26.7

>30

8.2

9.8

15. 8

17.8

16.8

19.8

21.8

25.8

24.3

28.3

>30

50 44

50 88

200 22

133 33

50 44

100 44

80 55

200 22

67 66

166 26

50 88

00

00

06

08

07

10

12

16

14.5

18.5

>20

8.8

8.8

8.8

13.3

17.6

17.6

22

22

26.4

26

35

Table14: Comparative overview of different modulation formats for 100Gb/s, 200Gb/s, 400Gb/s and 1000Gb/s by taking reference to theoretical 40Gb/s values.

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5. COMPARISON The different optical analog and digital modulation formats Table1-14 compares with different parameters. In the introductory comparison Table-1 views on different wavelength of optical source in um range from 1st generation to latest generation by which the bit rate is much more greater than previous generations. In the analog modulation format the types of optical fibers having different sizes Table-3 summarizes their optical losses per km range. We compare the different optical fiber parameters like attenuation , CD, self phase and cross modulation, stimulated Raman Scattering in Table-4. The dispersion at 1550nm of different fiber types like G.652,G.653,G655A-C and G656 overviews in Table-5. The bit rates per channel (2.5Gb/s,10Gb/s,40Gb/s,etc) is illustrated in Table-6 which compares PMD delay limit in ps with respect to return loss. It shows that the return loss especially same for 40Gb/s. Under SONET, 256 (optical carrier) optical interfaces are defined and their line rates compares which is pointed in Table-2. Table-7 gives a comparative overview on filter tolerant for 50 GHz channel spacing with PMD tolerance without compensation. The RZ-ADPSK and NRZ-ADPSK compares their nominal range EDFA are 2200 and1600 respectively. The No. of delay interoferometer and photodetectors used for different optical modulation formats like RZ-DPSK,NRZDPSK,RZ-DQPSK,NRZ-DQPSK (i.e phase shift keying modulation formats) is summarized in Table-8. The modulated bandwidth of different BPSK schemes compares in Table-8. The OSNR of different PSK formats and their error performances Table-8,9 for 40Gb/s is illustrated. The QAM ,16QAM and 64QAM modulation formats having their demodulation performances compares in Table-9. The Laser line widths required to implement various optical digital modulation techniques by using a 0.5 dB penalty having 10Gb/s is exhibited in Table-10. In Table-11, the bandwidth saving of differential quadrature PSK over both DDOOK and DPSK suggest that DQPSK can improve the efficiency of the different optical digital modulation formats. The GMSK error performance promotes ISI at higher bit rate transmission compares with other optical digital modulation formats having excellent bandwidth efficiency Table-9,12. Various constellations can be applied for PM-QAM modulation formats , e.g circular QAM symbol constellations or quadratic constellation with different sizes as depicted in Table-13,14[27]. The different symbol rates of different modulation formats are compared with their area of application , estimated reach and spectral efficiency in Table-13. Table -14 reflects an comparative overview on single channel MQAM options like PM-16QAM of 200Gb/s , PM-8QAM of 400Gb/s ,PM-32QAM of 1000Gb/s ,PM-64QAM of 1000Gb/s ,PM-256QAM of 1000Gb/s by taking 40Gb/s value as reference , which considering polarization multiplexing for all options. 6. CONCLUSION By the comparative analysis of the analog and digital optical modulation formats which is carried out in this article gives a conclusion that, for the excellent application , the digital modulation format is highly applicable. At 40Gb/s the system designer has a sole consideration for the techniques like BASK ,BFSK ,BPSK ,DPSK and DQPSK does not under the region of consideration and the system designer has to think in terms of better modulation techniques like the MSK , GMSK and PM-QPSK , where PM-QPSK has proved its performance over the other two in the area of fiber optic communication. The 100Gb/s modulation format has been defined by an OIF framework and multisource agreement.
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In the next advanced technology of 400Gb/s , the symbol rate up to 32Gbaud is highly reused present electronic technique. The symbol rate of 32Gbaud is compatible with optical ROADM technologies. So there is a argument in future 400Gb/s and 1Tb/s bit rates that if supports the ITU-T grid or not. But this challenge has a solution with high symbol rates compared to presently used. If two carriers with 200Gb/s PM-16QAM modulated having 32Gbaud is applied ,then the above argument may be solved with a spectral efficiency of 4. But single carrier PM-MQAM is a better solution for the above problem. REFERENCES [1] Fiber optic communications-wikipediaEn.wikipedia.org/wiki/fiber optic communication. [2] Fiber optic communication ,Joseph C.Palais ,fourth edition [3] Bryan M. Haas and Thomas E.Murphy a simple linearized phase modulated analog optical transmission system IEEE photonics technology letters vol.19,No.10,May 15,2007. [4] D.K Sharma,A.Mishra and R.Saxena analog and digital modulation techniques : An overview TECHNIA- international journal of computing scienceand communication technologies. Vol 3,No.1,july 2010. [5] Yu Yu,Bingrong zou,Wenhan Wu and Xinliang zhang all optical parallel NRZDPSK to RZ-DPSK format conversion at 40 Gb/s based on XPM effect in a single SOA. the international online journal of optics, optic express,vol-19,issue 15 [6] IEEE Std 802.3ba-2010, Amendment to IEEE Std 802.3-2008: Media Access control parameters, physical layers, and management parameter for 40 Gb/s and 100 Gb/s operation, June 2010. [7] ITU-T Recommendation G.709, Interfaces for the Optical Transport Network (OTN), December 2009. [8] M. Rohde,C.Caspar,N.Heimes,M.Konitzer,E-J.Bachus and N.Hanik, Robustness of DPSK direct detection transmission format in standard fiber WDM systems Electron.Lett,vol 36,pp.1483-1484,2000. [9] C.Xie,L.Moller,H.Haunstein and S.Hunsche comparison of system tolerance to polarization mode dispersion between different modulation formats , IEEE photons. Technol.Lett.vol.15,pp.1168-1170,Aug.2003 [10] I. Morita et al., High speed transmission technologies for 100-Gb/s-classEthernet, in: ECOC 2007, invited paper Mo1.3.1.[11] M. Daikoku et al., 100-Gb/s DQPSK transmission experiment without OTDMfor 100G Ethernet transport, J. Lightw. Technol. 25 (1) (2007). [12] M. Daikoku, I. Morita, H. Taga, H. Tanaka, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, T.Miyazaki, T. Fujita,100 Gb/s DQPSK transmission experiment without OTDMfor 100G Ethernet transport, in: OFC 2006, post-deadline paper PDP36. [13] P.J. Winzer et al., 10 _ 107-Gb/s NRZ-DQPSK transmission at 1.0 b/s/Hz over 12 _ 100 km including 6 optical routing nodes, in: Proc. OFC 2007, post deadline paper PDP24. [14] P.J. Winzer et al., 2000 km-WDM transmission of 10 _ 107 Gb/s RZ-DQPSK, in:, ECOC 2006, Cannes, post-deadline paper Th4.1.3. [15] Xiang Zhou, Jianjun Yu, Mei Du, Guodong Zhang, 2 Tb/s (20 _ 107 Gb/s) RZDQPSK straight-line transmission over 1005 km of standard single mode fiber (SSMF) without Raman amplification in: Proc. OFC 2008, paper OMQ3. [16] G. Raybon et al., 107-Gb/s transmission over 700 km and one intermediate ROADM using Lambda Xtreme_ transport system, in: OFC 2008, paper OMQ4.
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