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Myth and Reality Of The Aryan Question

Myth and Reality Of The Aryan Question

Dr. Sheo Das Pandey, M.A. (English and Hindi), Ph.D. Ex Joint Secretary to Govt. of Bihar, India (Poet-Novelist and Mythologist-Indologist)

Dedicated to MRS. SONIYA GANDHI The greatest living symbol of global peace and harmony and of the spirit of revival of the pre historic unity and Indo-European fraternity that once upon a time enlivened the journey of Aryanism up and down from Haryupia to Florence Via Istanbul and that agitated the mind and heart of the author of The Discovery of India." S.D. Pandey

In Memorium

DR. JAGDISH PANDEY, PH. D., D. LIT A nationally acknowledged Civil Engineer, Social reformer and man of letters my late Samadhi and an inspiration as well as an instrument to this tedious work.

SHEO DAS PANDEY "We shall discover one day that the same logic is at work in mythical thought and in scientific, and that man has always thought so well." Claud Levi-Strauss

INDEX First Chapter: In Quest of the Pillars of Haryupia Second Chapter: Urban Planning of an Aryan city Third Chapter: Historicisation of Mythology Fourth Chapter: Facts in Fiction: Reality of Harappa Fifth Chapter: Urban Face of the Vedic Physique Sixth Chapter: The Culture of Harappa: From the Divine Brahmavarta to the Urban-Aryavarta. Seventh Chapter: The Culture of Har, Har, Mahadev The Supreme God. Eighth Chapter:

Page No. 19-27

28-41

42-50

51-64

65-78

79-87

88-98

99-111

The Aryan Question and the Journey of Aryanism. Ninth Chapter: Why Max Muller or Hans Hock? Why not Agastya or Yask or Panini? 112-122

Tenth Chapter: Towards Demolition of a citadel: Relevant Excerpts from eminent scholars On the Aryan Question since 1984 Eleventh Chapter:

123-144

144-152

Bibliography and Suggested Further Reading

FOREWORD Anthropologists of the world guess the age of the Prehistoric man to be between 100000 to 35000 years before Christ on the basis of the discoveries made at Neander Valleys in Germany in 1856 A.D. and assess that although this man would have dwelt in the caves, he could very well use stone tools and weild wooden spears and also knew a working language to interact with his kins. Charles Darwin (Born 1809 Died 1882) was, probably at the same time, working on his Evolution theory and was able to publish his famous thesis on the Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection in the year 1859. a thesis which although controversial was widely accepted even by scientists of Genetics and Molecular Biology with very little modifications later on. It was not a mere coincidence that at the same time Friedrich Max Muller (1823-1900) was busy with his studies on a probable family relationship between the classical languages (Latin, Greek, Persian and Sanskrit) with an open preference and appreciation for Sanskrit from which he also translated profusely. But as he happened to be working on the foot prints of Sir William Jones (1746-1794) and others as also under the strict guidance and decisions of the Royal Asiatic Society of London which th had held a secret meeting on the 10 of April 1866 (Secret for the people of India which had witnessed an Independence upheaval in 1857) his (Max Mullers) studies in philology, howsoever deep and wide, could not establish the proper and correct age of Rishi Angira, and others who had composed the Vedic Richas as also of Rishies like Panini, Agastya and Yask, the pandits who wrote the Sanskrit Grammar and its phonetic rules during the Post-Vedic days. It is simply unfortunate that supposing the Neanderthal or the Piltdown man was 100000 years old and supposing that the man born in the Himalayan Valleys was only 40000 years old, even then it is not understandable how and why it was presumed that this Himalayan man could not by then develop himself to be of the mental level of composing the Vedas or writing a grammar even after a lapse of 30000 years of living a life of Darwins Science of natural selection. If natural selection of advantages and rejection of the disadvantages was and has been the working principle of evolution it does not at all stand to reason that the Indian mind which is able to surpass any others in the field of technology in less than a century time today would not have been able to compose the vedic richas even after living a long long life of 30 to 40 thousand years of the process of natural selection. Anthropologists may sometimes be wrong, sometimes misled but so cannot be the

archaeologists or the philologists or the sociologists or even the mythologists and the issue, therefore, deserves a comparative assessment based on all these sciences. It is, therefore, only being too modest for an Indian thinker or an Indologist today to assert and reassert that the Vedas had been composed certainly by 13102 years before Christ but in any case not later than 10,000 years B.C. This timing of the composition of the Richas during the Satyug and called the Rigveda also tallies with the astronomical cycle of the four Epochs or Yugas of the Aryans and stands at four thousand and eight hundred years prior to the Treta epoch- These richas composed in Satyug which had already seen three thousand and six years of Treta and two thousand four years of Dwapar by 3102 B.C. an astronomical stage of time universally accepted as the beginning of Kaliyug (Ref. Britannica Ready Reference Encyclopedia- Yuga) got transferred from mouth to mouth called Shruties till they were first engraved on stone plates and later on inscribed on Talpatras (Palm leaves) and most probably the then script of writing was Brahmi, the subject of writing was Brahman, the writers were Brahma and his Rishi sons while the place of writing was Brahmavarta or Haryupia which was spread over the two banks of the river Brahmani or Bharati or Sarswati. Max Muller may be right in his Biblical Calculations that Noahs Deluge occurred in the year 2500 B.C. but a student of Panini and Yask cannot agree that it took less than seven to eight thousand years of time for a shruti to be a lipi (Script) and a lipi or script to attain the heights of a language and a literature or a philosophy of the standard of the Vedic Sanskrit and later on of the classic Sanskrit which got systematised in the rules of grammar written not less than 1000 years before Christ by the great grammarian like him (Panini). Such a philological study of Sanskrit properly done would have certainly taken Max Mullers Deluge story also back to 10-13 thousand years before Christ to the days of Manus Deluge mentioned in the Shatpath Brahman. And similarly a student of Charles Darwins theory of development by natural selection also cannot agree with Max Muller that within a period of only one to two thousand years or so a language soared so high to the Vedic standard and fell so down to the ground level of Prakrit and Pali of the Buddha days. Study of civilisations does not have a short cut method and it is extremely essential now, therefore, to go to Panini and his Ashtadhyayi and then through him to the Vedic Satyugi Rishies and Panies who expanding westward from Brahmavarta planned and built the city of Haryupia or Harappa, set out on trade to Persia and upto Anatolia, the terminal point of Asia called Asia Minor where they built a commercially vibrant temple city called Istanbul. Istanbul or Istambul both as a centre of knowledge and of commerce attracted the Greeks and the Romans from across the Black, the Mediterranean and the Caspian seas and
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became a central place, using a common language communicating to the West and then back to the East to Harappa. This central language, this common language, this Proto language was none else than Sanskrit which travelled from place to place and from dialect to dialect in its journey from Harappa to Istanbul and established a co-relation with Persian, Arabic, Greek, Latin and other languages which Sir William Jones had sometimes back called a family of the Indo-European languages. It is surprising that this mystery Proto language, called a Common Source language or a single unrecorded language by William Jones could not be identified and exacted by Max Muller and by his clan till today which although they adhere to the linguistic theories of Ramus Rusk or of Hans Hock which are very much derived from Panini's they are hell bent to keep this mystery a mystery than to accept the superiority of Panini or Sanskrit and that way the superiority of Harappa or Haryupia or Aryavarta, or Bharatvarsh or Brahmavarta or Sindia, or India or Hindia or Hindustan. It is rather amusing to mention here that although many modern scholars in order to locate some facts of the early history of Ireland and welsh took into consideration the Irish Mythological Book of Conquest or the Welsh The white Book, the Red Book or the Yellow Book supposed to have been written by monks similarly like the Aryan Rishies, Max Muller and his men threw away the astronomically perfect Aryan Cycle of Yugas theory to the wind. It would be worthwhile here to note that Istanbul was founded by none else than the Aryan Panies long before the 8 th century B.C. which the Byzantine empire is said to have

captured later on and made it its capital called Constantinople in 330 A.D. and historians accept that the principal reason of the Greek and Roman invasions was that Istanbul was more urban and commercially more prosperous and vibrant than any of the Greek or Roman cities of its time. The city of Istanbul had temples made on square shaped foundationssimilar in size of the Yajna-Shalas of the Harappans. A Harappan Yajna Shala used to be a sacred rectangular place of offering libations to god Hara (The Cosmic Reality called Brahma) which generally had a square shaped main kunda at its centre while four small size square shaped kundas at the four corners of the place. This placing of the Yajna Kundas with a long pillar called Yoop at its front prompted the Haryupeans to construct their houses called Karmashala, Pathshala, Pakshala etc. also on this very pattern and thus to initiate the specific science of civil engineering and architecture. These very Haryupeans while at Istanbul might, most probably, have got their identity as Europeans. This issue should be left to linguists, the archaeologists, the mythologists and the anthropologists of the world together who should better concentrate and devote themselves to studies on the topic in their own disciplines and

prefer not to indulge in any debate and sit together to reach a universal conclusion whether Europeans owe their origin to the Greek Goddess Europa or it was an identity taken after their get- together with the Haryupeans at Istanbul in Anatolia after they crossed over the Mediterranean, Black and Caspian Seas and their eastern boundaries of Ural mountains and the Ural river. The real identity and image of todays Europeans, well denying Rudyard Kiplings verdict, And never the Twain shall meet may take a wider and greater meaning in case we are capable to establish Istanbul as a place where the East and the West had actually once met and where the Eastern Haryupeans and the Western Europeans had mixed up like milk and water together.. This treatise is just a humble venture in this direction of thinking, thanking, inspiring and encouraging scholars of Indology in their different areas to come together with details of their further studies on the Aryan Question and remove the age long dusty and dirty curtain of the superficial as well as prejudicial AIT or OIT or AMT theories still existing but agitating the minds of students of Ancient Indian history and culture. I am definite, this is too big and too heavy a structure howsoever so intelligently designed with such a weak and fragile foundation called the AIT Citedel better read as Anti India theory which stands already shaken up miserably today itself cannot withstand the joint shocks given tomorrow by the scholars of all the streams aforesaid. I feel happy to state here that my mythology based conviction in regard to the culture and history of India finds a matching response not only in the scientific studies of the evolution of man but also in the various sciences or logies of evolution of languages, cultures and civilizations made by various scholars from all over the world. My thanks are due to all those thinkers and scientists who I agree with while to those also who I may not agree and both the types have found their due places in the references made in this book as well as in its Bibliography appended herewith. But two persons who I feel specially indebted to are two of my own non historian relations- Er. (Dr.) Jagdish Pandey and Er. Yogesh Pandey who not only supported me with books and journals on the subject but with their valuable opinions in course of discussions on various aspects of civil engineering of Harappa. I feel not less indebted to my friend Dr. Satish Chandra Jha, a learned Professor and H.O.D. of Sanskrit of the B.R.A. Bihar University who helped me, sometimes more or less like a virtual guide of a Research Paper as also to my eldest son-in-law Prof. (Dr.) V.N. Upadhyay and my eldest daughter Dr. Vandana Vijaylaxmi who being my immediate natural audience bucked me up all the time and supported me not only with books and journals but also with their valuable comments.
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My success as a writer will solely depend upon how much convincing and attracting my readers find this New Found Land of a tedious research work of this kind and how much appreciate this approach to the study of ancient history and culture of India through mythology and linguistics. Muzaffarpur, Vijayadashami, st 21 July, 2012 Sheo Das Pandey

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Chapter I

In Quest of the Pillars of Haryupia

If Rome was not built in a day or was the Great Wall of China not constructed in a week or a month or the Pyramids of Egypt or the stones that were laid down the long bridge over the sea at Rameshwaram were not collected and carried in a year or so and if the temples of Olympia or the status of gods and goddesses all over the world like those of Osiris and Isis were not carried and constructed by a magic skill or if the pillars of Dwarka at the bed of the deep seas found today are no longer objects of superstition or figments of imagination, the cities or the sites of Civilizations that came up and prospered in a span of thousands and thousands of years cannot also be sweepingly slighted or side tracked or misunderstood and misinterpreted like cock and bull stories. Cock and bull stories all over the world are said to have been cooked or concocted for the sake of entertainment or time pass and so it would not be proper to give stories of civilizations the same treatment. Unfortunately, scholars and thinkers of the height of Max Muller also made not only some grave but grievous mistakes in interpreting civilizations in a sweeping style as if they were nothing more than cock and bull stories. Mullers philological theory which even now is recognized as the established official theory (AIT) is nothing more or less than a conjecture or speculation in the light of a world of information that has now become available as a result of the archaelogical excavations and other explorations made at Harappan sites. Not only the excavations but also the satellite pictures taken by scientists from NASA of the underground position of the Rameshwaram Bridge and of the Saraswati River have prompted students of ancient civilization to give a rethinking to the official theory. It is now not strange although very curious to note that these excavations and these photographs tell almost very much the same stories which have been told by Indian sages and saints in their hitherto slighted descriptions of Rameshwaram, Dwarka and Harappa, the three Vaman steps of the great civilization of the legendary Brahmavarta later called Haryupia or Aryavart or the land of the Indus or of the Ganga in the Puranas like the Lingapuran, the Vaman Puran, the Padma Puran and the epics like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Study of Civilizations, if at all it is a subject of the study of History and culture it has to primarily look back first to mythology, then to anthropology and Biology, then to human psychology and last but not the least to Archaeology and the excavations reporting on the tools and tales of living. Decipherment of inscriptions and
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pictography as well as comparative study of languages also play a part in interpreting excavation finds, no doubt, but then they play only a secondary role. Max Muller, incidentally, attached the highest importance to the study of language and cooked his story of migration and invasion of the Aryan race from central Asia to the Indus Valley and driving away of the aboriginal race of the Harappan Indus valley civilization to the South. The misfortune was that Max Muller drew up his PIE Family theory based mainly on the physique and the speech of an Aryan race of his imagination based on a comparative linguistic study of the people of different races with special reference to the Vedas. It was unfortunate that he did not go deep into the Puranas and the Epics of India as carriers and containers of Indian History and neither took the trouble of comparing the stories of the Puranas with the anthropological or archaeological finds which might have been available at his time and nor tried to extract history from the action-reaction of the contacts and conflicts of different dialects with an ancestor or a Proto-type central language. Times have gone and times have come and come right now to contradict the official theory, the so called Aryan Invasion Theory called AIT or the Outside India Theory (OIT) in the face of the entire Harappan life that has sprung up in the shape of settlements based on the lines of civil Engineering and principles of town planning. Gone are now the times of conflict of archaelogical evidence with the casual interpretations of mythology and anthropology in the face of the archaelogical excavations spread over a vast area from Alamgirpur in U.P. to Dholavira, Nageshwar and Bet Dwarka in Gujarat. And it is now the only right time to revise the old theory behind the Indus valley Civilization, called till now a product of and the result of a conflict between the hunting alien Aryans from Central Asia and the original Dravidians that ruled Harappa. The story that Harappans were Dravidians and belonged to the race of Demon Maya who was related to Ravana and whose son Hara established his kingdom at Harappa may only be symbolic or a figment of imagination or only a partial truth related to the original Aryan inhabitants of India settled in between the two great rivers named the Saraswati and the Drishadvati now called the Indus. This land then was actually Brahmavarta, the land of gods and goddesses, semigods and demigods and men and supermen who had settled in temple houses and cities constructed on the two sides of the two rivers as well as in between the two. It has, therefore, been incumbent here to present a comparative study of the mythological descriptions with those of the civil engineering and Town Planning details just to throw a new light on an oft harped imaginary story of the migration and invasion of a race which had prospered beside the Saraswati and the Ganga. If mythology has anything to do with Pre-History. Proto-History, Pro-History or History of
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India and if Archaeology. Anthropology, Philology, Geology, Biology and Engineering have some relevant bearing to it, it is not without a meaningful purpose to start a study with reference to Urban planning and a civil engineering. Civil Engineering of India is as old as Maya. Son of God Vishwakarma and father of the oft-talked Mayan civilization of South America, particularly of Mexico and Brazil. It is here that Engineering seems to have been absorbed in Mythology. Not only the Golden City of Lanka but the three cities (The Tripurs) constructed, one each on the surface of the Earth, in the vast open sky and at the bed of the deep seas by Maya, made of gold, silver and bronze or iron respectively and destroyed by Lord Shiva or Hara in one of the wars fought between the gods and the Demons are lost somewhere in mythological Pre-History past time but they have really become today an off the record pastime of historians. The Sudharma courts planned and constructed by the same Maya in the then Amaravati of Indra and Indraprastha of Yudhisthir, which are the model ideals of the highest skill in engineering are matters of envy of civil engineering of today and are also lost in the pages of the Puranas and the epic of Vyasas Mahabharat. Maya is said to have been last found in the burning forest of Khandava, somewhere near Kurushetra of today and it should not be without a reason to think of a Kingdom like Harappa take shape nearby. Sir Mortimer Wheeler, a British Army brigadier in world war II, while confusing probably the Vedic Hara, the Brahma, the God of the gods with the demon Hara, Mayas son popularized a dramatic scenario of white migrating marauders from the north west enslave the black aboriginals and destroy the Harappan civilization. The mythology of Demon Hara (Mayas son) and the mythology of God Hara (Shiva) mixed together, no doubt, make Harappa a dubious story and a mystery and this mystery can be solved only by a study of the civil engineering finds collected from the Archaeological Surveys made so far in continuation of the surveys made in the course of the Saraswati river, It is pertinent to quote Vivekanand here who reacts as follows: And what our European Pandits say about the Aryans sweeping from some forcing land, snatching away the lands of the aboriginals and settling India by exterminating them, is all pure nonsense, foolish talk. Strange that our Indian scholars too say a-men to them and all these monstrous lies are taught to our boys. (Complete works 1963, Page 534-535). This study of Harappa, therefore, aims at a definite conclusion out of the mist of a plethora of mysteries and myths by trying to connect mythology and engineering, if at all this is plausible and not impossible, Now that a good number of Western philologists, Archaeologists, Geologists, Anthropologists and Mythologists as well as a large number of Indian researchers of all these fields have undertaken and have rather completed useful studies in this connection and have provided meaningful test reports including satellite
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pictures for and against every one of them, this study based mainly on linguistics and engineering as a step onwards in this direction, it is hoped, must be able to throw a new flood of important light on the so far drawn up blurred pictures of the elephant called Brahmavarta or Divyadesh or Aryavarta or Haryupia or Harappa or Bharat. The study of the evolution of Man and birth of a civilization has been made from different angles viz the Religious angle, the Anthropological angle, the Psychological angle, the Sociological angle, the Philological angle and last but not the least the Historical angle. Fortunately, scholars related to all these angles, worked on this subject sometime in the 19 th

century, the great century that produced Charles Darwin, G.W.E. Hegel, E.B. Tylor (18321917), J.G. Frazer, R. Smith, B. Malinowski, Claude Lavi Strauss, Sigmund Freud, Friedrich Max Muller (1823-1900) and last but not the least Rudolf Otto (1869-1937). Of all these studies historians have unfortunately, given least importance to the phenomenological or the religious or the theological or a linguistic or the mythological angles of approach to the subject of evolution of Man and evolution of a civilized life. As a matter of fact, while studying religion or theology or mythology we study the same Nature and the same Faith and believe in the same habits and traditions, the same libido, the same speech and the same ways of living life but tend to neglect religion and mythology very much alive in their natures and tend to attach greater importance to Anthropology, Sociology, Psychology and Philology, Religion generally is described as a belief in the spiritual way of life. When a Hindu bathes in the sacred river such as the Ganga and the Saraswati or in the Godavari or the Narmada to wash away the pollution, both Physical and spiritual this phenomenon is generally regarded as a superstition. Taking bath in the ever flowing rivers to make oneself free from the pollution of life has been a universal practice from time immemorial, but it has not been interpreted as a development of human civilization in the direction of living a neat and cleanly life. Man was a nomadic and hunting community in the Paleolithic age and used to eat uncooked food and used to live a dirty and unhygienic life. When he learned to take through a net of forests pregnant with medicinal values this was certainly a step towards the development of civilization and it is mostly and mainly due to this that all great ancient civilizations of the world prospered on the banks of the great rivers. Rivers full of a flow, energy and action played wonders, they gave man his food, his health, his vision of development. Rivers gave man fruits and different crops to eat. Rivers gave man his belief in the eternity of life. Rivers gave man a faith in a super power and rivers brought a magical

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change in the healthy life style of Humanity. This change was so great that this so called Super Power became synonymous with a God or a Goddess and with his or her magical and extra ordinary powers. Whether it was Charles Darwin or Sigmund Freud or Karl Marx or B.Malinowski or F. Max Muller theology was always ignored and misunderstood until the French social scientist developing the methodology of combining empirical research with sociological studies. Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) in his famous book The Elementary forms of Religious life convinced the students and scholars of human civilization that there was something real in religion, and that man was not deceiving himself in identifying the reality of life under-lying his religious behaviour. Durkheim proved that religion can be studied by historians similarly as plants are studied by Botanists. According to him religion is the human activity which speaks about social reality while using names or words for gods. A scholastic turmoil has continued throughout the 19 th century and the real story of

the civilization of Brahamavarta and its capital at Amaravati has fallen a victim to this turmoil. It was rather a great change in human approach of the study of civilization when all the aforesaid angles started to be applied to it in the second half of the 20 th century and

luckily theories which were based on speculations were ruled out. Important studies on the Civilization of Brahmavarta or the Indus Saraswati Civilization have been made and are being made which are sufficient to prove that the Civilization of Brahmavarta or Divyadesh is nothing but a blue print of the Civilization of Haryupia or Harappa. Mythology studied phenomenologically and linguistically has proved itself to be another important method and source of understanding the ancient Aryan civilization which was born in Brahmavarta and which was associated with Brahma and his daughter or his consort that is Sarswati and which can be located even today in its expanse from its then capital at todays Ujjaini then called Amaravati to Brahmapaty or Brahamadesh in the east and to Brahmagiri range of mountains near Nasik and then on to Goa. The school of thought on Indus Valley civilization led by Friedrich Max Muller (1823-1900) and supported by anthropologists or sociologist like E.B. Tylor (1832-1917) J.G. Frazer and followed by archaeologists like A, Cunningham or even by Raymond and Bridget Allchin or even by R.E.M. Wheeler and Sir John Marshall received a big Jolt in 1984 when Jim Shaffer initiated a new school of thought. The new school came into light with Shaffers book, The Indo Aryan Invasions Cultural Myth and Archaeological Reality Published at New York in the year 1984. It was for the first time that not only the Indian authors but also
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authors like Kenoyer and Jonathan Mark, Gregory Possehi and L.A. Waddell started feeling that the real answer of the Aryan question actually lay not in philological speculations but in the Vedas and the Puranas and their explanation in the light of Sanskrit Grammar and Aryan traditions. It is only then that archaeological realities and cultural myths started to be viewed parallel to each other. Researches on Indus Saraswati civilization in place of Indus Valley civilization got started. Lots of work were done on cultural myths, on Indus Script, on Indus Age, on Indus seals, on Indus pictographs, on Indus statuettes, so on and so forth. Indian authors like D.P. Agarwal, I Mahadevan, J.P. Joshi, S. Kak, M.S. Vatsa, B.B. Lal, S.P. Gupta, N.S. Rajaram, S.R. Rao, N. Jha and Bhagwan Singh did lots of research work and we are in a position at this stage of time to assert the view that Aryans were not invaders or emigrants from central Asia. It is now an almost proved fact that Aryans belonged originally to the Indus Valley or the land of the Seven rivers which was called Saptasindhu. It cannot, however, be denied that there are certain writers belonging to both India and abroad who want the old controversy to continue. An article entitled Horse Play in Harappa. The Indus Valley Decipherment Hoax Published in an Indian magazine named Frontline in the year 2000 and authored jointly by M. Witzel and S. Farmer currently professors of the U.S.A. enlivened the controversy. Questioning the decipherment of Harappan scripts and Harappan symbol of the horse, Witzel and Farmer got wide political support also from many leftist Sociologists and Politicians of India and made history of Saraswati a subjects of politics and started singing and harping on the Age old theory of an illiterate civilization which had once been eulogised as the wonder that was Ind by the noted historian A.L. Basham at New York in 1954. Much water has by now however flowed in the underground stream that is Saraswati or Brahmani, lots of research work done by Michel Danino, David Frawley, Gregory Possehi, Stephen Knapp, Dr. Koenraad ELST, and others which go to prove that the so-called official theories are no longer the widely accepted theories and if any further work needs to be done on the history of the Indus Valley civilization, it has got to be based on the new linguistic lines of the study of the Vedas and mythological and phenomenological study of the Puranas. This work on Brahmavarta is a step forward in this direction. Brahmavarta is the name of a divine land of goddess Brahmani or Bharti, consort of God Brahma situated between the two divine rivers named the Saraswati and the Drishadvati where the Richas of the Rig-Veda were composed by the Rishies of the land in the praise of Brahma or Narayan or Hari or Hara who created the universe. The same land of the Universal Cosmic Power called Brahma later on
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became the land of God Brahma and Goddess Bharti and was at a still later age called the land of Hari or Hara and got branded as Hariyana or Hariyupia or Haryana or Harappa or Aryana or Aryavanta. It is amply evident, therefore, that Harappan civilization is the first Vedic Urban face of the original rural-divine culture of Brahmavarta which as time passed on went on taking different names like Divyadesh (the land of heavenly gods and goddesses) or Bharat Khand (the land of goddess Bharti) or Haryupia or Hariyana or Harappa or Aryana or Aryavart (the land of the urban Aryans) We do, naturally, have therefore, to go deep, very deep under mythology and particularly the mythology of Brahmavarta specially where live virtually the actual pillars of the civilization and the Glory or the wonder that is Ind. Harold Turner has rightly said, "Such Sacred plans have a symbolic significance. They may be regarded as the center of the world or Navel of the Earth as the meeting place between the gods and the men and the earthy replica of the heavenly realms.

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Chapter II

Urban Planning of an Aryan City and the

Mythology of Harappa

The mythology related to the great river Saraswati was till 1920 not put on archaeological test and was considered to be in conflict with archaelogy. But ever since 1935 students of History have started realizing that actually something considered to be a myth so far was not a myth and that mythology at its base was really a basis of history. Mythology assumes the form of a pure history of Civilization the moment it gets proved particularly as a reality in terms of civil Engineering. Civil engineering comes in only when life under a roof starts, Nomadism, fetishism, fatalism and Idolism may be different steps of life, even a step towards civilized life but they are more a myth, less a reality or rather a mixture of the two. Civil Engineering in the evolution of man and his life style means the end of a life of pastoralism or of nomadism and beginning of a life primarily of agriculturalism, or industrialism and setting down in a shelter at a place where there is a natural infrastructure for the development of agriculture and industry. Such a life starts with construction of a safe and secure house and manufacture of implements and equipments for tilling of the land, sowing seeds, irrigating the fields and storing the harvests. It also simultaneously goes on manufacturing necessary weapons for offence as well as defence. Of all the aspects of culture and civilization agriculture and civil Engineering relate to the most apparent and distinct aspect of an actually real civilization anywhere and at any time in the world and are not known and remembered for its hunting or even cultivating implements or even the religious symbols in sculpture or drawings but also for its civil engineering as much as it reflects it in the construction of temples or in constructions made for living a safe and comfortable life or even in the shape of granaries or cemeteries or tombs made in the honour or in the memory of the dead and their customs and beliefs. The Palaeolithic man, Piltdown or Neanderthal with whatever crude and rough hunting implements or the neopalaeolithic or mega Palaeolithic man with even finer stone implements cannot be treated as a real civilized man lacking as he has been in civil engineering structures as aforesaid. This stage of a life

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like theirs can only be reckoned as a preliminary stage of the evolution of the crude and cruel man into a man evolving the modes of living a need-based life or livelihood. Civilization everywhere in the ancient world, as such, started actually with construction of a human shelter or of a place of worship, or of a shelter for pet animals or of store houses to preserve the grains or the dead bodies of the old ones on way to the birth of a life after death or on way to another birth. Paleolithic discoveries date us back to the Magdalenian period finds at La Madelave (France) at Ain, at Sordes in the Laudes, at Solutre and at Klause in Bavalia and all these finds are related mainly to some skeletons enclosed between boulders up and down as well as right and left. There are also remains of fertility cults sometimes represented in a male bison mounting a female found as at the Tued Andoubert (Magdalonian Period) the most advanced culture of the European Paleolithic period discoveries in La Made liance-France. Palaeolithic discoveries in the Aurinnacian period have been located in the caves of Grimaldi near the French city of Menton the most notable find being skeleton of a woman wearing a sort of crown or bracelets made of shellfish. At La Barma Graudior at Paviland in Wales many skeletons were gathered one of which appears to be that of a child wearing a necklace. The skeleton of La coappelle aus-saints belongs to the Mousterian period preserved in a trench 5ft x 3ft. x 1ft. The skeletons at La Ferrassile at Moustier were provided with funerary furnishings, instruments and Joints of game. This period reflects in these finds the burial rites in detail placing with the dead bodies ornaments, food materials like shellfish and red ochre. Deposits of Fu-Ku-Lien near Peking permit us to go back of the earliest Pleistocene times (Glacial or ICE) with the remains of a dozen human beings together, with skull and lower jaw with animals remains represented in the bones of all parts of the body. These skeletons studies date back to some period between the Pithecanthropus (Apelike) Man of Jaw and the Neanderthal man the oldest man like man of the Missourian Europe (in Germany). The shape or size of the ancient man, by and large, has been found almost similar at a particular point of time whether in Jawa or in Germany or at North Pole or South Pole. Mans most positive life was only need based and hence reflected only in hunting implements without indicating anything when related to his customs or beliefs or any philosophy of life or of any religious thoughts or of any sort of an artistic skill. The first symptom of a real development of the ancient man reflected in his raising some structures for his clan or his group or his family. Gradually as he developed further he also constructed sheds for his pet animals, sheds for his grains, sheds for his dead ones. Still further as he developed, he continued with his newer construction skills which reflected in

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Constructing his places of worship, his Community Halls, his granaries, his pavements and drains. But this time he had perhaps known the method of cooking and producing grains and bartering the same with other nomadic races going through the process of settlements at one particular place. Harappa or Haryupia has till 1920 been known as a bare myth and more a subject of our imagination and entertainment like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, a myth not only without a history but even without a legend in an epic like the Raghuvansham or the Kumar Sambhavam or the Ramayana or the Mahabharata, transferred to posterity from tongue to tongue, from generation to generations. Not that the legends are silent, not that there are no folk tales heard on the lives of Vishwakarma or Maya or Hara but they could not be made a subject of an epic probably because they could not fit in the qualifications prescribed for a hero or a Nayak by the Pandits and the Archaryas. It is simply unfortunate that the civilization growing in between a period of about three thousand years of glories and grandeur of Indian civilization between the end of the heroic Mahabharat and beginning of the heretic religions of Budha and Mahavira and which was called the civilization of Haryupia had to remain unnoticed or unrecorded by the Vyasas and the Ganeshas of India. Until the large mounds of the present day Harappa settlements were visited by Mason in 1826, by Burns in 1837 and by general Cunningham twice in 1856 and the annual report of Cunningham was published in the year 1872-73 and the mounds in an area of about 3.1/2 miles were got protected under the provisions of the Ancient Monuments Preservation Act (VII) of 1904 by which time public digging or rather looting of the bricks of Harappa had raised a new town of a population of some 5000 people and a long Railway track of Lahore Multan Roadways of about 100 miles had been ballasted with the Harappan bricks. Madho Sarup Vats in his account of Archaeological Excavations at Harappa carried out between the years 1920-21 and 1933-34 while quoting extensively below a passage from Marshall goes on to confirm Marshalls views by stating that the life that was led by the Indus peoples of the 3 rd and 4 th millennia B.C. who were in possession of a highly

developed culture, in which no trace of Indo Aryan influence is to be found is drawn by sir John Marshall Vats quotes Marshall as follows:Like the rest of western Asia, the Indus country is still in the Chalcolithic Age, that age in which weapons and utensils of stone continue to be used side by side with those of

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copper and bronze. Their society is organized in cities, their wealth derived mainly from agriculture and trade, which appears to have extended far wide in all directions. They cultivate wheat and barley as well as the date palm. They have domesticated the humped Zebu, the buffalo, and short horned bull besides the sheep, pig, dog, elephant, and camel but the cat and probably the horse are unknown to them. With the invention of writing the Indus people are also familiar and employ for the purpose a form of script which though peculiar to India is evidence analogous to other contemporary scripts of western Asia and the nearer east. In the preface of his aforesaid account Mr. Vats while accepting the gratitude of Mr. Marshall goes on to establish the Indus civilization as the Proto-Indian civilization and says :Happily, Harappa has its own distinct contributions to make to the Proto-Indian civilization in the shape of the cemetery with its highly interesting and fascinating pottery much of which is painted and the miniature amulet seals and sealings of an amazing variety of shapes associated with strata of the Middle and early periods the like of which are not known elsewhere. As a matter of fact Harappan civilization as understood today is not what sir John Marshall thought to have unveiled with his excavation in the twenties of the twentieth century in his three monumental volumes of Mohenjo-Daro and the Indus civilization nor what Dr. E.J.H. Macky thought to have added with the two volumes of his Further Excavations at Mohenjo-Daro with all the due thanks to khan Bahadur Sana Ullah, Archaeological Chemist. Or to Mr. K.N. Dikshit or to Dr. Baini Prasad or to Mr. A.I. coulson or Sir Brice Burte or to Mr. K.N. Sastri etc. whom Mr. M.S. Vats is grateful to. What requires to find special mention here is that the picture of Harappa which all these scholars tried to see through their coloured glasses is more or less similar to the one used by Max Muller and other nineteenth century scholars. Indus valley civilization is actually now an out-dated nomenclature of a culture and civilization and is now better known as the Indus-Saraswati civilization or widely known as the Harrappan civilization. The official theory of the Harappan towns destroyed by semi Aryans rushing down from central Asia and driving out the Dravidian Harappan population to south India is a totally demolished theory now, demolished by the U.S. Archaeologist G.F. Dales in the 1960s & admitted rather openly by even the respected archaeologists of the old school of thought such as Raymond and Bridget Allchin.

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The founding father of the New school of thought was Jim Shaffer who may be quoted here to have declared in 1984 as follows:Current archaeological data do not support the existence of an Indo Aryan or European invasion into South Asia any time in the Pre or Proto-historic periods. Instead, it is possible to document archaeologically a series of cultural changes reflecting indigenous cultural development from Pre-historic to historic periods. Jonathan Mark Kenoyer a U.S. archaeologist and the French archaeologists Jean-Franois Jarrige also support Shaffer and date back the civilization to a period between 7000 and 5000 B.C. The recent archaeological studies which have come out with latest revelations are based on the every year increasing number of excavation sites which with the excavation studies of U.S. archaeologist Gregory Possehi, of late, have risen to 2600 from 1500 by the year 1998. The final figure may increase the number of sites and may emerge with the conclusive story which has till now been based more on conjecture and less on proper analysis of the information available. The total area encompassed by now is estimated to be around other one million square Kilometers, more than ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia put together or eight times the area of Tamil Nadu. The northern limit has extended to some 1400 Kilometres away in Kashmir and Shortughai in Afghanistan while the southern limit goes to the Tapti and the Godavari rivers and eastern boundary to Alamgirpur in U.P. and the Western to the Marran Coast of the Arabian Sea and the present Pakistan border. The civilization that appeared after the excavations (1920-1935) aforesaid was called by the explorers as the Indus or Indus valley civilization only because it was supposed to be existing once on the banks of the river Indus and its tributary the Ravi. But the hundreds and hundreds of sites excavated later than the said period explored many more facts. The main exploration was that parallel South to the Indus flew another river named the Saraswati and greater number of sites now come to light relate more to the Saraswati and less to the Indus and Ravi. This fact is confirmed not only by geological and geographical explorations alone but also by satellite photography and by radioisotope dating of the water still found under the rivers dry bed in the Rajasthan Desert. The Civilization therefore may better be named as Indus-Saraswati Civilization if it is required to borrow its name from its association with any rivers. Otherwise, we may better call it the Harappan Civilisation, the civilization of Haryupia as mentioned in the Vedas. Haryupia, etymologically analysed, takes us but to the mythological Brahmavarta, the divine land of God Brahma. The father of this creation.

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Brahma and his consort Saraswati were the first to inhabit this land followed by a band of divine figures devoted to their creator, the Ishwar or the Lord of the Universe who to express their sense of gratitude and devotion to Him took to Yajna and offered to him the best, whatever best they possessed, the milk, the curd, the honey, the flowers, the fruits, the best of perfumes and clothings etc. This Yajna required them to have a worshipping altar, a Yajnashala, a Yajnakund (fireplace) with places for the five divine elements, the fire, the water, the wind, the earth and the sky around the worshipping arena. The fire being the symbol of power and energy got the highest regard. This Yajnashala with the fire burning in it inside or outside every habitation with a pillar (a yoop or a stupa or stambh) by its side for performing animal sacrifices was the one thing which became an identification mark, of an Aryan House in times to come. And it was probably for this reason that this place used to be called Gods place with a sacrificing pillar meaning Haryupia or Harappa. A Haryupian settlement like this means nothing less than a planned township of today having separate residential structures meant for separate social classes and communities. Clusters of houses appear to have been built for industrial workmen closer to their working sites while, separate settlements appear to have been planned for those who were given to the farming profession or belonged to the Brahmanic one. The farmers were settled near the granaries while the latter near the fire places or sacrificing altars. Construction of drains and water reservoirs as also of roads, pathways and pavements point out but to a really civilized style of living. Provision of different types of cemeteries also indicates that the Haryupian society had been divided into different classes: the worshipping, the farming, the industrial, the commercial, the sanitary etc, so on an so forth. The commercial however, did not get special treatment and had community places of worship or community cemeteries. But the excavations of Harappa have made it quite clear that inspite of all its urbanization or industrialization or Commercialisation it was primarily identified for its basic culture of Brahmavarta- the culture of offering Puja and observing Yajna at the fireplaces and sacrificial places made for each and every individual house, as well as for the community as a whole separately. Mud brick made large terraces were also planned for Community Puja celebration which provided large size fireplaces, sacrificial altars marked with wooden pillars or Yoops to facilitate animal, sacrifices. Madho Sarup Vats account of archaelogical excavations at

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Harappa with plates in sufficient numbers of exhibits leaves no doubt about the fact that Harappa was nothing more than on extension of or a distorted nomenclature given to Haryupia of the Rigveda. Photographs of the paintings on the burial Jars or the flat covers or of household vessels make it evident that the Harappan people had their central root at the life and culture of Brahmavarta- the animals, the trees, the stars etc. finding specific places and specific inscriptions on the seals and scalings as well as on the store slabs. With the bull with garlands in its neck or the ox, the elephant and many other animals and birds associated with the different gods and goddesses as their carriers, there should be no doubt that Harappa or better said Haryupia was nothing more or less than an extension of the culture and civilization of Brahmavarta. It is amusing that many western researchers following Max Muller, instead of trying to find out if Haryupia is the refined form of Harappa or Harappa is the distorted form of Haryupia, label the very approach like this as a communal approach of Hinduttwa idealogues and dismiss the very idea of a nomenclature like Brahmavarta or Haryupia, They are hellbent to identify this divine Brahmavarta-born Haryupian Aryan Sarswati civilization as one of the so called non-Aryan Indus population driven out from Harappa to the South by the migrating horse ridden invaders of the Mediterranean middle East. They thus, try to impose a thoroughly imaginary story in the name of a history that the Aryans have been non Indians who destroyed the industrially and commercially developed urban Indus valley civilization to dust ignoring all the geological or geographical or archaelogical facts forgetting whatever history or mythology in our Vedas and the puranas has been able to preserve. Surprisingly enough, they prefer to base their Immigration and Invasion theories as pure speculation or imagination ignoring volumes and volumes of mythological literature and condemning truth as trash. When the same shulbsutras provide the basic tenets of the civil engineering of Amaravati or Indraprastha or Dwarka as well as that of Haryupia or Harappa and when the shulbsutras and the Kalpasutras are very much traceable today why weaving a spiders net of pure speculation and dirty materials? It is really a surprising story, how a civilization as developed as Harappa was dilapidated by a pastoral gang of food hunters although the excavations of Harappa dont bear out any trace or proof of a war nor any discovery of any war weapons. It is all the more surprising that the story of the migration and invasion appears to be borne neither by the Babylonian nor by the Greek legends nor by the Persian and Indian

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legends which, no withstanding, talk of not less than fourteen battles between the angels and the devils, the Adityas and the Daityas. The allegation of a Hinduttwa ideology or of a religious or communal bias levelled on the recent trends of thought on Harappan culture and civilization is just a meaningless sound and fury signifying nothing. As a matter of fact neither the vedic nor the Harappan civilizations had anything to do with any religion nor the researchers and explorers of the truth of History have any Hinduttva ideology working in their minds. Simply because they have outwitted a universally accepted official theory established by a really learned scholar like Max Muller and simply because the colonial rulers and Christian ideologues have been flatly exposed to the intellectual world, some so- called American and European orientalists appear to have made up minds to dismiss the new found proposition as communal and imaginary. The Marxist writers are also unnecessarily poking their nose in the ongoing controversy today.
The Harappan civilization was, rightly speaking, an extension of the Aryan way of life which happened to be destroyed not by an outside Aryan invasion but by natural calamities and catastrophes like an earthquake or a legendary flood or a legendary drought or a legendary tug of war between the rural and urban civilizations or the agricultural and commercial civilizations prospering simultaneously in the Gangetic plains and the Indus-Sarswati basin. This extension from rural to urban ran parallel and hence a clash between the two was not uncalled for.

The Vedic culture of Brahamavarta is actually supposed to have come to its bloom sometimes in between 10,000 B.C. and 7000 B.C. but then the Vedas remained only as shruties (Passed on from tongue to tongue ) on learning by memorizing basis. They could be scripted only between 5000 and 4000 B.C. and the script then was Brahmi, a Script which later on covered the whole of Greater India from Gandhar to Lanka and from Gujrat and Rajasthan to Videh and Manipur. Neither this language nor this script had anything to do with the so called Indo-European Languages Family theory of Sir William Jones or of Max Muller and other so called Indologists. As a matter of fact it was the Brahmi script and the Sanskrit language which travelled from the Ganga, Sarswati and Indus plains to Persia and Mesopotamia, to Sumeria and Babylonia as well as to Greece and Italy and other countries across the Caspian and the Mediterranean Seas. Max Muller termed this interplay of languages as a family interaction and called it the Indo-European family supporting Sir William Jones. He, unfortunately, ignored the actual role played by the central force that was

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Aryan or Sanskrit or Vedic or Brahmi. It is really unfortunate that the fallacies committed by Max and Marx have become the legacies of their successors who for the sake of their religion or ideological prejudices, are not prepared to shake off a myth and to accept a truth which, of late, has been amply justified. The greatest misfortune behind all the unfortunate controversy has been that this pictographic script inscribed on the seals obtained from the excavations by Sir Alexander Cunningham or Dr. J.F. Flu or by Rai Bhahadue Daya Ram Sahni and Sir John Marshall has not been rightly deciphered or rightly explained keeping in mind the culture and mythology of India. On the contrary, right from Max Muller down to Marshall and Cunningham the basic prejudice or proposition in the root of all the thinking and conclusion has been that according to all these scholars, the Central seat of ancient culture and civilization was Egypt and Assyria, was Greece and Mesopotamia, was Persia and Babylonia, was Crete and Rome and not India. The Philological speculation forwarded by Max Muller has been allowed to supersede not only the apparently speaking mythological clues to History but also the anthropological and archaeological facts and facts of civil Engineering. The whole science of building construction engineering of today is based on the Vedic geometrical technique of four pillars called chatustambh which culminates into arches and domes and other multifarious forms and designs. European historians have dated this engineering back to Ancient Egypt, Babylon, Rome, or Greece and then via the Renaissance to the rest of the world in the 15th century A.D., originating from Florence in Italy and from Constantinople in Anatolia replacing the medieval Gothic style with the classical. Incidentally Florence is said to have been founded and flourished in the first century B.C. while Constantinople in the first century A.D. The excavations of Harappa, on the other hand, prove that this engineering as the engineering of construction on four pillars or stambh or stupa or columns or Yoops called the chatustambh structure was widely popular in Haryupia or India in the 5th millennium B.C. itself and travelled from Haryupia or Harappa to Istanbul or Istambul or Istambul in Anatolia and from there to Egypt or Babylon or Israel or Italy or Greece Yoop or Stamb or Stupa is not different, not at all, from the cement cast pillars or columns of todays science of construction engineering which had once upon a time led to the construction of the temple city of Istanbul in Anatolia, the terminal Asian Point which took its name from Antya +Alaya=Antyalaya meaning Aryans last hill resort or their last commercial station of their journey to the west. The words- Station or Istanbul or Stupa or Stamb all take us back to nowhere else but to the square shaped large size Yajna

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Kund in front of every house of Harappa with four small ones at the four corners with a Yoop or Stupa or Stamb of God Hara of Harappa which stood for a temple of its own kind and its own type and which inspired and spread the construction culture of temple buildings all over the world. Historians generally agree that a true copy of this civilisation had once upon a time spread and prevailed right from Panchnad of Aryavarta to Persia and from Persia to Anatolia ruled then by Partheans. These Partheans identified as a community of men riding on horse backs or Chariots driven by horses with arches in hands were sometime dispelled back to Iran and later to their original home at Panchnad, where Parth, Prithus descendent and Prithas son Arjun had once ruled at the fall of Mahabharat. Parthean empire in Anatolia thus, got replaced by the Byzantine and the Byzantine later on by the Ottoman in 1453. The Romans, the Greeks or the Arabs naturally borrowed away the Partheans i.e the Aryavart or Haryupian art and architecture, language, culture and literature and branded this as their great Renaissance. It is simply unfortunate that the culture and the architecture of Haryupia or Harappa, instrumental to the glory of Anatolia and Istanbul in the 5 th Century B.C. itself

have been kept a mystery. An effort is going to be made here to establish a historical issue of mythology which may lead the researchers and explorers of history to the correct final conclusion. This effort has been, at this juncture of criticism and contradiction, very essential primarily because as most of the contemporary researchers belong to the west non-Hindu background, these Pro-west or Pro-Christian scholars are hellbent upon contradicting whatever new thoughts are presented by some enthusiastic researchers of India in India or abroad. The thesis of Michel Danino delivered by him during a lecture at I.I.T. Madras on 29 th September or another thesis of David Frawley based on his studies of the Vedas and

criticism of the Indus writing made by many other contemporary scholars or still another one named Stephen Knapp based on his study of the gods and legends of the East did not provoke as much of a revolt by two professors of the Harvard University supported by some Marxist Journalists of India as it did on the thesis of N.S. Rajaram and N.Jha, who not only made a meaningful decipherment of the Indus script but also connected their finding with the spirit of the cosmological realities of India and its mythologies. At a time when great scientific discoveries and inventions are being based on mythological inspirations it is hardly understandable why historical and engineering truths

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are denied to be reckoned within the stories of our past, treasured in our myths and legends. Let us not forget the precept proposed by Robert Graves that Myth is romantic shorthand record of such matters as invasion, migrations, dynastic changes, admission to foreign cults and social reforms and as such myth must not better be condemned. This story on Harappa, therefore, aims at a definite conclusion out of a plethora of mysteries and myths by trying to connect mythology and engineering, if at all, this is plausible and not impossible. Now that a good number of western philologists, archaeologists, geologists, anthropologists and mythologists as well as a large number of Indian researchers of all these fields have undertaken and rather completed useful studies in this connection and have provided meaningful test reports including satellite pictures for and against every one of them, this study as a step onwards in the direction, it is hoped, must be able to throw a new flood of important light on the so far drawn up blurred pictures of the elephant called Brahmavarta by the seven wise men of the historical world. l

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Chapter III

Historicisation and the Mythology of Harappa

It is really strange that historicisation of mythology has been rather openly condemned by a section of so-called progressive writers of history. Great living historians like Witzel and Farmer too have, of late, adversely reacted to and scoffed at the idea of historicisation of myths and mythologies while commenting upon the decipherment episode of the script and language of the Harappans by Raja Ram and N. Jha, from as far as Harvard in U.S.A. They have also played a rather un-Indian card by calling it re-writing of history by a set of non historian Hindutwavadi writers. Some others have criticized the idea as revision of history, as if it is a sin or an offence to revise history if wrongly written or as if history writing is a forbidden land for those who dont belong to the academic community of historians. Learning is advancing every day with the advancement in the fields of science and technology besides researches made in the fields of anthropology, archaeology, linguistics and other allied fields of knowledge. These advances are naturally very much likely to encourage and call for a revision of history, if not an overhauling or re-writing of it, which too cant and should not be made a subject of political jehad. I feel not only surprised but actually very deeply concerned and pained at the attitude of these so-called stereotype men of learning in the field of Indology who are bent upon branding such studies and such researches as acts of a communal approach or a narrow outlook to history and its philosophy in a mujahiddin fashion. The very word research calls for going back to the roots of history which are lying deep in old writings either in the form of literature or theology and are very important. To go to the remote deep past of a nation to find out something unknown to the cultural life of that nation as well as to human knowledge by such research means adding something very important, actually very important to the glories of that nation and its people and naturally when one goes to the remote and deep past of India one is likely to add something very important to the Glory that was Ind i.e to the glory that was Indus or to the glory that was Hindus (Greek) or Hind (Persian) or Sindhu (Sanskrit). Im
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surprised, how even such an approach bound to lead to the truth of ancient India or Indian or Hind or Hindu culture may be condemnable by any one. I am pained and feel pity also for an illustrious author like, Dr. (Mrs.) Malti J. Shendge who rather feels terribly upset or embarrassed at being dubbed as Hindutavavadi although her researches on the civilized urban living of the demons of Harappa and the Aryas of the Rigveda and Avesta amply prove that she has brought to light truths, hidden truths of the past Sindhu or Hindu or Sind or Ind or Hind culture and civilization. History has been got written and re-written several times what to speak of its revision and re-revision time and again, not only in India but almost all over the world with advancement of knowledge and advancement of the techniques of research and study of the past. There has been little hue and cry even if history has been re-written sometimes even like a fiction particularly in countries where religions other than the local ones had on account of their absence, no chance of being affected. With the spread of Christianity or of Islam particularly a trend appears to have developed in the world to prefer to conquer the religions and the cultures of other lands to the conquest of its own peoples and lands. And it is merely this reason what while plundering the treasures of the temples or of the kings and queens greater efforts appear to have been made to desecrate the temples and plunder the scriptures or books of learning of the concerned parallel culture or power or people. Im sorry, if to be a nationalist is not to be a sinner anywhere in the world and so also in India it is very difficult for a Hindu or Hind Nationalist too to agree to the theory of Richard M. Eaton, teacher of South Asian History at the University of Arizona, U.S.A. that instances of temple desecration were done only with the intention of annexation of newly conquered territories held by enemy kings whose domains lay on the path of moving military frontiers and that temple desolation also occurred when Hindu patrons of prominent temples committed acts of treason or disloyalty to the Indo-Muslim states they served. But even if, one agrees which one can, one cant justify such acts as administrative compulsion but as naked communal prejudices. And to try to justify it like prof Eaton, shows nothing but a reflection of anybodys imperial or colonial or communal attitude. The foreign invaders who invaded India. whether they ruled or settled in India consequently or left India happy with their booty, whether emperors they were or were they sultans or crown princes numbering more than a hundred barring Akbar, all behaved in the same manner more or less similar to a Nadir Khan or a Taimur Lang or a Md. Ghori or a Babar or an Aurangzeb or the East India Company and its royal successors. Not only this that they plundered our cultural properties and that was all

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but they got our history written, very mischievously and carefully written, sometime in the style of a writer writing a fiction while sometime in the style of a religious missionary according to their interest. Michael Witzel and Steve Farmer have dared not challenge such books of History written at the behest of either the Moghul Kings or the British Governors or the dictators of the Royal Asiatic Society but on the contrary, they have tried to poke there; nose in the established scriptural and epic truths of Indias history which date back to more than, far more than five to seven thousand years or so before Christ. They are not prepared to shake off their oft but ill-said historical illusions that Aryans migrated from the North Pole or Mesopotamia or Assyria to India and to accept the fact that the truth is thoroughly otherwise and that in those olden days Mesopotamia or Assyria or Babylone were nothing but pockets if not parts of India, where the Ashur Banipal or Banasur had once ruled and where once upon a time their ancestor Bhrigu was highly honoured and the Dasavatars statues were commonly worshipped. They are not prepared to think afresh that the merchant sons Kashyap and Bhrigu and Varun used to come and go from the Caspian sea (named so after Kashyap) to the Indus valley and from the Gangetic plains of India to far off lands across Persia, Mesopotamia, and Babylone from where they bartered and brought tons of gold, silver and diamond and from where their urban and mercantile non ritualistic civilization spread over to the whole of Europe. The Harappan civilization as reflected in the archaeological finds or other scriptural writings of this age, although they do not speak all the details of the great Rigvedic Haryupian culture, cannot be anything other than vedic and any effort to read into them otherwise has the risk of diverting the attention of the thinking intelligentsia from a great historical truth that should have come to light much before. I take strong exception to their labelling this re-reading and re-writing of Indian History as a Hindutva propaganda. It really appears from all that is happening today at the hands of such anti-Indian historians that actually understanding, appreciating or writing or rewriting of Indian History can better be done only by those who are born, brought up and educated in a Hindus or Indus cultural back-ground or have studied in Indian environs and not by those who hail from Harvard or Cambridge or Arizona and whose all the understanding is based upon nothing but a few outdating tenets or platitudes of history writing, which, they think does not get out dated or annuated.

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I wish to congratulate Mr. N.S. Raja Ram and Dr. Natwar Jha for having made with great labour a pathway only through which the rich and the glorious culture and civilization of India can be rightly approached. I also congratulate Mrs. M. Shendgey for having discovered the truth that lies behind the gods and demons of India as the two dialectical classes of humanity converted later on into the two classes : the Elite and the working or agricultural and industrial or rural and urban I would also like to buck and boost Mrs. Shendge up to go still deeper into her research and not to be discouraged by such so-called secularists who are actually fanatics and communalist religious reactionaries or by the so called leftist Indologists who are bent upon limiting history to around the birth of Buddha or of Confucius or of Plato or at last around the birth of Jesus Christ or limiting the birth of ideology to the emergence of Karl Marx and limiting civilization to the explosion of the Industrial Revolution. Mythologisation of History with a view to writing a history manoeuvred to suit a slanted agenda in contemporary politics as started by Nobel Laureate Amartya Sen at Kolkata very recently must be warded off but historiciasation of or from mythology, apart from being scoffed at or condemned should be widely welcomed like a New Found Land. To try to read and decipher the language of Harappa from right to left is just like putting the cart before the horse and the Horseplay played by Witzel and Farmer and highlighted by a dark line so called progressive Hindu Journal called the Frontline is just like putting a ferocious animal at the centrestage as the main subject of study while a do-good to-all-the-Universe man is put behind the screen. The language of Harappa can be nothing other than that of the Vedas and the man of Harappa is non else than the same great man of Haryupia (The shaivite Har culture of the Rigveda) the man of the Saraswati, the Indus and the Gangetic plains. The only difference between the Indus man and the Gangetic man is that both being cousins, the ones culture has grown into urban and non idolatory, non ritual and mercantile world while the others is idolatory, ritualistic, agricultural and rural. And this very difference is the route cause of the clashes and wars between these two classes of the Hindus or Hind or Sindhu civilization. The Saraswati flows unseen within the hearts of both and both speak the same language even after they have fought fourteen class-wars and have been drifted worlds apart. It may be noted that Ravana does not speak or write a Sanskrit different from that spoken or written by Valmiki. The impact and influence of Sanskrit on the life and languages of the Dravidian culture as also on the culture and civilization of native inhabitants of the seven sindhus or the seven islands and the seven coastal countries of the Asian Peninsula, the

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Atlantic and the pacific oceans, for that matter cannot also be denied, or belittled or laughed away. The Mayans of Mexico or the Maories of New Guinea or the Mauras of Mauritious or the Mayans and Incas of America or the Malies of Mali and Somalia of Africa or the Indies of the East or the Andes of the West from Argentina to Indiana are, if culturally studied, would appear not very much different from the Hars of Harappa. The best approach road to the real history of these people or places is through an analysis of their mythologies inherent in their names. Hence there should be no denying the fact that historicisaton of or from mythology only, although done amply carefully can only lead us to the real history of a land or of a people or of a culture. Hara of Harappa, it is also said by some mythologists was the son the great Asur or Danav called Maya who was born to Danu one of the so many wives of Kashyap in whose name a culture known as Caspian or Ashur culture had already spread around the Caspian sea and later on spread in the entire East (Far as well as Near) while a culture named Mayan originating from Maya spread and prospered over to Mexico and the Americas in the west to the entire west. Maya was a great architect and engineer and it is he who is said to have designed and constructed the whole golden city of Lanka ruled by his great grandson the great Ravana. It is he, who it is said, designed and constructed also the magic Indrapastha Estate of king Yudhishthir which became the pride of Draupadi and the prejudice of Duryodhan. Hara being the heir-son of an engineer father Maya planned, designed and constructed the oldest ever urban city of the ancient world and the whole edifice of the Harappan civilization goes to his credit and goes in his name. Our great epics also bear testimony to a fact that after the death of Ravana and destruction and demolition of Lanka when Vibhishan was crowned as king of Lanka by Rama, he was in the emergent need of an engineer statesman and planner of his own race to rebuild his devastated city and be his Minister and so he had but to invite Hara from Harappa to take up the position. This mythological story, it should not be missed or thrown out of sight, to be piece of cultural history to prove the fact that Dravid language or culture was nothing but an extension of the Harrappan culture. The Hara culture of Harappa interpreted also as a non idolatory, non ritualistic and all pervading commoners culture of God Brahma or God Shiva and inherited later on by Hara, Haryankas and Haranaksh and upgraded to the great urban and mercantile culture of the

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Panies, later on condemned as Dasyus established a natural connection with many stories narrated very meaningfully in the Rigveda. The language and culture of Hara and Harappans was by its very heritage a culture which was just a commercial and urban extension of or just a parallel to the rural Gangetic Aryans and naturally therefore, there is no question of any possibility of the language and the script of Harappa to be different from those of the vedic Aryan. And therefore, there is no question of its being read from right to left. The very title of the article of Micheal Witzel and Steve Farmer and the spirit of the discussion on it from its learned authors to its pseudosecular or cynic or hypocritic letter-writers of the Frontline appears to be a deliberate affront on Indian culture or at least a gross ignorance of it. The great epics like the Ramayan and the Mahabharat are full of horseplays and horse driven chariots. Both Rama and Ravana and the Mahabharat are full of horseplays and horse driven chariots. Both Rama and Ravana used their chariots which had descended to them from their antiquities. I cant believe that Hara of Harappa who lived between the Mahabharat and the vedic epochs was unaware of this horsedriven vehicle. The Ashwamedh was also not unknown to the Harappans and hence the crude Joke like the Horseplay in Harappa made by these scholars about the life of Harappans is nothing but an exposure of their prejudices or their Jaundiced visions or venomous minds. I would like, therefore, to submit to these learned Indologists mentioned above to further devote themselves with a fresh zeal, to the study of mythologies of India with the same vigour and zeal they have applied so far and not to mock at and to dismiss, these historical clues as cock and bull stories or as fairy tales or as a Piltdown Horse hoax but to try to fish out history from a water that has been flowing endlessly from eternity, from a time much older than the Paleolithic. I would also like to request the Indologists like Witzel and Farmer of Harvard as well as historians like Richard M. Eaton of the University of Arizona and Romila Thapar of India particularly to try to search and research historical inter-connections between Mur, Har, Maya, Mali, Bali, Malooca, Malay, Mad or Madhu, Heti, Chedi and similar clans of Asur India and the Maories, the Mayans, the Incas, the Indies, the Mauritians, the Maloocans, the Indonesian, the Malayasian, the Madgassies, the Hatties, the Chads and similar other cultures and countries that even today abound in India and bound the seven seas and stand as living testimonies to the fact that all these ancient and native cultures of the seven seas and of a thousand islands and coastal countries are nothing but the offshoots of the Indus culture of India which in itself is an extension or a parallel composite culture similar to that of the
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Gangetic plains and while both of these are closely interconnected with the culture of Assyria and Babylonia from which stepping stone they had once thrown the light of civilization to the whole of Europe and nearby lands. Well-known French Scholar Claud Levi-Strauss merits their attention when he says. We shall discover one day that the same logic is at work in mythical thought and in scientific, and that man has always thought so well They are advised not also to forget the paths of learning History shown by the great Indian saint Vivekanand at Chicago itself more than a hundred years ago or by the great analysts of Mythology and philology, Anthropology, Psychology and Theology like E.B. Tylor (18321917), William James (1842-1916), W.R. Smith (1846-1894), and Rudolf Otto (1869-1937) respectively or of the great foreign Ethnologists like J.A. Hamerton, E. Thurston, R.G. Latham and Grolier as well as Indian ones like Sachehidanand or Dr. K.S. Singh before they leap so fast on to such a hasty conclusion.

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CHPTER-IV Facts in Fiction : Reality of Harappa in Allusions of Saraswati and Brahmavarta

The Harappan civilization so far generally called the Indus Valley civilization, technically belongs to a pre history age. It is not also proto history now, so far as the archaeological excavations have proved. Whatever has been written on Harappan civilization so far has been based on either Harappa as a mysterious entity or Harappa as a group of few villages. The physical data which have come to light now on have made Harappa a group of settlements of not less than two thousand six hundred sites right from the Himalayas to the Arabian sea. It is interesting to note that the Harappan civilization which was till late thought to be mostly a part of todays Pakistan is actually spread over an area of a million sq. kms right from Alamgirpur in Uttar Pradesh to Dwarika in Gujrat and Nasik in Maharastra, Incidentally these settlements comprising or containing Harappa are situated on both the sides of the now underground river called the Saraswati. Saraswati so far was considered to be only a fiction and talking of Saraswati used to mean talking of a legendary goddess, daughter of God Brahma and later on his consort. Now that NASA has been able to present a satellite photograph of the underground river we are very much in a position to establish the fact that the Indus-Saraswati civilization and the Gangetic civilization are the two streams of the same culture which is actually the oftspoken glory of Brahmavarta that is Ind. U.S. archaeologist Gregory L. Possehi in his just published monumental study has drawn out the frontiers of the Saraswati civilization from Manda in the north, to Alamgirpur in the east to the Arabian sea and the Makran coast in the west and to Somnath, Ujjain, Bhagatrav and Nasik in the west, and the South west. Not only that the area of Saraswati civilizaton has been located geologically and by a Satellite photography but also by radioisotope dating test of the water proving that it is still traceable under the rivers dry bed in the Rajasthan desert. The Saraswati is not now a legendary river only but actually the lifeline of the Indian civilization as a whole. According to the French archaeologist Jean-Francois Jarrige, the civilization beside the river Saraswati has evidence of a continuous occupation for more than three millennia prior to the Harappan civilization. According to Mark Kenoyer a U.S. archaeologist the civilization is the result of a long evolution between 7000 and 5000 B.C. which saw the emergence of the first village farming communities and pastoral camps.
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It is said and believed, to quote Michel Danino that The most probable cause of the destruction of this civilization was a series of natural catastrophes-earth-quakes, drastic changes in rivers courses, consequent depletion of the Saraswati, floods, and also a long drought over the whole region including west Asia all of which ravaged agriculture, and perhaps also excessive deforestation to supply wood to kilns and furnaces. Another likely factor is a sharp reduction in external trade, especially with Mesopotamia While earlier generations of scholars spoke of a total break in Indian civilization as a result of this decline archaeologists now agree that the another phase called post Harappan, post urban or also localizaton Era and dated about 1900-1300 B.C. followed and went on to provide a smooth transition to the first historical states in the Ganga region. The history of the Indus-Saraswati civilizaton in its different phases together may be only some thousand years old, but the history of the river as such is a thing of times immemorial. It is said by Saint Lomharashan of our Puranas that this eternal river had its origin in a forest of plaksha (Pakar) trees on the Himalayas and it flew west from the Himalayas to the Arabian Sea through a series of forests and mountains. Nar Narayan Sthanam Parvate hi Himalaye Saraswati Yatra Punya Syandate Sarita Varan** (Vaman Puran) The Saraswati is that and only that pious river which took its birth at the peak of the Himalayas and the place of God-Narayan. It is said in the Vaman Puran that this river flew down from the top of the Himalayas a little north of the river Mandakini and took its main course to end up in the Arabian Sea. Between the Himalayas and the sea it passed through a thousand hills and a number of forests including the Dvait-Van, a forest finding an important description in the Van Parva of the great epic, the Mahabharat. This rivers water was thought to be so pious that the men and the supermen of the time took it as means of washing away their vices in this water and gaining Moksha (freedom from the bondage of life and sins.) The great seer Lomharshan spoke to saint Markandeya that the river after reaching Kurushetra flew towards west through thousands of pious places known even today mainly as pilgrimage places of God Shiva Kurukshetre Samaanaplapya Prayata Paschimam disham Tatra Tirthe Shahstrani Rishivi Sevitani Cha

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Tanyaham Keertiyisyami Prasadat Parmeshthinah Teerthanam Smarnam Punyam Darshanam Papnashanam The course of the river aforesaid is of course, a course which has remained famous for the worship of Lord Shiva and this can be seen even today from Kedarnath to Somnath, from Karnprayag to Prayag or Allahabad, from Bhima Sagar in Nainital to Bhimashanker in Maharastra, from Ujjain in Madhya Pradesh to Nasik and Daimabad in Maharastra. It sounds meaningful that this whole region from Himanchal, Roper, Alamgirpur in U.P. Kalibangan and Gangeriwala in Rajasthan and Dholavira and Dwarika in Gujrat are all those pious places which have become symbols of modern city or urban civilization of today. To quote S.C. Mukherji from his paper read at ITPI silver jubilee international conference at New Delhi in 1955" a highly advanced order of social life is in evidence in the Indus Valley civilization.... having a phase of democracy and economyperhaps a corporation or an association of persons who were conducting the civic affairs of the people, Building regulations seem to have been strictly enforced and a great care was taken to prevent any structure from encroaching on streets The river Saraswati was one and only one among the seven rivers which was perennial and which crossed the seven pious forests namely the kamyak, the Aditi, the Vyas, the Surya, the Madhu, the Shant and the Falki and it can be easily guessed that all these pious forests now have turned into seven pious cities and this can be verified from the satellite pictures taken by the NASA. The famous temples of Kedarnath, Kurushetra, Kotishwar, Asthanishwar, Nageshwar and Someshwar are probably examples of the planning and development science of the modern cities standing today. The seven rivers of this region which was once called Brahmavarta are supposed to be situated in between this visible Indus and the hitherto invisible Saraswati. It is a matter of further research to ascertain whether todays Indus was once upon a time the famous Drishadvati or not. These seven rivers however have been praised as being constituent units of a city. Many ancient kings, including those of Egypt and Mesopotamia had titles like destroyers of cities. This does not turn them into nomads and hunting marauders. The Vedas actually say about their own cities. Fowler condemns Wheeler and Max Muller very clearly- when he writes i.e. such a view is not good scholarship or archaeology but merely cultural imperialism. The western Vedic scholars did in the intellectual sphere what the British army did in the political realm discredit, divide and conquer the Hindus. In short the compelling reasons for the Aryan invasion theory were neither literary nor archaeological but

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political and religious that is to say not scholarship but prejudice. Such prejudice may not have been international but deep-seated political and religious views easily cloud and blur our thinking. "It is simply unfortunate that this approach has not been questioned more particularly by Hindus. Even though Indian Vedic scholars like Dayananda Saraswati, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Aurobindo rejected it, most of the Hindus today passively accept it. They allow western, generally Christian, scholars to interpret their history for them and quite naturally Hinduism is kept in a reduced role. Many Hindus still accept, read or even honor the translations of the Vedas done by such Christian missionary scholars as Max Muller Griffith, Monier Williams and H.H. Wilson. Would modern Christians accept an interpretation of the Bible or Biblical history books and western Vedic translations that propound such views that denigrate their own culture and country.....tolerance is not in allowing a false view of ones own culture and religion to be propagated without question. That is merely self-betrayal. The very theory of the Aryan invasion has been found to be an absurd theory not only by Indian archaelogists and biologists like B.B. Lal, S.R. Rao, S.P. Gupta, Dilip K. Chakravarty, K.M. Srivastawa, M.K. Dhavalikar, R.S. Bisht and others but also by foreign biologists like Keyoner and A.R. Kennedy of the united states. Michel Danino, therefore, has concluded the view : No invasion or migration caused or followed the collapse of the urban phase of the Indus-Saraswati civilization around 1900 B.C. What is still taught in our textbooks about so called Aryans is no more that imagination. The Harappans were just North named so far no doubt are Indus, Beas, Jhelum, Sutlaj, Ravi and Chenab, come to be seven ones only with the addition of river Saraswati and Michel Danino is not unjustified when be calls this great civilization the Indus valley civilization or the Harappan civilization as really the Saraswati civilization or better called the Indus Saraswati civilization. The Aryan invasion theory propounded originally by Max Muller and supported by Sir REM wheeler and Hillibrandt and Mallory speaks of the Aryan invasion of the land of the seven rivers, the Punjab. But literally the Punjab means a land of five rivers only and the land of seven rivers as mentioned in the Rigveda is actually known as Saptsindhu. Both Max Muller and REM. Wheeler have wrongly interpreted the Vedic story of so many wars between the white and the dark as wars between the white complexioned Aryans and the dark
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complexioned Dravadians whom they meant to call the aboriginal Indians i.e. the Dasyus. David Frawley is very right in calling this approach as purely a political metaphor, not a cultural statement. According to him. Anthropologists have observed that the present population of Gujrat is composed of more or less the same ethnic groups as are noticed at Lothal in 2000 B.C. Similarly, present population of Punjab is said to be ethnically the same as the population of Harappa and Rupar 4000 years ago. Linguistically the present day population of Gujrat and Punjab belongs to the Indo-Aryan language speaking group. The only inference that can be drawn from the anthropological and linguistic evidence adduced above is that the Harappan population in the Indus Valley and in Gujrat in 2000 B.C. was composed of two or more groups, the more dominant among them having very close ethnic affinities with the present day Indo-Aryan speaking population of India. David Frawely has absolutely no reservation in labelling the views of wheeler and Max Muller as imaginary, totally speculative and an example of Christian prejudices. He scoffs at the idea of Aryans coming to India on horse driven charitots particularly when chariots are totally unsuitable for crossing mountains and deserts, as the so called Aryan invasion required. Max Mullers inferences of a war between the urban culture of Harappa and the rural culture of migrating Aryans is also not acceptable as according to David Frawley the Aryan gods like Indra, Agni, Saraswati and the Adityas have often been north western Indians of the time and continued to live there even after the end of the urban phase (with some of them migrating towards the Ganga plains in search of greener pastures). In simple terms, this means that for science there is no such thing as an Aryan race, or a Davidian race for that matter. Nor is there any one Indian tradition, in which the world Arya ever meant a race, but a quality of true nobility culture and refinement. And so, if no Aryan people invaded or entered into India, it stands to reason that the vedic culture was also native to the subcontinent, and not an import, In fact, quite a few scholars and archaeologists today see a number of clear vedic traits in the Harappan culture. To cite a few : the presence of fire altars, the symbol of a bull engraved on hundreds of seals, the cult of Mother goddess, the cult of a Shiva like deity, the depiction of Yogic features and of Yogies and sages. As a matter of fact Indian scriptures, particularly the Vedas and the Puranas, while speaking about the Ganga and the Saraswati have made it quite clear that contrary to, Max Mullers understanding the land of the seven rivers or the saptasindhu connotes of one and only one composite culture, known as the culture of the Brahmavart or the Saptasindhu that is Ind. They (the seven

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Rivers) originate as one from the highest point of the sky or the Himalayas (the Brahmaloka) and after descending at the Vindusarovar get divided into seven streams calledVaswok Sara Nalini Awani Pawani Cha Saraswati Jambu Nadi Cha Sita Cha Ganga-Sindhus Ch Saptami (Mahabharat: Van Parva-48) Although they take different names in their different routes, although they change their names, although they bifurcate in many tributaries taking still other different names they remain parts of the one and the same Ganga, or the Saptaganga or the Saptasindhu : Drishyadarishya cha Bhavati Tatra itra Sarawati Eta Divyah Sapta Gangadishu Lokeshu Vishrutah (The Mahabharat : Van Parva 50) All this goes to prove only the conclusion of the discussion made byMichel Danino and his lecture delivered on 29 September 1999 at Chennais Indian Institute of Technology which reads as follows : All said and done, the people of the Indian subcontinent can justifiably claim this ancient civilization as a central and inspiring part of their heritage. But they should not forget to learn from it the great lesson of the cycles of birth, life, decay and rebirth of Indian civilization, a lesson we need to keep on our minds especially at the present moment. It can be only regretted at this stage of time that although Max Muller tried his best to interpret the Vedas he failed to catch the real Brahmavarta spirit in the absence of his capacity in going deep and wide into the Puranas. He had of course, speculated of a horse driven chariot being a vehicle not only of the gods and goddesses like Aditya and Indra but also of the heroes like Ram and Ravana and Krishna and Bhishma but he could not rightly infer that geographical features did not allow these chariots to cross the Hindukush or the passes of Khyber and Bolan and hence it did not make any sense in establishing the theory that the Aryans were a nomads and an alien race which invaded the Indus valley civilization of the Dravidian race or the Das or the Dasyu Communities on horse-driven chariots with none other than copper made weapons : The horse chariots and the weapons so speculated by Max Muller rather strengthen the view that the said Indus valley or the Saraswati or the Harappa

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civilization was a perfectly developed urban civilization with a very strong civil administration and defence mechanism. The birth of this civilization took place, no doubt, around the area spread out between two great rivers, the Saraswati and the Drishawati later on called the sindhu or Sind or Indo or Indus. This civilization and this culture simultaneously spread out to the two sides of the great Ganga also known by its different names on different places form Gomukhi to Gangasagar and from the great Saraswati to the two sides of its different tributaries named the Narmada, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Karveri. But the original seat of this culture and civilization by such time had taken a very meaningful nomenclature-the Harappan civilization. According to the mythological interpretation of one school of the myth the fiction of Harappa takes us toward the demon kings Hara or Maya and Ravana while the facts of Harappa as a human civilization take us towards west Asia to Mesopotamia, to Iran or Persia in so far as the building plans and art or architecture or the phonetic family of languages is concerned. These scholars of Indian mythology have connected Hara who it is said, had been once called from Harappa to Lanka by Vibhishan, the younger brother of Rawana to be appointed as his minister of the department of Technology with a view to re-building the golden Lanka destroyed and dilapidated by the Ram-Rawan war. The matter got all the more confused and confounded by the story of a series of fourteen wars between the Gods and the Demons and establishment of their respective kingdoms at Amarawati. It is also said that the Demons also had their government over the said Indrasan at Amaravati later chosen to be capital of some Budhist King. Prahalad was one of such kings and so was his ancestor Bali and so was his successer Vritra who was got defeatel by Indra. Actually this war or struggle or battle between these two communities of gods and demons later on got interpreted as a war or battle between the Aryans and the non Aryans or aboriginals or the Prabhus and the Dasas or the Vibhu and the Dasyus. All these wars were nothing but symbolical wars between the good and the evil, the light and the dark and last but not the least between the privileged and the deprived ones. History got lost somewhere between the Indian mythologists and western analysts like Max Muller, Wheeler, and Michel Steve and who were Harappans is still going on between the orientalists and occidentalists even today and it is incumbent on students of ancient Indian History to reach a definite conclusion. This conclusion is possible only by a combined study of the subject on the basis of Mythology and Engineering, Mythology which is half History and half fiction and Engineering which is solid fact taken together may reflect the actual position of Harappa in the History of the civilizations of the world. Max Muller,

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fortunately or unfortunately has remained a name like Karl Marx which has remained alive even after the death of Marxism. Max Muller similarly has remained very much alive even after the death of his Aryan Invasion Theory. Stephen Knapp in his paper entitled The Death of the Aryan Invasion Theory has quoted the famous scholar Waddell and has explained how Sumerians who have actually been the early Aryans, were unfortunately declared by Max Muller as original Sumerians. To quote Knapp. The Sumerians were Aryans in physique, culture, religion language and writing. He also feels that the early Sumerians on the Persian Gulf near 3100 B.C. were Phoenicians who were Aryans in race and speech, and were the introducers of Aryan civilization in ancient India. Thus, he concludes that it was the Aryans who were the bearers of high civilization and who spread throughout the Mediterranean, Northwest Europe, and Britain, as well as India. However, he states that the early Aryan sumera-Phoenicians did not become a part of the Aryan Invasion of India until the seventh century B.C. after their defeat by the Assyrian Sargon II in 718 B.C. Though the Sumerians indeed may have been Aryan People, some researchers feel that rather than being the originators of vedic Aryan culture or Path of an invasion into India, they were an extension of the Vedic culture that originated in India and spread through Persia and into Europe. It is surprising how that theory of Aryan Invasion could become the official theory particularly when its proponent himself was not sure either about their migration or about their invasion or about the timing of the invasion Vis--vis the composition of the Vedic hymns. Max Muller said about the timing of the composition of Vedas as 1000 B.C. but he was never sure about it. He writes in his famous book, Physical Religion (P.91, 1891) Whether the vedic hymns were composed 1000, 1500 or 2000 BCE, no power on earth will ever determine. The personal views of Max Muller probably became the official theory under some conspiracy of the Britishers, Otherwise a linguistic theory could not have been allowed to supersede the Anthropological, Archaeological as well as literary details and by speaking a lie hundred times could not have made the great lie a great truth. It is pertinent to quote Knapp as follows: Let us also remember that Aryan invasion theory was hypothesized in the nineteenth century to explain the similarities found in Sanskrit and the languages of Europe. One person who reported about this is Deen chandra in his article, Distorted Historical Events and Discredited Hindu Chronology as it appeared in Revisiting Indus Saraswati Age and ancient India (P.383). He explains that the idea of the Aryan invasion was certainly not a matter of misguided research, but was a conspiracy to distribute deliberate
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misinformation that was formulated on April 10, 1866 in London at a secret meeting of the Royal Asiatic society. This was to induct the theory of the Aryan invasion of India, so that no Indian may say that the English are foreigners .India was ruled all along by outsiders and so the country must remain a slave under the benign Christian rule. This was a political move and this theory was put to solid use in all schools and colleges. The hymns of the Rigveda make it amply clear that the Vedas were composed not later than 9000 B.C. when the perennial saraswati was flowing in its full swing, while the school led by Max Muller thinks that the Vedas were composed in between 1000 to 2000 B.C. Not only the Provedic camp of ipious Hindus but great modern Yogies like Aurobindo, Vivekananda and Yogananda also believe that the Vedas are as old as the river Saraswati and its great culture and civilization, its great temples and Gods and Godesses located in caves and cliffs, its great pilgrims places standing now as great cities and as old as its great sages and seers in the sacred pages of the Vedas. When the same river is central to vedic texts with dozens of vedic references to its size and its location how can one agree to the theory and the date of the Aryan entrance into India after the drying-up of this sacred river. Not only the vedic language and literature but the geological studies of the land of Harappa and Mohen-Jodaro suggest that these cities were left because of environmental changes due to droughts or floods in the plains and earth quakes taking place due to the downward flow of the river saraswati and the force of the flow inside some 40-50 ft. below the present surface of Harappa. The archaeological sites and the excavation made at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro have brought out sufficient proof of having worship places in every house located centrally and many remains of the statues and images of gods and goddesses particularly of Durga and Shiva. These excavations also bear ample proof of sacrificial altars and fire places for offering Puja to these gods and goddesses. It is said that every fire place used to have a sacrificing wooden pillar also called Yoop or Har-Yoop. Or Stupa or Stamb. The anthropological remains found in the cemeteries and also the articles kept and found therein take us to a much older date than what Max Muller and the Royal Asiatic society scholars could guess of. Further more, Dr. S.R. Raos decipherment of Harappan scripts indicates that whether the south Arabic or the old Aremic or even the ancient Indian Brahmi scripts bear sufficient similarities with the Indus valley scripts and this goes to prove that the Harappan civilization
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was not at all an Iranian civilization or a central Asian civilization which is said by some scholars to have invaded the Dravadians Indus townships. The Engineering of these buildings is based on mathematical instructions that are found in the vedic literature of the Aryans such as those found in the shulbasutras. The people of these cities, it is evident use the vedic styles of religious altars and town planning. Whether it was Max Muller or it was wheeler or it was Pargiter or it was John Marshall or it was anybody belonging to the Royal Asiatic society or anybody belonging to the Christian religion, there is hardly anything specific about their conclusions or specific about the timing of the Aryan Invasion or the timing of the drying up of the river Saraswati or the timing of the composition of the vedic hymns or the timing of the structures of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. It is really strange that Indian leftist writers like R.S. Sharma and Romila Thapar or American academics like Michel Witzel and Farmer open their mouth in favour of the A.I.T. (Aryan Invasion Theory), but fail to give any solid proof in favour of their arguments. While condemning Natwar Jha and others in respect of their thesis of horse and chariot and the decipherment of the Indus scripts they appear to be suffering from the same prejudices with which the Royal Asiatic society people were suffering from. To quote Knapp. They equate the Aryans with the horse and Chariot and Harappa with a non-horse, non-chariot and hence non-vedic culture. Such a simplistic equation has many flaws and ignores the many other issues. It overlooks that vedic culture was essentially a rishi-king culture not a horse/nomad culture. Although Sir John Marshall incharge of the excavations at the Harappan sites did not disagree with Max Muller and his theory of Aryan invasion on Harappa, his opinion on the Indus civilization was that this civilization was the oldest to be unearthed. According to him the Indus civilization is older than the Sumerian culture and believes the Sumerian culture to be but a branch of the Indus civilization and thus an outgrowth of the vedic society. The bones of horses found at all the locations of Harappa and their biological study also proves that when the horse was unknown to Mesopotamia it was in large use at Harappa and was very common creature in vedic Yajna culture of India. Not only Marshall but Prof. Lal in his famous book The Earliest civilization of South Asia has proved that the theory of an Aryan invasion has no basis and according to him Ashwamedha ritual and fire altars found at Harappan cities of Banawali, Lothal and Kalibangan prove that this civilization had its origin in Brahmavarta itself and not in Mesopotamia or Babylone.

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It is this civilization of the Saraswati river or the civilization of Brahmavarta which not only inducted the divine life style in the life of the Harappans but has reflected the vedic form of Mathematics in the construction of their buildings. J.M. Mackay in his book Further Excavations at Mohen Jodaro has found sufficient proof of vedic Geometry and Algebra in respect of the construction of altars and arenas for religious purposes. The Algebra and Geometry applied in Shulbasutras and the Kalpasutras take us back to the 8 th Century B.C. to

the days of king Indra, his capital at Amaravati and his king Brahmavati. Vedic Mathematics according to Mackay can no longer be considered as a derivative from ancient Babylone which dates to 1700 B.C. only. According to Waddell also Sumerian civilization dates back to 2800 B.C. which is a date much later to the Indus valley civilization. The oldest of the civilizations particularly of the west, the part of the Relief base of Le Roc, Charante (according to Dr. Henri Martin) effigies of female animals connected with fertility magic or clay figures of the Magdalenian period of a coupling male and a female bison or a pottery figure discovered in lake Maracaibo, Venezuela of a Primitive mother goddess or the wall carving of goddess Isis of Egypt or the bronze statuette of Anhur, a warrior God of Egypt or of Anubis Lord or the land and God of death of Egypt, compared to the statuettes of Harappa, dont appear to be older than this. The later finds as for example the Alabaster head of a cow sacred to Hathor at the temple of Deirel Bahri or another statue of Godess Hathor protecting a pharaoh belong to as old as the 16 th century B.C. to 6 th century B.C. Similarly the temple of Ninkhursag at Tell-

el-obied near Ur in Sumeria being the oldest of the finds is supposed to be a later creation compared to the finds of Harappa and Mohen-Jodaro. Greece and Rome being the most talked of civilizations have hardly anything which can be said to be older than the finds of the Indus valley excavations. The Chinese civilization, in so far as the archaeological finds are concerned, is not at all as ancient as the Indus valley civilization what to talk of the American and Slavonic civilizations.

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Chapter V

Harappa : Urban Face of the Vedic Brahmavarta Frame

Historians generally dont accept mythology as a source of history and no sources of history known so far, have ever proved to be sufficient source to bring to light the knowledgeable facts of history lying here and there as fossils or fiction. Old fictions are ignored while new ones are concocted or speculated or manoevred. Not only that the authors of ancient history only are questioned about their authenticity of facts, but many of the writers of modern history also are charged of concocting fictions in writing history. Nobody expected Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose or Veer Savarkar and many other similar freedom fighters to have become subjects of a fiction in the very century they lived and died. History needs to be written or to be re-written or to be revised with the change of regimes of governments prone to manipulations. Facts of history, have therefore been required to be preserved in museums and libraries. History at one point of time used to be preserved in the museums of the minds of the people, in their customs and traditions, in their religious rites and rituals, in the courses of their rivers and in the ranges of their mountains and forests which later on got recorded on paper but are without any justifiable rhyme or reason called myths today, although they have lots of history inside them. A.L. Bashams comments on the Ramayan and the Mahabharata explains the inter-actioon of myth and history very aptly and appropriately : It you read the Ramayana and the Mahabharata as history, lots of mythology. If you read them as mythology, you will find lots of history. It is interesting to note here that large number of texts both of prose and poetry have been preserved in the books of Celtic traditions. Most important and valuable of such books are the Book of Leinster and the Yellow Book of Lecan. In the Welsh tradition also there are Books like white Book of RHYDDRCH and the Red Book of Hergest which contain much of Celtic history in their mythologies. It is due to this that modern writers of ancient history you will find

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have classified the mythology of Celts into cycles. The mythological cycle is important in so far so it gives something of the early history of Ireland in the form of myths, that is to say, it treats some of the native myths as history even fixing definite dates to what must have been mythical events. The first race which inhabited Ireland, it is said, perished in biblical floods, but it again after 268 years of the flood rose up with 24 females by the sites of nine rivers and three lakes. These lakes and rivers and the Father-Mother and children cults is a Universal cult which is prevalent in the mythologies of the world from India to Assyria, from Assyria to Egypt, from Egypt to Phoenicia, from Phoenicia to Greece and from Greece to Rome. There used to be a father who used to create a progeny. There was a father who used to have a lady as a co-partner and might be, the lady was his sister or his daughter with whom he created a generation. It is not without reason to guess that this fact of the generation creation was got preserved in mythological stories like those of a Brahma and Saraswati in India, a Dagda and a Danu in Ireland, a Ptah and a Sekkmet in Egypt or a Shamash and Ishtar in Babylone or an El and a Not in Phoenicia or an Adonis and Venus in Greece or a Zeus and Hera again in Greece and last but not the least a Jupiter and Juno in Rome. If all these traditions in all these cultures have the same process of creation, it is not a mad effort to search some history of the origin of man in such myths and such mythologies. The story of Brahma and Saraswati and the creation of a land of a people called Divyadesh situated on the two banks of the river Saraswati is called Bharat, the land of goddess Bharati or Brahmavarta the land of god Brahma is not without a meaning and a purpose. Actually Brahmavarta is so called not only because this heavenly land is Brahmas land but also because it is probably the land of those great gods and goddesses who are supposed to have created, brought up and destroyed man and other creatures of the world called Brahmand. Of all the creatures created by the God father called Brahma the two important communities are the community of Adityas and the community of Daityas. Adityas were the sons of mother Aditi and Daityas were the sons of mother Diti while the father of both these communities was a sage called Kashyap. The mythological story goes to say that after completing the work of creation of Daityas, God Brahma felt very much hungry and expressed his desire to satisfy his hunger by eating up the Daityas which the Daityas protested and said that they would do anything to save and protect their existence. God Brahma felt unhappy with them and he became more inclined to the Adityas. The Adityas including God Vishnu joined and combined together to fight against them (the Daityas) and a
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battle between the two continued for thousands and thousands of years. Of the three great Gods, Brahma, Vishnu and Mahesh the third of them called Hara or Shiva remained equally merciful to both the Daityas and the Adityas and probably this is the reason that Hindu mythologies are full of stories of his being very kind for his blessings and being merciful to both these communities and probably this is why God Shiva is worshipped all over the Aryavarta or Brahmavarta and has been recognized as the basic cause of creation. Brahma is the creator no doubt, but Shiva or Hara is the basic and the ultimate reality, the Param Brahma: Vishwa Vishwesharam Cha Vishwakaranam Vishwadharam Cha Vishwastam Vishwakaranam Karanam Vishwaraksha Karnam Cha Vishwachhanam Vishwajam Parem Phalbijam Phaladharam Phalam Cha Tatphalam Pradam (Brahma Vaivarta Purana 1/3/25-26)

God Shiva, as a matter of fact, is the basic factor of creation and is different from its manifestations called Mahesh or Shankar. And this is why both Brahma and Vishnu have been worshippers of the Shiva factor called Brahma or Narayan or Hara and one of his three consorts, Saraswati has manifested herself in the form of the pious river called the Saraswati. Hara is an equivalent name of Shiva the basic as well as the ultimate reality called Brahma i.e the universe and so the land of Saraswati and Brahma has been a land for the worship of God Hara and this is why this land is called the land of the Bharati or Haryupia or Divyadesh in the Vedas and the Puranas. Divyadesh means a land occupied by the heavenly gods of the Universe and the ultimate lord being God Hara this whole expanse of this land might have been called Haryupia or Harappa. Harappa therefore means the land of Hara the ultimate lord of the Universe or the Brahma or Brahmavarta, it is called and this is probably why, the area from the peak of the Himalayas to the Arabian sea is recognized as the origin and course of the Saraswati, God Hara is worshipped as the only God, both by Brahma and Vishnu as well as by the Asuras or the Nagas or the Daityas equally. Brahma is no doubt, the father or the creation but the ultimate father of the Universe is Para Brahma that is Hara and the land of

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Hara is therefore the real Divyadesh or the Brahmavarta and Brahmavarta is the place where the original real culture of India is supposed to have been born. The Divyadesh culture of India means the real vedic civilization which not only according to the Puranas but also according to the latest findings of scriptural and archaeological researchers carried out by scientists and scholars like S.R. Rao, V.S. Wakankar and Srikant Talageri. The Harappan civilization is nothing but a continuation of that early Vedic civilization belonging to the Sutra period of the Vedic Literature. This vast civilization is supposed to have come to an end because of ecological changes particularly the drying-up of the mighty Saraswati river which flew through Harayana and Harappa to the Arab sea Via Punjab and Rajasthan. This has been confirmed by satellite photography also. The river Saraswati which is supposed to have dried-up at about 2000 B.C. finds its mention in the second Mandala of the Rigved nearly fifty times. The history of the children of Nahusha being inhabitants and rulers of Saraswati heartland also have a reference in the Rigved. Max Mullers ghost may now be better called a political creature created to advance the cause of German nationalism as well as British emperialism with Mullers theory of the Arayn race. Archaeological findings today are in a position to thwart the historical scenario built around untested linguistic conjectures and are in a position to thwart the historical scenario built around untested linguistic conjectures and are in a position, in the light of S.S. Mishras linguistic analysis that it is not the west and central Asia invaders that invaded India but it is the Vedic Aryans who travelled out of India to the west and central Asia. To quote N.S. RajaramAryan tribes settled in Persia, Parthia and Anatolia. (The Puranas record them as Parsus and Partavas.) Indian emperor Mandhata drove the troublesome Dasyus out of India before 4800 B.C. and according to Talageri (1933), they became the celtic Druids of Europe, which fits in with the latters tradition of tracing their origin to Asia. Then there is the question of Zoroster, his date and his origin. The Bhavisya Purana (139-15) records Contrary to the Vedic practices, your son will become famous by the name of Mag. His name will be Jarathushtra Mag-and will bring fame to the dynasty. His descendents will worship fire and will be known by the name Mag (Saka), and being Soma worshippers (Magadha Sakadvipi) will be known as Mag Brahmins. All this is so contrary to what we have been subjected to learning in history books.

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Archaeological, geological, anthropological and biological finds of Harappa have been proved older than the remains of structures of temples or houses made for human beings not only in Egypt and Babylone but also in Greece, Rome, Phoenicia, France or Great Britain. It is not without a justification that most of these remains as well as most of the names of gods and goddesses of the west tally with the names of the Gods and Goddesses of the Indus Saraswati belt. The following comparison between the Indian names of the gods and goddesses and those of Greece, Rome, Babylone, Assyria, Persia, Germany or Yugoslavia will prove how the Brahmavarta culture has travelled from east to west and not from west to east. As a matter of fact the Brahmavarta Culture expanded itself like a baloon not only to the west but also to the north, to the east as well as to the South, Mythology, unfortunately and miserably overlooked so far, has in its unread fictions as well as in its undecypherred dictions preserved vital facts that unfold those important realities of history which have not been taken proper notice of by the stereotype historians who have utterly failed in going deep and far in history beyond two to three thousand years of time. It is not actually an injustice only to the Ancient History of India but an injustice to the ancient world which is present this way or that way even with science-dominated present day life. The only Science of knowledge to analyse the truth of life prevailing ten thousand years before Christ is the comparative study the ancient languages like Greek, Roman, Persian, German, Vis a vis. Sanskrit which has not only been the richest of all the languages but a proto language of a people which bore the torchlight of culture and civilization from the Saptasindhu region to Persia, Babylone, Assyria, Greece, Rome and Teutonic and Celtic countries in the west, to Indo China and Malluka Islands in the East, to Afghanistan, Japan and Slavokian Countries in the north and not only to Ceylone and Tamilnadu etc. in the South but also to African and Latin American countries abroad. The foremost culture which ever took shape in the world was that of the Deva or the Divya people who were called Sur and it was born between the two pious rivers named the Saraswati and the Drishadwati which also had divine origins at Vindu Sarovar somewhere, over the plateau of Pamir. The divya people were so called because they were created by the divine Brahma on the bank of a river reverberating Vedic Richas or mantras pregnant with eternal knowledge telling the Truth, the Beauty and the Good. This culture of a divine life of meditation, vision and expression continued for thousands and thousands of years when at a certain point of time exodus of the population took place with a change in their life style of this divya (Divine) community. This exodus took place because by this time this community had learnt producing grains and bartering them with other useful things with far off people. This commercial type of a community was branded as non-surs or Asurs. They gradually migrated from the Sarswati or Saptsindhus and settled at a place called Haryupia, or Harappameaning a class of people who were descendents of god Har or Brahma but who adopted a different

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occupation of agriculture and commerce and migrated onwards from Harappa to Persia, from Persia to Babylone, from Babylone of Greece and from Greece to Rome and other places of Europe. This change of life style was a change from culture to civilisation and this very civilization was named or identified as Aryan. This civilization, this life style, this way of living was liked by all those who ever came in Aryans contact and they adopted this life style. Rit (i.e. Truth), Richa (i.e. Expression of truth called its literature or Shloka) and a way of life translating this Rit into living called Aryan attracted to itself all the communities of the then world which ever came in its contact. Rit was the conscience of the creator Brahma, Richa was his word, Arya was his action and Sanskrit was his speech and so where ever this Aryan community migrated to, it took with it the Rit, the Richa, the Aryan, the Aryan style and the Aryan or this divine language called Sanskrit. And this is why if there is any language in the world which the conscience of the world recognizes as a Proto languages, it is Sanskrit and Sanskrit alone. Unfortunately, William Jones called it as a Mystery or a mystery language while Max Muller dismissed it.

Panini, the great Sanskrit grammarian who analysed the Sanskrit language and its effects on other languages, of the world conceptualized his formula of interaction of languages as Bahulam Chhandasi and said that a Proto language changes its colour in other languages in four ways - somewhere due to some similarity, somewhere due to some dissimilarity, somewhere due to being different but being in perpetual contact while somewhere due to some strange different reasons. The ancient civilizations of the world analysed on the basis of the developments taking place in their languages prove this thesis which was well- realized by Max Muller and other European linguists of the 19 th century

although they showed a bit of hesitation in giving this a universal acceptance. Max Muller accepted that the names of the Greek Gods like Zeus, Pan, Demeter or Hephaestus or those of the Roman gods like Mars, or Jupiter or Juno or Minerva or Haoma or Mithra of Persian or i.e Svaroga or Agni i.e. Ogone of Slavonic mythology were the results of their constant contact with this Proto language that was Sanskrit. Zeus was named after Dyous , Pan after Pawan , Demeter after Earth Mother or Earth itself after Prith or Prithivi Hephaestus after Yagyisthas, i.e Agni, Mars after Marut or Haoma ater Soma or Mithra after Mitra. The similarities in Cults and characters of those gods and goddesses will go a long way to prove that not only these divine figures but the heroes of these civilizations also bore the cults and characters of Sanskrit or Aryans heroes and heroines. The very word Hero come to those

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languages from the Indian Har and became Hor in Egypt, Horus in Latin, Horos in Greek, and gave the world a poet like Horace in times to come. The Egyptian God Osiris, the Assyrian Samash, the Teutonic Hathor, the Roman Jupiter, the Babylonian Anshar were names taken under the effect or impact of the concept of the Aryan Sun God and none else. The earth gods, the water gods, the wind gods, the sky gods and the fire gods anywhere in the world stand identified according to their Aryan cult. Not only the gods and goddesses of different ancient civilizations but the names of ancient heroes like Ashur Banipal and Gilgamesh of Babylone, or Asshur or Anshar of Assyria, Ahur Mazda and Vivant (derived from vaivasvat) of Persia, Aesir and Mannus of Germany are but names derived from the Sur and Asur concepts borrowed from the Aryans. Had they not been borrowed or adopted like this how the Sanskrit ` Matri or Pitri or Bhratri or Manuj or Div would have been known even today, from times immemorial as Meter or Mother, as Peter or Father, as Frater or brother, as Mannus or Man, as Divya or Divine and how a thousand of such words would have survived and circulated in different languages of the world of today! A study of the Celtic mythology of Ireland clarifies that although time has been divided in Ireland into mythological cycles it treats some of the native myths as history fixing definite dates to what must have been normally taken as mythical events. It is said and believed that the first race which inhabited Ireland perished in the biblical floods and the race that followed the floods took two hundred and sixty eight years to inhabit Ireland again. In India also mythical events have been treated historically in terms of cycles like Satyayug, Treta Yug, Dwapar Yug and Kaliyug. It is believed and reasonably believed that Satyug remained for four thousand and eight hundred years, Treta for three thousand six hundred years, Dwapar for two thousand and four hundred years after which the Kaliyug is supposed to have taken place. Kaliyug means the advent of an Urban age of mechanism and of settlement of human beings constructing new shelters for their living, shelters for their dead ones, shelters for their security guards and soldiers and a paraphernalia of town planning and civilized life. Calculating from this angle, the Indus Saraswati civilization which is supposed to have followed Dwapar, the age of the Mahabharat should be between 3000 B.C. and 1000 B.C. but this does not ever mean that the Vedic culture followed this Indus culture. The Indus Saraswati culture must have been preceded by a culture as that of the Vedas and the Upnishads which in itself should be expected to have been preceded by a culture identifiable

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with the culture of the Ramayan i.e. a culture and a still other older culture known as the culture of the Satyayug the ideal culture of India known for a society where no body is plagued with sorrow and grief and in which everybody remains happy. The ideal life has remained hyped in the following vedic rhyme. Sarve Bhavantu Sukhinah Sarve Santu Niramayah Sarve Bhadrani Pashyantu Ma Kashchid Dukh Bhagbhavet The history of the ideal Indian culture thus naturally dates back to a period five thousand years before Christ. It is interesting to know that the great U.S. Archaeologist. J.M. Kenoyer who has worked on many Indus sites has proved on the basis of the findings in respect of pottery, metallurgy and farming etc. of Harappa that this civilization taking its real form in between 5000-2600 B.C. was the result of a long decadent evolution process taking place between 7000 and 5000 B.C. It will be very relevant here to quote Michel Danino as follows:Whatever its name, when we speak of this civilization we usually mean its mature phase (also called integration era), during which the great cities such as Mohen Jodaro, Harappa, Ganweriawala, Rakhighari, Dholavira and others flourished. That phase is now usually dated 2600-1900 B.C. But it was, of course, not born in a day. It was preceded by a long phase called the early Harappan or regionalization era, during which villages kept developing and started interacting and also many technologies (pottery, metallurgy, farming etc.) were perfected, That early phase is now dated by Janathan Mark Kenoyer, a U.S. archaeologist who has worked on many Indian sites of 5000-2600 B.C.It was itself the result of a long evolution between 7000 and 5000 B.C. which saw the emergence of the first village farming communities and pastoral camps (as in many other regions of the world) Mehrgarh, at the foot of the Bolan Pass in the Kachi Plain of Baluchistan, is the best known example. According to its excavator, the French archaeologist Jean-Francois Jerriage, The site covers an area of about 500 acres (200 hectares) with only Pre Harappan remains and shows evidence of continuous occupation for more than three millennia prior to the Harappan civilization. The end of the mature phase is usually dated 1900 B.C. when most of the cities were gradually abandoned : their remarkable civic organization broke down, forcing people to go back to the village. The most probable cause was a series of natural catastrophes-earthquakes,

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drastic changes in river course, consequent depletion of the Saraswati, floods, and also a long drought over the whole region (including west Asia) all of which ravaged agriculture, and perhaps also excessive deforestation to supply wood to kilns and furnaces. Another likely factor is a sharp reduction in external trade, especially with Mesopotamia. But while earlier generations of scholars spoke of a total break in Indian civilization as a result of this decline, archaeologists now agree that another phase called Post-Harappan, Post-Urban or also localization era. and dated about 1900-1300 B.C. followed and went on to provide a smooth transition to the first historical states taking shape in the Ganga region. Unfortunately, a scholar like Max Muller who believed in Christian Chronology put his seal on the Christian theory that the world was created at 9 A.M. on Oct. 23, 4004 B.C. and the great flood occurred in 2500 B.C. and for all his assessment and conclusion he depended knowing and unknowing upon this faith. It will be relevant to quote him from a letter written by him to his wife in 1866 about his translation of the RigvedaThis edition of mine and the translation of the Veda, will hereafter tell to a great extent on the fate of Indian and on the growth of millions of souls in that country. It is the root of their religion and to show them what the root, I feel sure, is the only way of uprooting all that has sprung from it during the last three thousand years. He also misinterpreted the struggle of the two wings of the same Indian culture as an invasion or a battle between the Aryans migrating from middle Asia and the Dravadians inhabiting Harappa and MohenJodaro. David Frawely has made very substantial comments on Max-Muller while stating as follows:A close study of Vedic literature reveals that there were two related cultures in ancient India. This is one of the main points of my book, The Rig Veda and History of India. The first was a northern, Kingdom centered on the Saraswati-Drishadvati river region. It was dominated by the Purus and the Ikshvakus and their mainly Angirasa gurus that produced the existent Veda text that we have. The second was a southern culture along the coast of the Arabian Sea in the Saraswati delta and into Vindhya Mountains. It was dominated by Turvashus and Yadus and their mainly Bhrigu gurus had extended into groups yet further south. These two groups vied for supremacy and influenced each other in various ways as the Vedas and Puranas indicate. That is why, in Vedic literature the Turvashus and Yadus, the southern people are the main enemies, though originally kinsmen, of the Vedic Bharatas.
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Great Vedic Kings like Divodasa, Srinjaya and Sudas have the Turvashus and Yadus as their main opponents. The mythical ancient Deva-Asura war of the Vedas and Puranas involves the Angirasas and Bhrigus (Brihaspati and Shukra) or the northern and southern rishi families. It is really a misfortune of history that an intellectual clash between two schools of thinkers the Angiras and the Bhrigus belonging each respectively to the north and the south get interpreted as a clash between two civilizations the Aryans and the Dravidians. A worse misfortune is another misinterpretation of history made by a great European scholar like Max Muller that the Brahmin civilization which travelled from Brahmavarta to Persia, to Mesopotamia, to Babylone, to Greece, to Rome, to Ireland and last but not the least to England and Germany was interpreted as having made a thoroughly reverse journey from Greece and Rome and Persia to the Saptsindhu that is India and was declared as an immigration and an invasion by a clan coming through Iran to India and so called the Iranian or the Aryan Race . Linguistic similarity from Indian to Greece and Rome and from there to England and Germany must look natural in both the cases Max Muller should have interpreted and establishing his theory in the background of the older culture and civilization and not in the background of a culture that was born at 9 A.M. on 23 Oct. in 4004 B.C. He unfortunately did not take into consideration that the Vedas could not be recorded in writing for so many centuries before any script was invented in the world. The Vedas were called shruties simply because they were transferred from ears to ears, from generations to generations and from civilizations to civilizations. Language any-where in the world was first invented in Brahmavarta in the form of pictographs and symbols and later on it could be converted in to a script. A study of Harappan pictographs, symbols and pictures and paintings indicated that it was a period of transcribing knowledge and thought into a script. It is not without meaning that this script taking birth at Harappa has been recognized by many scholars as the earliest from of Brahmi script which later on became the script also of the Vedas and the script mainly of the land called Brahmavarta. It sounds very-very natural to have a land like Brahmavarta, a lord like Brahma, a river named Brahmani after Brahmas daughter Saraswati and a language like Brahmi. It is really sad that Max Muller and his follower scholars of Royal Asiatic society probably, knowingly ignored these facts of geographical as well as philological realities and determined the time of creation of the Vedas at 1000 or 1500 B.C. and not at a time prior to 7500 B.C., a time when Angira, Bhrigu, Vashisth and Agastiya were composing as well as
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reciting the Richas (Shlokas) of the Vedas and were passing these shlokas from individuals to individuals, from ears to ears, from generations to generations. The work of decipherment of the Indus Valley script has luckily been taken up by scholars from all over the world. These scholars generally included George Thompson, Steven weber, Alessandro Passi, Bo Simphins, Martin, Fosse, Dennys Frenez Allen Thrasher, Bjarte Kaldhol, cosma Shalizi, Victor Mair, D.P. Agrawal, Iravatham Mahadevan, Andrew Lawler, Malcolm Dean, Enrica Gazilli, John Robert Gardner, J. Chadwick, A. Cunningham, Fair Servis, K. Kak, B.B. Lal, S.R. Rao, A. Parpola, M. Witzel and S. Farmer. The last word spoken so far on the Indus valley script is really cryptic to quote Farmer, Sproat and Witzel from their elaborate article entitled, The Collapse of the Indus-Script Thesis : The myth of a literate Harappan civilization, nothing appears to having been really done to untie the knot. A note on falsifiability- It will probably surprise many readers to discover that the standard view that the Indus civilization was literate has been an assumption and not a conclusion of previous studies. While debate over the language of Indus inscriptions has had a long and acrimonious history, not one of the thousands of articles or books written on the topic since the 1870s included any systematic justification for the belief that the inscriptions were in fact linguistic. Due to the long record of doctored evidence and forgery that is part of the Indus-Script story (c.f; e.g. Witzel and Farmer 2000, Farmer 2003), any discoveries to this type would have to be accepted by a broad consensus of Indus researchers before we would consider our model to be falsified or subject to major modification.
Efforts of Orientlists spread over the whole world are going on and time is not far off when not only Farmer, Sproat and Witzel themselves will not be falsified but some so called leftist Indian historians like Romila Thaper, R.S. Sharma and politician Journalists like N. Ram and Praful Bidwats tougues will be sealed forever. It is really a crude Joke to call a developed Urban culture like that of Harappa to be an illiterate civilization.

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Chapter VI

Culture of Harappa : From Divine Brahmavarta to Urban Aryavarta

A real good historian is the one who writes a really good history. In case he fails he is rather much worse than a good mythologist, because the bad historian might kill the spirit of history while the good mythologist treasures it, saves it, protects it, promotes it and supports it in the interest of humanity. A bad history of a civilization may be the cause of a bad history for the whole mankind if unfortunately it happens to be some what like a so called official theory of the birth and growth of civilization. This has some how or other happened with the so called Aryans invasion theory (A.I.T.) established by Max Muller. Max Muller has been such an important name in the history of languages and cultures that people generally prefer to refrain from making comments over his studies and his theories. But before accepting a theory in its totality established by a foreign scholar one must guard against and think twice and first look into what native ones have spoken about on the contents of the said establishing theory. A German thinker and scholar like Max Muller had learnt workable Sanskrit to evaluate the culture of a land which wrote the Vedas after thousands and thousands of years and seers called Rishies recorded their views about the origin and the growth of the world and its culture. No foreign student should be easily expected to have the same mastery over the scriptures of a land like India or for that matter of a land like China or Greece or Egypt or Assyria or Babylonia. It is only the native scholars and it is they and they alone who can catch in true sense of the term, the spirit of a culture in its language and literature. When Max Muller was propounding this theory, he was probably exploiting the advantage of India being a slave of the Britishers and Britishers were interested in a universally acceptable theory like the AIT (Aryan Invasion Theory). They had a political interest in injecting this theory not only in the minds and the ears of the people of India, but also in the minds and hearts of many other countries that since the Aryans were themselves foreigners to India they had no moral right to call Britishers an alien race and hence to ever raise the question of asking them to quit India. Not that there were no commentaries on the

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Vedas and the Upnishads created and composed by Indian scholars called Acharyas, not that Max Muller was a better linguist than Panini and a better commentator of the Vedas than Sayan, not that just to explain the ideas of the Vedas many-many Puranas had already not been authored by a series of writers like Vysas and not that students of the Vedas other than Max Muller should have no authority to establish a theory like him ignoring and excluding all the aforesaid Archayas, but it was actually so important in the interest of British sovereignty as also in the interest of Christianity that a rudimental learner of the Vedas became a master of a Philosophy and a history of a land not known to him perfectly well. The worst misfortune for India of today is that the so called historians of ancient India refuse to be guided by what has been said by Sayan or Panini or Patanjali or Vyas while they are veryvery loyal to authors of ancient history like Max Muller, Griffith, Monier Williams and H.H. Wilson. They refuse to appreciate the fact why the Christians of the west are not inclined to accept the interpretation of the Bible or Biblical history done by Hindus although not at all with any mission to converting them to Hinduism. Our misfortune today is that Universities in India prefer use of western history books and western Vedic translations compared to the commentaries made by modern Indian thinkers and scholars like Dayanand Saraswati, Swami Ram Krishna, Swami Vivekanand, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Maharshi Aurobindo. To quote David Frawely. Such a view is not good scholarship or archaeology but merely cultural emperialism. The western Vedic scholars did in the intellectual sphere what the British army did in the political realm discredit, divide and conquer the Hindus. In short, the compelling reasons for the Aryan invasion theory were neither literary nor archaeological but political and religious that is to say, not scholarship but prejudice. Such prejudice may not have been intentional but deep-seated political and religious views easily cloud and blur our thinker. The modern western academic world is sensitive to criticism of cultural and social biases. For scholars to take a stand against this biased interpretation of the Vedas would indeed cause a re-examination of many of these historical ideas that cannot stand objective scrutiny. But if Hindu scholars are silent or passively accept the misinterpretation of their own culture, it will undoubtly continue, but they will have no one to blame but themselves. It is not an issue to be taken lightly how a culture is defined historically creates the perspective from it is viewed in the modern social and intellectual context. Tolerance is not in allowing a false

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view of ones own culture and religion to be propagated without question. That is merely self-betrayal. It is really worse than unfortunate that the Brahma of the Vedas and Upnishads the Sarva Khal Vidam Brahma or the Brahma even of the Brahmand Puran or the Brahma Vaivart Puran could not become the subject of a study by our so-called modern historians of India. They condemned not only the concept of the Advait Brahma of the Vedas and the Upnishads who actually stood for the scientific concept of the cosmos but they also condemned the Brahma of the Puranas, their First Father as something like a communal deity calling it a Hindutwavadi interpretation of the culture and history of India. They never tried to establish a relationship between the Brahmand i.e. the Cosmos and the land known as Brahmavart inhabited at one stage of creation by one of the three great gods called Brahma with his consort called Brahmani or Bharti or Saraswati later on flowing in the form of a perennial river called the Saraswati from one of the hill tops of the Himalayas to Bet Dwarika or to Somnath. They never took the trouble of understanding that primal super cosmic element called Shiva or Hara and to establishing his relationship with the land called Brahmavart or Divyadesh. The land of the eternal power called Brahma czg~e or the land of the gods and goddesses inhabited by Father Brahma and inherited by his creations like Angira, Pulah, Pulastya and Bhrigu. etc. The culture of India dates back to a history from the land of these gods and goddess which neither came in the purview of the study of Max Muller or Cunningham or the study of modern historians from Romila Thaper and R.S. Sharma to political Journalists and writers like N. Ram and Praful Bidwai. Such a view is not good scholarship or archaeology but merely cultural imperialism. The western Vedic scholars did in the intellectual sphere what the British army did in the political realm discredit, divide and conquer the Hindus. In short, the compelling reasons for the Aryan invasion theory were neither literary nor archaeological but political and religious that is to say, not scholarship but prejudice. Such prejudice may not have been intentional but deep-seated political and religious views easily cloud and blur our thinking, David Frawley may well be repeated here rightly. Brahm is actually a substitute for the Eternal cosmic power recognized not only by the Samkhya and Vedanta philosophers but as also by Scientists and Philosophers of the world. This cosmic power manifests itself in the form of the entire creation of this life called Nature, or Gods & Goddesses or Men and Women or Animals and other creatures including the

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Demons called Rakshas as or Ghosts called Pishachas. It is said and recognized by the religious thinkers all over the world that the genesis of creation was in the form of a blast of light in a chamber of darkness when God said, Let there be light and there was light. A Physicist and great mathematician like Hawking has also said that there must have been some unseen power behind the black hole of life. Indian Philosophers called this creation a play of Maya Illusion or of Prakriti called Nature. The five elements called the Earth, the Sky, the Air, the water and the Fire are instrumental to the creation of life that is visible on this earth. All the religions of the world also believe that this invisible cosmic power is what we call the ultimate reality or God or Brahm of India or Ptah of Egypt or Marduk of Babylonia or Zeus of Greece or Jupiter of Rome and so on and so forth. Without going into the vagaries of these stories of creation of the world, mention may be made here of the Philosphical fact that one of the trio of the Three Gods called Trideva, Brahma was given the responsibility of creating living beings and the place where the purest and the best enlightened ones of his creations lived was called the land of Brahma i.e Brahavarta or Divyadesh. It is said that towards this he created nine or seven sages who were nothing more than his mental sons Manas Putras Later on it is said that these Manas Putras created their progenies and were called Prajapati or Prajapita. The land of these sages was situated somewhere at the western top of the Himalayas from where a perennial river called Saraswati flew in two streams one to the east the other to the west. The eastern stream was called Prachi Saraswati which appeared at Kurukshetra and disappeared again to be seen in a mixed form at Sangam at Prayag. The western stream called the Pratichi Saraswati flew from the same Himalayan hill top to the west through Ropar, Ambala, Bhagwanpura, Kalibangan, Ganweriwala, Chanhudaro, Dholavira, Bet Dwarika to Somnath. It was quite natural then to call this land of Brahma or of Saraswati as Brahma-varta meaning both of the ultimate cosmic powers as well as one of the three great Gods and Saraswati meaning his daughter or his consort. It is perhaps due to this that this land was called the only religious land on the Jambu dwip (Island) by Vyasa in Mahabharats Bhoomi parva. Eko Janpado Rajan Dvipe Eteshu Bharat Ukte Janpade Yeshu Dharmashaik Pradrishyete It has been said in Bhagwat Puran as also in Shatpath Brahman that it is due to the piousness of this great land that king Parikshit perfomed many of his religious rituals at this land between the two rivers called the Saraswati and the Drishadwati. It is also said that king

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Prithu and Lord Manu also lived at this place itself and the cultural value of this place was so great that people from all over India visited the belt of Saraswati for washing their sins having dipped themselves into the water of this great river. Brahma was probably a great artist and Engineer at the same time and it is probably due to this that engineering skills are amply found in the dilapidated remains of an Urban civilization like that of Harappa and Mohen-Jodaro which were nothing but the urban extensions of the divine way of life of Brahmavarta. A theological study of the archaelogical excavations of Harappa as interpreted by Anthropologists like Parpola misinterprets the religion of Harappa as a religion of Dravidians while accepting in the same vein that the chief God of Harappans was Shiva. The general feeling of such interpreters of History is that the chief God of the Aryans was Vishnu. They have failed to understand that Shiva who stands for the Cosmic Entity includes in His Entity all the Three subsidiary entities called Brahma, Vishnu as Mahesha is a universally accepted God of the Jambu Dwip and is equally venerated by the Dravidians and the Aryans equally. Similarly the Saraswati is another name of a stream or western wing of the river Ganga which they are not able to understand. They have also failed to appreciate that the fire altars found at Harappa are mathematically dug-up and constructed as prescribed in the Vedas. They also fail to appreciate that the bunch of fractured skulls or skeletons found at Harappa are more the result of floods and droughts and not the result of a war between the black suroid Dravidians or Africans race and the white Indo-Aryan Caucasoids. The wars fought between the Gods and the Non-Gods i.e the Surs and Asurs also have been mis-interpreted as a war between the white and the black races. The excavations also speak about floods in the so called Indus cities which these historians explain as a mental mischief at the hands of the Aryans while that must have been due to a natural calamity. It is strange that although Sanskrit literature is quoted by them, it is interpreted to be a battle between the Gods and the Non-Gods. A.K. Pateria in his book Modern Commentators of the Veda (Page-63) very rightly exposes them while writing Both Dayananda and Aurobindo refuted in clear terms the historical doctrines of Aryan invasion and struggle of Aryans with Dravidians, which was originated by the westerners and has ever been popularized among a large section of the India Historians. With the publication of the account of archaeological excavations at Harappa carried out between the years 1920-21 and 1930-34 by Madho Sarup Vats (Munshi Ram Manoherlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd.) We do possess now sufficient plates of Harappan Urban Planning of buildings and roads, of cemetery and granary, of pavements and pathways, of burials and pot
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burials, of wells and reservoirs, of seals and sealings, of figurines and statuettes, of terracottas and metals, of ornaments, utensils, implements, weapons and last but not the least of jewelries and ornaments indicating that Harappa has been a perfectly developed Urban civilization with its mooring in the religion, tradition and customs of a land that was also called once upon a time a land of spiritualist men & women of Divyadesh or Brahmavarta which was later on known as Aryavarta, the land of the Rishies called the Aryans. When the Brahmans meaning the settlers of Brahmavarta developed from visionaries and peasants into an urban way of life with a spiritual cultural back ground, it is they themselves that were called the Aryans. Brahmans were called Aryans and Aryans due to being the creation of Hara, were called Harappans with a change in their further growing way of life and this cultural background and this Urban growth encompassed almost the whole country which is called India today. The Harappan culture and civilization, therefore, should not have been interpreted as Dravidian and the Aryan civilization should not have been interpreted to be a civilization of emigrant invaders from middle Asia. As a matter of fact this Urban civilization of Harappa spread far and wide to Iran and Mesopotamia in the west, to Jawa, Sumatra and Indonesia in the east, to Siberia, China and Japan in the North and to South Africa and South America in the South. It was just an extension of this civilization of Brahmavarta to Persia that the Asur king of Harappa known probably as Banasur was known as Ashur Banipal of Persia or Gilgamesh of Babylonia or Zeus of Greece or Jupiter of Rome. It was due to the extension of this culture and civilization to the east that a good number of Shiva temples were got constructed in Indonesia, in Combodia, in Burma, in Jawa and in Sumatra. It was probably from the temples of the east that the people of Greece and Rome learnt to construct their temples which followed the Vedic mathematical measurements and it is probably due to this that all religious buildings of the world are called temples. Interestingly enough temples is a derivative of the word Stamb. Much controversy has recently been raised by Witzel and Farmer in their article published in the Frontline (2201) over the hoax of the horse theory and much of sound and fury was created stressing that the horse was not known to Harappa until the central Asian Aryans invaded Harappa crossing the Caucasus and the passes of Khyber and Bolan on their chariots driven by horses which they might have taken from Persia or Mesopotamia. While the horse driven chariot has been as old to India as the sun and the moon themselves with a number of stories associated with them the animal which dominated the Harappan culture

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was the Ox or the Bull which was the backbone of the Agricultural rural life of the early Vedic period. It is not without a purpose and a meaningful purpose that the maximum number of the seals of Harappa from seal no. 1 to 104 have drawings of the Ox itself on the seals, Besides these seals, seals no. 233, 236, 237, 238, 241, 242, 243, 614, 615, 616, 617, 618, & 619 have drawings of a bull with long horns. There are many others seals which have swastik marks on them or seals which show the Natraj posture of God Shiva. Not only the seals but also the Lingum of God Hara or Shiva has been found at Harappa and has been recorded by M.S. Vats at Plate No. X which goes to prove how important God Hara was for Harappa with his carrier known to be the Ox finding place in hundreds of its seals and sealings. The inscriptions found on the said seals may not have been deciphered properly by Scientists and Historians but it can not be proper to say that these inscriptions belong to a civilization which was illiterate. Most of these inscriptions tally in their signs and symbols and most of these signs and symbols pertain to the rites and rituals of the process of worship of God Shiva. There are a good number of signs and symbols of Shivas Trishul or Shivas Lingum or of the bells rung in the temples or of the objects which were offered in the worship to the God and all this indicates that it is only passing a sweeping and superficial remark while branding the Harappan civilization an illiterate civilization. We cannot call a civilization illiterate having inscriptions of many-many such writings which demonstrate over them a good number human figurines in Yoga and Puja postures. Plates LXXVI and LXXVII may be perused. Not only the figures and figurines but also the paintings of the Sun and the Stars done on the flat covers of the cemetery indicate a religious and aesthetic tone. The residential buildings showing a circular terrace or the houses having fire places inside them also go to prove that the Harappans used to offer libation to their Gods and Goddesses and the Chief among them was God Shiva or Hara. A civilization recording pictoral or other literal writings on hundreds of places, coins, signs, seals and sealings cant and should not be rated as illiterate nor a developed and fortified city dwellers community like that of Harappas should be expected to have been invaded by an uncivilized clan of a semi barbarian community wandering in search of something to eat and some place befitting to dwell also surprisingly be supposed to have defeated a civilized urbanized race like that of the Harappans.

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Chapter VII

The Culture of Hara, Hara, Mahadev, The Supreme God

As current events of todays life are materials collected for history of tomorrow similarly history of yester days life is a record of materials called mythology. But there is a great difference between history and mythology. Current events take only years to become history while history takes centuries or Millennia to become mythology. It is, therefore, worthwhile to establish a relationship between the two. History is actually mythology in continuity from infinite past to infinite future. It is not understandable why some historians refrain from locating the origins of history in the vast and deep world of mythology. Our present is nothing but a development of our past while our future is similarly a development of our present. The Indus Valley civilization which is said to be a way of life of the Indus people of the third and fourth millennia B.C. by Sir John Marshall who has at least recognized that it was a highly developed culture although according to him there is no vestige of Indo Aryan influence to be found here. It will be pertinent to quote Marshall as follows :Like the rest of Western Asia, the Indus country is still in the Chalcolithic Age that age in which arms and utensils of stone continue to be used side by side with those of copper or bronze. Their society is organized in cities, their wealth derived mainly from agriculture and trade, which appears to have extended far and wide in all directions. They cultivate wheat and barley as well as the date-plam. They have domesticated the humped Zebu. buffalo, and short horned bull, besides the sheep, pig, dog, elephant and camel : but the cat and probably the horse are unknown to them. For transport they have wheeled vehicles, to which oxen doubtless were yoked. They are skilful metal workers, with a plentiful supply of gold, silver, and copper, Lead, too, and tin are in use, but the latter only as an alloy in the making of bronze. With spinning and weaving they are thoroughly conversant. Their weapons of war and of the chase are the bow and arrow, spear, axe, dagger, and mace. The sword they have not yet evolved; nor is there any evidence of defensive body armour. Among their other
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implements, hatchets, sickles, saws, chisels, and razors are made of both copper and bronze; knives and celts sometimes of these metals, sometime of chert or other hard stones. For the crushing of grain they have the muller and saddle-quern but not the circular grind stone. Their domestic vessels are commonly of earthenware turned on the wheel and not infrequently painted with encaustic drawings; more rarely they are of copper, bronze, or silver. The ornaments of the rich are made of the precious metals or of copper, sometimes overload with gold, of faience, ivory, carnelian, and other stones; for the poor, they are usually of shell or terracotta. Figurines and toys, for which there is a wide vogue, are of terracotta, and shell and faience are freely used, as they are in Summer and the west generally, not only for personal ornaments but for inlay work and other purposes. With the invention of writing the Indus peoples are also familiar, and employ for this purpose a form of script which though peculiar to India is evidently analogous to other contemporary scripts of Western Asia and the Nearer East. Not only Marshall but Pargiter also was under the influence of Max Muller and his successors when he traced the Aryan influence in India to be much earlier than the composition of the Vedas and strengthened the theory propounded by Max Muller in his book Physical Religion (P.91) in the year 1891 that the Aryans entered India near 2000 B.C. and the Vedas were composed in between 2000 B.C. and 1000 B.C. As a matter of fact the civilization of the so called Indus Valley people was a magnified replica of the divine life of the Brahmans of Brahmavarta who had the credit of planning a city like Amaravati and composing the sutras and Mantras of the Rigved and the other Vedas. The life of Brahmavarta and its capital city of Amaravati or Awantika or Ujjayini was thoroughly a divine life very much similar to the Greek divine life of Mount Olympus or the Egyptian divine life of Heliopolis and which later on developed into a human urban culture and civilization. The priests or the Rishis who lived in Brahmavarta were great seers and composed the mantras of the Rigved and the other Vedas sitting by a fire place under the tree or in a cave or on the bank of a river like the Saraswati or the Ganga. They did not know, they did not need any comfort, they did not live any sort of a life like ours called urban life. The development of an Urban life was a later development when they felt the need of something to eat, some shed and shelter to live, some weapons to protect themselves and some measures against natural calamities, they had experienced so far. This phase of the development of a pattern of life was the beginning of an urban life in the history of mankind. The transition to the urban life from that of the divine life was actually the process of
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Aryanisation of the Brahmans or the Rishis or the Priests of Brahmavarta. This Aryanisation (a human way of civilized life) was probably adopted and followed by the peoples of Persia, Babylonia, Greece, and finally by Rome which was later on known for its city states. Neither Max Muller nor Pargiter nor Marshall nor anyone of their followers could guess that this urbanization was actually a substitute of Aryansiation which promoted and prospered itself in a planned city life previously of Amaravati and later on of Harappa and Mohen-Jodaro. Aryanisation meant a farewell or a change over from a ruralreligious way of life hitherto called divine to the urban style and commercial way of living and moving far inside and far abroad both by sea as well as by land in search of a trading ground. It was this trading and migrating community which due to its change in life style was called un-divine or Asur like or Un-Aryan. It was this community which took the names of Asshur, or Asur or Ahur in Persia and Assyria with its kings being called Ahur-Mazda or Asur or Banipal and owing to its unaryan habits the land where it settled was known as Iranyan or Iran. The whole problem behind the explanation given to the origin and growth of the Indus valley civilization is due to an arbitrary and unetymological interpretation of the word Arya or Aryan. It is not understandable how a philologist like Max Muller connected the Social class of the Aryans with the Iranians although to a student of Sanskrit scriptures and literature like him, the word Arya should not have been unknown and unheard. He must have gone through the Atharva Veda 19/62/01 where a clear classification of the Aryans appears to have been made with a purpose to differentiate a class with the class of the shudrasPriyam Ma Krisu Deveshu Priyam Rajasuma Krinu Priyam Sarvashya Pashyanta Utshudra Utaryo The clear meaning of the above quoted mantra is that the Aryan race which was born at Brahmavarta had at one stage of its growth developed into two classes, first a class of people of moral integrity while the other being a class of people who did not live upon or believe in morals called Rit and the Brahmanic way of life. The seers of the Rit were called Rishis or Sages and their words were called Richas and their way of life was called Aryan. The word Arya was formed from the root verb Ri or from the verb Rich or from the verb Rit and was probably not known or was probably ignored or was probably not given proper importance to by Max Muller and his followers and this is why they speculated the theory of their origin in middle Asia or in Iran and concocted a story that they were an emigrant race or invaders who

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came to the Indus valley sitting on horse driven chariots, fought with the aboriginal settlers at Harappa called Dravadians or Mundas and ultimately threw them beyond the Vindhyas and were called the un-Aryans or Anaryas. Aryanism was actually a developed and progressive way of social and moral life of the people of Brahmavarta. Brahmavarta meant a settlement of the Brahmans called Rishies who believed in Rit, a high quality of moral life and thought man to be in close proximity with Brahma, the ultimate cosmic reality. They composed Richas later called the Rigved and lived in caves or huts beside a spring or a stream flowing with pure and fresh water. They lived on fresh fruits, and roots of plants and trees and led a highly natural, spiritual, religious or moral life. Such people were also called the Devas, or the Gandharvas in the beginning who worshipped the Pagan gods like Agni, Varun, Mitra, Indra, and Vayu etc. The Rigveda is full of Richas or Prayers sung in praise of these gods. They believed that these gods who represented the ultimate reality (Parmatma) were the cause of their birth, growth and death and hence they used to worship them with flowers, fruits and milk or curd or ghee with a feeling that while worshipping these pagan gods they were actually worshipping their creator, protector or the destroyer, the ultimate father- Kasmay Devay Havisha Vidhen. A taking it to be their devotion to that unseen Param Tatva who was the cause of the creation called srishti Later on it appears that when their population grew, they expanded their area of living and spread over slowly and gradually on the two banks of the river Saraswati as also in between the two rivers of the Saraswati and the Drishadvati and ultimately settled down in a vast area spreading even today from Alamgirpur in U.P. to Dholavira in Gujrat with their capital at Harappa. It was thus that a perfectly hilly or forest or river side settlement was converted into a planned city like that of Harappa and Mohen-Joedaro. Harappan culture and civilization in this sense was just a development or a growth or an expansion or a continuation of the life of Brahmavarta- a Journey from the spiritual Rit to the physical Real, a Journey from Amaravati in todays M.P. to another Amaravati in Maharashtra. The Rit was in the spirit of the culture while the Real was in the emergence of a city like way of life called civilization. And it is rather surely due to this that this way of life was called the Aryan way of life- Kartavyamacharan Karyam Katavyammanacharan Tishthati Prikatacharya sa va arya iti smritah It is amply clear that those observing the principles of morality (The Rit) were called the Aryans and those that did not were called the Anaryans. Aryans and Anaryans who originally belong to the same race should be taken proper care of and not be misinterpreted as
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two different races belonging to two different lands although they did not believe in the same standards of moral life. Those practicing Rit (Morality) were graded later on as respectable, highly placed and honorable men and women and were addressed as Aryashresth or Aryaputra or Arya in the poetic dramas written later on and the place of their living called Brahmavarta once upon a time was named as Aryavarta and the center of Aryavarta i.e. the capital of it was sometime named as Haryupia or as Harappa or sometime as Mohenjo-Daro. It is not improper and improbable to infer on the basis of the above description that the Aryans occupied the vast area north of the vindhyanchal while the so called non-aryans or non practioners in Rit adopting commerce and industry as a profession occupied the area South of the Vindhyachal, the former guided by Angira or Vrihaspati while the later guided by Bhrigu or Shukra. This division was not water tight.. The non-aryans were not restrained from coming to the north and similarly the Aryans were not restrained from going to the South. On the other hand both these divisions kept on exchanging their ideals and ideologies from north to the south and from south to the north, right from those olden days to those days of Agastya or Gautam or of Ram, Parashuram or Krishna. Manu therefore, defined Aryavarta as followsAasamudrantu Vai Parvadasamudrashcha Paschimat Tavorevantaram Giryoha Aryavartam Vidhurbudhah

This exchange of ideas and ideologies was not limited only to the South or North of Vindhyachal, but this extended to the East and to the West across the seas and across mountains and hills to the north also at the same time but with a difference. While the exchange of ideas and ideologies between the north and the south was limited to principles and styles of life, the exchange to the North and Near east and the Far west it, besides being ideological, was also based on a relationship of trade mostly on a barter system. Grains particularly rice and wheat unknown then to the west produced in the Indo-Gangetic plains were carried to the west including Iran, Babylone, Greece, Rome, and Ireland and metals including Silver, copper, bronze and gold were brought to India which was by then being called Aryavarta or the land of the Aryans of which the capital then was Harappa. It was therefore not very unnatural for foreign students of Aryan culture to misunderstand and misinterpret this system to cultural and commercial exchange. Today is probably the right

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stage of time to correct this error and revise the official theory of Aryan immigration and invasion established by the great German Indologist, Max Muller. Sir John Marshall while recording his views on the Archaeological finds of MohenjoDaro had rightly apprehended that the Indus Valley civilization was not only limited to the Punjab the land of five rivers but it had its expansion also in the Gangetic as well as river plains spread across the Vindhyas as also to the west upto Baluchistan and Afghanistan. He had also apprehended a very close relationship of this Ganga-Saraswati and NarmadaGodavari culture to Iran and Mesopotamia. The civilization of the city of Harappa and the civilization of the city of Mohenjo-daro which were very much similar in nature represented the highest order of the then civilized city life of a world which was called Aryan. The natural corollary, therefore, is that standard of civilization must have had also a formative period prior to this stage of '"the urban" of civilization as well as a deteriorative period at the decline of it. Similarly, it is just possible that this civilization of Harappa and Mohenjodaro had a range of rural and Pro-urban culture expanded throughout the course of the Saraswati and the Drishadvati now called the Indus and the other five rivers namely the Ravi, the Jhelum, the Tapti, the Beas, and the Chenab-the land of seven rivers called the Saptasindhu. The culture and civilization of Ropad as it reflects from the Archaeological remains appears to be semi urban while that of Alamgirpur appears to be very much rural. The civilization of Lothal on the other hand besides urban is also commercial and it is not improper to imagine that Lothal was a commercial center of trading between Harappa and Turkmania of Central Asia and many other places of Persia, Egypt and Mesopotamia. Since the civilization of Rome is a much later development than that of Harappa, it will not be irrelevant to conclude that the city state of Rome might have been designed on the townplanning systems of Amaravati called Ujjayani or of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. Sir John Marshall himself therefore, had anticipated that the Indus valley civilization named by him might in a future course of time take some other name like the Indian civilization. A purely religious culture like that of Brahmavarta had thus in a long span of time turned itself to be a mixture of religious Cum-Rural-Cum-Semi-urban-Cum-Urban-Cum-a highly urban society that is Harappa. Harappa therefore is the name of a civilized urban life at a particular point of time. Harappa itself is nothing but another name therefore of the civilization of Aryavarta which is still another name for the civilization of Saraswati

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which is still another name for the culture of Brahmavarta, Spreading today from the Himalayas to Kanyakumari and from the Sind to the land of the Brahmaputra. In his famous book The Roots of Ancient India published in 1962 from Chicago University Press W.A. Fairsevis has rightly and fairly established the fact that this entire Indo-Gangetic plain was mainly a wheat producing area which transported its wheat produce to Lothal from the east and was exported to the west by sea. It is expected that wheat and Rice produced from the plains of the Ganga and the Saraswati to the southern plains of the seven rivers of the south where also sent abroad by sea as well as on horse-back and the then Harappan civilization therefore should better be called the civilization of Indus-Saraswati or still better the civilization of Aryavarta or Brahmavarta. Since this great civilization, travelled by land as well as by sea it developed many other places in its own fashion in its Journey to Afghanistan or Baluchistan or Sindh or Alimurad or Chanhu Daro or Balakot or Allahdino. The places that deserve mention as Pro-urban and urban developments in todays India are mainly Ropad Bada (Punjab), Rakhigadhi Kunal, Banawali, Baly, Mitathal (Haryana), Kalibangan (Rajasthan), Alamgirpur and Hulas (U.P.), Rangpur, Dholavira, Surkotada Lothal, Padri, Rosadi, Malvan, Kuntsi, and Deshalpur (Gujrat) and last but not the least Daimabad and Nasik in Maharashtra. Whether it is architecture or town planning or defense or safety and security of men and women dead or alive or it is the way of worshipping Gods and Goddessess and rites and rituals observed while worshipping, by and large, the same systems are perceptible from one place to the other. It is only strange or rather cryptic to notice that right from Max Muller or Marshall and wheeler as also to witzel and Farmer, no proper explanation has been given to the presence of the Terracota Statuettes of the Ox and the Bull found in the excavations both of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. One of the plates on an Ox statuette (Plate no. 43), the ox is shown with a good number of garlands in its neck. Not only at Mohenjo-Daro but at Harappa and Lothal also a good number of Oxen are present in the archaeological finds, oxen in different shapes and sizes, poses and postures. There are many Terracotta statuettes of human beings in Yoga postures and prayer positions. There are many figures on the seals and sealings showing the presence of the swastik, and the Sun. There are some other statuettes showing double and triple faced human being. All this goes to prove that this civilization had some religious faith at its base and most probably that religious faith was nothing else than, a faith in the religion and Philosophy of Brahma (the Ultimate Reality) or God Shiva or God

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Hara whose carrier symbol is Nandi, the ox. It is further strange that although this Ox or the Bull symbol is supposed to be existing and continuing for thousands of years on the seals of Harappa, the culture of Harappa has not been boldly interpreted as the culture of Hara or the culture of Harappa has not been boldly interpreted as the culture of Hara or the culture of Brahma or the culture of Brahma and saraswati, the eternal father and mother of the creation. It is very much worthwhile therefore to call this land as Aryavarta or Brahmaverta or Haryupia or Harappa. It sounds rather irrelevant to come across a controversy over the Horse or the Bull symbols as rasised by Witzel and Farmer and divert a meaningful discussion on the civilization of Brahmavarta expanding right from the bright land of the Saraswati to the dark waters of the Black sea. The horse matters little in the context of Brahmans or Brahmavarta although it matters very greatly in the context of Aryans and Aryavarta, the former standing for a culture while the latter for an urban and trading culture and civilization. It is not less relevant to note that not a single one of these contexts is devoid of the Shiva or Hara spirit. The seals and sealings of Harappa which exhibit their dominance amongst pictures and figurines of animals like the Ox, (Laden with lots of garlands in its neck) and the bull and a number of terracotta figurines of the monkey, the elephant, the Jackal, the tiger, the camel, the bear, the dog and the cat etc. actually from the lineage of the Hara worshippers, participants of the Marriage procession of the God called Har, the God of the Gods. Harappa or Haryupia or Harappa or Hariyana or Aryana or Aryavarta are thus nothing but the urban face of the divine Brahmavarta. To quote Stephene Knapp: In the Vedic sutras, the word Aryan is used to refer to those who are spiritually oriented and of noble character. The Sanskrit word Aryan is linguistically related to the word Harijana meaning one related to the spititual Father. It has little to do with these emigrants that some reserarchers have speculated to be the so called invading Aryans. Knapps point of view is also supported by a popular mandate given in favour of Har as the supreme God and the Father of Brahmavarta called Haryupia or Aryavarta. The mandate is even today expressed at the conclusion of every religious function anywhere in India when all the great gods are remembered for their victory but the last to be praised in reverence and devotion is the supreme FatherHar Har Mahadev. Hara, Hara, Mahadev meaning, Hara is the God of Gods and the God of the land called Haryupia or Harjana, or Haryana or Harappa. Harappa actually means the land of Hara or Brahma and stands as a yoop or a pillar for that central force of integration of the nation which makes India a single National Entity. It is a recognized pillar or yoop of Sacrifices
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right from Kendarnath and Pashupati Nath in the north, to Somnath, Nageshnath, Vishwanath or Tryambkeshwar Nath and Rameshawr Nath in the South. Todays India lives in the vast expanded area of God Hara or Shiva spread over the areas covered by the twelve Jyotirlingas of the Cosmic Reality called the Brahm in the Vedas and the Vedanta. Harappan excavations remind us of a time of Indias civilization of the Shwetashwetar upnished 'osrk'orjksifu"kn when Lord Hara, or Shiva was the recognized the supreme God: Eko hi Rudrah Na Dvitiyaye Tasthu

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Chapter VIII

The Aryan Question and the Journey of Aryanism

It is a universally accepted truth that humanity is a bye product of divinity and divinity is the ultimate end, the highest point of the Journey of humanity which might once upon a time have its genesis in Barabarianism or demonism. The cycle of the Journey from humanity to divinity and from divinity to humanity generally goes on eternally and universally. This is actually a four stage Journey of culture and civilization very much like that of the Journey of the Earth on the orbit of the Sun. The four stages comprise the Divine, the Semi Divine, the Humanistic and the Demonistic. Like a change of seasons, a change in civilizations also takes place but this change goes on every moment although it becomes visible and effective not in a few years but in a few thousand years or so and is called by names like Satyug, Treta, Dwapar and Kaliyug. Another universally established theory of the revolution of civilization is that all the great civilizations of the world were mostly born and generally prospered on the banks of the rivers and sometimes on the Sea-coasts. The Journey from divinity down to semi divinity and from semi divinity down to humanity generally starts from a god or goddess expressing himself or herself in the form of natural objects like fire, water, earth, wind, or sky. These five objects are called the five elements of nature and these five elements are said to have expressed themselves in human forms and have adopted human nature and human names in their interaction with mortal beings. This stage of transformation of the divine to the human is a stage where cosmogony, physiognomy and theognomy combine together Myths and mythologies of the world are the product of this combination and therefore any student of primitive history has got to go into legends and mythologies. Unfortunately, historians of the world have not so far attached proper and due importance to this aspect of approaching Primitive history through legends and mythologies and this is why our history till today is hardly two to three thousand years old at the maximum. Archaeological and anthropological surveys and researches could not help historians to go as deep into antiquities as they should have gone had they taken recourse to mythologies and theological writings.

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The civilization of Brahmavarta is a civilization which goes back to the days of Brahm or Brahma and Saraswati, Brahma one of the three original deities may not today be present physically, but Sarasvati exists very much even today. The importance of the Saraswati, one of the seven Gangas has been so great that the river has turned into a Deity or a Goddess. Brahma was her creater and later on probably her master or her consort who created a clan of divine people at a place from where Saraswati originated and up to a place where Saraswati ultimately merged herself with the Ocean. This land where Brahma created this divine clan and the expanse of the land of which this so called divine clan transformed itself into human beings and over which a developed civilization prospered in course of time, of course, a very long time, was called the civilization of Saraswati Pradesh or Brahmavarta as it finds mention in the Shatpath Brahman. If the land of the Sarasvati river and the land of the Sarasvat Brahmins happens to be the same even today it would be only an injustice to deny to go back to the history and civilization of that and through a study of the mythologies. It is all the more interesting that archeological or geological or anthropological or philological researches made so far are also going in this very direction and tend to support the mythological stories to a great extent. The mythological approach to primitive history need not therefore be ignored and be taken as a strong platform of the methodology to explore the ancient and primitive life and civilization of humanity. The Egyptian legend of Khnum which was later on rendered in Greek as Khnumis was a river god of fecundity and creation and was, originally worshipped in the form of a Ram or he-goat. To quote J. Viaud:Like all gods of this sort he doubtless, according to Mespero, symbolized the Nile which comes from the heavens to fertilise the earth and make it fruitful. His chief Sanctuary was near the cataracts, not far from the spot where the earliest Egyptions placed the source of their great river, on that Isle of Elephantine of which Khnum was proclaimed sovereign lord. From his temple, where he received offering in company with his two wives, Sat and Anukis-who were, as far as we know, childless- Khnum watched over the Sources of the Nile. Khnum means the moulder and it was taught that he had formlly fashioned the world-egg on his potters wheel. At Philae, moreover, he was called the Potter who shaped men and modelled the gods. We see him moulding the limbs of Osiris, for it was he, they said, who shaped all flesh-the procreator who engendered gods and men.

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The potter who shaped men moulded the gods was nothing but another name of the Hindu prajapti or Brahma. It is interesting to mention here that the potters community of todays India calls itself a Prajapati Community only because it shapes and forms different types of statues and statuettes on its potters wheel even today. Not only in the Egyption and Indian mythologies alone, but also in the mythologies of Mesopotamia, we find mention of a great civilization prospering in between the two rivers of Tigris and Euphrates like that of the civilization between the two rivers of the Sarasvati and the Indus or the Drishadvati. In Greek Mythology also rivers were represented as vigorous men with long beards and the most celebrated and venerated of rivers was the Achelus which was also the largest water course in Greece. Named after this river was also a hero named Achelus who fought a war against Hercules and threw himself into the river ashamed of his defeat due to which the river was also so named. History of Greece reguires to be traced back to this mythological period of Achelus and Inachus or Cephissus, the father of Narcissus. As a matter of fact history of man had started both physically and spiritually with water and so with water gods and goddesses whether in Egypt or in Mesopotamia or in Greece or in celtic Ireland or in Slavonia or in Babylone. Although different epochs and ages had different elements as the originator of human creation, sometimes it is the mother earth, sometimes it is the father sky, sometimes it is wind, sometimes it is the Sun God and so on and so forth. It is, however, a fact that ancient civilization did not remain static at a place but travelled very much like the culture or civilization of today and sometimes took a curious shape of a mixed civilization. A deep study of the mythologies of the world along with sculptures and paintings of, different ages showing human body and animal face together bear out the fact of mixed up civilizations. The civilization of ancient Persia was such a curious mixture where the civilization of the Indus Valley, the civilization of Mesopotamia, Assyria and Babylon as well as the civilization of Phoenicia and Greece and Rome combined. This combination has; not been properly appreciated particularly by some western scholars like Max Muller and his followers and injustice has been done to the Aryan or Brahmavarta civilization by giving interpretation that Aryanism was a distorted name after Iran or Eran. The advantage of the interpretation on the basis of linguistic principles which should have gone to the culture of Brahmavarta and Sanskrit language of the Indus Sarasvati rivers has been shifted to the Greek, Latin and Persian languages and culture. Mythology may not be a

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chain of logical documents, but it is certainly a complex union of facts and this is why genuine students of history have been trying to locate facts of history in what is called a legend. A legend is generally not history but there is no denying the fact that the legendary characters, the gods and the goddesses behave in the similar manner as human beings behave. Michael Grant in his book Myths of the Greeks and Romans- (1962& P.P. 83, 104) has rightly said that myths are dialects of a single language but the magnacarta of our universe. Although there have been a good number of thinkers and scholars of history in the west who have tried to interpret mythologies of Greece and Rome, of Eypt and Mesopotamia, of Palestine and Persia, from the historical angle but, they have given a different treatment to the mythology of India. They talk of Hesiod and Homer, they talk of the Olympus and the Capitol, they talk of the river Nile and the river Tigris and Euphrates, they depend upon the Caucasus or the plateau of Iran, they take notice of the story of the Trojan war as described by Homer, they give credence to Gilgamesh and the Epic of Creation, but it is not understandable what problem do they have in giving credence to the Himalayas, to the Ganga, to the Sarasvati, to the Vindhyachal, as well as to the Vedas which exist similarly as the Nile, the Olympus, the Capitol, the Epic of Creation the Kojiki and the Nehongi and which actually might be older than the former ones. The only problem in recognizing the roots of Indian history appears to be the psychosis that if once due credence is given to the Indias remotest past they may have to accept that the real human culture and civilization originated at Brahmavarta and that Brahmavarta was the first cultural global village and culture and civilization of Brahmavarta travelled from the belt of the Sarasvati to the west to Persia or Iran, to Mesopotamia, Babylon, or Assyria, to Greece and Rome and Germany, to Palestine and Ireland, to Africa and South America in the west and to Korea and Japan, to Tibet and China, to Malaysia and Indonesia, and to New Guinea in the east. The Principles of ethics, morality, rites and rituals and other religious disciplines taught by the Vedas and adopted by the Greeks and the Romans, the Japanese and Koreans, the South Africans and the South Americans are very much similar and very much like the ethics and the religious principles propagated by the Vedas and the Samhitas of India. It is strange that they accept that the epic of creation was recorded in writing centuries after it remained on the tongue of its people and passed from generation to generation. This also might have been the case in respect of writings of Hesoid who had to say similar stories about the creation of human beings in his Theology. Hesiod is trusted but the Vedas are not recognized or are appreciated as being the oldest literature of the world.

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P. Masson and Louise Morin in their article Mythology of ancient Persia accept clearly that the word Iranians was not heard of previous to the Ninth Century B.C. and that they (Iranians) were on offshoot of that branch of Indo-European race which is known as Aryan. To quote them- Their language which is very similar to the Vedic of India, is a variety of the same tongue which is inferred to be the parent language of Slavonic, Teutonic, Celt, Greek and Latin. It is clear from the above quotation that all these aforesaid languages are the branches of a parent language in which the Vedas were composed. To quote the authors again- We find no mention of the future Iranians previous to the ninth century B.C. The first allusion to the Parsua or Persians, who were then in the mountains of Kurdistan, and to the Madal or Medes, already established on the plain, occurs in 837 B.C. in connection with an expendition of the Assyrian king Shalmaneser III. About a hundred years afterwards the Medes invaded the plateau which we call Persia (Or Iran), driving back or assimilating populations of whom there is no written record; and Deioces (708-655) established a median Empire. One of his successors Cyaxares became strong enough totally himself with the Babylonians against the Assyrians, destroyed Nineveh (606) and annexed Assyria. In the following century in was another Iranian people, the Persians, who gained pre-eminence in western Asia when their king, Cyrus, in 538 (B.C) seized Babylon. Hence forth the Iranians took the historical place of the Assyro-Babylonians although the Persian Archaemenian Empire represented in Iran a return to Aryanism, an ism purer than that of the Medes. The Aryanism of Medes is said to be 2 to 3 hundred years older than that of the Assyro Babylonian Aryanism which means that it took three hundred years for this Aryan culture and civilization to travel to Babylone from near Kurdistan. And this clearly means that Aryanism of Persia was the effect of a culture that had started from Brahmavarta, the land of the Sarasvati and the Drishadvati. It is an admitted fact that when a culture travels, it travels in all directions in all its forms-its dress, its address, its way of living, its way of faith and belief, It should, therefore, better be inferred that when the Aryan culture travelled to Persia and established itself there the people of Persia started copying the language, the way of life and the way of faith and belief of the Aryan people. It was quite natural then that they were called Aryans or Iranians and also started worshipping the Sun God, the Moon God the Fire God, the Sky God, the Water God and all the ways in which these Gods were worshipped in the land of the Aryans.

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The only difference was the difference of place and time and climate. The Vedic God Mitra became Mithra, the Aryan God Soma became Haoma, the Aryan God Apas became Apo or Apsu. Since, the civilized and the commercial class of the people of Brahmavarta was being identified (for the simple reason of its neglecting divine worship and inclining to trade and commerce as Asur that is non-divine people and since the people travelling from Brahmavarta to Persia or Iran were this non-divine class, their supremo started to be called Ahur Banipal, whose cultural similarities with the past Vedic Banasur cannot be ruled out. The sun was worshipped but he also was worshipped in a different way, that is, as Ahur Mazda. Ahur Mazda was not at all different in nature from the God Asur Banipal. The difference in culture of the Asur or that of the Ahura and that of the Asshur was due to the difference of the places and the climates which the Aryans had to face in their commercial Journey from Brahmavarta or Aryavarta which it was later on so called. The Ahur Mazda later on took another name and became ormzed and was the object of worship for the latter Iranians. The concept of Aryan by this had also changed and had become Ahriman or Ahirman similar to a post Vedic allusion known as Ahiravan. The analysis made above should be enough to infer another corollary and that is that it is Aryanism which started its Journey from Brahmavarta or Aryavarta or Bharat (The land of Bharti that is the Sarasvati) which reached Persia and travelled from Persia to Babylon, and from Babylon to Greece, to Slavonia, to the land of the Teutons, to the land of the celts and to Rome and other European countries including Germany. The effect of Aryanism is also evident in the faith and belief of the Egyptian people. As a matter of fact, this Journey of Aryanism was not limited to west Asia or to South Asia and to Central Asia only. It crossed its Asian boundaries and travelled also to Fizi and South African countries as also to the west Indies as well as to Brazil and Mexico and Surinam etc. It is regretted that the whole story of this Journey of Aryan civilization has been put topsy turvy- Fair is foul and Foul is fair to quote Shakespeare. The word Aryan is derived from the original root verb Ri . The suffix makes it Arya. Ri itself gets changed into Rit or Prakrit and it is this Ri which makes the word Rishi , a word which means a venerable, respectable, noble and honorable man of religious and sagelike temperament and habits called Sanskar (culture)Kartavyam aacharan Karmakartavyeyamacharan

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Tristhali Prakritchare Santu Aryamitresmritah The great Grammarian saint Hemchandra has also explained Aryans as a race of pious living peopleArtu Sadacharitu Yogyah The Haribansh Puran defines Aryans as follows,Variyanshchavariyansche Sambhava Dhritam Vapuh Charishnurayo Drishnucha rajah Sumati Devcha which means that the Aryans were known for their pious and intellectual way of life (the Vedic life of the Rishi style) besides people known for their peculiar partience and nobility, It is very well said in the Mahabharat, the great Indian Epic that the Aryans believed, in the Philosophy of universal familyhood Malachchantye Bahividheh Poorvahe Nikritarane Aaryascha Parthivipalah It is unfortunate that the history of the Aryans or of Aryanvarta or, of Bharat or of Brahmavarta was not properly evaluated in the background of the Vedic and postvedic literature and a particular school of thought dominated by a particular Political and religious ideology misinterpreted the whole story of a culture that had played a definite role in influencing peoples of different worlds living on the face of this earth. The influence of this culture and of its gods and goddesses was so great and wide-spread that the gods named Indra, Mitra, Varuna and Nasatyas, had to be witnesses of a treaty in Cappadocia (Asia minor) as early as 1400 B.C. and the clay tablets bearing the treaties are said to be still preserved. This is enough to prove that the Vedic age was much older than the Brahminic age which was followed by a civilization called Aryan. Aryanism, it has rightly been said was a development of a civil or civic life or city life based on a social code and based in a planned city civilization which was called the Aryan civilization and which was later on called and recognised as a symbol of the Urban civilization. The word Urban and the world Aryan are not only very much similar in pronunciation, but also very much similar in meaning. Manu, the great Aryan thinker who was also a great king codified the Aryan way of living as follows:-

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Kartvyamacharan Karyamakartavyam anacharan Tistathi prakritachar Satu Aaryamiti Smritah The Aryan life was a life not deified, it was a life codified for different categories of people living in the same society and living in a city. It was most probably with a view to codifying the social city life that many had to divide the Aryan (Urban) community into four castes or Varnas as Brahmans, the Kshatriyas, the Vaishyas and the Shudras and the four the castes into the four Ashrams (the four stages of urban human life) into Brahmacharya, Grihastha, Vanprastha, and Sanyas. It was the need of the urban way of living that these castes and these Ashrams were planned and were codified after a longlong experimentation. The origin of the word Urban may be explored in the same root verb form Ri from which the words Reet, Rishi, Prakrit, Richa and Aryan were formed with the addition of suffixes like (Nyat) or (Lyap) and so on. The word urban does not appear to be a derivative of the word city or town or society. This word also appears to have travelled far and wide with the Aryans race, Aryans Culture, and Aryans language with Sanskrit written in the old Brahmi Script. The Journey of Aryanism which spread far and wide from Brahmavarta to the north of Pamir and to the west of Caucasus reached Asia Minor, reached Persia, reached Mesopotamia, reached Babylone and Assyria, reached Greece and Rome and reached not as an empire, but as an influence. The Gods and Goddesses of Brahmavarta like Dyous or Soma or Mitra had their Prototypes in Iran, in Babylone, in Greece and in Rome simultaneously although their names differed slightly from each other. The God Mitra became Mithra and the God Soma became Haoma, the God Fire became Atar, The God Apas became Apo in Iran, the God Dyus became Zeus in Greece, and what to speak of the gods and goddesses and their ways of a similar style of living, the Aryan Matri became the Latin mater, the Sanskrit pitri became the Latin Pater the Sanskrit Bhratri became the Latin Frater- So on and so forth. It is worthwhile to stress here on the process of the linguistic change that came due to the change of place and time although the change never reflected any shift in the spirit of the language. It is a universally accepted fact that in Sanskrit language there is no difference in what we write and what we pronounce. The mutations and permutations which take place also have a fixed pattern and style of isoglossic change. The letter ch when mutated and permutated becomes J , the letter T or V become D or M] Th, becomes Dh, Sa, becomes Ha, Pa, becomes Fa but not viceversa, Duous when mutated can be Zeus, Pitri can be mutated to father but Matri

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cannot be a bye product of Mother, Pitri not of father Bhratri not of Brother, Duous not of Zeus, Mitra not of Mithar and Soma not of Haoma and similarly saptah can mutate to Greek hepta or Iranian hafta or Latin Septem but not vice versa. This goes to prove even philologically that Aryans travelled onwards to west changing practically from Brahmavarta to the west, to Iran, to Mesopotamia, to Greece and to Rome and never migrated from Central Asia or west Asia or Asia minor to the land of the Indus or the Saraswati or to the land called Brahmaverta or Divyadesh or Bharat or Aryavarta or even Harappa. Brahmaverta was so called probably because it was the land where the creation of humanity started with a godknowing and godlike Community of Brahmans. The geographical area of Brahmaverta as specified by Manu is an area between the two divine rivers called the Saraswati and the Drishadwati (i.e the Indus) while the political area is specified as the regions known as Kurushetra, Matsya, Panchal and Shoorsen. May be, it was done just after the Great Flood as stated in the Satpath Brahman. It is said there that Sharadha and Manu came into contact here and gave birth to their first son called Aayu. It was an age of divine purity in human life which later on had a change when many developed some charm for a so-called civilized life in a so-called Urban and civilized society represented by Ira or Sarasvati. But the name Brahmavarta is better qualified as a land which was created by Brahma by the side of his consort Sarasvati where the divine Brahmanas livedSaraswati Drishadvatyorha Vanathodanam Tad Deranirmitam Desham Brahmaputra Prachakte Kurushetra Matsyakcha Panchela Shooesenkha Evam Brahmarshi Desho Vai Brahmavartadamantarah Ettadesha Prasootsya Skshat Agramamah Swam Swam Charitam Shikshram Prithvyah Sarmanvah This Brahmavarta as it is mentioned in the Mahabharat is a place where the pious river Sarasvati flows by taking a bath in which one can go to the Brahmalok that is Heaven. It is said that one dip into the Sarasvati is equal to one hundred (100) Ashwamedh Yajnas anywhere. It is also said that Brahmavarta was so called because it was a land of a clan of sages- sons and grand- sons of Angiras who ruled this northern western region of the then Brahmavarta or Aryavarta or Haryupia Harappa. The southern region it is said was ruled by

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the sons and grandsons of the sage Bhrigu, whose centre of habitation was somewhere near the river Narmada. But as a matter of fact the whole of India of today was culturally united and their common God was Narayan or Hara who was worshipped all over India but whose most important seat was Haryupia or Harappa and this is why probably that the land of Brahm because the land of Brahma which later on because the land of Brahmarshi and later on the land of the Brahmans and the four varnas of the Indian civilized society which called itself an Aryan or Urban society and which was and which is still known as Aryavarta. It sounds really stupid to speculate the migration of a race from between the Caspian and the Black seas to that of the Indus valley ignoring a linquistic derivation of the brand name Aryan from a Sanskrit root Ri or the world Harijan, or Harijan meaning one related to the God Hari or God Hara. It is highly pertinent to think of a race of pious human beings created by Hara or Hari and living at a land named Harayana or Hariyana or Hariupia or Harappa. The real Aryans therefore appear to be born settlers of Brahmavarta or Aryavarta, the land of the Vedas. The root verb Ri, according to Sanskrit Grammar mutates and permutates to make the words-Reet, Rick, Richa, Rishi, Ritwik and Prakrit and it is probably very much due to this that the first compilation of the Richas conveying Vedic knowledge was named the Rig-veda and the propagators and the practioners of the Rigveda were naturally called the Arya or the Aryans and the place they inhabited was known as Aryavarta. An Arya meant a human being carrying a torch of the Rigveda-the anthology of the reet, (The Truth) and the culture of Aryavarta originally called Brahmavarta. N.S. Rajaram in his famous book, The politics of History calls the Aryan Invasion Theory a colossal th Intellectual blunder of the 19 Century European scholars particularly. Max Muller Dr. Vamdev Shastri while Commenting on the books rightly reiteratesMax Mullers theory was taken up by the nineteenth Century linquists and other scholars, who after discovering upon the existence of a Proto Indo-European language to preserve their pet theory of the Aryan invasion. Nineteenth Century linquists built the whole historical scenario around untested linguistic conjectures. According to Dr. Shastri the causes of the colossal intellectual blunder of the 19 th

Century European scholars, particularly, Max Muller were ignorance of the scientific method and lack of archaeological data combined with European Politics and missionary interests. He also points his critical finger to the upsurge of German nationalism in the 19
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th

Century and

the German dislike of any association with Semitic origin and when he does it he does it very strongly. st The 21 Century scholars, particularly, those belonging to India must at this Juncture stand together and substitute all the conjectures and speculations of the 19 neglected and slighted science of Prehistory called Mythology. The most dominant myth of the 19 never set, fell flat by the middle of the 20 th Century, the myth of an empire where the Sun century while the myth of the 20 th century that th Century with

facts of history collected from all the connected and concerned logies including the hitherto

th

socialism stood for nothing more or nothing less than Marxism was laid self dead at the tail st end of the same century. The 21 Century must, similarly, have to declare the end of another dominant Eupropean myth and conviction that God was and is but a Roman Catholic and one who preaches Christianity only. Europeans would rather be proud, instead, to have descended or transformed to a great race called the Aryan race, a great language called the Sanskrit language, a sacred land called Brahmavata and a way of life called the Aryan or Brahman way of life preaching a culture of universal brotherhood and a philosophy of a happy global family. Adolf Hitler relished this sense of pride although he suffered from religious as well as national prejudices and he had his own reasons for both.

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Chapter IX

Why Max Muller or Hans Hock : Why Not Panini Or Agastya Or Yask

The main propounders of the Aryan invasion theory or the Aryan Migration theory may be the German Max Muller or the British M. Wheeler, but in the face of all the recent researches made on the Indus valley civilization ever since 1872-73 the most important barriers in letting the world know the realities of this great civilization have been Michel Witzel, Richard Sproat and Steve Farmer and a band of some so-called teachers or students of History who have been primarily careerists living under their departmental obligations. Michel Witzel belongs to the Department of Sanskrit and Indian studies, Harvard university, Sproat to the Departments of Linguistics and Electrical and computer Engineering in the university of Illinois and the Beckman Institute, while Steve Farmer to the Portola valley, Callifornia, U.S.A. It is unfortunate that inspite of lots of appreciable work done to negate the traditional AIT or the OIT by scholars from all over the world including those belonging also to the U.S.A., these three giants are bent upon proving that this great civilization equal of which is not to be found elsewhere in the ancient world has been an illiterate civiliazation. They refuse to establish any relationship between the Vedic civilization and the Indus Valley civilization although engouh has been said to prove that the Indus civilization was nothing but a continuation or an extension of the Vedic culture and civilization of Aryavarta or Brahmavarta or Bharat, the land of Bharati that is Sarasvati. After a hundred and thirty years of attempts to identity and to decipher the supposed language underlining the inscriptions of Harappa as also indications given by Sir John Marshall (1924-1931) SYCe (1924) Gadd and Smith (1924), Hunter (1929), they hesitate even today to accept the decipherments made by Kenoyer (1998), Possehi (2002), Danels and Bright (1996), Pope (1999), Robinson (2002) and last but not the least N. Jha and N.S. Rajaram (2000) who on the basis of computerized studies of the seals and sealings of Harappa have proved that this civilization is none else than that of the Vedic civilization, which was born in Brahmavarta and which developed itself into an urban civilization at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro on the two sides of the river

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Sarasvati as also in between the two rivers called the Sarasvati and the Drishadvati also known later on as the Indus or the Sindhu. They call this decipherment exercise, a political exercise or an exercise made by Hindu fanatics or Cultural Chauvinists or Communal nationalists. They appear to be very much interested in proving that these inscriptions, if at all they are literate inscriptions, are more identical to the Dravidian language or to the Mundari language or to the Persian or Arabic and not to Sanskrit as strangely according to them, the Indus inscriptions are meant to be read from right to left and not from left to right as Sanskrit. They also try sometimes, to connect the Indus inscriptions with the Soviets and the Finns and create a confusion worse confounded. They have tried to confuse the decipherments made so far into a play of suffixes, prefixes and infixes and thus have tried to establish that Sanskrit may be closer to Latin, to Persian, the Greek, the Assyrian, or Roman, but without any meaningful co-relation or connection with the Harappan pictographic scripts. In their famous paper entitledThe collapse of the Indus script Thesis they have concluded and closed the chapter opened by so many great scholars including N.S. Rajaram and N. Jha as follows : The most obvious missing maker of Indus manuscript production is sufficient to close the case : the complete absence of Indus text of any length on durable goods which show up in abudance in every pre-modern civilization, that is also known to have written on perishable materials. Ironically, some of the ancient worlds richest finds of this type show up again in northwest South Asia- most dramatically in the thousands of rock and cliff inscriptions from Post-Indus times, written in at least ten languages or scripts, found in the passes of the upper Indus valley linking South Asia to China through one branch of the Socalled Silk Road (Jettmaret al 1989-94), for longer inscriptions in this general region (cf. Marshall 1951; Salomon 1998, 1999)." A strong case can be made on this evidence alone that the Indus civilization could not possibly have been literate. If it had been, it would be the only known literate society in the world ancient or modern that did not produce texts of significant length somewhere on durable materials. It is strange to note that Farmer, sproat, and Witzel as also their followers dont view the writings on undurable materials as evidences of a literate civilisation. To be called literate according to them, a civilisation must have to write something on the stone tablets or on the walls of cliffs or caves and not on the Terracotta or on the leaves of plants and trees. They plead to refuse to call a civilisation literate which has left its records on seals

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and sealings made of metals other than stones. While dismissing the Indus civilisation to be a literate civilisation, they appear to be more inclined and interested in proving that the culture and civilisation of the Dravidians and the Mundas is an offshoot or a continuation of the Dravadian and not of the culture and civilisation of Harappa while the culture and civilization of the Ganga basin and the north is completely different. They have made efforts to prove that the language and writings found in Harappan seals and symbols may be similar to the Dravidian group of languages and also that Sanskrit in any way, has no influence over the south Indian languages including Mundari of Chhotanagpur. Their only intention is to establish a theory that the fourteen mythical wars of Surs and Asurs have been wars between the North Indians and the South Indians, the Aryans and Anaryans or the Aryavartans and the Dravidians. They probably forget that there have been and there are even today linguistic Pandits both North Indians and South Indians who can understand and appreciate better the linguistic relationship between the Dravidian and the so called Indo European languages. They also forget that there are good number of words of Sanskrit on the one hand and South Indian languages on the other which have been adopted Suo moto by Tamil, Telgu and Malyalam languages and there is also ample, evidence of Tamil and Telgu words being adopted by Sanskrit as well as Hindi Spoken by North Indians. They forget that India is nothing but a name given to Aryavarta which may have many languages but it has one and only one culture which is inherent in the rites and rituals, customs and traditions, dresses and addresses, faiths and worships as well as in the languages and literatures of different regions of the country. The name India is said to have been derived from the word Indus and the word Indus is derived from the word Sindh or Sindhu which means a river, India had its birth in a region where seven great rivers flew and were called Sapt Sindhus in Indian scriptures. One of these Sapt Sindhus was Drishadvati Sindhu which later on took the name Sindh and still later on became the Indus. The Richas of the Vedas were first pronounced in this very land of the Saptsindhus and passed on from individual to individual and from generation to generation through the medium of the ear and probably it was due to this that they were called the Shruties. The seers called the Rishies pronounced the truth called the Rit which flashed into their contemplating minds and was expressed in the form of Richas ) and were later on called the Rigved. Since the Rishies had their visions while they used to sit at meditation before a ritual called Yajna they felt the need of recording the rituals of the Yajna (;K) which they called the Yajurved. The rituals of the Yajurved often found expression in songs and Prayers called Psalms and so they were called Samved. The Atharvaved is a creation of the later Vedic period but it is interesting to note that the tradition of the shruties
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was as prevalent in the South as it was in the north. These Shruties evidently were the Proto Aryan Language which when recorded in writing with all the possible care and culture could be named as Sanskrit. The tradition of the Shruties has been so widespread that there are many centers of Vedic education even today in active form in a few temples of Andhra Pradesh and Tamilnadu, what to speak of the Gurukuls of North India, where Vedas are taught more by hearing and less by writing. One of the sapt sindhus was the sarasvati which flew from Haryana to the Sea coast near Dwarika. The region on the two sides of the Sarasvati was called the Panchnad or the Saraswati Pradesh and mythology says that at the end of the Dwapar era and with the total annihilation of the Yadav Community Dwarika engulfed into the sea and the remaining population of Dwarika, the former, followers of Krishna, were got inhabited by Arjun in the Panchnad Pradesh Pathah Panchadadeh Desho Bahudhanya Dhananvite Chakar Vasam Sarvashya Tattr aiya Muni Satamah th (Bhavishyapuran : 5 Part) : Chapter 38 (12)
There is mention of a battle between Arjun on the one side and the Aabheers on the other side of Panchnand Pradesh for snatching away the beloveds of Krishna with all the wealth, they were carrying. These Aabheers were sometimes called Dashyus or the Malechhas also. But this remains a fact that these Aabheers were victorious and Arjun was defeated by them for the first time in his life.

Prekshatah Tashya Parthasya amah Jambudvipe Malechhad Samasta Muni Sat (Bhavishya Puran : 5 : 38 : 28) All this means to reiterate that the culture of Brahmavarta itself which grew in the form of the culture of Kurukshetra or Matsya or Panchal or Sursen or Madhyadesh called Aryavarta spread simultaneously South ward upto Lanka and slowly and gradually expanded itself towards east to the confluence of the Ganga and Sadanira, towards west to Persia and on wards, to North right from Afghanistan to Burma and later on became the culture of Bharatvarsa called India. Max Muller also has indicated how this culture spread itself from the confluence of Sarasvati and Drishadvati to thatof the Sadanira and the Ganges in the east. The culture which spread to the east must have spread to the South also and this can not be

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ruled out in the face of the first living grammar of the Tamil language having been written and consolidated by the great Pandit of Sanskrit called Agastya. Agastya who originally belonged to the North and was named Kumbhaj had his academies situated at so many places in the South including Rameshwaram and Ceylone and it was only then that he preferred to take a Tamil name called Agastya. The influence of Sanskrit on the Tamil and the other languages of the South cant also be ruled out in the face of the same Sanskrit rites and rituals observed in almost all the temples of the South even today. The writings of the great Sanskrit Scholar and Pandit king called Ravana stand testimony to the Vedic culture engulfing the whole life and literature of the South. Max Muller probably, as he did neither have a study of Sanskrit Grammar written by Yask and Panini nor did he possess the spirit of an Indian intellectual, could not appreciate this. Even then he writes in his famous book The Vedic Index as follows :Here the home of the Indo-Aryans of the earliest period that of the Rigveda is the territory drained by the Indus river system, corresponding roughy to the North west Frontier Province of the Punjab of the present day. But the home of the fully developed culture of the Brahmanas lay in the territory extending in a South easterly direction XXX between the confluence of Saraswati and Drisadvati in the west and that of the Sadanira and Ganges on the east etc. (Vide Page XIV) It is amusing to note that although Max Muller accepts that the culture of the land of five rivers expanded east wards to the confluence of rivers sadanira and Ganga, he refused to appreciate that this very culture might also have expanded from the North to the South as well as to the West. Students of History know and know it well that a developed civilization has always expanded like a balloon in all the four directions and it was not unnatural if the civilization of the Saptsindhu or the Panchnad expanded to Afganistan, Iran, Mesopotamia, Assyria, Egypt, Greece and Rome in the west, to Tibet, China and Japan in the North and to Lanka and then to South Africa and South America in the South, what to speak of expanding only to the land of Narmada, Krishna, Godawari, and Kaweri which are credited with their own stories to have been extensions of the great Ganga. With the expansion of the culture and civilization of Saptsindhu or Panchand or Haryypia or Harappa in all the four directions the most important direction being the West, the far West it was also natural that the commodities produced and propagated in Saptsindhu travelled to all the directions and had a commercial inter-action with the peoples and the languages spoken by them. A developed culture and civilisation like that of Haryypia or Harappa after this inter-action not only exported its
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commodities and languages but also imported, at least a bit of the language besides some bartered commodities also of those lands. Sanskrit spoken in this period also enriched itself from languages of the West like Persian, Greek and Latin as also of the South like Tamil and Mundari, but the influence of Sanskrit on the European or Dravidian languages was greater being an ancestor or Proto language. Similarly it should not also be denied that Sanskrit might have learnt or adopted some expressions from the languages of Tibet or Japan or of Iran or Arabia or of Greece and Rome but the fact remains that Latin, Persian, Arabic, Greek, German and Roman languages learnt, adopted and intermingled in them more of Sanskrit language particularly Sanskrit names and this effect is evident in them if they are studied with Sociology and Philology taken together. A developed civilisation like that of Harappa should not be expected to be invaded and conquered by an undeveloped barbaric and nomadic race nor it should be expected to have imported and adopted the languages of such less developed races. Max Muller admitted that the language and literature of Sanskrit was more developed than any other civilization of that time but he refused to appreciate why a richer language should borrow anything from the poorer. His prejudices prompted him to interpret the interaction of Sanskrit with Persian, Latin and Greek at Central Asia as an inter-action of the languages of different ethnic groups of Central Asia itself denying the fact that Sanskrit played the role of a Proto language. He propagated the theory of an Indo-European family of languages propounded by William Jones and propagated his view of the so-called Aryans travelling from middle Asia through Iran and settling in India after ousting the Harappan Dravidians from the land of the Panchnad or of the Saptasindhu. His Philological argument has been developed, in more details by Hans Hock ignoring the tree diagram language theory and replacing it with a dialectological approach called isoglosses stressing on alignment of dialects with a central language or better called an ancestral language which happened to be none but Sanskrit, although according to Max Muller or Hans Hock it should be Greek or Latin or Arabic and not Sanskrit. This fact, has already been discussed in the previous pages of this book, but one thing which needs special mention here is that Haryupia or Harappa was not the land where the so-called Aryans and the Dravidians fought but it was actually the land where the Dravidians also lived and worked together and lived and lived and added something to the culture and language of the land as well as carried something out from it. The word Mayil of Tamil came from Dravid Desh to Panchnad where it took the name of Mayoor in Sanskrit. Probably the Mayur or the Majil travelled with the Aryans to the west and it got itself reflected in the sculpture of the Mitanni art. This Journey of the Peacock from
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Dravid land to Panchnad and from Panchnad to the West also hints at the language and civilization of that time travelling not from West to the East but from the East to the West. Panini, the greatest and the oldest of the grammarians of the world and the greatest grammarian of Sanskrit language and Agastya the greatest grammarian of the Tamil language are said to be coincidentally born in the same land of the saptsindhu and will it not therefore be an injustice if we disconnect the traditional relationship of Tamil with the languages of the South and Sanskrit with those of Europe respectively? Panini has rightly hinted at a rich language like Sanskrit taking manifold forms when it comes in contact with different languages at different places and different times. The formula (Sutra) propounded by Panini isBahulam ChhandasiThe changes that come in the form of a language after intermixture are due to four reasons. Paninis four reasons are Kwachit Pravitih Kwachad Pravitih Krichit Paninishote Varvike varanashed ParishodNAMformula of Yathodistan has been very rightly interpreted by Patanjali as follows : Bhavet Argamat Hanso Simharaso Goo ** And Max Muller unfortunately didnt take notice of the reasons of this intermixture. Max Muller, it is said was a pretty good student of Sanskrit so much so that he could translate the Vedas into German and English and it is presumed, therefore, that he must have taken notice of the rules of Grammar of both Sanskrit and Tamil propounded by Panini and Agastya. Paninis lexoscripta or furmula as interpreted by Patanjali had probably been utilized by Hans Hock in 1999 when he accepted that The early Indo-European languages exhibit linguistic alignments which cannot be captured by a tradiagram but which require a dialectological approach that maps out a set of intersecting Isoglosses which define areas with shared features.

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The theory of linguistic changes common to several neighboring or sister languages is called the theory of Isoglosses and this theory is certainly a bye-product although Hans Hock used this theory to support the AIT dismissing Sanskrit as one of the ancestor languages of the PIE (Proto Indo European) homeland which according to Max Muller is nowhere else than central Asia. East has rightly reacted to Hocks line of argument,Viz, by proving that certain, isoglosses must date back to PIE times, making it tougher to reconcile the distribution of isoglosses with an Indian Homeland hypothesis. And with this hypothesis in view nothing can restrain Go West theory of the Aryans and the ancestral PIE language Sanskrit from Harappa to the Caspian central Asia region influencing the neibouring geographical areas and the then sister languages according to the theory of isoglosses or the i`kksnjkfu ;FkksifnVe~ formula of Panini or Five ways theory of lexographical mutations propounded by Yask and interpreted by Durgacharya later on . It was unfortunate that Max Muller could not or didnt appreciate Panini or Patanjali or Yask but the sons and grandsons and great grandsons of Panini, Yask and Agastya have unfortunately accepted whatever Max Muller said and said without much thought or studies and turned a deaf ear to what their fore fathers meant to say. They listened to what Max Muller spoke in the 19 th Century and Hans Hock in the 20 th but they are not proudly prepared to listen to

what the Rigveda had presented in 10000 B.C. and what Panini interpreted in 3000 B.C. To th quote a translation by Griffith, of a piece of the Rigveda from its 10 Chapter, the Aryans They strode though all the regions with victorious might establishing the old immeasurable laws. They compassed in their bodies all existing things, and streamed forth offspring, many successive forms. In two ways have the sons established in his place the Asura who finds the light by the third act. As fathers they have set their heritage on earth, their offspring as a thread continuously spun out. As in a ship through billows, so through regions of air, with blessings through toils and troubles, Hath Brhadukha brought his seed with glory and placed it here and in the realms beyond us. It is not understood how Griffith brought the word Victorious Might in his translation of a Passage of the Rigveda where there is mention of clause.
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Griffith failed and failed miserably to realize that the Aryans wherever they went, they went not merely for commercial interests but for the expansion of a way of life, a noble way of life which they had developed in thousands of years of living at Brahmavarta or Saptsindhu or Divyadesh or Panchnad Pradesh or Haryupia or Harappa. It was not a show of a victorious might of a conquering Community but it was a journey of a faith and of a civilized and noble way of life. However Griffith or Max Muller for whatever their mistake which has rightly been called a colossal intellectual blunder of the 19 th Century as they have been scholars of a non-

Aryan culture and climate they may also be excused. But should we excuse those Indian writers and those so called Indian scholars also who keep on hyping an Un-Indian tune with scholars like Witzel, Sproat and Farmer trying to write the cultural history of a nation like India from a far off land and a far off university like that of Harvard in U.S.A.
Its high time, we stop playing a fiddle to the tunes played at London or Harvard and stress harping on the principles and rules of our own grammar or Chhandas reverberating continuously for at least the last ten thousand years or so from the Vedas to the Puranas and from the Vindusarovar in the Himalayas to the Sindhu-Sarovar called the Indian ocean. Let us first trust Yask, Panini and Agustya and lest we are misled, test all that Max Muller, or Hans Hock said on the basis of the Sutras or formula they (Panini and Yask) devised. Why only Panini and Yask, the popular public grammar also accepts that as the test of land water changes at every sixth mile so also the account and intonation of a language or dialect changes every two miles. As a matter of fact Hans Hocks theory of isoglosses or the formula propounded by Panini or the popular proverb quoted above could appear to narrate more or less a similar story would Hans Hock once realize that Sanskrit is the only aucestor language of the Aryan Race speaking hundreds of dialects from more than ten thousand years back, at Bharatkhand or Brahmavarta on the bank of river Saraswati. It was simply unfortunate that Max Muller missed to learn properly from Yask and Panini and from a long chain of their interpreters like Patanjali or Durgacharya and his followers, more unfortunately thought that whatever Muller had said was the alpha and omega of linguistics and it was wasting energy to invest any brain power over the principles and rules of Sanskrit Grammar laid down by not one but as many as some twenty three predecessors like Indra, Gautam, Bhardwaj, Kashyapa, Gargya, Galob, Shakatayan or Stophayam or hundreds of successors like Patanjali, sharvaverma, chandragomi,

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Vaman, Palyakirti, Bhojdeva or Himchandra and a chain of Pali and Prakrit grammarians whose ideal guru or guide has been one and only one and that is Panini.

A study of Indian grammar in the right perspective will certainly help us to establish the correct answer to the Aryan Question. l

Chapter-X

Towards Demolition of A Citadel : Relevant Excerpts From Scholars on "The Aryan Question" Since 1984

The Aryan Question is actually a well planned and well-designed question mark on the purity and primitivity, on the gene, on the genesis and the genius called the Aryan. It is a question mark on Indian roots, on the Indian traditions, on the Indian culture and civilization and on the all the heights achieved by the Indian people in the fields of learning and literature. It is actually an affront on the national Glory that was Ind, a negation of the Gurudom which India enjoyed by leading the light of knowledge and showing the righteous paths of life to the rest of the world. The saints, the sages and the visionaries like Angira, Bhrigu Vashista Agastya and Pulastya chanted mantras long long before Adam was born and lived a long heavenly life of as long as a four thousand and eight hundred years cycle called Satyug in the Himalyayan Valleys and on the banks of the Ganga and the Sarasvati. The mantras or the richas recited by them are chanted even today with a distinct change of diction from the Vedic to the classic and from the classic to the modern. It is linguistically assessed and chronologically and astronomically proved that, it was more than a minimum ten thousand years back that the Rishies composed these Chhandas or these Richas or mantras or these Shlokas or these verses to refer to the researches done by B.C. sidhartha, Director of B.M. Birla, Science Centre. But this stood belied by those whose mythologies believed
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that their first ancestor was born only some 4000 years or so before Christ and that Noah who managed to save the creation from the deadly Deluge happened to be in 2500 B.C. only. Indias past glories were not only unbelievable but also intolerable for a community that ruled India and ruled for over two hundred years and wanted to rule for all times to come. It was necessary for them therefore, to negate the faith that the Vedas were as old as 10000 years B.C. or so and to affirm on the contrary the story of the Bibles Genesis not as a story but as a History of the world. It was incumbent, on their part, therefore, to employ a man of learning, a scholar of languages and scriptures of different religions of the world who could establish theories of Christian superiority and could create an altogether new history of the cultures of the world. And the man selected for this mission was none else than the great German scholar Mr. Max Muller who agreed to do the job at a meeting of the Royal Asiatic Society held at London on the 10 th of April 1866. The theories to be established were that Adam was the first

human being created by God in His own image, Noah was the man who saved the creation through the Deluge, Abraham, Ismael and Israel and their successors were the men blessed by God with the power to create and to rule over all the nations which they surveyed around them and there was only one language of the whole world and that was probably Latin until they spread over in groups after the scene of great confusion at the Tower of the Babel. All that these so called blessed men could survey were their nations and all those who lived fallen apart at far off places were men under their subjugation. Thus all the myths of the Bible henceforward became history, while all the history and all the languages, which came in contact after subjugation, were declared dialects and myths. And as such a group of white complexioned men of quite a good height and strong and stout personality riding on horse-driven chariots were supposed to have invaded the illiterate Harappan aboriginals and throwing them out beyond the Vindhyas ruled over the Indus Valley and were called the Aryans as most probably they had rushed into the Harappan lands through Iran. Sanskrit was rated as one of the dialects of the East and a civilization spread over an area of 3000 sq. miles or so like that of Haryupia or Harappa was rated as an illiterate civilization. Times changed after 1920 AD and changed upside down after Marshal and others excavated the mounds scattered from Alamgirpur to Dholavira and from Ropad to Kalibangan and told a different story of a civilization that had prospered on the Indian soil much before even the so called Noahs Deluge. The finds of the excavation referred to an

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even older culture of Saptasindhus and Panchnad spreading from the banks of Sindhu and Saraswati not only to those of the Narmada and Godavari but also to the Singhal Islands. It was a time the great hero of the so called Aryan theory, F. Max Muller had grown old and had died in 1900 AD and the Archaeologists both Indians and outsiders were ready to revise their views but Indians had even then a lower voice while the foreigners still dominated and said that Max Mullers Invasion theory can at best be rechristened or reincarnated as Migration theory with all the stories remaining the same. The Sarasvati dried up in course of time and the civilization on its banks used to be remembered as Haryupia later on changed its name from Haryupia or Harappa to Aryavarta or India The Sarasvati dried up, no doubt, may be due to some environmental changes like the Earthquake or some severe drought or otherwise but did never die and kept on flowing underground perennially to join the Ganga and the Yamuna at the Sangam at Prayag. Much water has since flowed in the Indian rivers and Indians minds together and there came a time when the minds working both in India and abroad could make a meeting point on India particularly on the Harappan India. This change started with Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) with his book entitled Elementary Form of Religious Life and with Jim Shaffer with his book entitled The Indo-Aryan Invasion: cultural Myth and Archaeological Reality in 1984. A flood gate was opened and a band of Indian as well as foreign scholars have joined a brigade which has fought out a battle bravely and intelligently and is now engaged to see the so well fortified citadel of Max Muller thoroughly demolished. Here is what the main stalwarts speak on the main points. 1. The Aryan Problem : The relationship of the Indus-Saraswati civilization with the later Indian civilization remains a subject of debate. Most of you probably learned at school that the Harappan towns were destroyed by Semi-barbarian Aryans rushing down from Central Asia on their horse Chariots, and that the Survivors among their inhabitants, assumed to have been Dravidians, were driven to South India by the invaders. Passages from the Rig-veda were twisted and sometimes mistranslated to show a record of such a Physical and cultural clash. In many respects this is still the Official theory, although, since the 1960s, when the U.S. archaeologist G.F. Dales demolished all supposed evidence of such attacks and slaughter, the theory has limited itself to saying that the supposed Aryans, or Indo-Aryans or Indo-

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Europeans, to use the present terminology, entered North India after the collapse of the Harappan civilization. But you may be surprised to learn that most archaeologists now reject this invasion or migration theory, as they cannot find the slightest trace of it on the ground and it is unthinkable that the supposed Aryans could have conquered most of India and imposed on it their Vedic culture without leaving any physical evidence of any sort. Even respected archaeologists of the old school of thought, such as Raymond and Bridget Allchin, now admit that the arrival of Indo-Aryans in Northwest India is Scarcely attested in the archaeological record, presumably because their material culture and life-style were already virtually indistinguishable from those of the existing population we are very far from the bloody invasion and cultural war envisaged by Max Muller and other nineteenth-Century scholars. (Michel Danino- The Indus Saraswati civilization and its Bearing on the Aryan question-1999) 2. Aryan Race : A Misnomer In simple terms, this means that, for science, there is no such thing as an Aryan race, or a Dravidian race for that matter Nor is there for Indian tradition, in which the world Arya never means a race, but a quality of true nobility, Culture and refinement. And so, if Aryan people invaded or entered into India, it stands to reason that the Vedic culture was also native to the subcontinent, and not import, In fact, quite a few scholars and archaeologists today see a number of clear Vedic traits in the Harappan culture. To cite a few : the presence of fire-altars, an essential element of Vedic rituals; the symbol of a bull engraved on hundreds of seals, a Vedic symbol par excellence; the cult of a mother-goddess, of a Shiva-like deity. (Michel Danino- The Indus-Sarasvati civilization and its Bearing on the Aryan Question3. The Myth Of The Aryan Invasion : A Product Of The Christian Mythology : The Indus valley culture was pronounced Pre-Aryans for several reasons that were largely part of the cultural milieu of nineteenth century European thinking as scholars following Max-Muller had decided that the Aryans came into India around 1500 B.C. since the Indus valley culture was earlier than this, they concluded that it had to be pre Aryan. Yet the rationale behind the late date for the Vedic culture given by Muller was totally

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speculative. Max-Muller, like many of the Christian scholars of his era, believed in Biblical Chronology. This placed the beginning of the world at 4000 B.C. and the flood around 2500 B.C. Assuming to those two dates, it became difficult to get the Aryans in India before 1500 B.C. Muller, therefore, assumed that the five layers of the four Vedas & Upnishads were each composed in 200 year periods before the Budha around 500 B.C. However, there are more changes of language in Vedic Sanskrit itself than there are in classical Sanskrit since Panini, also regarded as a figure of around 500 B.C. or a period of 2500 years. Hence it is clear that each of these periods could have existed for any number of centuries and that the 200 year figure is totally arbitrary and is like too short a figure. It was assumed by these scholars many of whom were also Christian missionaries unsympathetic to the Vedas that the Vedic culture was that of Primitive nomads from central Asia. Hence they could not have founded any urban culture like that of the Indus valley. The only basis for this was a rather questionable interpretation of the Rig Veda that they made, ignoring the sophisticated nature of the culture presented. Meanwhile, it was also pointed out that in the middle of the second millennium B.C. a number of Indo-European invasions apparently occurred in the Middle East, wherein IndoEuropean peoples the Hittites, Mittani and Kassites conquered and ruled Mesopotamia for some centuries. An Aryan invasion of India would have been another version of this same movement of Indo-European peoples. On top of this, excavators of the Indus valley culture like wheeler, thought they found evidence of destruction of the culture by an outside invasion confirming this. The Vedic culture was thus said to be that of primitive nomads who came out of Central Asia with their horse-drawn chariots and iron weapons and overthrew the cities of the more advanced Indus valley culture, with their superior battle tactics. It was pointed out that no horses, chariots or iron was discovered in Indus valley sites. (David Frawely-The Myth of the Aryan Invasion of India) 4. Vedism And Shaivism : Offshoots Of The Same Basic Tradition Of Narayan Or Brahma Or Hara The interpretation of the religion of the Indus valley culture-made incidentally by scholars such as wheeler who were not religious scholars much less students of Hinduism was that its religion was different than the Vedic and more likely the later Shaivite religion. However, further excavations both in Indus valley site in Gujrat, like Lothal, and those in

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Rajasthan, like Kalibangan show large number of fire altars like those used in the Vedic religion, along with bones of oxen, potsheds, shell jewelry and other items used in the rituals described in the Vedic Brahmanas Hence the Indus valley culture evidences many Vedic practices that can not be merely coincidental. That some of its practices appeared non-Vedic to its excavators may also be attributed to their misunderstanding or lack of knowledge of Vedic and Hindu culture generally, wherein vedism and shaivism are the same basic tradition. We must remember that ruins do not necessarily have one interpretation. Nor does the ability to discover ruins necessarily give the ability to interpret them correctly. The Vedic people were thought to have been a fair-Skinned race like the Europeans owing to the Vedic idea of a war between light and darkness, and the Vedic people being presented as children of light or children of the sun. Yet this idea of a war between light and darkness exists in most ancient cultures, including the Persian and the Egyptian. Why dont we interpret their scriptures as a war between light and dark-skinned people? It is purely a poetic metaphor not a cultural statement. Moreover, no real traces of such a race are found in India.
Anthropologists have observed that the present population of Gujrat is composed of more or less the same ethnic groups as are noticed at Lothal in 2000 B.C. Similarly, the present population of the Punjab is said to be ethnically the same as the population of Harappa 4000 years ago. Linguistically the present day population of Gujrat and Punjab belongs to the Indo-Aryan language speaking group. The only inference that can be drawn from the anthropological and linguistic evidence adduced above is that the Harappan population in the Indus valley and Gujrat in 2000 B.C. was composed of two or more groups, the more dominant among them having very close ethnic affirnity with the present day Indo-Arayn speaking population of India.

(David Frawely-The Myth of the Aryan Invasion of India) 5. Misinterpretation of the Saptsindhu or the Punjab : When wheeler speaks of the Aryan Invasion of the land of seven rivers, the Punjab he has no warranty at all, so far as I can see. If one checks the dozen references in the Rig Veda to the 7 rivers, there is nothing in them that to me implied invasion : the land of the 7 rivers is the land of the Rig Veda the scene of action. Nor is it implied that the inhabitants of the walled cities (including the Dasyus) were any more aboriginal than the Aryan themselves.

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6. Not Scholarship But Cultural Emperialism : Such a view is not good scholarship or archaeology but merely cultural emperialism. The western Vedic scholars did in the intellectual sphere what the British army did in the political realm discredit, divide and conquer the Hindus. In short, the compelling reasons for the Aryan invasion theory were neither literary nor archaeological but political and religious that is to say, not scholarship but prejudice which may not have been intentional but deep-seated political and religious views easily cloud and blur our thinking. It is unfortunate that this approach has not been questioned more, particularly by Hindus. Even though Indian Vedic scholars like Dayananda Saraswati, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Aurobindo rejected it, most Hindus today passively accept it. They allow western, generally Christan, scholars to interpret their history for them and quite naturally Hinduism is kept in a reduced role. Many Hindus still accept, read or even honor the translations of the Vedas done by such Christian missionary scholars as Max-Muller, Griffith, Monier Williams and H.H. Wilson. Would modern Christians accept an interpretation of the Bible or Biblical history done by Hindus aimed at converting them to Hinduism? Universities in India also use the western history books and western Vedic translations that propound such views that denigrate their own culture and country. The modern western academic world is sensitive to critisms of cultural and social biases. For scholars to take a stand against this biased interpretation of the Vedas would indeed cause a re-examination of many of these historical ideas that cannot stand objective scrutiny. But if Hindu scholars are silent or passively accept the misinterpretation of their own culture, it will undoubtedly continue, but they will have no one to blame but themselves. It is not an issue to be taken lightly, because how a culture is defined historically creates the perspective from which it is viewed in the modern social and intellectual context. Tolerance is not in allowing a false view of ones own culture and religion to be propagated without question. That is merely self betrayal. (David Frawely- The Myth of the Aryan Invasion of India.) 7. The Truth Of The Battle Story : Was There Ever An Aryan Invasion? One of the major reasons why a consideration of the idea of an Aryan invasion into India is prevalent among some western researchers is because of their misinterpretation of the

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Vedas, deliberate or otherwise, that suggest, the Aryans were a nomadic people. One such misinterpretation is from the Rig-Veda, which describes the battle between sudas and then then kings. The battle of the then kings included the Pakthas, Bhalanas, Alinas, Shivas, Vishanins, Shimys, Bhrigus, Druhyas, Prithus, and Parshus, who fought against the Tritsus, The Prithus or Parthavas became the Parthians of latter day Iran (247 B.C.- 224 A.D.). The Parshus or Pashavos became the latter day Persians. These kings though some are described as Aryans, were actually fallen Aryans, or rebellious and materialistic kings who had given up spiritual path and were conquered by Sudas Occasionally, there was a degeneration of the spiritual kingdom in areas of India and wars had to be fought in order to re-establish the spiritual Aryan culture in these areas. Western scholars could and did easily misinterpret this to mean an invasion of nomadic people called Aryans rather than simplify a war in which the superior Aryan kings re-established the spiritual values and the Vedic Aryan way of life. (Stephen Knapp-Death of the Aryan Invasion Theory) 8. Conspiracy Behind It : Let us also remember that the Aryan invasion theory was hypothesized in the nineteenth century to explain the similarities found in Sanskrit and the languages of Europe. One person who reported about this is Deen Chandara in his article, Distorted Historical Event and Discredited Hindu Chronology, as it appeared in Revisiting Indus-Sarasvati Age and Ancient India (P. 383) He explains that the idea of the Aryan invasion was certainly not only a matter of misguided research, but was a conspiracy to distribute deliberate misinformation that was formulated on April 10, 1866 in London at a Secret meeting held in the Royal Asiatic Society. This was to induct the theory of the Aryan invasion of India so that no Indian may say that English are foreigners..India was ruled all along by outsiders and so the country must remain a slave under the benign Christian rule. This was a political move and this theory was put to solid use in all schools and colleges. (Stephen Knapp-Death of the Aryan Invasion Theory) 9. Expanse Of The Civilization : However under scrutiny, the Aryan invasion theory lacks justification. For example, Sir John Marshall, one of the chief excavators at Mohen-Jodaro offers evidence that India may have been following the Vedic religion long before any so-called invaders ever
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arrived. He points out that it is known that India possessed a highly advanced and organized urban civilization dating back to at least 2300 B.C., if not much earlier. In fact, some researchers suggest that evidence makes it clear that the Indus valley civilization was quite developed by at least 3100 B.C. The known cities of this civilization cover an area along the Indus river and extend from the coast to Rajasthan and the Punjab over the Yamuna and Upper Ganges. At its height, the Indus culture spread over 300,000 square miles, an area larger than western Europe. Cities that were a part of the Indus culture include Mohan-Jadaro, Kut Diji east of Mohen-Jodaro, Amri on the lower Indus, Lothal South of Ahmedabad, Malwan farther south, Harappa 350 miles upstream from Mohen-Jodaro, Kalibangan and Alamgirpur farther east, Ropar near the Himalyas, Sutkagen Dor to the west along the coast, Mehrgrah 150 miles north of Mohen-Jodaro and Mundigak much farther north. Evidence at Mehrgarh shows a civilization that dates back to 6500 B.C. it had been connected with Indus culture but was deserted in the third millennium B.C. around the time, the city of MohenJodaro became prominent. (Stephen Knapp-Death of the Aryan Invasion Theory) 10. Ruins Of A War Or Remains Of A Byegone Civilization : However some geologists suggest that the cities were left because of environmental changes, Evidence of floods in the plains is seen in the thick layers of silt which are now thirty-nine feet above the river in the upper strata of Mohen-Jodaro. Others say that the ecological needs of the community forced the people to move on, since research shows there was great reduction in rainfall from that period to the present. We also have to remember that many of the Indus sites like Kalibangan, were close to the region of the old Sarasvati River. Some Hindu scholars are actually preferring to rename the Indus Valley culture as the Indus Sarasvati culture because the Sarasvati was a prominent river and very important at the time. For example, the Saraswati River is glowingly praised in the Rig Veda. However the Saraswati River stopped flowing as early as around 8000 B.C. It dried up near the end of the Indus valley civilization, at least by 1900 B.C. This was no doubt one reason why these cities were abandoned. This also means that if the Vedic people came after the Indus valley culture, they could not have known of the Saraswati River. This is further evidence that the Vedas were from many years before the time of the Indus valley Society and were not brought into the region by some invasion.

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As a result of the latest studies, evidence points in the direction that the Indus sites were wiped out not by acts of war or an invasion, but by the drought that is known to have taken place and continued for 300 years. Whatever skeletons that have been found in the regions many indicate deaths not by war but by starvation or lack or water. Deaths of the weak by starvation are normal before the whole society finally moves away for better lands and more abundant resources. This is the same drought that wiped out the Akkadians of Sumeria, and caused a sudden abandonment of cities in Mesopotamia, such as at Tell leilan and Tell Brock. The beginning of the end of these civilization had to have near 2500 B.C. This drought no doubt contributed to the final drying up of the Saraswati River. Regarding Mohen-Jodaro, archaeologists have discovered no sign of attack such as extensive burning or remains of armour clad warriors and no foreign weapons. This leaves us to believe that the enemy of the people, in this region was nature, such as earthquakes, flooding, or the severe drought, or even a change in the course of rivers and not warrior invaders. So again, the invasion theory does not stand up to scrutiny from the anthropological point of view. (Stephen Knapp-Death of the Aryan Invasion Theory) 11. Decipherment Of The Indus Script : Further more, Dr. S.R. Rao has deciphered the Harappan script to be of an Indo Aryan base. In fact he has shown how the South Arabic, old Arabic, and the ancient Indian Brahmi scripts are all derivatives of the Indus valley script. This new evidence confirms that the Harappan civilization could not have been Dravidians that were overwhelmed by an Aryan invasion, but they were followers of the vedic religion. The irony is that the Vedic Aryans destroyed the Dravidian Indus townships which had to have been, previously built according to the mathematical instruction that are found in the Vedic literature of the Aryans such as the shulbasutras. This point helps voids the invasion theory. After all if the people of these cities used the Vedic styles of religious altars and town planning, it would mean they were already Aryans. (Stephen Knapp-Death of the Aryan invasion theory.) THE INDUS VALLEY CIVILISATION WAS A PART OF THE ADVANCED VEDIC CULTURE.

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The Vedic form of mathematics was much more advanced than that found in early Greek and Egyptian Societies; This can be seen in the Shulbasutras, supplements of the Kalpasutras which also show the earliest forms of Algebra which were used by the Vedic priests in their geometry for the construction of altars and arenas for religious purposes. In fact, the geometrical formula known as the Pythagorean theorem can be traced to the Baudhyans the earliest forms of Shulbasutras dated prior to the eighth century B.C. xxxx with this view in mind, Vedic mathematics can no longer be considered as a derivative from ancient Babylon, which dates to 1700 B.C. but must be the source of it as well as the Greek or Pythagorean mathematics. Therefore, the advanced nature of the geometry found in the Shulbasutras indicates that it provided the knowledge that had to have been known during the construction of the Indus sites, such as Harappa and Mohen-Jodaro as well as that used in ancient Greece and Babylon. (Stephen Knapp-Death of the Aryan Invasion theory-) 12. The Aryans And The Period Of The Rig-Veda : In his book called The celestial key to the Vedas: Discovering the origins of worlds oldest Civilization B.C. Sidhrath provides astronomical evidence that the earliest portions of the Rig-Veda can be dated to 10,000 B.C. He is the director of the B.M. Birla science centre and has 30 years of experience in astronomy and science. He also confirms that India had a thriving civilization capable of sophisticated astronomy long before Greece, Egypt, or any other culture in the world. In his commentary on Srimad Bhagavatam (1.7.8), A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami, one of the most distinguished Vedic scholars of modern times, also discusses the estimated date of when the Vedic literature was written base on astronomical evidence. He writes that there is some diversity amongst mundane scholars as to the date when Srimad-Bhagavatam was compiled, the latest of Vedic scriptures. It is Certain that it was compiled after Lord Krishna disappeared from the planet and before the disappearance of King Parikshit, we are presently in the five thousand year of the age of Kali according to astronomical calculation and evidence in the revealed scriptures. Therefore, he concludes Srimad Bhagavatam had to have been compiled atleast five thousand years ago. The Mahabharata was compiled before Srimad Bhagavatam and the major Puranas
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Furthermore we know that the Upnishadas and the four primary Vedas including the Rig-veda were compiled years before Mahabharata. This would indicate that the Vedic literature was already existing before any so-called invasion, which is said to have happened around 1400 B.C. In fact, this indicates that the real Aryans were the Vedic kings and sages who were already prevalent in this region and not any uncertain tribe of nomadic people that some historians, inappropriately call invading Aryans who came into India and then wrote their Vedic texts after their arrival. So this confirms the Vedic version. (Stephen Knapp-Death of the Aryan invasion theory-) 13. Aryavarta According To Manu-Samhita And Rig-Veda: The Manu-Samhita (2.17-18) specially points out that the region of the Vedic Aryans is between the Saraswati and Drishdvati rivers, as similarly found in the Rig-veda (3.24.4). Any wars mentioned in the Vedic literature are those that have taken place between people of the same culture, or between the demigods and demons, or the forces of light and darkness. The idea that the term Aryan or Arya refers to those of a particular race is misleading. It is a term that means anyone of any race that is noble and of righteous and gentle conduct. To instill the idea of an Aryan invasion into the Vedic texts is merely an exercise of taking isolated verses out of context and changing the meaning of the terms. (Stephen Knapp-Death of the Aryan invasion theory) 14. Who Is An Aryan: The Sanskrit word Aryan is linguistically related to the world harijana (Pronounced hariyana), meaning one related to God, Hari. Therefore, the real meaning of the name Aryan refers to those people related to the spiritual Vedic culture. It has little to do with those immigrants that some researchers have speculated to be the so-called invading Aryans. Aryan refers to those who practice the Vedic teaching and this does not mean a particular race of people. Therefore anyone can be an Aryan by following the clear light, Vedic Philosophy, while those who do not follow it are non-Aryan. 15. The Aryan Spread- Out Story:

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We can see some of the affect of this spread out of India in regard to the term Aryan. The name Harijana or Aryan evolved into Syriana or Syrians in Syria, and Hurrians in Hurri, and Arianna or Iranians in Iran. This shows that they were once part of Vedic society. A similar case in the name parthians in partha another old country in Persia. Partha was the name of Krishnas friend Arjuna a Vedic Aryan and means the son of king Prithu. So the name Parthian indicates those sons of Pritha or Kunti who are descendants of king Prithu. Parthians also had a good relationship with the early Jews since the Jews used to buy grains from the Parthians. The Greeks referred to the Jews as Judeos or Jah deos or Yadavas meaning people of Ya or decsendents of Yadu, one of the sons of Yayati, It is also regarded that the basis of the Kabbalah, the book of Jews, mystical concepts, as described in The Holy Kabbalah by Arthur Edward waite is linked with Kapila Muni, the Indian sage and incarnation of Krishna who established the analytical Sankhya-Yoga philosophy. Therefore, a connection between the early Jews and ancient Vedic culture is evident. (Stephen Knapp-Death of the Aryan invasion Theory) 16 The Aryans Sans Vedic Culture Spreading Out To Greece And Turkey: Another province mentioned in Mahabharata (Adi-Parva 85.34) is that of the Yavanas (Turks) who were so named for being descendants of Maharaja Yavana (Turvasu), one of the Sons of Maharaja Yayati, as previously explained. They also gave up Vedic culture and become Malechhas. They fought in the battle of kuruksetra against the Pandavas on behalf of Duryodhana and lost. However, it was predicted that they would one day return to conquer Bharata-varsa (India) and, indeed, this came to pass. Mahammad Ghori later attacked and conquered parts of India on behalf of Islam from the Abhira and Yavana or Turkish countries. Thus we can see that these provinces in the area of Greece and Turkey (and the countries in between there and India) were once part of the Vedic civilization and had at one time not only Political and cultural ties but also ancestral connections. This is the Vedic version of the origin of Aryan civilization and how its influence spread in various degrees throughout the world. (Stephen Knapp-Death of the Aryan Invasion theory.) 17 The Last Deluge And First Creation: In any case we can begin to see that the Vedic Aryans had been living in the region of India since the last deluge, from about 13,000 to 10,000 B.C. Thus there could not have been
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any Pre-Aryan civilization in this area that had been conquered by so called Invasion Aryans in 1500 B.C. (Stephen Knapp-Death of the Aryan Invasion Theory) 18. The Cradle Of Civilization That Is Brahmavarta Or Aryavarta Or Bharat : As N.S. Rajaram so nicely explains in Vedic Aryans and The origins of civilization (P.P. 247-8), To conclude : On the basis of archaeology satellite Photography, metallurgy and ancient mathematics, it is now clear that there existed a great civilization, a mainly spiritual civilization perhaps before the rise of Egypt, Sumeria and the Indus valley. The heartland of this ancient world was the region from the Indus to the Ganga-the land of the Vedic Aryans. This conclusion, stemming from scientific findings of the past three decades, demolished the theory that nomadic Aryans from central Asia swooped down on the plains of India in the Second millennium BCE and established their civilization and composed the RigVeda. The picture presented by science therefore is far removed from the one found in history books that, place the cradle of civilization in the river valleys of Mesopotamia. Modern science and ancient records provide us also a clue to a long standing historical puzzle : why since time immemorial, people from India and Sri Lanka to England and Ireland have spoken languages clearly related to one another and possess mythologies and beliefs that are so strikingly similar. The simple answer is : they were part of a great civilization that flourished before the rise of Egypt, Sumeria and the Indus valley. This was a civilization before the dawn of civilization. (Stephen Knapp-Death of the Aryan Invasion Theory) 19. Why Vedic Language Or Sanskrit Could Become A Basic Language For Other IE Language ? The Rig Vedic language was a synthetic language combining elements of the different language of the region, upholding an older and sanctified terminology for spiritual and religions purposes. Vedic Sanskrit, called Chhandas or meter, was probably a poetic language acceptable to the various peoples of the religion at least on a religious level. Hence it could travel far and be acceptable by various groups, even those speaking rather different

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common dialects. While linguists have argued that an elite Aryan culture from central Asia could change the languages of India, they have missed the basic facts of culture and demographics. The civilization of ancient India was larger, older and more popular than that of central Asia. Any Primary cultural diffusion would have been from east to west not west to east. This is what history shows us, with ancient Indo-Europeans like the Persians, Greeks and celts coming originally from regions to the east of their later homelands. The Rig veda lasted because it was the main literature of the Subcontinent and its dominant rishi and royal families. The main kings and rishis of the Rig-veda are those of the Bharata dynasty that ruled on the Sarasvati river from whom India gained its traditional name as Bharata. Just as the Mahabharata later endured because it was a natural literature so did the Rig Veda itself. The Vedic as a royal literature of the region explains its power to endure. As nomadic poetry, there is no reason why it could have ever been preserved. (Dr. Koenraad Elst-Linguistic aspects of the Aryan non-invasion theory) 20. May That Vedic Vision Come Again : May that Vedic vision again come forth for the benefit of all creation. May the misinterpretations that obscure it disappear like the darkness at the rising of the Sun (Dr. Koenraad Elst-Linguistic aspects of the Aryan non-invasion theory.) 21. The Politics Of History And N. Rajarams contributions : Rajarams book is the most systematic and thorough study of the Aryan invasion theory presented to date. He traces the origin and development of this ugly theory which according to him is a colossal intellectual blunder of the 19 th Century European scholars,

particularly, Max Muller. The author points out that Indian history was created by men who were neither Indians nor historians but European linguists. What were the causes of this grim blunder and how did it happen is discussed in the chapter Sahibs and Pandits. Ignorance of scientific method and lack of archaeological data coupled with European politics and missionary interests were the main forces behind this mythical creation. (Professor Uma Erry-Bhavans Journal July 15, 1996) 22. Southern And Northern Vedic Cultures :

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A close study of Vedic literature reveals that there were two related cultures in ancient India. This is one of the main points of my book. The Rig veda and the History of India The first was a northern kingdom centered on Saraswati-Drishadvati river region. It was dominated by the Purus and the Ikshvakus and their mainly Angirasa gurus that produced the existent Vedas texts that we have. The second was a southern culture along the coast of Arabian Sea in the Saraswati delta, and into the Vindhya Mountains. It was dominated by the Turvashas and Yadus and the mainly Bhrigu gurus and extended into groups yet further south. These two groups vied for supremacy and influenced each other in various ways as the Vedas and Puranas indicate. That is why in Vedic literature the Turvashas and Yadus, the Southern people are the main enemies, though originally kinsmen of the Vedic Bharatas. Great Vedic Kings like Divodasa, Srinjaya and Sudas have the Turvasha and Yadus as their main opponents. The mythical ancient Deva-Asura was of the Vedas and Puranas involves the Angirasas and Bhrigus (Brihaspati and Sukra) or the northern and Southern rishi families. (Dr. Koenraad Elst-Linguistic aspects of the Aryan non-invasion theory) 23. The Rig Veda As The First Bharata : A more sensitive study of the Rig veda shows it as a book of great kings and seers (rajas and purohits). The Vedas reflect great kingdoms and a sophisticated ancient culture with the main Vedic rishis like Vasishta being the Purohits or Chief priests of great emperors like Sudas said to have ruled India from Sea to Sea in Brahmanical literature. The Vedas look back to many generations of kings and seers in their Sarasvati homeland. They are not the kind of Primitive or barbaric people that the invasional migration scenario requires. Even their glorification of horses and chariots is that of an urban nobility such that occurred in the ancient literature of Greece, Egypt and Mesopotamia, not of Primitive invaders. 24. Harappa A Continuation Of The Vedic Brahmavarta : The Vedic civilization dates back to 7000 B.C., whereas the Harappan civilization represents nothing but a continuation of the early Vedic civilization. It was indeed the twilight of the Vedic civilization and belonged to the Sutra period of the Vedic literature. And this vast civilization came to an end because of ecological reasons, particularly the drying up of the mighty Saraswati River. That there was a mighty river, which used to flow through Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan has been discovered by Wakankars exploration and confirmed by Satellite Photography. Archaeological sites have been found on the river bed
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which show that the river gradually became weaker and finally dried up around 1900 or 2000 B.C. But to get back to the accounts in ancient literature, the Second Mandala of the Rigveda mentions the great Sarasvati River about fifty times, while the Ganga is mentioned only once and the Seventh Mandala attributed to Rishi Vasistha says the Sarasvati is a mighty stream that flowed from the Mountain to the Sea..nursing the children of Nahusha, R.V. VII 95.2 The children of Nahusha refers to the rulers of the famed Bharat Dynasty, and the inhabitants of the Sarasvati heartland. (Professor Uma Erry-Bhavans Journal July 15, 1956) 25. Max Mullers Fanciful Historical Scenario : Max Mullers theory was taken up by the nineteenth Century linguists and other Scholars, who after discovering Sanskrit and the relationship which it bears to European languages, hit upon the existence of a Proto Indo-European language to preserve their Pet theory of the Aryan invasion. The linguistic approach to history reveals how the human mind can pervert facts and how preconceived ideas can falsify ones view of events. Nineteenth Century linguists built the whole historical scenarios around untested linguistic conjectures. It proved to be Monumental failure of vision as shown by archaeology, which began to have an enormous bearing on the study of history. All fanciful historical scenarios began to crumble in the face data from archaeology, mathematics and other sources, observes the author. Archaeologists have now proved the existence of a vast civilization, the great Saraswati Sindhu civilization, spread over more than a million and a half square kilometers. (Professor Uma Erry-Bhavans Journal, July 15, 1996) 26. The Aryan Migration Theory- The New Incarnation Of The Invasion View : The scholar (Sri M. Wheeler etc) place the Aryan entry after the end of Harapan culture in the 1900-1000 BCE era. In the absence of any evidence of significant migrations, the Aryan takeover of India has been reduced by most migrations to a gradual process of acculturalization from central Asia accomplished by a small group of elites. This absolves it proponents from needing to produce any tangible evidence for it, which they do not have. This outside India Theory (OIT) for the Vedas, much like the Aryan Invasion Theory that it supplants, ignores major data in several areas.

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Much important work has been done on the Sarasvati river over the past few years, through the Geological society of India and other scientific groups, with dozens of papers and studies outlining the change of course of this great river over the centuries. The migration theory, Just like the invasion theory, ignores the prominence of the Sarasvati river in Vedic texts. It was the drying up of this river that brought the Harappan civilization to an end. However, such scholars even while recognizing that river changes caused the abandonment of Harappan sites, ignore the fact the same river is central to Vedic texts. They will not equate the great lost river of ancient India with the Vedic Sarasvati, inspite of dozens of Vedic references to its size and its location They would still date the Aryan entrance into India after the drying up of the sacred river in India that the Vedas honor as their ancestral homeland

Just as Vedic literature requires a civilization to produce it, so does Harappan civilization require a great literature to reflect it. Such a vast urban culture would have left a literary mark. Certainly, it could not have been completely overwhelmed by the crude literature of a few intruders from central Asia, Particularly when that intrusive tradition was oral not written, and the Harappans had writing since archaeology now shows, that there was no real break in ancient Indian civilization but only a Post-Harappan relocation, the literature or the region would have persisted as well. (Dr. Koenraad Elst-Linguistic aspects of the Aryan Non-invasion Theory)

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND SUGGESTED FURTHER READING

1.

Allchin, Raymond & Bridget, Origin of a civilization The Prehistory and early Archaeology of South Asia (New Delhi : Viking, 1997)

2.

Danino, Michael & Nahor, Sujata, The Invasion. That Never was (New Delhi : The nd Mothers Institute of Research & Mysore : Mira Aditi, 2 ed; 2000).

3.

Deo, S.B. & Kamath, Suryanath, The Aryan Problem (Pune : Bhartiya Itihasa Sankalana Samiti, 1993)

4.

Elst, Koenraad, Update on the Aryan Invasion Debate (New Delhi Aditya Prakashan, 1999)

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5.

Feuerstein, Georg, Kak, Subhash & Frawley, David, in search of the Cradle of civilization (wheaton, U.S.A. : Quest Books, 1995 & Delhi : Motilal Banarsidas, 1999).

6.

Frawley. David, Gods, Sages and Kings Vedic Secrets of Ancient Civilization (Delhi : Motilal Banarsidas, 1993)

7. 8.

The Myth of the Aryan Invasion of India (New Delhi : Voice of India, 1994) Gupta, S.P. The Indus Sarasvati Civilization, Origins, Problems and Issues (Delhi: Pratibha Prakashan, 1996)

9.

Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark, Ancient cities of the Indus Valley Civilization (Karachi & Islamabad : Oxford University Press & American Institute of Pakistan studies, 1998)

10. Jha, N. Vedic Glossary on Indus Seals (Vanarasi : Ganga, Kaveri Publishing House, 1996). 11. Jha, N. & Rajaram, N.S. The Deciphered Indus scriptMethodology, Reading, Interpretations ( New Delhi : Aditya Prakashan, 2000). 12. Lal B.B., The Earliest Civilization of South Asia ( New Delhi : Aryan Books International, 1997. India 1947-1997 : New Light on the Indus civilization ( New Delhi : Aryan Books International 1998). 13. Mughal, Mohammad Rafique, Ancient Cholistan-Archaeology and Architecture (Lahore : Ferozsons, 1997) 14. Possehi, Gregory L; The Indus Age: The writing System ( New Delhi : Oxford & IBH, 1996) The Indus Age : The Beginning (New Delhi : Oxford & IBH, 1999) 15. Radhakrishnan, B.P. & Merth, S.S. eds, Vedic Sarasvati-Evolutionary History of a Lost River of Northwestern India (Bangalore : Geological Society of India, 1999). 16. Rajaram, N.S. Politics of History- Aryan Invasion Theory and the Subversion of Scholarship (New Delhi : Voice of India, 1995) 17. Rajaram, N.S. & Frawley, David, Vedic Aryans and the Origins of Civilization- A Literary and Scientific Perspective ( New Delhi : Voice of India, 1997) 18. Rao, S.R. Dawn and Devolution of the Indus Civilization ( New Delhi Aditya Prakashan, 1991). 19. Singh, Bhagwan, The Vedic Harappan (New Delhi : Aditya Prakashan 1995).

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20. Talageri Shrikant G; The Rigveda : A historical Analysis ( New Delhi : Aditya Prakashan, 2000). 21. Atherva Veda IX. 5.4. 22. Rig Veda II.20.8. & IV.27.1 23. Rig Veda VII.3.7. ; VII.15.14; VI. 48.8.; 1.166.8; 1.189.2; VII.95.1. 24. (Basham)= A.L. Basham, The wonder That was India. Grove Press, New York, NY 1994. 25. (Fairservis)= The Roots of Ancient India W.A. Fairservis, Chicago University Press, 1992. 26. (Hillebrandt)= A. Hillebrandt, Vedische Mythologie, t.2. Breslau 1922. 27. (Hillebrandt)= A. Hillebrandt, Ausalt-New indischen, Breslau. 28. (ISIH)= An Introduction, To the study of Indian History D.D. Kosambi 1956)= ISIH. 29. (Marshall) = U. Marshall, Mohen-Jodaro and the Indus Civilization, London 1931. 30. (A. Parpola) = Deciphering the Indus Script Asko Parpola, Cambridge University Press, 1994. 31. (Possehi)= Ancient Cities of the Indus, N. Delhi 1979). 32. (Raja) = Aryan Invasion, of India : The Myth and the Truth, by N.S. Rajaram, Voice of India Publication. 33. (Waddell) = L.A. Waddell The Makers of Civilization, Angriff Press, Hollywood, C.A. 1992. 34. (R.E.M. Wheller) = Ancient India, No. 3 (1947) 82. 35. (R.E.M. Wheller) = Civilization of the Indus and Beyond, London 1966. rd 36. (R.E.M. Wheller) = The Indus Civilization 3 ed; Cambridged 1979. 37. (R.E.M. Wheller) = Farly India and Pakistan, London 1959. 38. (R.E.M. Wheller) = 5000 years of Pakistan : An Archaeological outline, London 1950. 39. Cunnigham, A, 1875, Archaeological Survey of India, Report for the year 1872-73,5: 105-8 and Pl. 32-3. Calcutta : Archaeological Survey of India. 40. Elst, Koenraad, 2000, The Vedic Harappans in writing. 41. Fairservis, W; 1971, The Roots of Ancient India. The Archaeology of Early Indian Civilization, New York Macmillan.

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42. Fairservis, W; 1992-The Harappan Civilization according to its writing : A Model for the Decipherment of the Script, Delhi : Oxford and IBH. 43. Farmer, S; 2004a, The Illiterate Harappans : Theoretical Implications of Recent Studies of Indias First Civilization. 44. Farmer, S. 2004b, Mythological Functions of Indus Inscriptions. 45. Hunter, G.R., 1929 The script of Harappa and Mohen-Jadaro and Its connection with other Scripts. Ph. D. Dissertation, Oxford University. 46. Jha, N. and N.S. Rajaram, 2000-The Deciphered Indus script Methodology, Readings, Interpretations, New Delhi : Aditya Prakashan. 47. Joshi, J.P. and A. Parpola, eds; 1987-Corpus of Indus, Seals and Inscription I. Collection in India. Helsinki : Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia. 48. Kak, S; 1988- A Frequency Analysis of the Indus Script. Cryptologia 12 (3); 129-43. 49. Kenoyer J.M. 1998,- Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization Oxford ; : Oxford University Press. 50. Lal, B.B., 2002- The Sarasvati Flows OM : The continuity of Indian culture. New Delhi : Aryan Books International. 51. Marshall J. 1924-First Light on a long Forgotten Civilization. Illustrated London, News Sept. 20:528-32, 548. 52. Marshall, J.ed; 1931-Mohan-Jadaro and the Indus Civilization. 3 Vols. London : Arthur Probsthain. 53. Madhivanam, R; 1995 :- Indus script Among Dravidian speakers. Madaras : International society for the Investigation of Ancient civilizations. 54. Parpola, A; S. Koshenniemi, S. Parpola, and P. Aalto 1969-Decipherment of the ProtoDravidian Inscriptions of the Indus civilization : First Announcement. Copenhagen : Scandinavian Institute of Asian studies. 55. Parpola, A; 1970-The Indus script Decipherment : The Situation of the End of 1969. Journal of Tamil Studies 2 (i) : 89-109. 56. Parpola, A; 1994 :- Deciphering the Indus script. Cambridge; Cambridge University Press.

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57. Possehi, G; 2002a :- The Indus civilization : A contemporary Perspective. Walnut Greek, California : Aftamira Press. 58. Rao, S.R., 1982 :- The Decipherment of the Indus script. Bombay : Asia Publishing. 59. Tosi, M., 1993 :- The Harappan Civilization beyond the Indian subcontinent. In: Harappan civilization : A recent perspective. 2 Delhi Oxford & IBH. 60. Vats, M.S., 1940 :- Excavations at Harappa. 2 Vols. Delhi : Government of India. 61. Witzel, M. and S. Farmer, 2000 :- Horseplay in Harappa : The Indus valley Decipherment Hoax. Frontline 17 (19): 4=11. Available online from http:/www.safarmer.com/downloads. 62. Deo, S.B., and KAMATH, Suryanath, 1993 : The Aryan Problem_Bharatiya Itihasa Sankalana Samiti, Pune. 63. Ganesh, S.N., 1975 : A comparative Grammar of Hindi and Tamil, University of Madras. 64. MISHRA, Satya Swarup, 1992 : The Aryan Problem. A Linguistic Approach. Munshiram Monoharlal Delhi. 65. SHAFFER, Jim, and LICHTENSTEIN, Diane, 1999 : Migration, Phi logy and South Asian archaeology in Bronkhorst and Deshpande : Aryan and Non-Aryan in South Asia. 66. SHARMA, R.S., 1995 : Looking for the Aryans, Orient Longman, Madras. 67. TALAGERI, Shrikant, 1993 : The Aryan Invasion Theory. A Reappraisal, Aditya Prakashan, Delhi-2000 : The Rig-Veda, a Historical Analysis, Aditya Prakashan, Delhi. 68. THAPAR, Romila, 1996 : The theory of Aryan race and India, Social scientist, Delhi, January-March 1996:India. 69. WITZEL, Michael, 1999/1: Aryan and Non-Aryan Names in Vedic India. Data for the linguistic situation, C. 1900-500 B.C. In Bronkhorst and Deshpande : Aryan and NonAryan in South Asia. 70. VISHNU PURAN- 2 nd part-Sanskriti Sansthan, Ved Nagar Bareli India. nd Rev. Ed. G. Possehi PP. 365-78 New

71. PURAN PARISHILAN- Bihar Rashtrabhasa Parishad Patna India- Pandit Giridhar Sharma Chaturvedi.

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72. Kalyan-Shiv Upasna Ank, January 1993, Geeta Press, Gorakhpur, India. 73. Vaman Puran-Sanskriti Sansthan Ved Nagar, Bareli, India. 74. Sanskrit Hindi Dictionary- V.S. Apte. 75. Harivansh Puran-Sanskriti Sansthan, Ved Nagar, Bareli; India. 76. Ramayan-Valmiki, India. 77. Manusmriti-Manu, India. 78. Mahabharat-Vyas, India. 79. Brahmand Puran-Sanskriti Sansthan, Ved Nagar, Bareli, India. 80. Brahma Vaivarta Puran-Sanskriti Sansthan, Ved Nagar, Bareli, India. 81. Vayu Puran-Sanskriti Sansthan, Ved Nagar, Bareli, India. 82. Bhagvat Puran- Sanskriti Sansthan Ved Nagar, Bareli, India. 83. Matsya Puran-Sanskrit Sansthan Ved Nagar, Bareli, India. 84. Excavations at Harappa-Volume 1 & Volume 2 by Madho Sarup Vats-Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, Pvt. Ltd; 54, Rani Jhashi Road, New Delhi; India. 85. Bhartiya Puraitihasik Puratatwa- by Dharmpal Agrawal and Pannalal Agrawal-

Scientific and Technological Dictionary, Commission, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Govt. of India. 86. Sindhu Sabhyata by Dr. K.K. Thapalyal and Dr. S.P. Shukla-Scientific and Technological Dictionary Commission, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Govt. of India. 87. Pauranik Kosh- by Rana Prasad Sharma- Gyan Mandal Ltd.; St. Kabir Marg, Varanasi, India. 88. New Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology-Hamlyn, London: New York : Sydney : Toronto. 89. Kalyan, Hindu-Sanskriti Ank-Geeta Press, Gorakhpur, India. 90. A Lion Handbook : The Worlds Religions : Published by Lion Publishing PLc, Sandy Lane, west, Oxford, England. 91. Ithihas Ki Rajniti (the politics of History): An article Published in Naya Gyanodaya : Bhartiya Jnanpith 18 Institutional Area, Lodi Road, New Delhi; India- Dr. Bhagwan Singh.

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92. The Indus Sarasvati Civilization and its Bearing on the Aryan Question : Michael Danino-http:/Mich eldanino. Voiceofdharm.com/Indus..html. 93. The Myth of the Aryan Invasion of India : by David Frawley. 94. Death of the Aryan Invasion Theory : by Stephen Knapp. 95. The collapse of the Indus-Script Thesis : The myth of a Literate Harappan civilizationSteve Farmer, Richard Sproat and Michael Witzel, (Electronic Journal of Vedic studies 11-2(2004)PP 19-57. 96. Hindutwa Aur Itihas-Romila Thapar. 97. Linguistic Aspects of the Aryan Non-Invasion Theory-by Dr. Koenraad ELST.- Part I & Part II. 98. The Vedic Aryans and the origins of civilization-by N.S. Rajaram and David Frawley2 nd Edition, 1997, Voice of India, New Delhi.

99. The Politics of History : Aryan Invasion Theory and the subversion of scholarship by N.S. Rajaram; 1995. Voice of India, New Delhi. 100. The Aryan Invasion Theory : A Reappraisal, by Shrikant Talageri, with a foreword by S.R. Rao, 1993, Aditya Prakashan, New Delhi. 101 The Problem of Aryan Origin : From an Indian point of view, by K.D. Sethna, Second enlarged edition. 1992. Aditya Prakashan, New Delhi. 102. Britannica Ready Reference Encyclopedia. Co-published by Impulse Marketing, G-43 Green Park, Main Market, New Delhi-110016

l The whole science of building construction engineering of today is based on the Vedic geometrical technique of four pillars called chatustambh which culminates into arches and domes and other multifarious forms and designs. European historians have dated this engineering back to Ancient Egypt, Babylon, Rome, or Greece and then via the Renaissance to the rest of the world in the 15th century A.D., originating from Florence in Italy and from Constantinople in Anatolia replacing the medieval Gothic style with the classical. Incidentally Florence is said to have been founded and flourished in the first century B.C. while Constantinople in the first century A.D. The excavations of Harappa, on the other hand, prove

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that this engineering as the engineering of construction on four pillars or stambh or stupa or columns or Yoops called the chatustambh structure was widely popular in Haryupia or India in the 5th millennium B.C. itself and travelled from Haryupia or Harappa to Istanbul or Istambul in Anatolia and from there to Egypt or Babylon or Israel or Italy or Greece Yoop or Stamb or Stupa is not different, not at all, from the cement cast pillars or columns of todays science of construction engineering which had once upon a time led to the construction of the temple city of Istanbul in Anatolia, the terminal Asian Point which took its name probably from Antya+Alaya= Antyalaya meaning Aryans last hill resort or the last commercial station of their journey to the west. The words- Station or Istanbul or Stupa or Stamb all take us back to nowhere else but to the square shaped large size Yajna Kund in front of every house of Harappa with four small ones at the four corners with a Yoop or Stupa or Stamb of God Hara of Harappa which stood for a temple of its own kind and its own type and which inspired and spread the construction culture of temple buildings all over the world. Historians generally agree that a true copy of this civilisation had once upon a time spread and prevailed right from Panchnad of Aryavarta to Persia and from Persia to Anatolia ruled then by Partheans. These Partheans identified as a community of men riding on horse backs or Chariots driven by horses with arches in hands were sometime dispelled back to Iran and later to their original home at Panchnad, where Parth, Prithus descendent and Prithas son Arjun had once ruled at the fall of Mahabharat. Parthean empire in Anatolia thus, got replaced by the Byzantine and the Byzantine later on by the Ottoman in 1453. The Romans, the Greeks or the Arabs naturally borrowed away the Partheans i.e the Aryavart or Haryupian art and architecture, language, culture and literature and branded this as their great Renaissance. It is simply unfortunate that the culture and the architecture of Haryupia or Harappa, instrumental to the glory of Anatolia and Istanbul in the 5 have been kept a mystery. (Extracted from chapter II of this book.) th Century B.C. itself

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DR. SHEO DAS PANDEY Born Father : At Village Jayichapra (P.O.) Distt.-Saran in a respectable Middle class family. : Vaikunth Nath Pandey, A devout Arya Samajist and National Freedom Fighter

Mother : Shiva Ratna Devi, a kind hearted, loving and religious lady. Education : M.A. in English (Patna University) M.A. in Hindi (Bhagalpur University) LL.B. (Bihar Univeristy), Ph. D. (Bihar University) Service Career : Lecturer in English at Samastipur College, Samastipur and Morang College Biratnagar (Nepal). Teacher of English at Netarhat School, Netarhat (Ranchi), (Bihar Education Service) (1959-66) Bihar Administrative Service (1966-1993), Retd. as Jt. Secretary to Govt. in the Deptt. of Revenue and Land reforms Bihar, Patna. Awards : Besides dozens of distinguished Awards of the Distt. and State levels received the following National Awards : (i) National Unity Award (1991) New Delhi, (ii) Millennium Vishwa Hindi Service Award 2000, New Delhi, (iii) Secular Harmony Award, New Delhi, (iv) Laxmi Narayan Dubey Award, Panipat, (v) Sohan Lal Dwivedi Award, Panipat, (vi) Ambika Prasad 'Divya' National Award for the best Hindi Novel 'Dronacharya' of 2007. Publications : Nadi Pyasi (Hindi Poetry) 1982, Sagar Matha Kitni Baar (Hindi Poetry) 1992, Haan, Mere Malik (Political Satires) 1992, Hindi Kavita Mein Mithak (Principles of Literary Criticism) 1995, Main Hoon Nachiketa (Political Satires) 1998, Jwar Jwar Mahasagar (Hindi Poetry) 1999, Vichardhara Ka Sach (Political Thought) 2000, Yeh Kavita Nahin Hai (Political Satires) 2000, Anjuri Mein Saptasagar, 2008, Dronacharya (Hindi Novel) 2007, Dar Se Na Likhi Kabhi Diary, 2011., Gautam Gatha (Historical Novel ) 2012. and Ek Fata Chita Note, 2012. Current Engagement : A full time writer and Social Activist

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President North Bihar Sanskar Bharti/ Sanskritik Gaurav Sansthans/ Hindi Sahitya Sammelan / Panchshakti Prakashan, Muzaffarpur Contact : Sudhanjali/ Mihanpura/P.O.-Ramna/ Muzaffarpur. Pin-842002, Mob. 09431239631

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