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Design of Strap (Cantilever) Footings


This is a special type of footing used for two columns. The two columns are provided by two
separate footings connected by a rigid beam called strap beam. The footing areas are
proportioned in such away to keep the pressure under the two footings uniform and equal and for
the centroid of the combined footing areas to coincide with the resultant of the two column loads.
It is assumed that the strap beam is rigid and does not transfer any load by bearing on the soil at
its bottom contact surface.
Summary of strap footing design is shown in the following steps.
1- Select trial footing depths.
2- Proportion footing dimensions.
3- Evaluate factored net soil pressure under the footings.
4- Design column footings for beam shear and moment.
5- Design the strap beam for moment and shear.
6- Check bearing strength of column and footing concrete.
7- Check chosen reinforcement bars for anchorage.
8- Prepare detailed design drawings.
Example (11.9):
Design a strap footing to support two columns, shown in Figure 11.18.a, spaced at a distance of
6.0 m center-to-center. Column A is 40 cm 40 cm and carries a dead load of 50 tons and a live
load of 30 tons. Column B is also 40 cm 40 cm in cross section and carries a dead load of 70
tons and a live load of 50 tons.
Use
2
/ 250 cm kg f
c
,
2
/ 4200 cm kg f
y
, and ( )
2
/ 5 . 1 cm kg net q
all
.

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Figure 11.18.a: Footing dimensions
Solution:
1- Select trial footing depths:
Assume footing thickness of 40 cm.
2- Proportion footing dimensions:
( ) net q
P P
A
all
B A
req
+

2
33 . 13
0 . 15
50 70 30 50
m A
req

+ + +

2
2 1
33 . 13 m L B L B +
The distance from the resultant of the column forces to the center of column B is given as:
( )( )
m x 4 . 2
200
6 30 50

+

Center of gravity of the two footings should coincide with the resultant of the two column loads
to ensure uniform soil pressure below the two footings.
Taking moments of footing areas about the center of column B,
( ) ( ) x A A L A
B A A
+ + 2 / 2 . 0 6
1

( ) ( ) x L B L B L L B
2 1 1 1
2 / 2 . 6 +
( )
( )
( )
33 . 13
2 / 2 . 6 2 / 2 . 6
1 1
2 1
1 1
L L B
L B L B
L L B
x



3
( )
33 . 13
2 / 2 . 6
4 . 2
1 1
L L B
x


Let B = 2.5 m,
( )
33 . 13
2 / 2 . 6 5 . 2
4 . 2
1 1
L L

0 8 . 12 2 . 6 2 /
1
2
1
+ L L
Solving this quadratic equation gives
, 62 . 2
1
m L or m L 78 . 9
1
(rejected).
Use , 60 . 2
1
m L and m L 75 . 2
2

3- Evaluate factored net soil pressure under the footings:
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )( )
2
2 1
Bu Au
u
m / t 34 . 20
5 . 2 75 . 2 6 . 2
50 30 6 . 1 70 50 2 . 1
L L B
P P
net q
+
+ + +

+
+

4- Design column footings for beam shear and moment:
4-1 Beam shear:
Effective depth d = 40 7.5 0.9 = 31.6 cm (lower layer)
a- Exterior footing:
( ) tons 82 . 38 316 . 0
2
4 . 0 5 . 2
6 . 2 34 . 20 V
u

1
]
1


,
_



( ) ( )( ) tons 82 . 38 tons 64 . 51 1000 / 6 . 31 260 250 53 . 0 75 . 0 V
c
>
b- Interior footing:
( ) tons 06 . 41 316 . 0
2
4 . 0 5 . 2
75 . 2 34 . 20 V
u

1
]
1


,
_



( ) ( )( ) tons 06 . 41 tons 62 . 54 1000 / 6 . 31 275 250 53 . 0 75 . 0 V
c
>
Punching shear need not be considered due to presence of the strap beam.

Figure 11.18.b: Critical sections for beam shear

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4-2 Bending moment:
a- Exterior footing:
( )
m . t 15 . 29
2
4 . 0 5 . 2
2
6 . 2
34 . 20 M
2
u

,
_



( ) ( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )
003063 . 0
250 6 . 31 260 9 . 0
15 . 29 10 353 . 2
1 1
4200
250 85 . 0
2
5

1
1
]
1


( )( )
2
s
cm 17 . 25 6 . 31 260 003063 . 0 A , use mm 16 13
b- Interior footing:
( )
m . t 83 . 30
2
4 . 0 5 . 2
2
75 . 2
34 . 20 M
2
u

,
_



( ) ( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )
003063 . 0
250 6 . 31 275 9 . 0
83 . 30 10 61 . 2
1 1
4200
250 85 . 0
2
5

1
1
]
1


( )( )
2
s
cm 62 . 26 6 . 31 275 003063 . 0 A , use mm 16 14
For shrinkage reinforcement in longitudinal direction,
( )( )
2
0 . 18 40 250 0018 . 0 cm A
s
, use mm 12 16

Figure 11.18.c: Footing reinforcement

5- Design of strap beam for moment and shear:
5-1 For moment:
The strap beam shall be proportioned for a maximum negative moment of 92.90 t.m, shown in
Figure 11.18.f.
Assume a cross section of 40 cm 100 cm for the strap beam
d
-ve
= 100 7.5 1.0 2.0 1.25 = 88.25 cm

5
( ) ( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )
00862 . 0
250 25 . 88 40 9 . 0
9 . 92 10 353 . 2
1 1
4200
250 85 . 0
2
5
ve

1
1
]
1


( )( )
2
ve s
cm 43 . 30 25 . 88 40 00862 . 0 A

, use mm 22 8
d = 100 7.5 1.6 0.7 1.0 = 89.2 cm
( ) ( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )
004167 . 0
250 2 . 89 40 9 . 0
07 . 48 10 353 . 2
1 1
4200
250 85 . 0
2
5
ve

1
1
]
1


+

( )( )
2
ve s
cm 87 . 14 2 . 90 40 004167 . 0 A
+
, use mm 16 8



Figure 11.18: (continued); (d) Loading diagram; (e) shearing force
diagram; (f) bending moment diagram

(d)
(e)
(f)

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5-2 For shear:
The shearing force diagram is shown in Figure 11.18.e.
Critical shear at distance 88.25 cm from face of column A (to the right) is
tons 67 . 42 V
u

( ) ( )( ) tons 19 . 22 1000 / 25 . 88 40 250 53 . 0 75 . 0 V
c

( )
tons 31 . 27
75 . 0
19 . 22 67 . 42
V
s


( )
( )
( )
cm / cm
4200
40 5 . 3
cm / cm 074 . 0
4200 25 . 88
1000 31 . 27
S
A
2 2 v
>
,
_


Try mm 10 stirrups
( )
cm / cm 074 . 0
S
785 . 0 2
2

Use mm 10 stirrups @ 20 cm.
6- Check bearing strength of column and footing concrete:
( )( )( )( ) tons 164 tons 221 1000 / 40 40 250 85 . 0 65 . 0 P
n
>
i.e. use minimum dowel reinforcement, ( )( )
2
0 . 8 40 40 005 . 0 cm A
s

7- Check chosen reinforcing bars for anchorage:
a- Footing reinforcement ( mm 16 ):
1
s e
and 8 . 0
s

b
c is the smaller of:
, 3 . 8 8 . 0 5 . 7 cm + or
( )
cm 69 . 8
2 14
6 . 1 15 260
c
b


, i.e.,
b
c = 8.3 cm
19 . 5
6 . 1
0 3 . 8
d
K c
b
tr b

+

+
> 2.5, take it equal to 2.5
( ) ( )
( )
cm 86 . 38
250 5 . 2 5 . 3
4200 8 . 0 6 . 1
l
d

Available development length = 105.0 7.5 = 97.5 cm > 38.86 cm
b- Bottom reinforcement in strap beam ( mm 16 ):
1
s e
and 8 . 0
s

b
c is the smaller of:

7
, 3 . 9 8 . 0 0 . 1 5 . 7 cm + + or
( )
cm 14 . 2
2 5
6 . 1 2 15 40
c
b


, i.e.,
b
c = 2.14 cm
34 . 1
6 . 1
0 14 . 2
d
K c
b
tr b

+

+

( )( )
( )
cm 50 . 72
250 34 . 1 5 . 3
4200 8 . 0 6 . 1
l
d

Available development length = 117.5 7.5 = 110.0 cm > 72.50 cm
c- Top reinforcement in strap beam ( mm 22 ):
3 . 1
t
since more than 30 cm of fresh concrete is cast below the reinforcement, 1
s e

b
c is the smaller of:
, 6 . 9 1 . 1 0 . 1 5 . 7 cm + + or
( )
cm 6 . 2
2 4
2 . 2 2 15 40
c
b


, i.e.,
b
c = 2.6 cm
18 . 1
2 . 2
0 6 . 2
d
K c
b
tr b

+

+

( )( ) ( )
( )
cm 95 . 183
250 18 . 1 5 . 3
4200 2 . 2 3 . 1
l
d

Available development length = 213.0 7.5 = 205.5 cm > 183.95 cm
8- Prepare detailed design drawings:
Detailed design drawings are shown in Figure 11.18.c and Figure 11.18.g.

Figure 11.18.g: Design drawings