_RELEASE NOTES

b
e

d
y
n
a
m
i
c
®
VERSI ON 6. 2
OLGA 6.2 Release Notes Page i






TABLE OF CONTENTS: OLGA 6.2 Release Notes

Page
1. INTRODUCTION 3
2. OVERVIEW OF THE OLGA 6.2 RELEASE 4
2.1 Version numbers 4
3. HIGHLIGHTS FOR OLGA 6.2 5
3.1 OLGA 6 is complete for engineering use 5
3.2 Extended compatibility between functionality 5
3.3 Computational performance 5
3.4 Second order scheme for mass equations 5
3.5 Improved FEMTherm 6
3.6 Time series in HEATTRANSFER and AMBIENTDATA 6
3.7 New emulsion viscosity correlations, modified emulsion/dispersion properties and
new entrainment correlation 6
3.8 Surface treatment in gas/water flow 7
3.9 New Network Component PHASESPLITNODE 7
4. OTHER CHANGES AND BUG FIXES FOR OLGA 6.2 8
4.1 Numerics 8
4.2 Steady state solver 8
4.3 Compositional/Inhibitor tracking 8
4.4 Steam / Single Component 10
4.5 Restart 11
4.6 Converter 11
4.7 Drilling 11
4.8 Hydrate 11
4.9 Source 12
4.10 Well 12
4.11 Controller 12
4.12 Process equipment 13
4.13 General 14
4.14 Input / Output 16
5. MODEL CHANGES BETWEEN OLGA 5 AND OLGA 6 20
5.1 Oil-water predictions 20
5.2 Better model consistency in OLGA 6 20
5.3 The node model 21
5.4 Simulation of two phase cases 22
5.5 Controllers 22
5.6 Separator 23
5.7 Bundle, Annulus and FEMTherm 23
6. OTHER DIFFERENCES BETWEEN OLGA 5 AND OLGA 6 24
6.1 Integration 24
6.2 Wall 24
6.3 Keywords moved to FA models 24
6.4 Heat Exchanger 24
6.5 Source 24
6.6 Valve 25
6.7 Heattransfer 26
OLGA 6.2 Release Notes Page ii






6.8 InitialConditions 26
6.9 Output Variables 26
6.10 Restart 27
6.11 Hydratecheck 28
6.12 Pig 28
6.13 Drillingfluid 28
6.14 Position 28
7. FUNCTIONALITY IN OLGA 5 NOT AVAILABLE IN OLGA 6 28
8. CONVERTING CASES FROM PREVIOUS OLGA VERSIONS 30
8.1 Converting from OLGA 5 to OLGA 6 30
8.2 Converting from OLGA 6.1 to OLGA 6.2 30
9. LIMITATIONS 31
9.1 Limitations in the steady state preprocessor 31
OLGA 6.2 Release Notes Page 3






1. INTRODUCTION
These notes accompany the release of OLGA 6.2 from SPT Group. The notes
describe changes in OLGA 6.2 relative to OLGA 6.1 and also the main model
changes between OLGA 5 and OLGA 6. The document should be read by all
users of the program. The complete program documentation consists of the OLGA
Help, OLGA GUI User Manual, Tutorial, Installation Guide and these Release
Notes. The changes listed below refer to the previous main release, OLGA 6.1.

The program is available on PC‟s with Microsoft Windows operating systems
(Windows XP, Windows Vista and Windows 7). Several versions of OLGA may be
installed in parallel. Note that you may also run several versions of the engine from
one version of the GUI - please refer to the Installation Guide to learn how to
configure the GUI for several engines.

The customer center provides useful information about frequently asked questions
and known issues. The customer center is accessible from www.sptgroup.com.

Please contact SPT Group if problems or missing functionality are encountered
when using OLGA or any of the related tools included in the OLGA software
package.

E-mail: olgasupport@sptgroup.com
Telephone: +47 6389 0400
Fax: +47 6484 4500
Address: SPT Group Norway AS, P.O. Box 113, N-2027 Kjeller

OLGA 6.2 Release Notes Page 4






2. OVERVIEW OF THE OLGA 6.2 RELEASE
The OLGA 6.2 is an upgrade of the OLGA 6.1 simulation engine. The following
modules are now available; Slug Tracking, Inhibitor tracking (MeOH, EtOH and
Tracer) and Hydrate Kinetics. The FEMTherm module has been improved.

All OLGA 5 modules are available in OLGA 6 except for Matlab Toolbox and the
server functionality. In addition some minor functionalities are not covered. This is
described in Chapter 7. Differences in OLGA 5 and OLGA 6 are described in
Chapter 6.

The graphical user interface (GUI) for OLGA 6 is also used for OLGA 5.
Controllers, Bundles and Separators are implemented differently in OLGA 6
compared to OLGA 5. This is reflected in the GUI, see The User Manual for GUI
for more information.

2.1Version numbers
The following table lists the version numbers for all programs installed with OLGA
6.2.:

Program/Tool File name Version number
OLGA GUI OLGA GUI.exe 6.2.0.67232
OLGA simulator OLGA-6.2.exe 6.2.0.67289
Geometry Editor Geometry.exe 1.6.0
Multiphase Toolkit Multiphase Toolkit.exe 6.1.0.1
FEMTherm Viewer FEMThermViewer.exe 1.0.0.1
MudTable mudtable.exe 3.3.9
OLGA Viewer OlgaViewer.exe 1.0.0.1
Rocx engine Rocx.exe 2.0.0.0
Rocx GUI RocxGUI.exe 3.0.0.0

OLGA 6.2 Release Notes Page 5






3. HIGHLIGHTS FOR OLGA 6.2

3.1 OLGA 6 is complete for engineering use
All OLGA 5 modules except for Matlab Toolbox and the server functionality are
available in OLGA 6. The following modules are completed in OLGA 6.2 compared
to OLGA 6.1
- Slug Tracking
- Inhibitor Tracking
- Hydrate Kinetics

3.2 Extended compatibility between functionality
OLGA 6.2 provides extended compatibility between key functionality compared to
OLGA 5. The figure below shows the main new combinations.





3.3 Computational performance
OLGA 6 is a threaded application, developed for multi core platforms, and may
give significant performance boost when run on such systems. Most modules are
parallelized, e.g. Compositional Tracking and Slug Tracking.

3.4 Second order scheme for mass equations
A second order scheme for mass equations is an option which is available for all
functionality. It will give more accurate results in simulations where it is important
to keep sharp fronts, e.g. for rate changes, slugging and injection of inhibitors.

OLGA 6.2 Release Notes Page 6






3.5 Improved FEMTherm
This module has been extended with the following functionality:
- Easy modeling of partially buried pipelines
- Varying ambient conditions around the cross section
- Capability to handle phase changing materials
- Trend / profile plot of temperature in the cross section
- New custom dialog for FEMTherm in GUI
(OLGA-05369)


3.6 Time series in HEATTRANSFER and AMBIENTDATA
A new keyword, TIMESERIES, has been implemented. This keyword can be used
to define the variation in time of e.g. ambient temperature.
(OLGA-01883)

3.7 New emulsion viscosity correlations, modified
emulsion/dispersion properties and new entrainment correlation
Viscosity correlations:
Three new emulsion viscosity correlations have been implemented. These are
Barnea & Mizrahi, Woelflin and Table based model. See the user manual on how
to use these. The Multiphase Toolkit has been updated accordingly.

Emulsion/dispersion properties:
An intermediate dispersion range is introduced. Between a new lower critical water
cut (FWLOW, default value 0.0) and the inversion point (given by
INVERSIONWATERFRAC) the flow is assumed to be a water-in-oil dispersion
flowing above a free water layer.

The degree of mixing of water into oil is predicted by the standard OLGA model,
but the maximum fraction of the total water stream that can be mixed into the oil is
given by EMAX (default value 1.0):

(Volume flow of water in oil)/(Total volume flow of water) ≤ EMAX.

Both parameters should be defined under the WATEROPTIONS keyword.

Entrainment correlation:
A new entrainment correlation has been implemented. The effects are:
- Reduced under-prediction of water holdup
- Inconsistencies between gas-oil and gas-water removed
- Better agreement between steady state and dynamic results because
backflow is removed
- Small improvements in total holdups and pressure drops

(OLGA5-02275, OLGA-5213)
OLGA 6.2 Release Notes Page 7






3.8 Surface treatment in gas/water flow
In earlier OLGA models, regardless of whether or not there was oil in the pipe, the
gas-oil surface tension and oil viscosity were used in determining the wave height
(gas-liquid) and the entrainment rates.

Using oil properties even if there is no oil, could cause wrong holdup and pressure
drop for gas-water two-phase flow.

This is now fixed by using water physical properties for calculating gas/water two-
phase. (OLGA-05673)

3.9 New Network Component PHASESPLITNODE
The new network component, PHASESPLITNODE, replaces the OLGA 5
BRANCH key PHASE. The PHASESPLITNODE should be used when modeling
finger type slug catchers, and is located under ProcessEquipment on CaseLevel
together with SEPARATOR.

PHASESPLITNODE has six different terminals GAS, OIL, WATER, LIQUID,
DRYGAS and MIXTURE. A FlowPath connected to a DRYGAS terminal will only
have gas as inflow etc. When the volume fraction of the connected phase(s) is
sufficiently low (0.01), the FlowPath inflow will be as from a NODE. If all the
connected terminals are of type MIXTURE, the PHASESPLITNODE is identical to
an internal node. (OLGA-03785)
OLGA 6.2 Release Notes Page 8






4. OTHER CHANGES AND BUG FIXES FOR OLGA 6.2
4.1 Numerics
Stability
Improved numerical stability for pressure driven sources with near zero pressure
drop. (OLGA-05878)

Stability
Improved numerical handling of large water holdup gradient. (OLGA-06264)

Run time step again for choke velocities above critical
After running a time step the velocities at a valve boundary is compared with the
critical velocities calculated by the valve model. If the boundary velocities are
larger than the critical velocities, the time step is simulated again with a new
linearization. the velocities are then limited to the critical velocities. (OLGA-03394)

4.2 Steady state solver
Improved steady state preprocessor for compressor recycle
Running the steady state preprocessor with a compressor and open recycle loop
should give correct temperatures. (OLGA-05050)

Initial interpolation of TEMPERATURE changed
Interpolation of temperature for steady state preprocessor changed for
SINGLEOPTIONS to not go outside limits set in input. (OLGA-4995)

Improved logic for determination of flow-regime in steady-state
A bug in bubble-flow made it difficult for the flow to enter slug-regime for some
cases with large amount of gas. This has been fixed, giving better correspondence
between steady-state flow-regime and dynamic flow-regime (OLGA-06009)


More visible warning if preprocessor does not converge
In addition to giving a notice in the beginning of a simulation if the preprocessor
does not converge, the message is now repeated at the very end of the simulation.
(OLGA-05719)

Pressure driven source
It is now possible to run Steady State preprocessor for cases which include a
pressure driven source which is closed. (OLGA-05081)

4.3 Compositional/Inhibitor tracking
Improved pressure dependence of Heavy Oil extension of CSP viscosity
model
An improved pressure dependence of Heavy Oil extension of CSP viscosity model
have been included in the Compositional Tracking library. (OLGA-05836)

OLGA 6.2 Release Notes Page 9






Fixed problem for compositional tracking cases with mostly inhibitor in a
section using SIMPLETHREEPHASE flash option
For a composition consisting of almost pure MeOH, the simplified three-phase
flash option found that a flash could be skipped. A check was implemented
ensuring that for total compositions with aqueous components present in more
than 99 mol%, a normal simplified flash was carried out. (OLGA5-01585)

Fixed problem for compositional tracking cases with mostly inhibitor in a
section using FULLTHREEPHASE flash option
Using the FULLTHREPHASE flash option with a compositions consisting of almost
pure MeOH, compositional tracking library found that the flash could be skipped
and moved onto mutual saturation of existing phases. This lead to an infinite loop
inside the compositional tracking routines. This has now been fixed (OLGA5-
02015)

Fixed bug for the initialization of the composition in the compositional
tracking library
The initialization of the composition inside the compositional tracking library, found
the composition to be only gas when there was oil and gas. This required that
VOIDFRACTION wrongly needed to be set to 1. This has been fixed. (OLGA5-
02236)

Fixed problem for compositional tracking when only small amounts of gas
and oil are present
Compositional tracking simulations crashed when the amount of gas and oil was
very small. This was fixed by interpreting it as only an aqueous phase. (OLGA5-
02242)

More robust full three-phase flash routines in the compositional tracking
library
Full three-phase flash in compositional tracking routines exited due to non-
convergence in the full three-phase flash (IER=27). To make these more robust,
the maximum number of iterations has been increased. (OLGA5-02248)

Updated key descriptions
MEG tracking changed to Inhibitor tracking, and source valve changed to Pressure
driven source. (OLGA-5037)

Problems with high pressure in Compositional Tracking fixed
Problems with property tuning made water density huge, influencing the static
pressure to drop. The property tuning and property limitations from OLGA 5 are
implemented in OLGA. (OLGA-5144)

Error in plotted mass transfer (PSI) when OPTIONS COMPOSITIONAL=ON
The plotted mass transfer (PSI) was twice the actual value when OPTIONS
COMPOSITIONAL=ON was used. There was only a bug in the plotted PSI. The
mass transfer in OLGA is not changed. (OLGA-05325)

Entrainment/deposition calculation at boundary to pressure node
OLGA 6.2 Release Notes Page 10






The entrainment/deposition models in OLGA 5 and OLGA 6 were different for
pressure nodes. OLGA 6.2 now uses the upstream gas fraction as is done in
OLGA 5. (OLGA-03373)

Default values for inhibitor fraction
The inhibitor fractions on the branch inlet and outlet, ININHIBFRACTION and
OUTINHIBFRACTION, are given default values 0.0 under INITIALCONDITIONS.
(OLGA-05329)

Compositional molar volumes for SIMPLETHREEPHASE
In some cases we may have used wrong compositional molar volumes for
SIMPLETHREEPHASE, which may have effected OLGA simulations. This has
now been fixed. (OLGA-05889)

Improved handling of components that are introduced into a composition
Previously OLGA had some problems handling components that were introduced
into a composition, for instance MEG from a source that was turned on at some
point. The treatment of such issues has been introduced giving a much more
physical behaviour in these cases. (OLGA-05890)

Fixed normalization for thermal properties for shadow phases
OLGA uses so-called shadow phases to simulate properties of phases, which only
exist in dynamic flow situations (not at thermodynamic equilibrium). To get the right
thermal properties (H, S and Cp) of the shadow phases, the property routines must
be called with normalized composition (mole fractions summing to 1.0). By mistake
the thermal properties were calculated using a non-normalized shadow phase
composition, which has now been corrected. (OLGA-06574)

Phase option water and liquid are now also available for black oil
The key PHASE=WATER/LIQUID for keyword SOURCE and NODE can now also
be used in combination with the black oil option. In previous versions
PHASE=WATER/LIQUID would automatically be converted to PHASE=OIL if the
black oil option was used. A warning was reported to the output file regarding this
conversion. (OLGA-4846)

4.4 Steam / Single Component
Corrected calculation of the thermal conductivity and viscosity in Single
Component Module
An error in calculating viscosity and thermal conductivity for SINGLECOMPONENT
has been fixed. This error gave an overestimation the viscosity and conductivity of
the gas phase, and an underestimation of the conductivity in the liquid phase.
(OLGA5-02237)

Initial interpolation of temperature changed for Single Component
Interpolation of temperature for steady state preprocessor changed for Single
Component to not go outside limits set in keyword SINGLEOPTIONS. (OLGA-
4995).

Fixed problem with drying for Steam
OLGA 6.2 Release Notes Page 11






The mass of water vapor in the gas phase was used to test if there was
evaporation. The correct test should use the mass of hydrocarbon in the gas
phase. This error resulted in no evaporation if the gas phase was initialized with
zero water vapor. (OLGA-5088)

4.5 Restart
Improved handling of default values for the RESTART keyword
When using the default settings for WRITE under RESTART, the restart file is
now properly written at the interval given. (OLGA-04872)

4.6 Converter
Input converter extensions
The input converter now handles conversion of MODE and MODETIME for
controllers. Connections are set up for EXTSIGNCONTROLLER,
EXTSETPOINTCONTROLLER, MODECONTROLLER and
ACTIVATECONTROLLER.
(OLGA-06204)

Improved input file controller conversion from OLGA5 to OLGA6
Calculate Table controller MINSIGNAL/MAXSIGNAL form Y-values in POINT
variable. (OLGA-05611)

4.7 Drilling
STDFLOWRATE / GOR available for DRILLING
It is now possible to specify STDFLOWRATE / GOR when DRILLING is ON.
(OLGA-3831)

Negative pressure in drilling simulations
Negative pressure, and pressures above table limit, are now allowed in drilling
simulations. Fluid properties are extrapolated. (OLGA-05613)


Leak for inhibitor and drilling fluid
The leak outlet mass fractions and temperature were wrong. The isenthalpic flash
is corrected. (OLGA-05314)

Source standard volume flow variables and mud
QWSTSOUR, QGSTSOUR and QLSTSOUR now show correct values when
drilling mud is injected. (OLGA-06104)

Drillingfluid components
DRILLINGFLUID components are now available also when inhibitor tracking
(MEG/MEOH/ETOH) is on. (OLGA-05671)

4.8 Hydrate
Output variable SAREA
OLGA 6.2 Release Notes Page 12






SAREA is now plotted with correct unti; area per volume. (OLGA-05543)

Hydrate curves with single point is allowed
OLGA does no longer crash when hydrate curves with one single point are used.
(OLGA-4608)

HYDRATECURVE available in Library
The keyword HYDRATECURVE is now available only in Library. Earlier it was also
available on Flowpath level. (OLGA-5149)

COLUMNHEADER in hydrate files not required
Use default values (TEMPERATURE C, PRESSURE Pa) when
COLUMNHEADER not given. (OLGA-5186)

4.9 Source
Pressure driven source and leak flow equation changed.
The subcritical choke flow equation used in pressure driven source and leak have
been modified. The inflow momentum is set to zero. This is consistent with OLGA
5. (OLGA-04617)

4.10 Well
WAXFRACTION available in WELL
WELL WAXFRACTION can now be specified. (OLGA-02920)

New keys CGR and WGR in SOURCE, WELL and NODE
Added CGR and WGR as input variables for SOURCE, WELL and NODE.
(OLGA-4972)

More variables as time series in WELL
It is now possible to specify GORST, HOLES, RESEXT, EXPONENTN and
INJECTIVITY as a time series in WELL. (OLGA-4922)

4.11Controller
Algebraic controller
Controller type Algebraic is implemented as in OLGA 5.(OLGA-05353)

Branch variables for controller in OLGA GUI
Branch variables are added to controllers. (OLGA-04512 )

Time step is reduced before a manual controller setpoint change
Too avoid overshooting the time where a setpoint change happens, the time step
is reduced. (OLGA-04264)

RANGECHECK and TIMESTEPCONTROL in controllers. Controller BIAS is
limited to MINSIGNAL and MAXSIGNAL
Added RANGECHECK key to the Manual controller. Added TIMSTEPCONTROL
key to Manual, PID, ASC, Cascade, ESD and PSV controllers. The initial output
OLGA 6.2 Release Notes Page 13






from the controllers, BIAS, is limited to MINSIGNAL and MAXSIGNAL. (OLGA-
05229)

SCALER and SWITCH controller
Two new controllers are available as network components;
SCALERCONTROLLER and SWITCHCONTROLLER. (OLGA-05237)

New controller STDCONTROLLER
The new controller STDCONTROLLER converts a volumetric volume flow at
standard conditions to a mass flow. The controller replaces the OLGA 5
SETPOINTVARIABLE and CONTROLLER REFCONDITION=STD. The calculated
mass flow is given in the output terminal (OUTSIG).
The input converter will automatically generate a STDCONTROLLER when a *.inp
case file is run with OLGA 6. (OLGA-02385)

Controller sub key SETPOINTMODE
Controller sub key SETPOINTMODE in OLGA 6.1 is removed. Controller MODE
as defined in OLGA 5 is implemented in OLGA 6.2. (OLGA-06178, OLGA-6189))

Improved OLGA 5 to OLGA 6 input file conversion
Extended input converter to handle connection from a controller output (VARIABLE
CONTR) to another controllers measured value. (OLGA-05470)

Manual controller
Rate of change for CONTROLLER type MANUAL related to MAX and MINSIGNAL
rather than 0 and 1. (OLGA-05800)

Controller type LinearCombination
Controller type LinearCombination is replace by controller type Algebraic. OLGA
6.1 cases need modifications. (OLGA-06727)

4.12 Process equipment
Changed heat calculations for pump
OLGA does a isentropic flash to calculate the heat added to the fluid. Now this is
consistent with OLGA 5. Earlier OLGA 6 assumed incompressible liquid and ideal
gas compression. (OLGA-4095)

INITOILEVEL and INITWATERLEVEL in the network separator
INITOILEVEL and INITWATERLEVEL were not used in the network separator.
The initial levels in the separator are now calculated from the given INITOILEVEL
and INITWATERLEVEL. (Also when the steady-state preprocessor is used.)
Added four new keys to the separator: FEEDNAME, FEEDMASSFRACTION,
FEEDMOLEFRACTION and FEEDVOLFRACTION. It is possible to use these
keys to specify a composition when COMPOSITIONAL=ON/BLACKOIL. (OLGA-
05226)

Changed static pressure for the oil outlets in separator
Static pressure in the oil outlets is calculated as "g * oil_density * (oil_level -
water_level)". Modified water level due to dispersion of water in oil and oil in water.
OLGA 6.2 Release Notes Page 14






Both the static pressures and the water level is now consistent with OLGA 5.
(OLGA-5227)

Liquid outlets in separator
The oil outlets switch to node mode (not separating) when the oil holdup is less
than 0.001. The water outlets switch to node mode (not separating) when the
water holdup is less than 0.001. Before both the oil and water outlet switched to
node mode when either the oil or water holdup was less than 0.001. (OLGA-
05284)

Compressor files and tab -separation
The number of mass flow points and number of speed points given in a
compressor file can now be tab-separated. This was not supported earlier. (OLGA-
05502)

Fixed error in calculation of valve throttling
OLGA used the hydraulic diameter as pipe diameter, but used the actual pipe area
to calculate the valve throttling. The valve opening therefore got to small, and
simulations could crash. This is now fixed. (OLGA-5544)

Improved stability for Recycle/Bypass with components
Improved stability for Pump and Compressor Recycle/Bypass when running with
components. (OLGA-04941)

Compressor instability
Improved compressor flow/pressure differentials at low velocities. Stability at low
velocity is therefore improved. (OLGA-05571)

4.13 General
Phase changing materials in walls
The effect of phase changes has been added to the materials used for walls in
OLGA. This can be used to model phase change materials used as insulation in
pipe walls. It includes changes in thermal conductivity, heat capacity and the effect
of latent heat of fusion.

In the MATERIAL keyword, a new TYPE=PCM has been introduced. Also five new
keys have been added to be used with this functionality:

PHCHMAX - Upper temperature limit for phase change region

PHCHMIN - Lower temperature limit for phase change region

CONDMULT - Conductivity multiplier below PHCHMIN

HCAPMULT - Heat capacity multiplier below PHCHMIN

FUSIONMULT - Heat capacity multiplier between PHCHMIN and PHCHMAX used
to model latent heat of fusion. (OLGA-05248)

OLGA 6.2 Release Notes Page 15






CORROSION available on Flowpath level
CORROSION is now available in each FLOWPATH instead of at Case level. Old
OLGA 6 cases must be updated manually. (OLGA-3551)

Mixture velocity now available in GUI
USTOT is an old output variable, but is now also available in the GUI.
(OLGA-4307)

TUNING split in TUNING and SLUGTUNING
A new keyword, SLUGTUNING, is added for the global slug tuning parameters.
The TUNING keyword is moved from Case level FA-models to FlowPath level
FA-models. (OLGA-04372)

Pressure effect in pipe contraction and expansion
Added default pressure loss/recovery due to pipe contraction/expansion.
(OLGA-04677)

Bug fixed in order of GASLIFTTABLES
The order of GASLIFTTABLES does no longer influence on the simulation results.
(OLGA-4777)

Change of the level gradient implementation from channel geometry to pipe
geometry for both steady state and dynamic simulation
An error in the hydrostatic pressure in three phase flow for the dynamic equations
was discovered and fixed. This fix gives more consistent result between steady
state and dynamic simulations. However, due to numerical problems in the OLGA
scheme the new level gradient term may give more numerical instabilities for shut
in simulations. (OLGA-05192)

FLUID given with TYPE=COMPLEXFLUID and FULL=YES
Added fluid data test when FLUID is given with TYPE=COMPLEXFLUID and
FULL=YES. Test for power law (POWERLAW) and yield stress (BINGHAM) data.
The simulation will abort if the required fluid data is missing.
(OLGA-04958)

Pressure drop calculations
Improved pressure drop calculations for laminar flow at Reynolds number < 0.1
(OLGA-04982)

Consistency between the steady state and dynamic solver
OLGA steady state assumes zero velocity at the boundary and consider the
acceleration from zero velocity to the velocity at the first section. This is now also
implemented for the dynamic solver.
(OLGA-05702)

Water wall shear stress when no water is present
Previously, the water wall shear stress was set equal to the oil wall shear stress if
there was no water in a pipe. Now, the value is set equal to zero instead.
(OLGA-05731)

OLGA 6.2 Release Notes Page 16






Improved handling of user-termination of batch run
Pressing Ctrl-C or closing the batch-run window results in OLGA terminating
execution immediately in a controlled fashion. Plot and restart files will not be
updated or written. Pressing Ctrl-break will force a display of currently elapsed
simulation time, execution will proceed as if not interrupted. (OLGA-05832)

Interpolation between laminar and turbulent friction factor
Earlier the friction factor has been set to the maximum of the laminar and turbulent
friction factor. This could overpredict the pressure drop for e.g. one phase MEG
where laminar flow can be present for relatively high Reynold's numbers. In
TUNING there is a functionality to set the friction factor as a function of Re:
Laminar for Re lower then RELOW, turbulent for higher than REHIGH, and
interpolation between RELOW and REHIGH. The default values for RELOW and
REHIGH have now been set to 2300 and 3000, respectively (before the default
was -1, that is, that this functionality was not used). Both RELOW and REHIGH
must be within 0 and 10000, and (REHIGH-RELOW) must be at least 100. (OLGA-
06272)

4.14 Input / Output
Output and restart written when user terminates interactive simulation from
GUI
Force TREND/PROFILE/OUTPUT/RESTART write if a simulation is terminated by
the user from the GUI. Functionality only available when the case is run
(interactively) through the GUI. If the case is run in batch mode, no restart etc. will
be written. (OLGA-04578)

Standard conditions given in keyword PVT table file are now used
STDPRESSURE and STDTEMPERATURE in the PVT table file (keyword format)
are the standard pressure and temperature given in PVTsim when creating the file,
while GOR, GLR, STDGASDENSITY, STDOILDENSITY, STDWATDENSITY and
WC (the two latter only for 3 phase table files) are the properties at this standard
condition. These values have not been used in previous OLGA versions, but are
now used for input (e.g. GORST in WELL) and output (e.g. QGST - Gas volume
flow at standard conditions).

This will give more precise results in simulations where e.g. GORST in WELL is
used and the table is coarse around the standard conditions (e.g. if the two lowest
pressure is 0.1 and 10 bara) since the gas mass fraction is not linear with pressure
for such low pressures.

A new key STDLIQDENSITY will be introduced in the next PVTsim version. This
gives the standard density of liquid water and hydrocarbons (HC) in the case
where a two phase PVT file is generated from a composition with water.
STDOILDENSITY is the density for HC only and thus does not contain the
necessary information. If the keys are not present (removed manually since always
written), linear interpolation between the pressure and temperature points will be
used as before. Note that the given standard pressure and temperature will be
used for both input and output instead of the default values of 1 atm and 15.56 C.
(OLGA5-00772)
OLGA 6.2 Release Notes Page 17







Shear strain rate output variables
The output variables SHRHL and SHRWT have been implemented for shear strain
rate of oil and water film respectively. (OLGA-05635)

Wrong calculation of output variable MACH
The calculation of the output variable MACH is corrected.
(OLGA-4765)

Plot variables no longer limited to 1.0e-20
Earlier, plot variables have been set equal 1.0e-20 if their absolute value has been
less than 1.0e-20. Now the variables get the value 0.0. (OLGA-4805)

LSEGMENT warning removed
There will be no warning issued when the LSEGMENT sum does not add up to the
pipe length (SCR-04812).

Fixed the calculation of plot variables MWOIL and MWWAT
MWOIL/MWWAT gave only half the expected result earlier, due to bug where the
sum was divided by number of fields in the phase. (OLGA-4857)

Added input check for WAXDEPOSITION
OLGA will return an error message if WAXDEPOSITION=ON and
COMPOSITIONAL is not OFF. (OLGA-4939)

Error in plot variable HTK when HINNERMIN is used
The value of HTK written to plot files was previously not limited by HINNERMIN.
However, the value used in the calculations was limited by HINNERMIN. (OLGA-
04947)

Output from bundles written to standard plot files
Temperature, ambient heat transfer coefficient and geometry are now available as
variables to be plotted in tpl and ppl files. (OLGA-05269)

Shear strain rate output variables
The output variables SHRHL and SHRWT has been implemented for shear strain
rate of oil and water film, respectively. (OLGA-05636)

Case with both tabulated and keyword based fluid files is now supported
Previously, when fluid files with tabulated format was read after fluid files of
keyword based format, OLGA terminated. (OLGA-04919)

Better error message
A message with location info (FLOWPATH/PIPE/SECTION) is displayed when the
simulation is aborted due to P/T outside table values. (OLGA-05870)

GASCST, OILCST,WATCST and LIQCST added as output variables
These would be the total volume of gas, oil/condensate, water and liquid,
respectively, in a branch; converted to standard conditions while accounting for
OLGA 6.2 Release Notes Page 18






any mass transfer between phases from actual to standard conditions.
(OLGA-5267)

New output variables PSIHL and PSIWT
PSIHL and PSIWT give the mass transfer rate (kg/m3/s) of oil and water,
respectively, from liquid to vapor. They are available for TREND, PROFILE and
OUTPUT. (OLGA-05582)

Mixing variable types in trend data
If several trend variables of different types, e.g., LIQC and TM, are specified
together under a TRENDDATA key, the simulation will abort and the following error
message will be given: "INPUT ERROR in keyword TRENDDATA: Variable type
mismatch. Plot variables (LIQC, TM) are not of the same type." (OLGA-04897)

Hydratecheck warnings
Warnings about the temperature or pressure being outside the "hydrate curve"
square only if DEBUG=ON and only the first time it occurs. (OLGA-04898)

Viscosity and wall shear stress at t=0
The viscosity and wall shear stress are now plotted for time = 0s. Previously,
these have been plotted as 0 at t=0. (OLGA-05639)

Improved error message
When an output variable is requested for a position in a branch where it is not
defined, a more descriptive error message is given. (OLGA-05285)

Branch variables with specified positions
If a branch variable, e.g., LIQC, is given together with a position, the position will
be ignored and an info message is printed. (OLGA-05148)

Error in plotting for closed boundaries after restart
Plotting flow variables for closed boundaries gave nonzero values at restart time.
Only a plotting problem. (OLGA-05624)

More informative error message for section out of range error.
When the case contain references to illegal sections, the error message will
indicate which keyword is the problem. (OLGA-05805)

Min/max/mean branch variable
Added MAXTMBR, MINTMBR, MEANTMBR, MAXPTBR, MINPTBR, MEANPTBR
as BRANCH variables (OLGA-04967)

Variable TWS
Variable TWS now available in Trend plot. (OLGA-05430)

HEATEXCHANGER - sub key SECTIONBOUNDARY changed to SECTION
Heatexchanger is now placed inside the section and not on the boundary as in
OLGA 6.1. OLGA 6.1 cases must be updated manually. An error message will be
given. (OLGA5-05480)

OLGA 6.2 Release Notes Page 19






Key DTTIME added to PROFILE keyword
Functionality for setting the profile plotting frequency as a function time has been
added. (OLGA-06058)

Changed names of outputvariables
XTSOUR, XTWELL and XTLEAK changed to ZSOUR, ZWELL and ZLEAK
CGGLK, CGGWEL and CGGSOU changed to CGGLEAK, CGGWELL and
CGGSOUR.

These output variables are now named the same in versions OLGA 5.3.4 and
OLGA 6.2. ( OLGA-06372)

MEG output variables renamed to INHIB
All MEG output variables are now changed to INHIB (e.g. MEGMFR is now
INHIBMFR). OLGA 5 case are converted. OLGA 6 case from previous versions will
now get a warning for deprecated keys. (OLGA-06576)

OLGA 6.2 Release Notes Page 20






5. MODEL CHANGES BETWEEN OLGA 5 AND OLGA 6
This chapter goes into some detail on the changes in OLGA 6 compared to OLGA
5. This chapter concentrates on changes in the underlying models of the
simulation engine.

5.1 Oil-water predictions
Three momentum equations

In OLGA 6 there are three momentum equations. One for the gas field, one for
continuous hydrocarbon liquid field and one for continuous water field. The
different fields may include dispersions (e.g. water and oil droplets in the gas field).
In OLGA 5 there are only two momentum equations; one for the gas field and one
for the liquid field with a steady state momentum balance for the slip between the
liquid phases.

The three momentum equations in OLGA 6 will give different result from OLGA 5
when the individual inertia terms of hydrocarbon liquid and water are important.
We have seen this e.g. during heavy slugging in risers where OLGA 6 is leaving
more water holdup in the riser than OLGA 5. This behavior is corresponding better
with what is expected.

Interfacial level gradient term between oil and water

In OLGA 6 there is an interfacial level gradient term between oil and water. This
ensures that even in a horizontal pipe the heavier fluid will flow to the bottom of the
pipe in a shut-in situation. This is also seen to give somewhat more water content
in gas condensate pipelines for low flow rates compared to OLGA 5.

5.2 Better model consistency in OLGA 6
The steady state preprocessor

The steady state preprocessor in OLGA 6 includes the effect of interfacial level
gradients, giving more consistent results between the preprocessor and running
the dynamic simulation to steady state. For gas condensate in long pipelines one
may now run the case with steady state preprocessor and get the same result as
in the dynamic simulation. In OLGA 5 the level gradient between gas and liquid is
only included in the dynamic simulation.

The steady state preprocessor in OLGA 6 considers the pressure drop due to
acceleration from zero velocity at the boundary to the velocity at the first section,
while the steady state preprocessor in OLGA 5 does not.

Both the dynamic solver in OLGA 5 and OLGA 6 consider acceleration from zero
velocity at the boundary to the velocity at the first section.

OLGA 6.2 Release Notes Page 21






5.3 The node model
The NODE model in OLGA 6 differs from OLGA 5. In OLGA 5 the NODE is
represented by the first/last section in one of the outgoing/incoming branches, but
in OLGA 6 the NODE is a separate self-contained network component whose
basic role is to either act as a boundary condition to the flow network or couple
together an arbitrary set of flowpaths, both merge and split.

The pipes connected to a node receive the masses, temperature, and pressure of
the node as the boundary conditions. For separators and phase split node, the
masses to the pipe boundaries are adjusted according to which fluid a pipeline
receives from the node.

For the flow calculations at each of the pipe boundaries connected to the node, the
pipe parameters, such as diameter, inclination, roughness, are the same as the
internals to the pipe.

The model for internal nodes (merge/split nodes) uses more or less the same
physics and the numerical methods as the sections in the pipes. Pressure,
temperature and masses are calculated. Interphasial mass transfer is included in
the node, but entrainment/deposition of liquid droplets are ignored.

Volume in node

The current implementation of internal nodes require a finite volume in the node. If
no volume is specified (or given as less than or equal to zero), a default volume is
calculated by OLGA based on the sizes of incoming and outgoing sections:

{ }
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
· · · · =
i i i
A L D V , 100 min
3
1
max

where i is taken over all incoming/outgoing sections. It should be noted that the
node does not account for heat lost to the surroundings.

Treatment of momentum

No momentum is carried forward from one pipe to the other pipes through the
node. That is, the axial velocity external to the pipe is assumed to be zero. For
cases where the velocity is high, the acceleration from zero external velocity and
the velocity inside the pipe may contribute considerably to the total pressure drop
over the boundary section.

No pressure drop is calculated for flow through the node volume in OLGA 6. In
OLGA 5, the pressure drop is calculated for the pipe sections connected to the
section used as the node volume (node section). If the pipe geometry or the flow in
the pipe section and the node section differ, OLGA 6 will give different pressure
drops over the node compared with OLGA 5.

5.3.1 Defining internal loop in OLGA 5
OLGA 6.2 Release Notes Page 22






A closed loop in OLGA 5 require that you need to define one split node and one
merge node in order for the network solver to find a solution. This is a
mathematical assumption in the solver. This is only a definition of geometry and
positive flow-direction, and has nothing to do with actual flow direction. If violating
this in OLGA 5 you get an error saying that you have defined an internal loop.
In OLGA 6 there is no such assumptions in the solver since the internal node is
more general than merge / split nodes.

5.4 Simulation of two phase cases
It is not possible to select PHASE=TWO in OPTIONS since PHASE is always
THREE in OLGA 6. It is advised to use two phase PVT tables to simulate two-
phase cases. If it is necessary to use three-phase PVT tables, the user should set
FLASHMODEL=HYDROCARBON in OPTIONS in order to prevent the water vapor
mass fraction in the PVT tables to be taken into account in the calculations. The
FLASHMODEL key substitutes the WATERFLASH key in OLGA 5.

5.5 Controllers
The controllers are signal network components in OLGA 6 and need to be coupled
in the controller signal network. This mainly affects how the controllers are used in
the GUI and is described in the OLGA GUI User Manual.

The INTERLOCKHIGH and INTERLOCKLOW keys are missing on the selector
controller in OLGA 6. The selector controller in OLGA 6 is more generic than in
OLGA 5. OLGA 5 have SUBCONHIGH and SUBCONLOW while OLGA 6 have the
input signal terminals SUBCON_1, ..., SUBCON_N. The OLGA 5 variables
HIGHLIMITVARIABLE and LOWLIMITVARIABLE are replaced with MEASRD_1,
…, MEASRD_N. SUBCON_1 can act as SUBCONHIGH for MEASRD_1 and
SUBCONLOW for MEASRD_2 etc.

OLGA 6 uses a TRANSMITTER to measure and transmit process variables from
the pipeline into the controller signal network. A transmitter is positioned on the
pipeline, and can measure any trend variable in that position. One transmitter can
measure several variables. The process equipment (e.g. the separator) has output
signal terminals, and don‟t require a transmitter.

The OLGA 5 controller key SETOFVARIABLES is removed in OLGA 6.
SETOFVARIABLES refers in OLGA 5 to the SETPOINTVARIABLE key. With the
introduction of controller signal network and transmitters in OLGA 6 the
SETPOINTVARIABLE and SETOFVARIABLES becomes redundant. A one
special use of SETPOINTVARIABLE is to convert from mass flow to standard
volumetric flow rate by setting REFCONDITION = STD in the definition of
SETPOINTVARIABLE. The same can be achieved in OLGA 6.2 using a
STDCONTROLLER to convert from mass flow to standard volumetric flow rate and
connect the output of the STDCONTROLLER to the MEASRD terminal of the flow
rate controller. A second “very” special use SETPOINTVARIABLE in OLGA 5 is to
make a forward reference to an OLGA controller input variable on a main
object/keyword defined further down on the input file. This use of
SETPOINTVARIABLE is also redundant in OLGA 6.
OLGA 6.2 Release Notes Page 23







The VARIABLEFUNCTION key is available in OLGA 5 controllers. The
ALGEBRAICCONTROLLER is introduced in OLGA 6.2 and the
VARIABLEFUNCTION key is available in this controller type. The
VARIABLEFUNCTION key can thus be replaced by a controller of type
ALGEBRAICCONTROLLER whose output is connected to the MEASRD signal.

The TABLECONTROLLER uses the controller input signal to interpolate in a
TABLE. The interpolated value is used as output signal from the controller. The
TABLECONTROLLER replaces the LOOKUP function with controllers on TABLES
in OLGA 5.

If a CONTROLLER in OLGA 5 measures a flow variable from a SOURCE, WELL
or LEAK, the absolute value of the flow variables will be used. This is not the case
in OLGA 6.
Ex. Control a negative "GTLEAK" with a PID controller by manipulating the LEAK
flow area.
OLGA 5: Controller set point must be positive and amplification must be negative.
OLGA 6: Controller set point must be negative and amplification must be positive.

5.6 Separator
In OLGA 6 the separator is a fluid flow network component and is handled as a
special node model. In OLGA 5 one could set up a single train separator by
modifying the properties (keys) of the separator. The OLGA 6 separator is more
generic and one needs to add flow paths to model the drain and drain valve. See
the OLGA 6 GUI User Manual for further details on how to set up a separator in
OLGA 6. The OLGA 6 Conversion guide explains how to convert OLGA 5 cases
with separators to OLGA 6.

5.7 Bundle, Annulus and FEMTherm
The thermal capabilities of the Bundle, Annulus and FEMTherm modules are in
OLGA 6 available through three network components: the FluidBundle, the
Annulus and the SolidBundle. A SolidBundle is a bundle with FEMTherm
calculations (conduction) and a FluidBundle is a convective bundle.

The functionality follows OLGA 5, but the LINE and CROSSOVER is more
advanced in OLGA 6. In OLGA 5 a LINE has constant material properties, and
there is no computation of pressure drop or flow. In OLGA 6 the equivalent of a
LINE is a flowpath with LINE=YES. For such flowpaths single phase flow is
assumed, and pressure drop and flow is computed in addition to the temperature.
The equivalence of CROSSOVER is a pressure node with PARAMETER
LINE=CROSSOVER. Such nodes have two connection points, and a pressure
boost has to be given for the pressure difference between the two.

OLGA 5 cases containing bundles can be imported into OLGA 6, but such cases
will need more information from the user in order to be „Ready to simulate‟. This is
due to the more accurate lines and crossover couplings in OLGA 6. See the OLGA
6 Conversion Guide for more details.
OLGA 6.2 Release Notes Page 24







6. OTHER DIFFERENCES BETWEEN OLGA 5 AND OLGA 6
This chapter describes differences in process equipment, how to set up models
and differences in keywords and keys.

6.1 Integration
MAXDT and MINDT has default values (1 and 0.001 respectively) in OLGA 6.
They have no default values in OLGA 5. STARTTIME is a required key in OLGA 6
unless it is a restart case. If it is a restart case and STARTTIME is missing, the last
restart time in the restart file will be used.

6.2 Wall
INNERDIAMETER in OLGA 6 must match pipe diameter where the wall is used. In
OLGA 5 the pipe diameter can be different from inner diameter.

6.3 Keywords moved to FA models
FA models keywords are moved from Case level to Flow path level. The keys on
these keywords are then only applied to the local flowpath.

This applies to TUNING, CORROSION, HYDRATECHECK, HYDRATEKINETICS
and WAXDEPOSITION.

In order to apply the same data to all flowpaths, right-click the keyword and select
"Duplicate to all" and use "Global instances" to view all instances of a keyword.

SLUGTRACKING is available both on Case level and Flowpath level in OLGA 6.

DTCONTROL is available on both Flowpath and Case level in OLGA 6. In OLGA 5 it is
only available on Case level.

6.4 Heat Exchanger
The OLGA 6 heat exchanger has two modes; SETPOINT and CONTROLLED. In
SETPOINT mode the heat exchanger is similar to the OLGA 5 heat exchanger. By
setting TYPE=CONTROLLED the connected controller signal will scale the given
CAPACITY. I.e. the heating/cooling is regulated by the controller signal.

A heat exchanger with TYPE=CONTROLLED does not require a controller to be
connected as the default controller signal is zero. That is; no heating/cooling.

6.5 Source
In OLGA 6 a new key, SOURCETYPE, is used to distinguish between
PRESSUREDRIVEN, MASS and TRACER sources.

OLGA 6.2 Release Notes Page 25






The pressure driven sources in OLGA 5 are not included in the preprocessor while
they are in OLGA 6.

For a pressure driven source, OLGA 6 accounts for the gas compressibility for
subcritical flow through the source valve, whereas OLGA 5 does not. This means
that OLGA 6 gives the transition between critical and subcritical flow that is
consistent with the compressibility of the fluid. The fluid compressibility is an
important factor influencing subcritical flow when the pressure drop is close to the
critical flow condition.

A Tracer source is defined in the SOURCE keyword, whereas in OLGA 5 there is a
separate TRACERSOURCE. The source of type TRACER cannot be controlled by
a CONTROLLER in OLGA 6.

6.6Valve
The choke models in OLGA 5 and OLGA 6 are the same, but the implementation
of the model is different. When OLGA 5 crosses from sub-critical to critical flow,
the time step will be run again, fixating the flow at critical flow. The OLGA 6 choke
model doesn‟t require the time step to be run again.

The following modifications have been made to the choke model:
- The pressure drop is not only linearized with regard to change in the total
mass flowrate but also with regard to changes in the upstream pressure,
downstream pressure and phase fractions. This modification should give
better transient induced by pressure drop changes due to the upstream
phase fractions change.
- The linearized pressure drop coefficient to the total mass flowrate is not
relaxed from previous time step to the current time step as in OLGA 5.
This modification should give more timely response to changes in the
valve opening and flowrate changes.
- The pressure recovery after the choke is considered. This may result in
smaller pressure drop through the choke compared with OLGA 5.

For the Henry-Fauske option, in the iterative procedure for finding the critical
pressure throat pressure, the flashing term is calculated at the new throat pressure
for a new iteration. In OLGA 5, the flashing terms from all previous iterations are
summed up and averaged and then used for the next iteration. Averaging reduces
the effects of flashing term on the critical flow for under-saturated liquid flow. The
pressures in some of the iterations are above saturation pressure and in other
steps of the iterations are below the saturation pressure. Averaging in such cases
give lower value of the flashing term which in turn results in higher critical flowrate.
The iteration method of OLGA 6 is more rigorous.

OLGA 6 has default values for opening (1) and time (0), OLGA 5 has not. Further,
it is not allowed to position a valve at the first section boundary in a flowpath next
to a closed node in OLGA 6. OLGA 5 does not have this restriction.

OLGA 6.2 Release Notes Page 26






6.7 Heattransfer
For interpolation of values with an IN/OUT key pair (e.g. IN/OUTTAMBIENT), one
can supply either a single pipe by label or number (e.g. PIPE="PIPE-1", PIPE=1),
or supply a continuous pipe range by number (e.g. PIPE=(1-3)). Interpolation is
only possible for whole pipes (e.g. section cannot be specified for partial pipes).
For SECTIONWISE interpolation (e.g. TAMBIENT), a (non-continuous) list of pipes
can be given by either label or number as long as the given key value is a single
number.

OLGA 6 also allows pipewise interpolation of HAMBIENT with the use of two new
keys: IN/OUTHAMBIENT.

6.8InitialConditions
In networks containing a split node, the conversion from OLGA 5 to OLGA 6
cannot fully cope with the mass flow initial conditions. In a pipe with N sections,
one should give the mass flow at the N+1 section boundaries. However, due to
the treatment of nodes in OLGA 5, the last section boundary in a pipe leading up to
a split node is discarded, i.e., only N mass flow points needs to be specified.
When loading and converting such a case into OLGA 6, the state will be "Ready to
simulate", however when running the simulation a runtime error will occur:
"INITIALCONDITIONS: Number of MASSFLOW points are not equal to number of
section boundaries in FLOWPATH ..."

This error message is due to the fact that the input converter does not recognize a
branch leading up to a split node in order to, if required, add an extra mass flow
point to get the N+1 initial conditions. The user therefore needs to add this
number.

In order to get an input file compatible with both OLGA 5 and OLGA 6, N+1 mass
flow points should always be given. Adding mass flow for the last section
boundary will not affect the OLGA 5 simulation since it will be ignored when
running the simulation.

In OLGA 5, if more than one pipe is specified in the same initial condition
statement, all the pipes have the same inlet and outlet pressure and interpolation
is carried out for sections in each of the individual pipes using the distance relative
to the inlet of each of the pipe.

In OLGA 6, if more than one pipe is specified in the same initial condition
statement, the interpolation is carried for each section using the distance of the
section relative to the first pipe in the pipe list. The distance of the sections are
calculated by summing the section length of pipes in the same sequence as in the
pipe list.

6.9 Output Variables
Most OLGA 5 output variables are available in OLGA 6. The exceptions are listed
in olga5_only.xls.
OLGA 6.2 Release Notes Page 27







Some new variables are implemented in OLGA 6, they are listed in olga6_only.xls.

The branch variables are not enabled for output to the .out-file in OLGA 6.

There are some differences between OLGA 5 and OLGA 6 with respect to which
variable groups which can be combined in one TRENDDATA or PROFILEDATA
statement.

PLOT

The PLOT keyword is used the same way as in OLGA 5 except that OLGA 5 may
have multiple PLOT keywords. OLGA 6 can only have one PLOT keyword and this
causes problems in conversion of such cases. (please refer to the OLGA 6
Conversion Guide)

6.10 Restart
In OLGA 5 the restart file (.rsw) contains most of the data covered in the input file,
making it possible to use a very short input file in the restart run. In OLGA 6 the
input file needs to be fully specified in a restart run.

The restart file format used in OLGA 5 is not compatible with the one used in
OLGA 6, i.e. the restart files must be reproduced with OLGA 6 before they can be
used in a restart run. However, OLGA 6 is restart compatible with earlier versions
of OLGA 6.

The key READFILE is new in OLGA 6 - please refer to the OLGA 6 User Manual
for a description of how to use it.

In a restart run OLGA 6 will verify that the restart file and the input file are
compatible, meaning that only certain keywords and keys are allowed to change
between the original and the restart run. In particular the following rules are
enforced:

- The collection of MATERIAL, WALL and PIPE keywords must be identical in
the original and the restart run.

- All NODEs must be identical, although boundary nodes are allowed to
change type.

- All connections must be unchanged.

- The key COMPOSITIONAL in the OPTIONS keyword cannot change.

Other discrepancies that might be significant are reported as info messages when
the restart case is started.

OLGA 6.2 Release Notes Page 28






6.11 Hydratecheck
Some of the HYDRATECHECK keys have been moved to the new
HYDRATECURVE keyword. This split has been made due to better separation of
concepts and ease of use.

HYDRATECURVE contain keys that describe a specific hydrate formation curve.
HYDRATECHECK contain keys for setting up hydrate formation checking in a
single flowpath based upon one or more HYDRATECURVEs.

HYDRATECURVE is available in the Library and each one can be referenced by
HYDRATECHECKs in different flowpaths.

6.12 Pig
PLUG and PIGTRACKING is merged into a single keyword PIG. The slug tracking
method is used to track the pig and the fluids ahead and behind the pig. The
liquid/gas slip ahead the pig is not modified by the pig, resulting in sharper change
of liquid holdup around the pig.

6.13 Drillingfluid
The drilling fluid functionality is equivalent to the one in OLGA 5 except for one
feature: With OLGA 6.2 MEG is tracked as well as the production fluid, the drilling
fluids and the cuttings.

6.14 Position
ABSPOSITION can be specified (read only in OLGA 5 GUI)

7.FUNCTIONALITY IN OLGA 5 NOT AVAILABLE IN OLGA 6
Some of the functionality in OLGA 5 is not available in OLGA 6.

The list below shows functionality that is planned not to implement in OLGA 6 at
all.


Functionality Reason for not including in OLGA 6
Soil module This functionality is covered by FEMTherm.
SHUTIN This keyword is used in OLGA 5 to avoid numerical flow
regime flipping during shutdown operations. This keyword is
not required in OLGA 6.
DELETEPREVIOUS in
PROFILE, TREND and
OUTPUT
In OLGA 6 the input needs to be fully specified also for
restart cases (see section 7.14), i.e. the DELETEPREVIOUS
key is not needed anymore.
PLUG TYPE=LONG, HYDRATE and HEAVYSSH
PRINTINPUT Defines the input data which will be printed in the output file.
REROUTE The possibility now to model closed loops covers the origin
OLGA 6.2 Release Notes Page 29






of this keyword.
WAXDEPOSITION
The following keys are not implemented in OLGA6:
WAXVISC_ONLY, USE_TABLE_EQ_WXVFR,
CALC_SHEARRATE and SHEARRATE.
VALVE
In OLGA 5, the critical flow models FROZEN,
HENRYFAUSKE, and SUBCRITICAL exist whereas in
OLGA 6 only the first two models are available. When
converting an OLGA 5 case using SUBCRITICAL to OLGA
6, the critical flow model is set to FROZEN.

The following functionality is not implemented in OLGA 6 but may be included in
later versions depending on feedback from the users.

Keyword Key(s)
INTEGRATION CPULIMIT
OPTIONS AXIALHEAT
OPTIONS POSTPROCESSOR
GEOMETRY/PIPE EWSTART, NSSTART, TVDSTART in GEOMETRY and
EWEND, NSEND, TVDEND in PIPE
DTCONTROL SOUND_CFL, GRADPRESSURE, CFLFACTOR,
PREFACTOR

The following functionality will be included in future versions of OLGA 6.

Functionality not included in OLGA 6
Drilling - This functionality is primarily used for training simulators, it will be included in a
future OLGA 6 version.
Tuning – Bundle tuning (BNDTUNING) is not implemented in OLGA 6.
Bit nozzles
SEPARATOR - To avoid that the water/oil levels get too low (become zero) in the
water/oil-drainage lines of a separator when the valves on the oil and water linear are
not controlled, OLGA 5 has functionality that limits the velocity when the liquid levels in
the separator approaches zero. This functionality is not implemented in OLGA 6.
Functionality for handling source-source cases in steady state preprocessor is not
implemented for network
Pig and Wax - The combination of WAX and pigging is not implemented in OLGA 6
Complex fluid – The slurry plug extension to the complex fluid model in OLGA 5 is not
implemented in OLGA 6. The following keys are not implemented in the FLUID keyword
in OLGA 6: PARTICLESETTLE, WATERCUT, MAXPARTCONC, HYDTEMP,
MAXCONCK_G_EMUL
WAXDEPOSITION – The following keys are not implemented in OLGA6:
WAXVISC_ONLY, USE_TABLE_EQ_WXVFR, CALC_SHEARRATE and SHEARRATE.


OLGA 6.2 Release Notes Page 30






8. CONVERTING CASES FROM PREVIOUS OLGA VERSIONS
When you open old cases in the OLGA 6 GUI they will be converted to the OLGA
6 format. Most cases will be converted automatically, but some need additional
manual steps to be „runable‟ in OLGA 6. This is mainly cases with bundles and
separators. Please refer to the OLGA 6 Conversion Guide available from the start
menu (Start menu  All Programs  SPT Group  OLGA 6.2  Documentation).

There is only minor automatically converting of cases from OLGA 6 to OLGA 5.

8.1 Converting from OLGA 5 to OLGA 6
8.1.1Pipes
Roughness may not be defined for all pipes on a flowpath in OLGA 5. This must be
converted manually when converting from OLGA 5 to OLGA 6

8.1.2 Single train separator
OLGA 6 does not have the single train separator functionality; hence cases with
single train separators will be converted to a case with multi train separator in
OLGA 6. Often such cases will not converge in the steady state pre-processor, and
therefore it is recommended to use initial conditions (OPTIONS
STEADYSTATE=OFF) for such cases.


8.2 Converting from OLGA 6.1 to OLGA 6.2
The input structure in OLGA 6.1 and OLGA 6.2 is to most extent the same.
However, there are a few exceptions listed below.

Pig
If loading an OLGA 6.1 case into OLGA 6.2 it may be necessary to delete the
TRENDATA keyword and add it again in order to set the PIG label correctly in the
section “Slug and pig”.

LinearCombination Controller
The LinearCombination controller which was implemented in OLGA 6.1 is now
substituted by the ALGEBRAIC controller available in OLGA 5. There is no
automatically converting of cases with LinearCombination controllers.

Keywords moved to flowpath level
The CORROSION and TUNING keywords are moved from Case level to Flowpath
level. When importing a case with CORROSION or TUNING from OLGA 6.1 into
OLGA 6.2, the keywords must be defined again, manually.

OLGA 6.2 Release Notes Page 31






9. LIMITATIONS
9.1 Limitations in the steady state preprocessor
The steady state preprocessor may not always converge to the correct solution.
Below is a list of case-types where this may happen:

- Cases with separators
- Cases with pipelines that include pumps and compressors
- Cases that include pipelines with very low (~zero) flow rate (closed valves?)
- Cases with a split into pipelines with very different outlet pressures
- Cases with injection wells
- The preprocessor is not robust with respect to large networks
- The preprocessor is not robust with respect to negative sources in networks

It is recommended to use INITIALCONDITIONS and OPTIONS
STEADYSTATE=OFF for cases which the preprocessor handles poorly.






www. sptgr oup. com
A product by

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful