The Political Mobilization of Independent Publishers: Local and Global Demands for the Book Industry José de Souza

MUNIZ JR. Universidade de São Paulo (USP) Programa de Pós-Graduação em Sociologia Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, 315, sala 1063 São Paulo, SP, Brasil – 05508-010 jose.muniz@usp.br José de Souza Muniz Jr. is a Ph. D. student in Sociology at the University of São Paulo. He earned his Master Degree in Communication Studies at the same institution. His doctoral research is on the changes in Brazilian and Argentinian publishing fields between 1990 and 2010, and especially the role played by the “independent publishers”. He had been working as an assistant editor, copyeditor and proofreader for the past 10 years, both in big and small publishing houses. Abstract This paper summarizes some preliminary concerns raised by a research project on independent publishers‟ associations. Two of them will be analysed here: the Alliance of Independent Publishers, which is based in France and regroups publishers and associations from 45 countries; and the Brazilian League of Publishing Houses, composed of 99 Brazilian publishers and a member of the aforementioned Alliance. The analysis focuses on the public policies the associations support in order to promote widespread access to books and bibliodiversity. The main goal is to evaluate how these entities try to influence the decisions of elected representatives, thereby acting as pressure groups in the formulation of public policies for the book industry and on reading habits both at the national and the global level. Keywords: book publishing; independent publishers; bibliodiversity; Brazil; transnationalization. Word counting: 6441

1. Publishing, capitalism, globalization Since the 1970s, and intensifying in the 1980s, several countries have witnessed an accelerated process of internationalization, financialization and concentration of property in several economic sectors. That process has transformed the local productive arrangements, inserting subjects and institutions in global labor systems, consumption and capital generation (HARVEY, 1993). It hasn‟t been different in the universe of symbolic production and especially in book publishing: fusions, total or partial acquisitions, opening of branches and subdivisions, and partnerships between local and foreign companies have become frequent in several countries. Through a process of horizontal concentration, publishing houses that used to perform direct competition have become part of the same companies, reducing the diversity of information sources, in spite of the increase in number of books released. In some cases of vertical concentration, publishing houses have associated themselves with distribution and bookstore nets, besides owning printing houses and other book chain companies. Also, there are companies that function in several sectors of symbolic production – newspapers, magazines, films, records, internet, etc. – and in other sectors as well – from banks to private education, from telephony to weapon industries, just to mention known examples of conglomerate concentration. Those strategies follow corporate policies to cut down on publishing houses premises, outsourcing and labor deregulations, inasmuch as they should lead to the reduction in production costs and to the increase of productivity (MUNIZ JR., 2010). 1

Nowadays. McGraw-Hill. very well known. on the sides.1 The Spanish ones stand out. ReedElsevier. reshaped the space occupied by publishers. and the classical production. that invest in titles less likely to be sold. This dual process – concentration/pulverization – turns several national editorial markets into oligopolies en frange (See MOLLIER. it is important to notice that the classification according to the billing of a company should not lead to the automatic opposition between the two poles as described by Bourdieu (2007): the cultural industry. Heralds of quality and diversity Those who see a problematic character in the conglomerate. foreign companies of different origins came to dispute space with those already active in the local markets. 2 . which would be better than a scheme that would oppose trade and culture” (in BRAGANÇA. or where editorial lines coexist. The insertion of publishing houses in media. 16 of those (3. such as the technology companies. 2. made up of large publishing companies and conglomerates. Pearson.3%) had a billing up to 4. Cengage Learning.21%) with an annual billing above 25 million dollars. It is always necessary to consider the examples that are not clearly defined according to those categories. there are reasons to assume that the parallel large-industrial X small-artisan echoes in one perception. However. This pulverization seems to be related to how easy it is to produce books: a microcomputer and a few resources allow the completion of all phases of the publishing of a book. and when 1 2 See Borges (2008) for a detailed survey of that scenario. for they have a considerable share of certain publishing segments in those countries. However. or to incorporate them. the last decades have seen emerge many small publishing companies. 2001:26). a large number of small/medium size companies. such aspects are frequently mixed and confused. these possibilities seem to be expanding as the printing and physical distribution (which generates material and operational costs that are too high for certain companies with low capitalization) no longer are prerogatives for the activity. until it is ready for printing. those companies that don‟t fit in either of those “extremes”. dedicated to different niches and public. that art and money are incompatible. with the e-books. when they thought the editors were more concerned with quality and diversity of what they published. which dominate profitable niches and give preference to titles of immediate return. made up of small and medium size ones. as we will see next. In one as well as in the other. In the survey made by FIPE. it is important to consider not only the competition imposed by the big publishing houses but also the entrance of new players in the market. and produces at least 5000 copies. or in the balance between financial and symbolic return. 2011): in the center. data of 2009.8 million dollars annually. the phenomenon of the identification with the groups constitutes a principle that takes into consideration different motivations. Attracted by the expansion of these consumption markets. the UNESCO definition is taken into consideration: a company is considered a publishing house if it publishes at least 5 titles a year. MacMillan. delimited by favorable economic policies. Prisa-Santillana. especially those with national capital. However. Such polarization becomes clear in the Brazilian case: in the last survey carried out by FIPE (Fundação Instituto de Pesquisas Econômicas [Institute of Economic Research Foundation]). many with partial or total participation of foreign capital. the country had almost 500 publishing houses2. education and entertainment conglomerates connected to financial capital has been a target of criticism. some of the companies in the area are among the largest publishers in the world: Planeta. etc. and 420 of them (84. Meyer-Dohm explains: “when establishing a publishers typology. massive and financial hues taken by the editorial market are clearly inclined to make comments reminding them of a missed past. Today. SM. At the same time. especially in places of guaranteed return on investment. Hachette. very few big companies. the entrance of foreign capital.In Latin America.

they would not bend to the financial design. dedicated to their role of culture knighterrant. Agreeing with Bueno. the industries – including the cultural ones – would be deliberately diminishing the quality of the products in such a way that they can be constantly substituted by others. According to 3 “Mancha” is a reference to the region in Spain where Do n Quijote‟s story takes place. As an example. those who resisted their aggressive advancement became a decimated bulwark of a Quijote‟s style mission: to preserve the art of spreading knowledge and to continue to celebrate the cult of the beauty and the sublime forms of representation of words…” In the sequence. as it happens with electric appliances. garnished with a crowd of faithful knights and supplied with an ancestral wisdom that allowed them to elegantly solve any drawbacks. in Spanish and in Portuguese. it reinforces the Western cultural dominium and the hegemony of the countries in the North over the ones in the South. Another aspect pointed out by Colleu is that of the internationalization of the publishing market. such as the one of text books in Brazil. making the wheel of the system turn: “[…] today. according to him. Gilleu. see the literary metaphor used by Bueno (2005:355) to refer to the Spanish editorial market: “There was a time when the people responsible for publishing performed their work imbued with the meaning of their duties towards the reader and the author.” (Rodriguez in BUENO. and they exchanged mills for giants. or to a limited group of partners. with all the consequences that it can bring: profit over quality. She gives special attention to the drop in quality in book production. Nevertheless. making management styles converge. the main cause of the changes in the publishing policies of the large companies that now favor those books that present immediate return. their principles are deviated and the edition of books turns into a crazy. is subjected to the phenomenon of overproduction and of programmed obsolescence: to motivate consumption. performed by professionals that are not very well prepared. stresses the presence of managers that are foreign to the publishing métier: they would be the concrete agents of a world that compares symbolic assets to any other asset. but also the emphasis on a financial drift of that commercialization” (italics mine). the publishing business loses its characteristics and loses the historical commitments with education and culture. or to innocuousness. and decidedly the profitability criteria of a company with a structure that requires abundant and regular investments to survive –. and it would favor ideological and economic exogenous interests. is the change in the structure of the capital: when it no longer belongs to a family. They walked over their particular Mancha – that of the printed text –3. Even though focused on North-American market. “the editorial market has been quickly transforming itself into a small share of the conjoined communication industry” (2006:20). According to the author. and demand annual financial results from them – or force experienced editors to admit and apply somewhat shamelessly. belief in a consumption democracy. “mancha” also means the space the text occupies on the printed page. and who certainly are overloaded. Schiffrin‟s testimony points to similar routes. as well as Bueno. use of standards from the entertainment industry. To him. when the editorial groups acquire quality stamps more or less historical and put in their executive positions people who are aliens to the logic of the publishing field. cars and cell phones. 2005:364) Gilles Colleu (2007:19) corroborates with that: “It is not only a matter of criticizing the commercial aspect of the publishing of a book. aimless activity. it could be said that the book. and becomes a group dominated by pension funds or investment associations. 3 . the author apologizes for the rhetoric and justifies the pessimism: in her opinion. subjected to shorter and shorter deadlines and to an editorial process not as judicious as it should be. But there came a day when the armies of mercenary barbarians devastated this rich and fertile land where the cultural grains were ground. In many countries that would provoke instability among the independent editors‟ actions and would destabilize strategic sectors. the small publishers are just like Don Quijote fighting against an invisible and invincible enemy – a fight destined to failure. credulously.

released in 1945. partly due to political commitments. the prodigious universe of publishing. even though he visualizes it as a democratic issue. and the books of critical content end up disappearing from the bookshelves of bookstores. in turn. Their arguments. domesticating – if not nullifying – their different saberes e sabores6. but an internal censorship. protection of authors‟ rights. France and United States. However. then the debate that is fundamental for the performance of a democracy will not happen. the invisible microcosm of editing. more concerned about the quality of books than the diversity in themes and styles. Also. if the authors mentioned above diverge in their arguments. prepare professionals to be agents of biblio-diversity. fiscal. the one who approached the most to the arguments expressed by the independent publishing houses associations. to survive: elimination of privileges given to large conglomerates on the government book acquisitions. creation of an independent observatory5. editorial concentration represents a political danger: “[…] if the possession of ideas remains in the hands of those who want to make all the money possible. State support to publish and translate. with good catalogues. the official censorship loses its threatening power. glimpses solutions in the field of editorial policies more than in public policies: it would be up to the publishing houses to revert the precariousness of the labor process. to the representative bodies.). starts to take effect in the editorial environment. In that respect. According to him. who saw his own career being swallowed by a huge conglomerate. is pointed out by George Orwell in the preface of his book Animal Farm (published at a later date). Colleu is. 4 .” Even though they deal with different socio-political realities. Colleu (2007) and Schiffrin (2006) propose to those problems? The first author. to the government. the British publishing houses and newspapers. curiously. a nonprofitable organization. are very similar to the ones expressed by the Brazilian poet. global) would be swallowing up the cultural world. the panacea is the New Press experience. respect Unesco‟s Convention on the diversity of cultural expressions. limitation of concentration of property in the sector. with the re-democratization of the country. the solutions proposed by the three authors are related to the role of the public power in their countries (Spain. respectively). they don‟t interfere in the choice of titles. and in part due to commercial interests. through continued education. Only briefly does he mention the possibility of public financing (like the promotion of movies and public TV stations in Europe) the publishing of books by the cultural and academic institutions managed by federal resources. and their interest is limited to a debate of ideas offered by the company. 6 A pun that means “cultures and tastes” (N. Colleu. What alternatives do Bueno (2005). For the most part. he corroborates Colleu (2007:26-28). to whom the strong ideological ties between the big groups and the liberal right make the publishing business suffer influences and pressure. something similar. among those authors.T. 5 As we will see later. to create and propagate a standard and a quality stamp to certify books and companies. financial. it is just a matter of emphasis: in Bueno. in Colleu and Schiffrin. this is the tone of 4 In spite of the “new” character given to the problem in the statements. postal and custom exemptions. informally. all of them end up in a leitmotiv of very strong idealist hue: the Economics world (capitalist. “organic intellectual” of those organizations. and it is financed by a foundation pool. grinding people and books in the same grinding machine. Glauco Mattoso (2004:56): “Beginning in the 1980s. And finally. even though not suffering censorship from the British government – at the time allied with USSR – refused to publish any material against Stalin‟s dictatorship. According to this publisher. Schiffrin leans towards a market solution. they all point to the questions related to “market censorship” and “self-censorship” as the new dangers to freedom of ideas in democratic regimes4. In his book. In Brazil his book (that explicitly mentions the associations) was published by Libre. To a great extent. a publishing house that he founded. in a reality that preceded the boom of the editorial conglomerates. argues that only legislative dispositions in favor of the book and reading would allow independent publishing houses. she only mentions the task of preparing good professionals. this silence took over a big part of the North-American intellectual life” (2006:158).Schiffrin. disconnected from the government. and was some sort of academic speaker. In the end.

ReedElsevier. Portugal.65% of the total billing of the sector. The first one bought national publishing houses (Moderna and Objetiva are the most important ones). Also. São Tomé and Príncipe. signed in 2008. favored the entrance of several large publishing houses in the country. It is in this concentration and internationalization context that in 2001 the Brazilian League of Publishing Houses came out. Mozambique. Cape Verde. it is stated that it is “an organization of public interest.several public manifestations of small publishing houses. Ediouro and Saraiva. considering the return to democracy and the development perspectives. After the 1990s. one of the largest public programs of text books distribution. In the new bylaw of the organization. there was a concentration process led by Brazilian publishing houses that. 9 The Santillana. of publishing houses associated to large communication groups in the country (Abril. In 2010 the government bought a total of US$ 600 million dollars in books for schools. it is necessary to review some circumstantial data. Globo. 8 According to IBGE 2009 data. These countries served like an open door to many companies that wanted to invest in the area. which “works cooperatively for the strengthening of their businesses. due to the conditions mentioned above. However. now seen as a place of big opportunities. Cengage Learning. non-political party affiliation. In the previous decades Brazil had already attracted foreign publishing houses that opened their branches mainly in São Paulo. a strategic market in the expenditure and consolidation of their businesses. the tendency is that the amount will be even more attractive. that the most significant investments occurred and Brazil became.7 years. Just like in other Latin-American countries. it was in the 1990s and 2000s. 1st). the second opened its own subdivision in the country and the third one combined both strategies. in spite of the insufficient schooling rate8. just like what had happened in Mexico. 5 . The Brazilian publishing market and Libre To understand the practices and representations of Libre (Liga Brasileira de Editoras) [Brazilian League of Publishing Houses] in the last years. etc. LeYa. tied to the ideals of quality and diversity. the Brazilian publishing market gigantic cipher (the eighth largest in the world at the time). 10 As examples of groups. less than half of the economically active population had completed at least the mandatory 11 school years. forming publishing groups with several seals10. The average number of school years of Brazilian people between 25 and 64 years old used to be only 7. McGraw-Hill. According to the last demographic census performed by IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística) [Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics] in 2010. added to the relative economic stability and the incentive to foreign capital policies. And. answered for 46. started to acquire participation of others. 3. Angola. the country had more than 190 million inhabitants – which means three times the population of the other CPLP countries (countries of Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa – Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries)7. Some of them. for many large groups. non-profit. and about what they consider to be ominous consequences of that process. For that. Besides that. Record. Guinea-Bissau. of the Brazilian publishing market and their biblio-diversity” (art. Brazil witnessed its publishing market change radically. It is composed of 7 Besides Brazil. with more capital. Folha de São Paulo) and others. SM and Planeta groups are among the most important examples. due to the increase in number of students in fundamental and middle schools. In that same year the expenses with text books alone (including books for private schools). Other foreign companies active in the country: Pearson (present as a brand as well as a shareholder of Penguin in the well known Companhia das Letras). free and independent from public and government sectors”. are beginning to forge and refine the idea of “independent publishing”. since the 1990‟s. the Spanish companies stood out in this period9. This puts Brazil in a strong position in terms of its linguistic market. we must understand the socio-historical conditions in which the organization emerges and evolves. Brazil has had. concerned about market oligopoly. and East Timor are members of CPLP. Argentina and Chile.

Libre tries to define “independent publisher” as the one “not connected to large corporations”. but also by new technologies which threaten its biblio-diversity. it defends the promotion of diversity not only through the fostering of small and medium size companies. the democratization of knowledge and art that depends on this biblio-diversity. Brejeira Malagueta). from children and adolescent literature (Brinque-Book. represented. special credit lines. the “vale -cultura” poposes a benefit given to workers to monthly spend up to R$ 50. for example. according to their size. However. Pinakotheke). but also through free access via libraries. That is why we believe that. Cuca Fresca) to feminist books and books for lesbians (Mulheres. as it has happened with the press.” For the large publishing groups. Here. where small producers compete even with multinationals connected to large economic groups – which. generally speaking. exemption of some taxes). structure and need of high profit margins. the entity adds to the debate questions previously neglected by other organizations. by the Câmara Brasileira do Livro (CBL) [Brazilian Book Chamber] and by Associação Brasileira de Editores de Livros Escolares (Abrelivros) [Brazilian Association of Text Book Publishers]12. if the increase in schooling and in the perspectives of development are opportunities for the conquest of new markets – through new projects. E ao futuro Presidente da República” [Open letter to all future Representatives. 12 Even though many of the Libre publishers are associated to CBL. in a country that is becoming more educated and that has new development potential. controlled reprography without criminalizing students. from foreign novels (34. Ahead. Right in the beginning. permission to book consumption using the “vale-cultura” [something like a culture voucher]11. it is in a 2010 document that the organization sets a more clear position in the field: the “Carta aberta aos futuros Deputados. Libre‟s demands intend to form a public reader not only through book consumption (subsided or not). And to the future President]. Following on these observations. do not differ much from the objectives of Câmara Brasileira do Livro [Brazilian Book Chamber] and the federal government). and clarifies their objectives (that. special fees for book mailing and postage. the letter states which concrete measures is expected from the new elected government: actions that will strengthen small publishing houses and small bookstores (minimal quota when the government shops for books. the text reflects the ideas of the authors mentioned in the previous topic: “The book market is going through a moment of deep transformation. from music score books (Jobim Music) to audio-books (Livro Falante). is even more obvious. such as similar agents in sectors such as journalism. creation and maintainability of public libraries and opening of private libraries to the public. a set price for the book and a fair discount in all levels of the chain. Perseu Abramo) to the books of art (Cosac Nify. Senators. motivated by it s own capital movement. for Libre it means a historical opportunity in favor of reading democratization. As is evident. Senadores. but also fighting the conglomerates and the entrance of foreign capital. several of its presidents and directors have already expressed their opinions in favor of the entrance of foreign capital in the sector as a means of fostering 6 . In its bylaw.99 publishing houses – 40 of those in São Paulo. Ibis Libris). especially. the strong presence of the State in the publishing market. discursively elaborated by Libre. 11 Still in course in the Brazilian Parliament. it adds: “[The book chain] is a complex and unequal chain. survival and. it openly manifests itself against interests of the large ones. In this vein. it is our duty to point to new grounds to break for the maintainability. acquisitions and fusions –. Governors. whose editorial lines vary considerably: from the thoughts of the left (Boitempo. pressure for culture pasteurization”. the two largest economic and publishing poles of the country –. Governadores. Estação Liberdade) to national poetry (7Letras. limitation of the performance of companies with foreign financial capital in the sector. and 39 in Rio de Janeiro. but also.00 (fifty reais) on culture. It supports. the opposition between large and small companies. broadcasting and advertising. above all. creation of a Digital Book Chamber to discuss and implement uniform policies for the sector.

to protect linguistic diversity. Those cases go against the definition of IPA.It is worth pointing out that the Libre document mentions issues related to the book reality in Brazil. it is not an organization that expresses the ideas of a political party. and as such. etc. Moderna. all those initiatives point to common needs – needs that. The organization claims to act against the commercialization of culture and the uniformity of the contents. worldwide. In this last one. in their representations. and there are differences among the a ffiliated organizations of the IPA. including Libre. there are. In order to enrich this discussion. connected to the federal government. […] The „financialization‟ of the publishing world – acquisition of publishing houses by actors of the entrepreneur world without any relationship with the publisher‟s profession and the implementation of a high profit policy – implies in the loss of independence and. and that among the organizations there is the Editora da Fundação Perseu Abramo. the board of directors is basically made up of big text books publishers. book democratization. as these. To the organization. organizational spirit. fight against discrimination. convert themselves into virtues13. submit themselves to less demanding quality standards and to the pasteurization of contents. to fight in favor of independent booksellers. to fight against the direct and indirect censorship. solidarity with those countries where freedom of speech is curtailed. Guadalajara (2005). As to Abrelivros. a priori. In this. The IPA established itself as a legitimate organization to represent the independent publishers in front of the governments and the international organizations in order to influence the course of the policies related to the book and reading. The Independent Publishers Alliance As it happens with Libre in Brazil. less concerned about the cultural value of their products and more dedicated to high financial returns for their owners or shareholders. such definition is given. not rarely. and expresses their ideas in documents such as the Dakar (2003). and Paris (2007) Declarations. 13 The expressions “independent editor” and “independent publishing” appear here as native categories. The most common argument is that it is necessary to fight against the domain of large conglomerates. as well as those related to other countries. or communication group or company. It is suffice to remember that for Libre. we will see the positions that the “independent publishers” take in a transnational action. connected to the Labor Party (PT. to reinforce the local productions. organization initiated in 2002 and set in France. it is not possible to adopt them as transparent. the independent publishers are “a guarantee of the plurality and dissemination of ideas”. national and supranational scopes. However. in a situation in which the editorial production of the large media groups is facing thematic. in Portuguese). basically. the organization defines an “independent publisher” as follows: “An independent publisher conceives his publishing policies with total freedom. institution. 7 . That is the keynote of the Independent Publishers Alliance (IPA). It brings together editors and publisher organizations from many different countries. aesthetic and ideological limitations. and the Edições Casa de Rui Barbosa. to exert influence over international negotiations and book and reading policies. 4. in a modification of the editorial line.). in relation to large conglomerates. Even though the concept of “independent publishers” varies in certain aspects in each case. and the self-censorship as well. as well as in the other two declarations. several different organizations of independent publishers of regional (State and provincial. the organization endorses the motto “for another globalization” and expresses a great variety of other values: solidari ty and social justice. including those of open capital (Abril Educação) and foreign capital (SM. MacMillan). it is important to point out a fundamental specificity of its it.” (2007:2)14 The same document defines “biblio-diversity” as “cultural diversity applied to the world of books”. in an autonomous and sovereign way. 14 There are different criteria to define “independent publisher”.

unrealistic ideas in the Paris Declaration. they emphasize the need for all the performers in the book chain. In order to do that. counting on the reinforcement of Iranian publishers of the diaspora. what can be perceived is that the objectives and the strategies announced by the Independent Publishers Alliance is in agreement with Unesco‟s Convention on the Protection and Promotion of Diversity of Cultural Expressions (2005) – organization that sponsored the meeting that resulted in the Paris Declaration –. it proclaims everyone to work to promote the flow of ideas around the world. encouraging translations between non-hegemonic languages (in order to fight against the prevalence of the English language) and cojoined solidarity editions and the transfer of rights between publishing houses. the recent studies on the global reorganization of the cultural industries support the idea that the national public powers – and also the regional ones. allowing publishing in developing countries – which is called “solidarity book”. In spite of some differences in terms of emphasis and priorities. this is a full. incorporating values not directly connected to the idea of diversity and freedom of speech (for example. the respect for the environment and the adoption of good corporate practices). many authors. On the other hand. forming a data base to foster the public debate.” (CANCLINI. and that resulted in what we could temporarily call “ideology of independence” in book publishing. 2008:70) In order to understand the problems pointed out in the independent publishers‟ speech and their expectations of influencing the public policies. of the plurality of information in each nation and as a facilitator of a more democratic access to social and cultural assets. the discussed authors and organizations usually exemplify what Canclini (2008:70) says: “In the recent analysis of cultural policies. or to perform in contexts of great difficulties. besides mentioning several objectives already expressed in the “declarations”. the organization gives examples of how they could be achieved. As seen. More than that. Conclusion The objective of this analysis is to show the development of a set of arguments originated in several countries and organizations. 5. the document proposes the creation of a net of Persian language in the Alliance itself.performance as related to the authors already mentioned and to Libre: the unconditional defense of freedom of speech in view not only of the “self-censorship” and the “market censorship” present in the democratic States. they believe that fiscal. They also propose the creation of an observatory of biblio-diversity and censorship to monitor the situation of the different countries and regions. In this document. sensitive to the trans-nationalization of culture and its reallocation in media communication processes. in order to turn the support for isolated language publishers into something more concrete. Also. However. Generally speaking. becomes more concrete in a document called Perspectives for the Alliance for 2010-2011. as well as the patrons of art and the international organizations to work together towards the ideals expressed in the Declaration. idealist. it is necessary to examine not only the publishing 8 . but also as the official censorship in the dictatorships. tasks that still are the responsibility of the States and of inter-government organizations.” The author continues in his conclusions: “Just as it is argued about the indispensable role of the States in the defense of biodiversity and in face of the ecological threats. continue to claim the role of the State as a guarantee of public interest. bold agenda in many respects. what seems to be a set of big. like in the European Union – have the responsibility to promote the film-diversity as well as the biblio-diversity. and to pressure governments and international organizations. The organization supports the idea that the book is a public asset and emphasizes the role of sovereign States in its protection and promotion. it is necessary to have programs to support the endogenous cultural production of each nation and the protection of the intellectual properties. For example. cultural and educational policies are critical in order to place the independent publishers in the center of the dissemination of ideas.

at the same time. 9 . it is important to understand how distinct editorial projects that convert themselves into political projects. It deals. making the field and subdivisions tip towards one side or the other. of course –. repercussion. Complementing those ideas. this discussion is not exclusive to the publishing field. sometimes one standing out. between the maintainability of political. 2003:73). between entertainment and democratization of culture. unions and publishers‟ organizations. The idea of “independence” also in journalism. groups considered here as institutions. movies. for the Ph. mediated by interviews. it is important to consider that the oppositions of the field. This risk is valid because it can explain certain specific processes. arts and music echoes certain oppositions – discursively constructed. experiences and convictions that constitute the whole group. or at least justify. between the culture being managed by intellectuals or by agents of the corporative world. especially as to the direction that is planned for the book public policies: what role do the government and supragovernmental institutions exert on the definition of such policies? How much pressure do they suffer from the chamber of commerce. in future papers. financing forms. 1998:21)? What effects do the specific pressures and field relationships have in the short and in the medium run? The centrality given here to the arguments in favor of the independent publishing and of the quality cannot obscure the fact that there are also other arguments that emphasize. and sometimes the other. economic and religious alliances and the ideological autonomy. create new positions in it. rather.sector. It is expected that the analysis of the path of the publishers and the access. a different perspective to the debate. and it couldn‟t be different. a Brazilian federal agency that fosters research. This false consensus obscures the multiplicity of projects and interests: to specific subjects and groups. civil society and private initiative) that insist on the need to increase the reading rates. In that sense. adhesion. the meaning of a reader varies as well as the means to reach that goal. publishers and institutions that believe to be contrary to a certain reasoning that is developed in the field15. theater. authors and booksellers. with the search of concrete forms of publishing (the property regime. as well as new groups of life courses for the individuals that occupy them” (THOMPSON. It would be hasty. awards. 6. between financial profitability and aesthetic experimentation. Temporary and partial. i. the phenomenon of concentration and internationalization of the publishing market. scholarship it has given me. circulation. as a place of disputes that become the agents in question. 15 By the way. require the discarding of the common sense idea that the publishers are molded by the consensual project of “reader country”. the efforts of convergence) the overlapping of those two spheres of disputes.. profits – not even the search of a symbolic recognition – acclamation. Acknowledgements I would like to thank Capes.D. explicit or covert opposition. between private interests (connected or not to the transnational capital) and the public interest. supra-state organizations. it is possible to run the risk of overshadowing or leaving for a second plan the diversity of directions. to their experiences will finally take us to the “whirlwind of practices and investments through which the agents are trying to find reasons capable of justifying their existence” (MICELI. at the expenses of others. delimited by interests and specific disputes. exceed the individual plan of each publishing house to culminate in collective practices and interests that are in direct or indirect. This will take us to places (both institutional and discursive) where those fights occur. based on speeches (from the State. this text tried to give intelligibility and visibility to the converging practices and representations of authors. organizations that “define the configuration of the preexistent field interaction and. Those disputes don‟t refer only to capitalist competition – the search for readers.e. then. the book industry or the reading market: we need to focus on the publishing field. development of catalogue policies. to classify publishers and publishing houses in two poles – economic and cultural. provided that it will give. So.

2. 2005. 2005. 2007. 2010. no. Independent Publishers Alliance. “A evolução do sistema editorial francês desde a enciclopédia de Diderot. Paris. Vol.Y. p. “Editadura: exclusão versus opressão editorial. Harvey. 2007. 2010.alliance-editeurs. p. Available at: <http://www. F. 355-370.” Panace@. Canclini. Independent Publishers Alliance.br/institucional_view. G... 2007. Déclaration des éditeurs indépendants du monde latin.org. São Paulo: Perspectiva. Colleu.-Dec. O eros pedagógico: a função editor e a função autor. April 2003. E ao futuro Presidente da República. libros de estilo y políticas editoriales. para Proteção e Promoção da Bibliodiversidade. São Paulo: Com-Arte. Disponível em: <http://libre.. Um novo cenário para o negócio do livro. 61-74. Miceli. April 2008.1. Silvia S.alliance-editeurs.org/IMG/pdf/decla_fr. 2004. p.org. G. 2010.alliance-editeurs. um ator maior da bibliodiversidade. 2005. Carta aberta aos futuros Deputados. Brazilian League of Publishing Houses. Sept.allianceediteurs. p. Bourdieu. Mattoso. Independent Publishers Alliance. References Borges.org/panacea/IndiceGeneral/n_21-22_revistilo_SenzBueno. P.libre. Busato et al. São Paulo: Com-Arte. eds. Editores independentes: da idade da razão à ofensiva? O editor independente de criação. 21-22. Governadores. J. Available at: <http://www. 2003.pdf> [Acessed 15 June 2012]. B. May 2011.org/IMG/pdf/Alliance_-_Declaration_fr. 2001. Mollier. no. 10 . “Bourdieu e a renovação da sociologia contemporânea da cultura.pdf> [Acessed 25 May 2009]. Senadores. G. Les perspectives 2010-2011 de l’Alliance. Condição pós-moderna: uma pesquisa sobre as origens da mudança cultural. Available at: <http://www.asp?IDPagina=9> [Acessed 15 June 2012]. N. Procesos de control de calidad del texto. Dakar.pdf> [Acessed 15 June 2012]. Novo estatuto da Libre. A versão do autor. 2008.pdf> [Acessed 15 June 2012]. 55-71. S. Ph. D.medtrad. VI. Available at: <http://www. 2011. Brazilian League of Publishing Houses. São Paulo: Loyola. “„En lugar de la Mancha‟. no. Available at: <http://www.7. Declaração Internacional dos Editores Independentes.” Tempo Social. Bueno. Guadalajara (México).” In: J.” MATRIZes. 63-79. Universidade de São Paulo. p.org/IMG/pdf/PDFPORTUGAIS.br/institucional_view. A.pdf> [Acessed 15 June 2012].org/IMG/pdf/Les_perspectives_2010-2011_de_l_Alliance. D.” LIVRO: Revista do Núcleo de Estudos do Livro e da Edição.. Independent Publishers Alliance. “A cultura política: entre o mediático e o digital. 2010. Bragança. A economia das trocas simbólicas. 53-60. Déclaration des éditeurs indépendants et solidaires. 2008. Available at: <http://www. Rio de Janeiro: Libre.asp?ID=87> [Acessed 15 June 2012]. A. 2003.

br IBGE [Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics]: www. S. Convenção sobre a Proteção e a Promoção da Diversidade das Expressões Culturais. J. A mídia e a modernidade: uma teoria social da mídia. 2010.pdf> [Acessed 15 June 2012]. 2005.ibge. Rio de Janeiro: Casa da Palavra. O trabalho com o texto na produção de livros: os conflitos da atividade na perspectiva ergodialógica.gov. A.unesco. J.libre.alliance-editeurs. Unesco. 2010.br 11 .cbl. Universidade de São Paulo. Websites CBL [Brazilian Book Chamber]: www. Petrópolis: Vozes.org. O negócio dos livros: como as grandes corporações decidem o que você lê. B. 1998.org Libre [Brazilian League of Publishing Houses]: www. 2006.org.org/images/0015/001502/150224POR.. Texto oficial ratificado pelo Brasil por meio do Decreto Legislativo 485/2006. Available at: <http://unesdoc. Master Degree.Muniz Jr. Thompson.br Independent Publishers Alliance: www. Schiffrin.

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