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Professor of Computer Scienc e Lander College, Greenwood, SC 2964 6

Abstrac t The essay below deals with Newell and Simon's hypotheses about the nature o f intelligent action . The material is suitable for a classroom demonstration o f artificial intelligence at the high school level and above . Discussion questions following the essay are designed to encourage makin g explicit connections between computer science, philosophy, and the life sciences . They are part of an effort to formulate an information—oriented, algorithmic vie w of nature .

Calculation, Computation, Thinkin g The word calculate, so pervasive in the history of computation, is derived fro m the Latin word, calculus, meaning pebble . Pebbles were symbols used early i n history to represent and count objects . Pebbles overcame the limitations of th e human digits : more than 10 objects could be counted, the fingers were freed, and a n external record or memory of the counting process was created . The word compute is derived from the Latin putare, to think . Although we thin k naively of computing as having to do with numbers, the word reveals that thinkin g and computing are connected . The physical symbols system hypothesis is a hypothesis about intelligent action . Thinking is explained as a computational process involving symbols . Thus, th e etymology of both calculate and compute carry seeds of our current understanding ,

The Physical Basis of Intelligenc e In 1975, Allen Newell and Herbert A . Simon delivered the tenth Turing Lecture, a lecture series sponsored by the Association for Computing Machinery in honor of Ala n Turing, the 'father" of modern computer science . In this address, they explicitel y formulated what they called The Physical Symbol Hypothesis, a general, qualitativ e scientific hypothesis about the nature of intelligence . In their own words, th e hypothesis states tha t "a physical symbol system has the necessary and sufficient means for genera l intelligent action" 1 By necessary, Newell and Simon mean that any system that is found in nature t exhibit intelligence, will he found upon analysis to be a physical symbol system By sufficient, the authors mean that any physical symbol system of sufficient siz can be organized further to exhibit general intelligence . Computer scientists i the field of artificial intelligence have constructed systems that exhibi intelligent action . o . e n t

The field of artificial intelligence attempts to understand the phenomena o f intelligence in nature . Thus, it shares a domain of interest with biology an d cognitive science ,

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Physical Symbol System s What is meant by a physical symbol system? First, it is a physical system, tha t is, a system that follows the laws of physics, and can be engineered . A physica l symbol system is a machine 'that produces through time an evolving collection o f symbol structures' 2 . The system contains processes for creating and modifyin g symbol structures, which are expressions that contain symbols as components . Symbol s themselves are physical patterns that denote objects . A digital computer is a general-purpose machine for manipulating symbols . Whe n coupled with processes for creating, modifying, and destroying symbol structure s that denote objects in the real world - such as goals, and possible actions to reac h goals - we have an example of a physical symbol system that can exhibit intelligen t action .

Intelligent Actio n What is meant by intelligent action? Intelligence can be defined as the capacit to bring knowledge to bear in achieving a goal . Now goals can be reached by chance given enough time - but one may have to wait almost forever . Alternatively, ever possible sequence of actions can be tried, a process called brute force o systematic search . But this, too, may take far too long to be practical - th number of possible paths can grow very fast exponentially . y , y r e

Intelligence improves on the process of reaching a goal by bringing knowledge t o bear - some of which is extracted from the process along the way . Knowledge ma y reduce the number of steps needed - from all possible paths (the 'search space' of a problem) to just a few .

The Blocks Proble m These ideas can be illustrated by the following problem : 3 A child is given a set of black and white blocks, and is asked to arrange them i n alternating sequence : (black, white, black, white, black, white, black ) The 1 2 3 4 child must use only the following rules : Two black blocks can be added adjacent to the rightmost block . Two white blocks can be added adjacent to the rightmost block . A black block can be removed from the right . A white block can be removed from the right .

A black block is to be used as the start of the arrangement . Although this problem is easy for most adults to solve, it was a challenge fo r the child to whom it was given by Newell, who was attempting to model huma n problem-solving behaviour . The child was observed to progress towards the solutio n in the following fashion : First, the child arranged the blocks in alternatin g black-white sequence . He showed he understood the goal . The child's next effort wa s to create the goal pattern, but again without applying the rules . Then, the chil d was able to use the rules to create the first two or three blocks in th e arrangement . Finally, the child was able to recreate the entire sequence using th e rules .

The GPS Mode l Simon and Newell were able to model this kind of problem-solving behaviour with system called the General Problem-Solver (GPS) . Part of the strategy used to solve problem or reach a goal was as follows : Transform the initial state to the goal state as follows : (Step 1) Select the operator that will reduce the difference between the initia l state, S i , and the goal state the most . (Step 2) Apply the operator to the initial state giving a new state, S 2 a a

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(Step 3) If the new state, S 2 , is identical to the goal, we are done ; otherwise , repeat the "Transform° process, using S 2 as the new initial state . We can summarize the strategy as : Keep trying to reduce the difference betwee n the actual and desired state until there is no difference .

Application of GPS to the Blocks Proble m Let us see how the GPS strategy can be applied to the blocks problem . First, we may represent the goal state symbolically with the patter n bwbwbw b and the initial state with the symbo l b (b symbolizes a black box, w a white box . ) The four rules can be represented 1 -<pattern> --> <pattern>b b (pattern>ww 2 <pattern> °-) 3 (pattern>b -°> <pattern> 4 ` <pattern>w --> (pattern> a s follows : add two black boxe s add two white block s remove black bo x remove white box

Let us now apply the GPS algorithm : (Step 1) Which rule do we select first? Applying each of the rules tentatively t o the initial state we get, in our initial use (denoted by i=0 below) of th e procedure : (i=0) bbb (rule 1 ) bww (rule 2 ) an empty pattern by applying the third rul e (The fourth rule cannot be applied . ) If we compare the resulting patterns with the goal pattern symbol by symbol fro m a left to right, clearly rule 2 brings us closest to our goal, since it produces match in the first two symbols . (Step 2) Thus, we select and apply rule 2 first .

(Step 3) However, since our goal is not yet achieved, we must repeat th e transform process . Our new initial state is bww . Applying the rules we get : (i=1) bwbbb bwwww bw (The third rule (rule 1 > (rule 2 ) (rule 4 ) cannot be applied . )

Selecting rule 4 is best, since the resulting pattern has a match in the firs t two symbols, and no mismatch . Since our goal is not achieved, we repeat the proces s again . Now our Applying (i=2) (i=3) initial the state for the transformation successive is bw .

rules, we (rule (rule in

get, 1 ) 3)

for

iterations :

bwbb bwb

If we proceed following sequence : (i=4) (i=5) (i=6) (i=7) (i=8) (i=9) (i=10> (i=11) bwbww bwbw bwbwbb bwbwb bwbwbww bwbwbw bwbwbb bwbwbwb

th e

same

manner,

we

will

achieve

our

goal

state

with

th e

(rule (rule (rule (rule (rule (rule (rule (rule

2) 4) 1 ) 3) 2) 4) 1 ) 3)

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But, in fact, a more sophisticated approach would be to remember that from b w e got bwb and that therefore we could add the rule : 5 - (pattern)b --) (pattern)bw b We have learned something ! Thus, once we have reached bwb after three applications of the procedure, ou r next application of the transform algorithm is : (i=4) bwbwb (rule 5 )

We can apply the same rule agai n (i=5) bwbwbwb (rule 5 )

which gives us our goal state more rapidly . Our performance improved . Intelligence involves comparing a symbolic representation of our current stat e with our goal state, and making use of this information (together with any othe r information we may be able to bring to bear) to proceed further . Simon and Newell give explicit formulation of how physical symbol system s exercise intelligence in what they call the Heuristic Search Hypothesis ; The solutions to problems are represented as symbol structures . A physica l symbol system exercises its intelligence in problem-solving by search - that is, b y generating and progressively modifying symbol structures until it produces a solution structure . ' In the application of BPS to the blocks problem, the evolving set of symbo l structures would be (if we used rule (5)) : (b bww bw bwbb bwb bwbwb bwbwbwb ) Classroom Demonstration : All that is necessary for a classroom demonstration of the application of GPS i s a number of black and white painted blocks . Students can be shown the problem b y laying out the blocks in the desired pattern, and be asked to formulate a solution . It is interesting to see whether they have some insight as to how they solved th e problem . Before applying the BPS transform algorithm, it is worth getting students t o begin systematically generating all possible block patterns of length seven . In modelling the problem-solving behaviour, it is convenient to represent th e black and white blocks with symbols (b,w), and to define a formal system consistin g of : (a start symbol (b) ; an alphabet (the symbols b and w) ; and the set of fou r rules ) This system is an example of a formal grammar that can be used to generat e symbolic expressions representing block patterns . These symbol strings are sentence s of the language . The initial rules can also be thought of as axioms, and the generated strings ar e theorems . Thus, the process of reaching the goal state is analogous to proving a theorem . The use of mathematical logic as a model of problem-solving behaviour i s evident .

Discussion questions : 1. In formal systems with rules, such as algebra, geometry, or logic, theorems an d proofs can be achieved using the GPS strategy . Give some examples of such problems , and use the transform strategy to solve them . 2. Tasks we perform repetitively are mastered . Once they have been mastered, the y get executed as what appear to be automatic procedures . For example, we learned onc e upon a time to tie our shoelaces, and now perform this task without thought . How ar e solutions to problems stored? Is Nature a storehouse of algorithms ? 8IO SE

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3. In engineering and systems analysis, 'feedback' is the difference between a n actual and desired state and "control' is action taken to reduce the difference . A feedback-control loop can be used to improve system performance . Compare the concep t of a feedback-control loop with the GPS transform strategy . Explain how the physica l symbol hypothesis might be applied to the process of closing a door . 4. Compare the GPS transform algorithm with the method of fixed point iteratio n used in numerical mathematics . 5. A hungry pigeon will peck for food, the pecking being at random within the rang e of possible pecking behaviour available to pigeons . Is the physical symbol syste m hypothesis relevant in explaining the shaping of a pigeon's behaviour from reinforcement? Formulate a hypothesis - in which the physical symbol sytem and th e heuristic search hypotheses play a role - about how learning can take place b y chance, and behaviour shaped from reinforced learning . 6. Is nest-building by birds intelligent behaviour? Why or why not? bird "know" when it has finished its nest ? 7. Does an artist have a symbolic representation of his or her work ? How does a

B. Are there any molecular or atomic processes for which the notion of intelligen t action makes sense ? Footnotes : 1 'Computers and Science as Empirical Inquiry : Symbols and Search' by Allen Newel l and Herbert A . Simon, Communications of the AGM, March, 1976, Vol . 19, No . 3, p11 6 2 ibid ., p .11 6 3 A film entitled "Computers and Human Behaviour" shows several experiment s involving computers in psychology at the Carnegie Institute of Technology, includin g the child and GPS solving the blocks problem with commentary by Newell . 4 ibid ., p .12 0

An Advanced Readings Course in Database Systems--continued from page 1 8

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3 .

Participating in the clas s discussions has increased m y ability to communicate wit h others about technical issues . I learned from my fello w students in the class . The experience of serving a s a discussion leader increase d my confidence in my technica l knowledge . I would have preferred tha t the instructor rather tha n other students lead th e discussion each time . The work load in this cours e was more than the work loa d for other computer scienc e courses . The level of difficulty o f this course was higher (i .e . , more difficult) than othe r computer science courses . I would recommend thi s course to other students .

1 .417

1 .0 1 .25 4.

11 . The structure of the clas s discussions encourage s m e to prepare well fo r eac h class . 12 . I felt fre e to ask question s and expres s my own opinions .

Conclusion s 1 .5 5 . As can easily be seen from th e results of the students ' evaluation, th e course proved to be very popular . Many o f the students commented that the y especially liked the relaxed atmosphere i n the class, where they felt free to expres s an opinion . One student stated that h e enjoyed the change of pace from the mor e structured courses that he has had, and h e felt that he had learned as much in thi s course as he had in the other compute r science courses . The greatest problem with the cours e is devising an objective method of Without som e evaluating the students . method of evaluation, the students do no t This i s know what is expected of them . especially if this the firs t true is course of this type that a student ha s had . Meeting with the instructor to discuss the group leaders ' performance a t to the previous class meeting helped alleviate the problem . This method o f evaluation is still not something wit h which (this author) is the instructor completely comfortable, however . Befor e the course is offered again next year, a n evaluation form with weights assigned t o student performanc e various aspects of will be devised .

4 .25

6 .

3 .667

7 .

3 .167

8 .

1 .083

9.

1 .167

10 . I would like to see reading s courses of this typ e developed for other area s of computer science .

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