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Introduction General characteristics a. Somatic characteristics b. Reproduction i. Asexual reproduction ii. Sexual reproduction c. Sexual fruiting bodies d. Ascus e. Release of ascospores f. Ascospores g. Sterile structures in ascocarp h. Centrum i. Ascospore germination Classification a. Class Hemiascomycetes b. Class Plectomycetes c. Class Pyrenomycetes d. Class Dicomycetes e. Class Loculoascomycetes f. Class Loboulbeniomycetes

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Higher fungi, largest group (Includes 2720 genera and 28650 species) which include wide range of diverse organisms such as yeasts, black molds, blue molds, powdery mildews, black mildews, cup fungi, morels, truffles, lichens etc,. Most of them are terrestrial, some live in fresh or marine water. Majority are saprobes, some are parasites of insects and other animals. Diseases caused by these organisms are chest nut blight (Endothia parasitica), dutch elm (Ceratocystis ulmi), peach leaf curl (Taphrina deformans), ergot of rye (Claviceps purpurea), powdery mildew of Wheat (Erysiphe graminis), apple scab (Venturia inaequalis), take all (Gaeumannomyces graminis) etc,. Industrial uses of the organisms of this sub division are Yeast production of alcohol and baking industry Ergots alkaloids includes lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), hallucinogenic drug Penicillium notatum, P.chrysogenum penicillin Aspergillus flavus oryzae industrial acids Neurospora genetic analysis ( mycologist Dodge used for the first time), used for haploid and biochemical genetics.

General characteristics:
Production of ascus (goat skin), in which ascospores are formed through free cell formation after karyogamy and meiosis. Usually eight ascospores are present in each ascus but may vary from one to several thousands. Sexual fruiting bodies called ascocarps or ascomata are formed except in Hemiascomycetes.

Somatic structures:
Septate mycelium with simple pores which allows cytoplasmic continuity, sometimes pores are blocked by membranes. Woronin bodies are associated with pores which are rounded or elongated or oval, highly refractive bodies of unknown chemical composition

Cell wall is made of chitin and other compounds like amino sugars, proteins, mannose, glucose and devoid of cellulose. All cell organelles are present except chloroplasts Three kinds of mycelium based on nuclei Homokaryotic mycelium produced by germination of uninucleate haploid ascospore. Homokaryotic multinucleate produced by mitotic duplication of nucleus or by migration of daughter nuclei. Heterokaryotic condition produced by mutation of nuclei from homokaryotic mycelium or fusion of genetically distinct mycelium. Nuclei are unpaired and are not daughter cells of same parent. Modification of vegetative hyphae: Sclerotium aggregation of modified vegetative hyphae. Rhizomorphs aggregation of mycelial strands. Stroma compact mass of vegetative hyphae with or without tissue of host, outer layer is narrow ectostroma and inner massive endostroma gives rise to sporophores or ascocarps Nuclear division: Nuclear membrane doesnt break down prior to separation of sister chromatids. Spindle pole body (SPB) located outside nuclear envelope which undergoes replication prior to onset of mitosis. Two daughter SPB form nuclear plaques move microtubules appear opposite SPB and ultimately stretch across the nucleus from SPB to the other. Microtubules later form spindle which enclosed within nuclear membrane.

Reproduce both sexually or asexually. Sexual stage is also known as ascigerous or perfect stage in which sexual spores known as ascospores are formed. This stage helps in classification. Asexual stage is also known as conidial or imperfect stage which produces conidia. Asexual reproduction Conidia are the chief reproductive organs produced with in conidiogenous cell, borne on simple or branched hypha called conidiophore. Conidia may be in various shapes and sizes, septate or aseptate and of various colours, may be produced singly or in chains. Sometimes conidia are produced in specialised structures called conidiomata. These may be of various types like synnemata, sporodochia, pycnidia and acervulus Most of these imperfect stages come under Deuteromycotina. Asexual reproduction may occur by budding (blastospores), fragmentation and chlamydospores.








Sexual reproduction: Ascospores are the sexual spores, these are present in ascus. These asus may be naked or present inside fruiting bodies called ascoarp. Development and structure of fruiting body, structure of asci helps in classifying these fungi. Separation of plasmogamy and karyogamy in space and time occurs except in hemiascomyetes, due to this dikaryon is formed. The dikaryon formed divides repeatedly by mitotis and the structure with mass of male and female nuclei is called ascogonium. From these ascogenous hyphae develops and undergo successive conjugate division forming binucleate or dikaryotic hyphal segments near the tips of ascogenous hyphae. Dikaryotic cell bends forms hook like structure. Within hook cell two nuclei divide to form daughter nuclei and are separated by septa that divide into three cells. Of these three cells tip and base cells are uninucleate, the middle cell is known as crook cell which has two nuclei. In crook cell karyogamy occurs in between these two nuclei and forms a single diploid nucleus, and the crook cell is termed as ascus mother cell. Meiosis occurs to form four haploid nuclei and these nuclei undergo mitosis and forms eight haploid nuclei. Ascus mother cell transforms into ascus, compartmentalisation of an ascus cytoplasm by double membrane into nucleate portions. Sac like double membrane invaginates and surrounds around the haploid nuclei, this may be originated from endoplasmic reticulum. Spore wall is secreted between two single unit membranes, inner layer becomes plasmalemma and outer layer transforms to investing membrane. The cytoplasm in remaining in the ascus is termed as epiplasm and it gives nutrition to the developing ascospores.

Plasmogamy: Union of protoplasts Gametangial copulation: In yeasts, somatic cells act as gametangia fuse and form a unicellular zygote and are converted directly into asci, termed as HOLOGAMY. Gametangial contact: Union of morphologically differentiated male and female gametangia. Male gametangium is known as antheridium and female gametangium is termed as ascogonium. Antheridium is multinucleate and more or less clavate shaped, ascogonium is globular or cylindrical, may be single or many celled and are commonly coiled. Ascogonium produces hair like appendage or outgrowth which acts as receptive organ known as trichogyne. This trichogyne is lacking in Eurotium and Talaromyces. Gametes reduced to undifferentiated protoplasts. Male nucleus passes through from antheridium to ascogonium through pore or trichogyne at the point of contact. In some species antheridia are non functional or not formed, in such species nuclear pairing takes place by the ascogonial nuclei. Spermatization: Male cells may be spherical or rod shaped which are produced from short erect structures called spermatiophores ( spermatio little seed, phore bearer). These are carried by insects, air or water to receptive organs or somatic hyphae and empty their contents in them. In discomycetes and pyrenomycetes microconidia or conidia acts as spermatia. Somatogamy: Recognizable sex organs are absent. Fusion occurs between two undifferentiated somatic cells of same or different hyphae and this process is called somatogamy. Male nucleus from male cell migrates into female cell to form dikaryon.





In Gymnoascus, asci are covered by loosely arranged hyphae. Generally asci are enclosed in thick protective coat except in Hemiascomycetes, this coat may be made of prosenchymatous or pseudoparenchymatous tissue. Totality of structures surrounding by ascocarp are called centrum, these structures help in taxonomy. Cleistothecium (kleisto closed, theca case): Globular and closed completely without opening. Perithecium (peri around): Flask shaped fruiting body, opening by ostiole or pore. Apothecium (apo store house): Cup or saucer shaped fruiting body bearing an exposed hymenium and is open ascocarp. Ascostroma (asco sac, stroma mattress) or Pseudothecium: Asci in a cavity (locule) within stroma. Stroma itself forms the wall of ascocarp in such species. Hysterothecium (hystero womb): Elongated, boat shaped ascocarps, each with a longitudinal slit.

Vegetative protective tissue derived from surrounding mycelium, secondary protective tissue formed under stimulus from ascogonium.




Ascostromata Ascus:

Hysterothecium Thyriothecium

o Typically elongated, cylindrical or club shaped though globose asci are common and considered to be primitive. o May be stalked or sessile, asci are naked or at various levels in the ascocarps or arranged in a paliside like manner, forming a hymenial layer as in perithecium and apothecium. o Both unitunicate and bitunicate asci are made of two layers namely outer ectoascus or ectotunica and inner endoascus or endotunica. o Prototunicate: Thin delicate wall and release their spores by either breaking apart or deliquescing. o Unitunicate: Ectotunica and endotunica adhere together. Release of ascospores may be by pore at apex, slit, operculum or tear for liberation of spores. o Bitunicate: Ectotunica ruptures during dehiscence and enables the elastic inner wall to expand to form a cylindrical sac. Ascospores are successively

discharged through an elastic pore in the expanded sac. This behaviour is described as Jack in- a box. o Before discharge of spores, pore is plugged with substance that stains blue with iodine and is different from wall material. These features constitute apical apparatus. It can be stained with writing ink, congo red and janus green. o Presence or absence of operculum is an important feature in classification 1. Prototunicate 2. Bitunicate (Fissitunicate) 3. Ostropalean 4. Lecanoralean 5. Annelate 6. Hypodermataceous 7. Pseudooperculate 8. Operculate 9. Verrucarioid

bitunicate ascus

Release of ascospores: Release of ascospores occurs in various types

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Fissitunicate Rostrate Semifissitunicate Pseudofissitunicate Bilabiate Poricidal

7. Operculate 8. Explosive o In cleistothecium Wall of cleistothecium is forced open, ejecting the entire ascus to a distance of several centimetres. Water uptake is possible responsible for the increase in turgor which causes explosive release. The soluble sugars increase the osmotic concentration of ascus sap, which results in increase of water uptake by ascus. o In perithecium In unitunicate asci, they remain attached to the base and reach the ostiole by elongation. In bitunicate asci, only endotunica protrudes from ostiole and discharges ascospores. If the perithecium has long neck, asci gets detached from base and released successively from ostiole. o In apothecium Phototrophic asci in a deeply cupulate apothecium curve towards light, forming a cloud of spores and the phenomenon is called as puffing.

Spores produced as a result of meiosis and enclosed with in a specialised cover. These are produced by a process of free cell formation which involves the plasmalemma differently from conidiogenesis. These may possesses different shapes 1. Round - Hypocrea 2. Oval - Ascobolus 3. Reniform - Microascus 4. Spindle shape - Cochliobolus 5. Sickle shaped - Eutypa 6. Needle like - Gaeumannomyces 7. Saturn or hat shaped - Emericella 8. Helmet like Henensula 9. Cylindrical Elephocordyceps 10. Star shaped Emericella 11. Lemon shaped Neurospora


Outer surface may be smooth, warty, spiny or have characteristic longitudinal ribs, pits, appendages or have gelatinous sheaths.

Ascospores are unicellular but two to many celled walls are thicker and stronger than those of vegetative cells.

Ascospore is made of three layers, outer episporium, inner endosporium and middle dense layer contains melanin and therefore responsible for black colour of spores, the only layer that appears to be ruptured upon germination. Based on arrangement of ascospores asci are following types. Uniseriate, when arranged in single row; biseriate , when arranged in two rows; and also in parallel fasicles.


Number of ascospores per ascus also varies generally number is eight. In some cases, numbers increases with in ascus by process of budding and are termed as blastospores.

Sterile structures in ascocarp:

These structures are monokaryotic, since these are not products of plasmogamy. All kinds of hyphae or other tissues between asci are termed as hamathecium. These structures are usually of carpocentral origin. 1. Inter ascal pseudoparenchyma carpocentral tissues unchanged or compressed between developing asci. 2. Paraphyses (para beside, physis growth): upward growing, basally attached hyphal elements and lie among asci. May be clavate or filiform, usually unbranched and fuse to form epithecium over asci. 3. Periphyses (peri around): Short hair like growth near ostiole and also present in pycnia and pycnidia. 4. Pseudoparaphyses: Originate above the level of asci, grows downwards get attached to base of cavity, often broader regularly septate, branched and anastomising 5. Paraphysoids: Interascal or preascal tissue that stretch and resemble pseudoparaphysis, often only remotely septate, very narrow and anastomise.

Centrum: Totality of structures enclosed by the ascocarp wall. Classification based on centrum: The pseudoparenchymatous mass of cells filling the young Phyllactinia cleistocarpous or perithecial ascoma is destroyed as the asci grow type


and fill the centre of the mature ascocarp The pseudoparenchymatous mass is destroyed as paraphyses grow upward from the base and inward palisade layer. The pressere exerted by the paraphyses is probably responsible for creating a central cavity and growth of these on upper part toward the apex of the ascocarp creates an ostiole. Asci which are either club shaped or cylindrical now grow among the paraphyses. The paraphyses may be persisitant or deliquescent Xylaria type Initial pseudoparenchymatous mass is partially or completely destroyed as the asci grow and extend into it. The asci are either evanescent at maturity or persist and expel their spores forcibly Diaporthe type Apical paraphyses originating from the perithecial apex just below the periphyses grow downwards in the perithecium to form a palisade layer. These finally disintegrate as the asci grow among them Nectria type

Ascospore germination:
The irreversible chain of events that transform the self contained spore to its vegetative form is termed as germination. Morphological changes: include swelling of spore, nuclear division and sometimes vacuole is formed. Physiological changes: synthesis of macromolecules like DNA, RNA, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, excretion of metabolites, enzymes or viamins, an increase in dry weight or volume, absorption of water and activation of enzyme secretions. Germination of ascospores takes place by production of one or more germ tubes that develop into septate mycelium. Spherical growth occurs by splitting of thin outer layer of three layered ascospore wall. The thick melanised layer of two remaining wall layers is partially perforated by a narrow germ fissure which runs along the length of spore. This fissure gaps open to expose inner wall which encloses spore protoplast. A slightly inflated germ tube emerges due to polarised growth which subsequently tapers at the tip and grows apically to produce a hyphal filament.


CLASSIFICATION Modern mycologists give more importance to the type of ascocarp centra, type of ascus, arrangement of asci, nature and presence and absence of ascal pores, presence and absence of various types of sterile threads; for classification of Ascomycotina. According to Ainsworth (1961) Ascomycotina is divided into 6 classes 1. Hemiascomycetes 2. Plectomycetes 3. Pyrenomycetes 4. Discomycetes 5. Loculoascomycetes 6. Laboulbeniomyctes Keys to Classes of Ascomycotina Asci arising naked; ascocarps and ascogenous hyphae lacking; thallus mycelial or yeast like Asci evanescent, scattered at various levels within the nonostiolate ascocarp which is typically a cleistothecium, ascospores aseptate Exoparasites of arthropods or marine red algae; thallus reduced; ascocarp a perithecium Ascocarp typically a perithecium which is usually ostiolate (If nonostiolate, asci are not evanescent); asci inoperculate with an apical pore or slit Hemiascomycetes Plectomycetes Laboulbeniomycetes Pyrenomycetes


Ascocarp an apothecium or a modified apothecium; frequently macrocarpic, epigean or hypogean; asci inoperculate or operculate Discomycetes Asci bitunicate; ascocarp as ascostroma Loculoascomycetes Class Hemiascomycetes Absence of ascocarp; asci are naked and lack sterile cells. A typical multispored ascus which is a direct enlargement of a conjugate cell, or is an enlarged uninucleate, diploid cell of a free living thallus. In either case plasmogamy and karyogamy occurs in the same cell. The wall of asci are generally thin and release of ascospores by bursting or deliquescing. The thallus is made of a poorly developed mycelium or is represented by separate cells or pseudomycelium. Most of the species are saprophytes; some have symbiotic relation with insects and other arthropods. Taphrinales and Protomycetales form yeast like growth in laboratory colonies and form mycelium when it reaches the host. Classification Mycologist Fitzpatrick (1930) & Bessey Gaumann (1926) & Kramer (1950) Charles L. Kramer (1973) & Martin (1961) Alexopolus (1979) Class Phycomycetes Hemiascomycetes Order Family Examples




Protomycetaceae Taphrinaceae Endomycetales Ascoideaceae Spermophthoraceae Saccharomycetaceae Endomycetaceae Protomycetales Protomycetaceae Taphrinales Taphrinaceae Endomycetales Ascoideaceae Spermophthoraceae Saccharomycetaceae Endomycetaceae Taphrinales Protomycetaceae Taphrinaceae Schizosaccharomycetal Schizosaccharomycet es aceae

Protomyces Taphrina

Protomyces Taphrina Ascoidea Ashbya Saccharomyces Endomyces Protomyces Taphrina Schizosaccarom yces


Wikispecies Taphrinomycetes Saccharomycetes

Taphrinales Saccharomycatales

Saccharomycetaceae Nadsoniaceae Saccharomycodaceae Eremotheciaceae Metschnikowiaceae Cephaloascaceae Dipodascaceae Lipomycetaceae Protomycetaceae Taphrinaceae Ascoideaceae Candidaceae Cephaloascaceae Dipodascacae Endomycetaceae Eremotheciaceae Lipomycetaceae Metschnikowiaceae Pichiaceae Saccharomycetaceae Saccharomycodaceae Saccharomycopsidce ae

Saccharomyces Nadsonia Saccharomycodes Ashbya Metschnikowia Ambriosiozyma Stephanoascus Lipomyces Protomyces Taphrina

Order Taphrinales

Taphrina deformans Order Schizosaccaromycetales

Protomyces macrosporus


Schizosaccharomyces pombe Order Saccharomycetales








Key characteristics of each order and family Protomycetales: causes galls and lesions, accompanied by excessive colour changes Presence of synascus Taphrinales: asci are arranged in palisade layer Endomycetales: yeast fungi Spermophthoraceae: needle or spindle shaped ascospores Ascoideaceae: abundant mycelium and multispored, club shaped asci on hyphal tips or arising from gametangia Endomycetaceae: production of definite number of ascospores in each ascus Saccharomycetaceae: asci develop directly from zygote Comparision between Endomycetales, Protomyceales and Taphrinales


Endomycetales Ascus do not form synascus Unicellular thallus; pseudomycelium

Taphrinales Ascus do not form synascus Parasites causing malformations, leaf curls, witches broom, puckering of leaves, plum pockets, blister like leaf lesions Saprobic in nature Formation of subcuticular or subepidermal layer of binucleate ascogenous cells from mycelium Sexual reproduction Asci / spore sacs arranged fusion of 2 equal / unequal in a palisade layer and / ascospores form diploid subglobose ascospore zygote and ascophore with often buds to form yeast ascus is formed. like colonies

Protomycetales Forms synascus Forms galls and lesions

Produces thick walled intercellular chlamydospores

Life cycle of Taphrina deformans Disease caused: Peach leaf curl Occurrence: Sub himalayan region; U.P., H.P. Symptoms: Thickening of diseased tissue takes place due to hypertrophy and hyperplasia of host cells and when large portion of entire leaf blade are involved, curling occurs. In addition to cytokinins, there is increase in Indole acetic acid (IAA) and tryptophan. Source of infection: Ascospores in ascus, after release from asci, they start budding and produce small ovoid blastospores. Primary infection: The blastospores after reaching host produce germ tube that penetrates into its host through the unfolding leaf buds and forms intercellular mycelium. Before penetration the single haploid nucleus of blastspore divides to establish a dikaryon. Development in host tissue: The hyphae grows intercellularly and penetrate various tissues of host, eventually aggregate below the leaf cuticle and break up into binucleate ascogenous cell (chlamydospore).karyogamy takes place in elongated ascogenous cell and followed immediately by mitosis of diploid nucleus. One daughter nucleus migrates into apical portion and other remains at the base. A septum forms in ascogenous cell resulting in formation of diploid basal stalk and upper ascus mother cell, containing one nucleus each. The ascus mother cell continues to elongate and ruptures leaf cuticle. The nucleus and cytoplasm of stalk cell disintegrate, emptying the cell. Diploid nuclei of ascus divides by meiosis and mitosis forms eight nuclei and ascospores. Ascospores may bud with in ascus and forms numerous blastospores. Asci form a palisade like layer above the epidermis and their presence gives leaf a waxy bloom.

Dispersal: With bursting of ascal tip, the ascospores are forcibly released into air and repeat the cycle.

Class Plectomycetes Globose evanescent asci in closed fruiting body, cleistothecium Asci 8 spored, sessile, thin walled, lack a performed opening, and release the ascospores passively with in ascoma, escaping when wall of the ascoma breaks or decays. Ascospores unicellular without germ pores or germ slits. Peridium of cleistothecium one to several layers thick. Mostly saprobic, few are parasitic on plants Some of them are used commercially in the manufacture of organic acids; Aspegillus citric acid and gluconic acid; Penicillium penicillin Classification Mycologist Order Family Examples Ainsworth (1971) Gymnoascales Dendrosphaeraceae Dendrosphaera Gymnoascaceae Arthroderma Onygenaceae Onygena Eurotiales Cephalothecaceae Cephalotheca Pseudoeurotiaceae Pleuroascus Eurotiaceae Eurotium Ascosphaerales Ascosphaeraceae Ascosphaera Elaphomycetales Elaphomycetaceae Elaphomyces

Alexopolus (1979)

Microascales Ophiostomales Ascosphaerales Onygenales

Eurotiales Wikispecies Eurotiales Class Eurotiomycetes Ascosphaerales Onygenales

S.Cl.Chaetothyriomy cetidae


Verrucariales Order Ascosphaerales

Microascaceae Ophiostomataceae Ascosphaeraceae Onygenaceae Arthrodermataceae Myxotrichaceae Gymnoascaceae Trichocomaceae Pseudoeurotiaceae Elaphomycetaceae Eurotiaceae Ascosphaeraceae Erasmaceae Agellomycetaceae Arthrodermataceae Gymnoascaceae Onygenaceae Monoblastiaceae Pyrenulaceae Requienellaceae Trypethellaceae Adelococcaceae Verrucariaceae

Microascus Ceratocystis Ascosphaera Onygena Arthroderma Myxotrichum Gymnoascus Eurotium Cryptendoxyla

Ascosphera chalk brood Order Onygenales



Arthroderma Order Eurotiales



Emericella Asexual stages




Aspergillus Penicillium Paecilomyces Key characteristics of each orders and families Gymnoascales: loosely woven hyphae around asci, non ostiolate ascocarp, lack definite peridial wall with appendages. Dendrosphaeraceae: 25 cm highly branched stalks Gymnoascaceae: gymnothecium, commonly called skin plant, as they cause tineas. Eg: anamorphs Trichophyton, Microsporium Onygenaceae: stalked, appendages absent Eurotiales: Thick sclerotoid peridium Cephalothecaeae: Conspicuous lines of dehiscence on peridium Eurotiaceae: true cleistothecia Ascosphaerales: reduced cleistothecia spore cyst Elaphomycetales: deers are sensitive to smell for its fruiting bodies, truffle like, hypogeous, acts as ectomycorrhizae with pines, parasitized by Cordyceps. Microascales: perithecial ascocarp, ostiolate or non ostiolate. Ophiostomatales: perithecium with long ostiole beak Comparision between Eurotiales and Erysiphales Eurotiales Erysiphales

Ascoma small globose, lack ostioles and paraphyses Peridium pseudoparechyma or thick and sclerotoid and lacks appandages Ascogonial apparatus coiled Asci 8 spored and thin walled Ascospores unicellular, globose, ellipsoid, bivalvate, hyaline/ dark, highly ornamented and lack germ pore or slits Saprobic- decaying plant material and food stuffs Asexual stages Penicillium, Aspergillus

Powdery mildew fungi with Phyllactinia type centrum Ascocarps globose, non ostiolate, open irregularly with appandages Asci one to many spored, pyriform to clavate, unitunicate Ascospore unicellular, ellipsoid Asexual stages Oidium, Oidiopsis, Ovulariopsis Biotrophs

Although intercellular host protoplast does not have direct contact with haustoria because of invagination of plasma membrane of host Industrial purpose penicillin, aflatoxins Pseudoascogonium, pseudoantheridium are formed Comparision between Oidium, Oidiopsis and Ovulariopsis Oidium Oidiopsis Ovulariopsis Mycelium is ectophytic, Mycelium is endophytic. Mycelium is partly hyaline. ectophytic and partly endophytic. Conidia are Conidiophores may be The conidiophores are developed from a flask branched or hyaline, septate, shaped mother cell ( spore unbranched, erect, septate, unbranched, and bear a mother cell) formed on a hyaline and emerge single conidium. In some short conidiophore . through stomata. species, the conidiophores are spiral in shape. Conidia are barrel shaped Conidia are produced Conidia are rhomboid in with flat ends and are singly and cylindrical in shape. produced in chains and are shape. Conidia are of two also referred to as types blunt tip and meristem arthrospores as pointed tip these are formed by fragmentation of hyphae. Eg:Erysiphe,Podosphaera Leveillula Phyllactinia subspiralis. , Uncinula, Sphaerotheca and Microsphaera






Aspergillus Conidiophore arises from foot cell Conidiophore long, erect

Forms a terminal swollen vesicle on which bottle shaped structure sterigmata / phialides / conidiogenous cell Produce conidia at their tips in chains Conidia in chains by connectives Conidia develops within specialised cells termed the phialide as phialoconidia Conidia ontogeny is holoblastic Holoblastic, circuscissile rupture of this outer wall Class Pyrenomycetes

Penicillium Conidial apparatus arises from somatic hyphae Conidial apparatus stipe phialide ramus metulae Conidia produced bottle shaped phialides

Ascocarps entirely surrounded by peridial wall Asci unitunicate, arranged on hymenium layer, persistant, rarely evanescent Ascospore typically globose or flask shaped perithecia and are provided with an opening, the ostiole, which is lined by hyphae like periphyses Mostly saprobes, some are plant pathogens like Claviceps, Nectria Classification Mycologist Ainsworth (1971)

Order Erysiphales Melioles Sphaeriales

Family Erysiphaceae Meliolaceae Chaetomiaceae Xylariaceae Diatrypaceae Phyllochoraceae Coniochaetaceae Sodariaceae Polystigmataceae Clavicipitaceae Diaporthaceae Gnomoniaceae Melanosporaceae

Examples Erysiphe Meliola Chaetomium Rosellinia Diatrype Phyllochora Coniochaeta Neurospora Glomerella Claviceps Diaporthe Gnomonia Melanospora

Clavicipitales Diaporthales

Hypocreales Coronophorales Coryneliales Alexopolus (1979) Hypocreales Melanosporales Microascales Phyllochorales Ophiostomatales Diaporthales Xylariales Sordariales

Hypocreaceae Hypomycetaceae Coronophoraceae Coryneliaceae Hypocreaceae Nectriaceae Clavicipitaceae Melanosporaceae Microascaceae Ceratocystidae Phyllochoraceae Ophiostomataceae Diaporthaceae Xylariaceae Diatrypaceae Sordariaceae Tripterosporaceae Chaetomiaceae Coniochaetaceae Lasiosphaeraceae Nitschkiaceae Meliolaceae Sphaeriaceae Bionectriaceae Ceratostomataceae Clavicipitaceae Hypocreaceae Nectriaceae Niessliaceae Ophiocordycipitacea e Diaoporthaceae Gnomoniaceae Melanconiaceae Togninaceae Valsaceae Vialacaceae Chaetomiaceae Lasiosphaeriacaeae Sordariaceae Kathistaceae

Hypocrea Hypomyces Coronophora Corynelia Hypocrea Nectria Claviceps Melanospora Microascus Ceratocystis Glomerella Ophiostoma Diaporthe Daldinia Diatrype Neurospora Podospora Chaetomium Coniochaeta Cercophora Meliola

Wikispecies Hypocreomycetidae

Melioles Sphaeriales Hypocreales Sordariomycetidae


Sordariales Ophiostomales


Ophiostomataceae Order Hypocreales




Family Clavicipitaceae

Claviceps purpurea Order Melanospora


Melanospora Order Microascales


Microascus Order Phyllochorales

Ceratocystis Order Ophiostomatales



Order Diaporthales

Diaporthe Order Xylariales




Daldinia concentrica


Diatrype Order Sordariales




Coniochaeta Order Melioles


Meliola Key characteristics of each order and family Erysiphales: Phyllactinia type centrum, causes powdery mildews or white mildews and are obligate, bitunicate asci, endotunica poorly developed. These are separated from other groups of fungi on the basis of DNA analysis. Meliolales: Black mildews, obligate biotrophs, perithecia ascocarp, capitate hyphopodia, paraphyses arises laterally, setae on ascocarp. Sphaeriales: dark leathery or carbonaceous, globose or pear shaped Xylaria type, asci forcibly discharged.

Chaetomiaceae: long hair which cover upper part of perithecium, ostiolate Xylariceae: only necks are open to surface, acts as rhizomorphs, stroma made of fungal tissue Diatrypaceae: stroma made of host and fungal tissue, sausage shaped ascospores. Phyllochoraceae: ascoma embedded in clypeus, biotrophs. Sordariaceae: lives in dung and decaying plant parts, ostiolate or non ostiolate, glabrous or hairy Neurospora: commonly called as red bread mold or bakery mold, presence of nerve like ribs on ascospore, reproduce asexually by macroconidia or microconidia, sexually by spermatization. The ascogonium is called as protoperithecium or bulbil or archicarps, this arises many trichogynes which act as receptors while spermatization. Clavicipitales: perithecia which are immersed in fleshy brightly colored stroma which is made of fungal tissue. Cordyceps: parasite on insects and also fungi like Elaphomyces Diaporthales: Diaporthe type of centrum, perithecium buried in stroma Gnomoniaceae: non stromatic, ascospores hyaline Melanosporaceae: dark colored ascospores, non ostiolate Hypocreales: Nectria type centrum Hypocreaceae: ascocarps are immersed in stroma Hypomycetaceae: perithecium is loose prosenchymatous subiculum Coronophorales: mucilaginous mass around the tip of the ascocarp Quelkorper, non ostiolate Coryneliales: parasitic on leaves, ascocarp is closed, botuliform, often opening by funnel shaped clefts Comparision between different orders Hypocreales Phylochoral Xylariales Sordariales es Nectria type centrum Ascocarps Ascocarp Ascocarp Ascocarp brightly black embedded in dark colored, ostiolate,em true stroma, ostiolate or rarely non bedded in entirely of non ostiolate,sub host tissue fungal ostiolate iculum or under tissue,ONLY immersed in clypeus NECKS stroma OPEN TO SURFACE Diaporthales Ophiostom atales Diaporthe type Ascocarp Perithecium usually or immersed or cleistotheci erumpent and um have stromatic tissue Microascal es Lack stromata


Asci clavate or cylindrical

Asci Asci large cylindrical, with an apical ellipsoid and amyloid ring unitunicate with apical pore

Asci cylindrical with a thickened ring

Asci evanescent or their short stalks gelatinize freeing asci in cavity, if persistant, spores are expelled

Asci globose to ovoid, evanescent produced in a basal fascicle and released into centre

Asci globose or ovoid, evanescent, passively discharged

Ascospores colorless, nonseptate, multiseptate, muriform,do not fragment

Ascospore dark brown, unicellular, germ slit and not allantoid

Ascospores - dark, septate with variously ornamented walls with one or two germ pores, possess a gelatinous sheath or appendages Paraphyses and periphyses are absent Saprobes Parasites on bark and wood

Ascospore one celled

Asexual stage Trichoderm a,Verticilliu m,Fusarium Saprobic

Asexual stagesGeniculospor ium, Nodulosoriu m Saprobes and parasites

Parasites on plants and animals

Comparision between Clavicipitaceae and Nectriaceae Clavicipitaceae Nectriaceae Parasites on grasses Parasites on timber and ornamental plants Formation of perithecia which are Ascocarps fleshy, bright, often white, superficial or immersed in fleshy, bright yellow, red, green, blue. Produced coloured stroma which is made of superficially on stroma or immersed in entirely of fungal tissue stroma


Asci long, narrow cylindrical, apical thick cap traversed by single pore Ascspore long, filiform or fusiform, multiseptate or often fragment into short segments Ergots or sclerotia are formed Asexual stage Sphacelia

Apical structure of asci do not stain with iodine Ascospore lack germ pores or slits Canker and die back Asexual stage Fusarium, Cylindrocarpon

Life cycle of Claviceps purpurea Disease caused: Ergot of rye, ergotism in human by its alkaloids like lysergic acid, ergomatrine, ergotamine, ergotoxine Symptoms: Ergots and honey dew stages Source of infection: Sclerotia fall to the ground and germinate in spring, producing a number of pin shaped stromata, in the heads of which a large no. of ascogonia develop just below the surface of the stromata. One or more antheridia develop from the base of the ascogonium. The male nuclei from one antheridium enter the ascogonium which ultimately gives rise to the ascogenous hyphae. The peridium which is one or two layers thick grows around these. The perithecium is short neck lined with periphyses and opens at the surface of the stroma by an ostiole. Each mature perithecium bears a conspicuous ascus cap at its tip. The mature asci grow up to the ostiole in succession and the filiform ascospores are forcibly discharged one at a time after shorter intervals. Primary infection: Release of ascospores coincides with anthesis of the grass or cereal hosts. The developing ovaries then get infected. But the process of infection of the ovary is unknown. Development in host tissue: A few days after being infected by the ascospore, the ovary tissues are destroyed by developing mycelium and acervuli like structure consisting of a cottony, mycelial mat and covered with small conidiogenous cells are formed. The conidiogenous cells produce minute, oval, unicellular conidia at their tips. The asexual stage of C.purpurea was called Sphacelia segetum. The conidia are enveloped in a sticky, sweet liquid called honey dew (consists of glucose, fructose, sucrose and other sugars). The supply of water and sucrose increases as soon as the infection of the flower takes place. The pathogen present in the host tissue converts the sucrose from the host to mono-, di and oligosaccharides, resulting in a continuous sink for sugar translocation and evaporation and an increase in the osmotic concentration of sugars. These factors are responsible for the increased rate of translocation towards the infected ovary. Secondary infection: Insects are attracted towards the honey dew and help to transmit the conidia to healthy flowers. On reaching a flower, the conidium germinates and the young ovary gets infected. After a few days of infection, a crop of conidia capable of infecting young ovaries is formed, thus propagating the fungus and spreading the disease. The mycelial mat begins to harden and is ultimately

converted into a hard, black sclerotium which is often considerably larger than the rye grain.

Class Discomycetes Produce fructification with an exposed hymenium, called apothecium. Shapes of apothecia cup, saucer, club, tongue, mushroom like, saddle, brain,bell like, sponge like, funnel shaped. Hymenium consists of asci and paraphyses. All the Discomycetes eject their spores forcibly except the Tuberales in which the ascocarps are closed and the spores are dispersed by animals. Mostly saprobic, few are parasitic such as Monilinia, Rhytisma. Some fungi like Morchella are edible. Classification: Mycologist Ainsworth (1971) Order Medeolariales Cyttariales Pezizales Family Medeolariaceae Tuberaceae Thelobolaceae Sarcoscyphaceae Pezizaceae Examples Medeolaria Tuber Thelobolus Sarcoscypha Peziza

Rhytismatales Ostropales Helotiales

Ascobolaceae Pyrenomycetaceae Morchellaceae Helvellaceae Rhytismataceae Hypodermataceae Odontotremataceae Stictidaceae Triblidiaceae Ascocorticaceae Orbiliaceae Dermateaceae Hyaloscyphaceae Sclerotiniaceae Helotiaceae Geoglossaceae Hemiphacidiaceae Gelatinodiscaceae Phacidiaceae Mediolariaceae

Ascobolus Pyronema Morchella Helvella Rhytisma Lophodermium

Alexopolus (1979)

Medeolariales Rhytismatales Ostropales Cyttariales Helotiales

Leotiaceae Sclerotiniaceae Dermateaceae Geoglossaceae Orbiliaceae S.or. Peltigerineae Lecanorineae Cladoniineae Teloschistineae Caliciaceae Myocaliciaceae Pezizaceae Tuberaceae Terfeziaceae Elaphomycetaceae Glaziellaceae

Gyalectales Lecanorales

Rhytisma Ostropales Cyttaria Bulgaria Monilinia Diplocarpon Geoglossum Orbilia Coenogonium Lobaria Leconora Cladonia Caloplaca Peziza Tuber Terfezia Elaphomyces Glaziella

Calicales Pezizales


Wikispecies Leotiomycetes

Cyttariales Helotiales



Gyalectales Ostropales

Teloschistales Lecanorales

Otidiaceae Sarcoscyphaceae Sarcosomataceae Theelobolaceae Ascobolaceae Pyronemataceae Ascodemidiaceae Morchellaceae Helvellaceae Cyttariaceae Ascocorticiaceae Bulgariaceae Dermateaceae Geoglossaceae Helotiaceae Hemiphacidiaceae Hyaloscyphaceae Leotiaceae Loramycetaceae Phacidiaceae Rutstroemiaceae Sclerotiniaceae Vibrisscaceae Ascodichaenaceae Cryptomycetaceae Cudoniaceae Rhytismataceae Gyalectaceae Graphidaceae Coenogoniaeae Gomphillaceae Odontotremataceae Phaneromycetaceae Solorinellaceae Stictidaceae Thelotremataceae Letrouitiaceae Teloschistaceae Anziaceae Arthrorhaphidaceae Bacidiaceae Calylidiaceae Candelariaceae

Anthracobia Sarcoscypha Chlorioactis Thelobolus Ascobolus Pyronema Ascodesmis Morchella Helvella


Pezizomycetes Pezizales

Cetrodoniaceae Crocyniaceae Dactylosporaceae Gypsoplacaceae Haemotommatacea e Lecanoraceae Lecideaceae Loxosporaceae Megalosporaceae Megalariaceae Micareaceae Miltideaceae Mycoblastaceae Ophioparmaceae Pachyascaceae Parmeliaceae Pilocarpaceae Ramalinaceae Rhizocarpaceae Scoliciosporaceae Sphaerophoraceae Ascobolaceae Ascodesmidaceae Caloscyphaceae Carbomycetaceae Chorioactidaceae Discinaceae Glaziellaceae Helvellaceae Karstenellaceae Morchellaceae Pezizaceae Pyronemataceae Rhizonaceae Sarcoscyphaceae Sarcostomataceae Tuberaceae

Order Rhytismatales



Ostropales Order Helotiales




Monilinia Order Gyalectales




Coenogonium + Trentepohlia Order Lecanorales






Leconora Order Pezizales



























Key characteristics of each order and family Medeolariales: endophytic on stems of hosts, causing fusiform swelling of the stem Cyttariales: ascoma are large, spherical to pyriform, grouped in large clusters Tuberales: truffles provide gastronomic delights to man and pig, hypogeal closed apothecia, mycorrhizal relation Pezizales: operculate epigean apothecia Thelobolaceae: minute apothecia with usually single ascus with multilayers Sarcoscyphaceae: apothecia are large, often stipulate and tough, gelatinous Pezizaceae: cup or disc shaped apothecia grow on dung or on wood Ascobolaceae: ascospores thick walled, egutulate Pyronemycetaceae: apothecia are small discoid to cupulate, rarely stalked, often hairy and commonly have carotenoids Morchellaceae: apothecia are fairly large and stipulate with sponge like or bell shaped pileus Helvellaceae: false morel or saddle fungi, large stipitate apothecia with a discoid to cup or saddle shaped hymenium with cerebleform pileus gyrometroid Rhytismatales: apothecoid or lirellate ascocarp immersed in stroma or host tissue Rhytismataceae: stromata are well developed, carbonaceous and multiloculate


Hypodermataceae: stromata carbonaceous with single apothecium Ostopales: parasites on herbaceous stems, bark or wood, not economically important Helotiales: inoperculate apothecia Sclerotiniaceae: cup shaped, yellowish brown stalked apothecia that develops from sclerotium or stromata Dermataceae: sessile apothecia which never arises from sclerotium Geoglossaceae: commonly called as earth tongues, club or fan or tongue shaped apothecia Comparision between orders Pezizales Helotiales Tuberales Operculate, epigean Inoperculate, cup or disc Hypogeous ascoma apothecium of various shaped apothecium remain closed, fleshy to shapes and sizes- fleshy, leathery, globose wit brittle, leathery, hymenium that lines a gelatinous single or complex series of locules Asci arranged on Asci slightly thickened Asci globose or oval hymenium; Ascal apex apices thinner, apical or subapical lid Ascospore violently Ascospores several Ascospores unicellular, discharged septate and are variously hyaline or brown, often shaped asymmetrical spherical, smooth or with upper end wider spiny Saprobes Parasites like Monilinia Fruiting bodies are not formed in artificial cultures Comparision between families Pezizaceae Cup or disc shaped apothecium sessile or stalked Ascal apex intensely blue with iodine Ascospore uninucleate, thin walled Morchellaceae Helvellaceae Cup or bowl shaped Cup to saddle shaped, apothecium long stalked large stiptate, variously convoluted Ascal apex doesnot blue with iodine Ascospore Ascospore multinucleate, tiny quadrinucleate but not droplets usually present at crowned by small the poles of fresh, young epiplasmic guttules ellipsoid ascospores

Grows on dung Asexual stage Chromelosporium -

Morels, bell morels

Lorchels, fungi



Class Loculoascomycetes Production of asci within locules ina preformed stroma (ascostroma) that constitutes ascocarp. Ascus bitunicate, foot or hoof, a knob like structures are produced at the base of each ascus. Locules lack its wall which differs from perithecium in stroma in which perithecium is covered by its own wall. Uniloculate ascstromata Pseudothecium; modified uniloculate ascostromata Thyriothecium, hysterothecium. Apical modification of within the cytoplasm at the ectotunica apex with a series of refractile spirals visible at light microscope level surrounding an apical or ocular chamber Classification Mycologist Ainsworth (1971) Order Myriangiales Dothideales Family Myriangiaceae Saccardinulaceae Trichothyriaceae Chaetothyriceae Pseudosphaeraceae Englerulaceae Dothioraceae Example Elsinoe Piedraia


Pleosporales Hysteriales Hemisphaeriales

Dothideaceae Capnodiaceae Pleosporaceae Venturiceae Lophiostomataeae Hysteriaceae Micropeltidiaceae Munkiellaceae Microthyriaceae Trichopeltiaceae Parmulariaceae Aulographaceae Brefeldiellaceae Leptopeltidaceae Stephanothecaceae Schizothyriaceae Dothideaceae Pseudosphaeraceae Microthyriaceae Myriangiaceae Elsinoaceae Piedraiacea Capnodiaceae Antennularielliaceae Euantennariaceae Chaetothyriaceae Herpotrichiellaceae Metacapnodiaceae Pleosporaceae Leptosphaeraceae Hysteriaceae Micropeltidaceae Tubeufiaceae Pheotrichaceae Venturiaceae Botryosphaeriaceae Melanommataceae Didymosphaeriaceae

Mycosphaerella Capnodium Pleospora Venturia Lophiostoma Farlowiella Microthyrium

Alexopolus (1979)

Coryneliales Dothideales Myriangiales Arthonales Asterinales Capnodiales Chaetothyriales Petellariales Pleosporales

Corynelia Mycosphaerella Leptosphaerulina Trichothyrium Myriangium Elsinoe Piedraia Opegrapha Hyphopodia Capnodium

Capronia Rhytidhysteron Pleospora Leptosphaera Glonium Podonectria Preussia Venturia Guignardia Melanoma Neotestudina



Wikispecies Arthoniomycetes Dothidiomycetes



Massariaceae Pyrenulaceae Mytilinidiaceae Platystomaceae Arthoniaceae Chrysothicaceae Melaspilaceae Roccellaceae Decampiaceae Dothidiaceae Dothioraceae

Zopfia Pyrenula Actidium Herpotricha

Order Coryniales

Corynelia Order Dothideales




Mycosphaerella Order Myriangiales


Microthyrium Order Arthoniales





Order Capnodiales

Order Petellariales

Capnodium Order Pleosporales









Guignardia Order Melanommatales








Keys characteristics of each family and order Myriangiales: uniascal locules immersed in stroma Myriangiaceae: asci are spherical or broadly clavate and are borne in uniascal loculi Sacchardinulaceae: specialised parasites on human hair Dothidiales: loculi contains several cylindrical asci in fasicles without paraphyses or pseudoparaphyses Dothidiaceae: loculi are ostiolate, parasitic on vascular plants Capnodiaceae: commonly called as sooty molds, bitunicate asci in ostiolate ascocarps with many septate ascospores Pleosporales: paraphyses are present, Pleospora type centrum Pleosporaceae: multiseptate ascospores without germ pores or slits Venturiaceae: single septate, ovoid or ellipsoid, greenish or brown ascospores Lophiostomataceae: beak of pseudothecium is laterally compressed with an cleft like ostiolum with one to many septate ascospores Hysteriaceae: saprophytic, thick walled apically rounded ascocarps with sunken cleft that usually produce wide, 1 many celled ascospore Hemisphaerales: hemispherical, dimidiate, shield shaped ascocarps, Pleospora type centrum


Comparision between orders: Dothideales Dothidea type centrum Pleosporales Pleospora type centrum Myriangiales Ascostroma indeterminate growth, single ascus develop in each of several non ostiolate locules in fertile region Hamathecium absent Asci fissitunicate, globose, clavate Ascospore- pale red brown,one to few celled or muriform, often asymmetric spores

Hamathecium absent Asci ovoid to cylindrical, fissitunicate, usually in fasicles Ascospores uninucleate to multinucleate, muriform

Asci basal, occupy wide region of base of locule Ascospores hyaline or darker

Comparision between families Pleosporaceae Perithecium or cleistothecium embedded in substrate Sticky and appandaged ascospores Plant and animal parasites Asci club shaped Origin of germ tube with respect to hilum Jack in the box discharge of ascospores

Venturiaceae Pseudothecia or ascostromata with several locules Ascospore 2 celled hyaline to olive green, dark brown. Both cells are unequal in size Attacks apple, related species Ascus formation usually takes place by the formation of crosiers Jack in the box discharge of ascospores


Class Loboulbeniomycetes Lack mycelium, hyaline to darkly pigmented thalli, basal evanescent asci. Absence of hamathecial tissues. Obligate parasites of insects, mites, and few millipedes. Heteroeocy occurrence of different life states in distinct hosts. Ascospore develops into conidium producing anamorphs on arthropod and may produce haustoria to penetrate the integument. Classification Mycologist Ainsworth (1971) Alexopolus (1979)

Class Laboulbeniomycete s

Order Labuolbeniales Spathulosporales Labuolbeniales


Laboulbeniomycete s

Spathulosporales Labuolbeniales

Family Labuolbeniaceae Spathulosporaceae Labuolbeniaceae Pyxodiophoraceae Ceratomycetaceae Euceratomycetaceae Herpomycetaceae Spathuosporaceae Ceratomycetaceae Euceratomycetaceae Herpomycetaceae Laboulbeniaceae

Order Laboulbeniales



Key characteristics of each order and family Loboulbeniales: spermatia produced endogenously inside simple antheridia Spathulosporaceae: one celled ascospore