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IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery. Vol. 10, No. 3, July 1995
Harmonic and Interharmonic Distortion in Current Source Type Inverter Drives
R. Carbone, Non Member A. Testa, Member, IEEE Dip. Ing. Elettrica Univ. "Federico II"
D. Menniti, Non Member
Dip. di Elettronica Informat. e Sistemist. Rende (CS) - Italy
R.E. Momson, Non Member E. Delaney, Non Member
Stafforshire University School of Engineering Stafforshire, U.K. Power Quality Services East Midland Electr. PLC U.K.
Abstract - Current source inverter drives are sources o f harmonic and non-harmonic distortion in supply systems. The non-harmonic components have frequencies that change d h motor speed, so conventional filters might not be effective in redclcing their amplitude. The distortion calculation at the design stage &ws preventive actions to minimise the distortion at source by varying d c. link and/or a c . motor parameters. f the paper is to discuss the modeling o f the supply The aim o side current distortion and to analyse the effects o f non-ideal supply conditions. The main utilizable modek, both analogue and numerical, are discussed and analysed Several laboratory and numerical experiments are reported to compare the differenl model characteristics and to analyse the current &tortion sensirivity to the supply voltage distortion and unbalance.
Keywords - Power System. Hamioriic arid Interharmonic Distortion, Inverter Drive.
I. INTRODUCTION The analysis of the current source rectifier is well known when the d.c. load is a d.c. motor. When the d.c. load is an inverter feeding an a.c. machine, the analysis is not so straightforward. Current source Qpe inverter drives are now common for some high power, high speed applications where the inverter may be naturally commutated by voltages generated by the load. Such drives are sources of harmonic and non-harmonic distortion components in the supply side currents [ 11. The harmonic components have frequencies that are integer multiples of the ac system fundamental frequency and are similar to those generated by a d.c. motor drive. The non-harmonic components have frequencies that are not integer multiples of the system fundamental frequency and are generated by the d.c. side current ripple produced by the inverter. The non-harmonic components are referred to by the term "interharmonics".
This paper was presented at the 1994 Intemational Conference on Harmonics and Power Systems held in
Bologna, Italy, September 21-23, 1994.
The frequencies of the interharmonic components change with the motor speed, so, as the drive is started or as the motor speed is changed, there is the possibility of exciting dormant a.c. system resonances remote from the drive; at certain motor speeds other problems such as light flicker can also result. Furthermore, conventional filters on the a s . side might not be effective in minimising the distortion. Therefore, the magnitude of interharmonic currents needs to be accurately evaluated and controlled. The trend in the international standards is to fix lower limits for the interharmonics than those for the harmonics . In two previous papers [3,4], some of the authors performed studies to analyse the harmonic and the interharmonic current components generated by drives of current source type, with specific reference to the case of synchronous motor drives, assuming ideal working conditions: circuit physical symmetry, absence of supply voltage distortion and large values for the d.c. link reactance. One paper  describes the two principal interharmonic components generated by a synchronous motor drive and analyses the effect of d.c. link reactance upon the magnitude of interharmonic current components. To meet this end, the authors have used the experimental results obtained by means of an analogue experimental model. From the results of this paper, it is possible to postulate that the magnitude of the interharmonic current components decreases, but not linearly, with increasing d.c. link inductance. To overcome the difficulties associated with the use of an analogue experimental model, the paper  proposes a simple frequency domain analytical model for the prediction of the a.c. side distortion assuming a simplified commutation model. Recently, an analytical model has been presented , which uses switching functions, that is to say the modulation theory, to analyse how harmonics and interharmonics are transferred in both directions through three phase bridges. This model is also utilizable for the inverter dnve analysis and allows to take into account the supply voltage distortion and unbalance, but assuming again a simpllfied commutation model. The effects of non ideal working conditions (a.c. supply voltage distortion and unbalance, a.c. supply system impedance unbalance, non-infinite d.c. side reactance) have been analysed and documented for the case of current source rectifiers supplying a d.c. motor [6,7,8] or a battery system  or a superconductive coil [lo]. It has been demonstrated
0885-8977/95/$04.00 Q 1994 IEEE
5.c. window weighting functions [ l l ] characterised by high resolvability and detectability and/or high frequency resolution transforms [ 121 should be used. a . . The model utilisation requires laboratory measurements . 1. the distorted current waveforms should be sampled for a time period equal to the Fourier fundamental cycle or an integer multiple of it. of the generators. it is basically two 6-pulse converters coupled by a d.3 . voltage and this is usually achieved by controlling the rectifier firing angle.11. in additional to the typical rectifier harmonics.c. Due to the presence of harmonics and interharmonics of the system fundamental frequency. are reported with the aim of comparing the numerical model accuracy.1 is shown in Fig. ripple voltages which are harmonics of the output frequency...c.c. b) there are no harmonics in the e. A power electronic simulator modeling the system depicted in Fig. at the motor frequency. the results of a sensitivity analysis to the supply voltage distortion and unbalance obtained by means of time domain simulations are reported. Finally. n2=1.c. It has been demonstrated that characteristic interharmonic frequencies fi are: fi=nlfac*6n2fs [Hz] nl=1. where fac is the supply system fundamental frequency and fs is the drive output frequency. machine. load consisting of an inverter feeding an a. the case of the synchronous motor drive. a .c. Then. The d. of the synchronous motor.. to perform Fourier's expansions correctly.c.c.c. Thus. In principle any actual system non-ideal condition can be reproduced into the EAM by means of an appropriate choice of single components. As the d.. voltage is inverted into a. the harmonics of the output frequency are modulated by the harmonics of the supply frequency. in practice this is difficult to achieve and the following assumptions are adopted to simpllfy the model: a) the power supply system is balanced. link. characterised by a negligible impedance and reproducing the back e.2.c. Each of them is characterised by a different degree of complexity in representing the a. link. link current is reflected into the a.c. The speed of the synchronous motor can be varied by varying the d. I : Synchronous motor drive a1 a2 Fig. low magnetising current transformers. the converters. However.m. In the following work different models of the current source type inverter drives are described and critically analysed with specific reference to the case of synchronous motor drives. side synchronous motor drive currents. three different model types are discussed. A. This modulation results in a new set of components.c. Various models are available to obtain the a. at interharmonic frequencies generally not related to integer multiples of the input frequency. According to the empirical linear model suggested in . When this is not possible due to the limits of computational effort or when uncertain forecasts define the Fourier's fundamental frequency. In the following. and capacitors.f. The d. the d. Fig.m. A typical synchronous motor drive (SMD) system is shown in Fig.f. experimental measurements on low power analogue models. in series with an inductor reproducing the subtransient reactance. the supply voltage is rectified by the supply side six pulse rectifier to energise the d.f. MODELS In this paper. it may be necessary to desynchronise the sampling time intervals from the Fourier fundamental cycle.. It consists of a number of scale model converters and model power system components such as high Q factor chokes. along with results of numerical simulations obtained by means of frequency and time domain models. In this last case..7. link and the synchronous motor.m. supply-system. that is the greatest "man divisor of all of the frequency components in the signal. by the motor side six pulse inverter that is commutated naturally by the back e.c.c. 2:Lm power analogue model - When in the motoring mode. supply current.. The supply is replaced by a motodgenerator set synchronised to the mains frequency. The rectifier and inverter models consist of small thyristor 6-pulse bridges. Experimental analogue models It is possible to set up low power experimental analogue models [ 131 @AM)of a synchronous motor drive system. the synchronous motor is represented by a large synchronous machine. 11.2. The aim of the present paper is to give more detailed analysis specifically applied to current source rectifiers supplying a d.. and not that of the generic current source type inverter drive. is different to the system fundamental frequency and is often very low. the Fourier's fundamental frequency fF. is specifically referred to although the considerations developed apply to the more general case.1577 that models which do not take into account the non ideal working conditions or use simplified commutation models may lead to numerical results very far from the actual physical behaviour of the system under study. link current contains components due to the inverter d.
where Vrect(d. link inductance is large. mainly.c.c.. link current is composed of direct components and ripple components: - c + B c j n s h ~ & )+ (Achcosnwact+ BchSinnwact)+ sinwad BI.c.c. etc.18. The d.c.) + Ilink(a.acosmd Rectifier and inverter bridge models in the frequency domain. - Ilink = Ilink(d..12.c. link reactance is large compared to the motor and system reactances. link current and (ii) when commutation occurs the current is determined. For the sake of semplicity. the following equation may be written: 1a. Expression (1) can be rewritten as: 1a. = a1 a2 fs Fig. supply current is equal to the d.t) m=6.1 it is possible to refer to very complete models.c.Ics is the current occurring during the commutation. the firing pulses in the bridges are equidistant.. supply current: 1a. Es a*ES a Es fac +Bmshact) + Bcmsinnwact) n=1. some of the most recent utilise the switchmg function approach [4. Time domain niodels The time domain models (TDM) can refer in principle to very general schemes. Bcs.))dt.18. ..).. magnetic material saturation. (4) Each term in (4) can be transformed to the frequency domain by means of a Fourier's expansion thus: ICS= B. by the short circuit current or its inverse. Vinv(d.c.c. is the supply current. ) . More comprehensive frequency domain models..t + Blnvmsinmw.. The analogue model is simple to set up but there are complications to obtaining results.. (Amm c0smw. Ainv and Binv are Fourier's coefficients whose calculation is reported in the literature .c.c.c. ) .c. . link.3 and simple analytical formulas. (2) (3) Llink . so that the effect of d. link resistance is negligible for a. with different degrees of complexity.) + Ilink(a.1578 and their analysis. Ilink is the current flowing in the d. . in the paper the frequency domain analytical model (FDM) explicitely referred to is that proposed in  which uses the symmetrical scheme of Fig. Icf= Vrect(a.5. are able to take into account also non-ideal supply conditions. have been proposed.c. Arect.) = Vrect( d . 3: Frequency domain analytical model scheme c(Acsnc0Smct Arecm + Ilink(d. based on more complex analytical expressions.) with J&&(d. Acf..c..c..) = Vinv(a. Substitution for ICS.) = L J ( V r e c t ( a .c.7.7.c.c. . Bcf. seem still unavoidable. No simplifying assumptions are strictly needed. firing asymmetries.. Brect. ) .c. and that the d. takmg into account any lund of non ideal conditions as background distortion.c. there are no voltage harmonics at the converter terminals. Knowing that (i) when the rectifier is conducting the a.c. n=1. needed by the switching function thecniques.Ctlll + x + x - 2 E( cosmwact) x mmcLlink z(AchcosrmCt+ Bcmsinnwact)+ Alnm Binsinost cos most) x m mcLlink ( L h y $ z c t + Bcfnsinnoact) (5) 1( mwaLink Although the previous expression seems to be complex the FDM solution does not require heavy computational effort and is very quick in execution.1a.. c . the waveforms do appear in real time.12. They can be utilised to model the SMD system. However. Rllnk 'ink(a.Icf is the rectlfer conduction function (0 during the commutation and 51 during conduction).3. c . link resistance is ignored in expression (3). the inaccuracies due to the approximate extimation of the overlap angles. Fig. = Ics + Icf (Ilink(d. although in practice limitations in detail are forced by the need to contain the computational effort.)). However.Vinv( d. the d. = Ics + (Icf Ilink) (1) where: . Frequency domain analytical models z(AcsnCOSIYOad c(A.c. unbalances. Acs. The d.5. quantities.3.. The component parameter values are chosen to obtain correspondence between the model and real system.Icf. C. .)..c.c.4 evidences as for each part of the physical system depicted in Fig.15. and Ilink in (4) gives the following result for the a.) = c c ( A ~ ~ ~maact c o s+ BrectmSinmwact) m=6.) The following simpllfylng assumptions are made: the power supply system is balanced.16].5. to the knowledge of the authors.Viv(a.c.c.
EXPERIMENTS Numerous tests have been performed utilising the models described in the paper. 111. fs=80Hz. It may be noted that the TDM results are closer to the EAM . Li=14mH Vi. To describe the various case-studies reference will be made to the synchronous motor drive model depicted in Fig.~E2~=-120'.c. Analogue model measurements and simulation results under ideal working conditions Fig.32 V. a2=137'. Vj=5.c. Rlink=1. b) to use interconnection methods to connect the parts of the models. 4: Time domain model general scheme With reference to the well known ATP software [171 it is necessary to conduct the following sequence: a) to set up differential equations for each part of system. In Fig5 both converters are six pulse type. for appropriate time interval. Es=45. side current harmonic and interharmonic sensitivity to supply-side voltage distortion and unbalance.c. Additionally. Table I: Ideal condition current components as % o f the Fig.19 V j=land Vi. side current waveforms. side current waveforms. for the sake of . side current harmonic and interharmonic components. al=29'. 6: A. which contains the current waveforms obtained by the TDM and the EAM. the only test referred to is that characterised by the following data: Ej=46. In  tests are reported that demonstrate that a good agreement is found between the FDM results and the EAM measurements. LE1 l=O0. demonstrates the good agreement between a. Ll 1 T i [AI -11 Fig.7. the EAM. a c u l t i e s in the use of the model and the long calculation time.5. The synchronous motor drive TDM couples all the well known advantages of detailed models. Simulation results under non-ideal working conditions Since the EAM is not suitable for all the non ideal condition cases. curve a) refers to TDM and ) to EAM curve 6 Fig. In this section.1 sec.35 Ohms.5: Synchronous motor drive model A. For this reason the waveforms obtained by means of the EAM and the TDM have been subject to FFT application considering a sampling period of 0. with controlled devices. Ls=lO mH. Llink=75 mH. the sensitivity to supply voltage distortion and asymmetry has been analysed. The 430Hz and 530Hz components are the main expected interharmonic currents.. . after the steady-state has been reached. E$* Vi.- 1579 brevity. the same case-studies of  have been repeated using the power electronic simulator. that are high accuracy and well developed software availability. B. A second subsection refers to TDM applications to case-studies in which the drive considered is supplied under non-ideal conditions and its aim is to give information about the a.c. In order to verify the accuracy of the TDM. In Table I the EAM measurements and the FDM and TDM results are reported in terms of the main a.LEI l=-24Oo. TDM and FDM models have been applied to case-studies under ideal conditions to compare the Merent methods.6. Firstly. The test results confirm the well proven reliability and accuracy of the time domain models. d) to subject the waveforms of interest to Fourier's analysis. measurements than those of FDM. c) to solve the differential equations using numerical integration until steady state conditions are reached. Disadvantages are of excessive data requirements. The Fourier fundamental frequency of the current waveforms is 10%. fac=SOHz. the TDM has been utilised as the basic tool to perform several experiments under non-ideal conditions.
c.c. El7. LE31=-240°..) in twelve steps and for the other quantities the same values have been used as in case a). The sampling period to be considered for the FFT application is 0. LE37 = -240" + 1*30°. 1d g ! a d e1 250 I 22. The 7th harmonic curve is of opposite phase with values of the same order as the 290Hz interharmonic current. The 12 simulation results are plotted for the interharmonics in Fig. LE25 = -240" + 1*30°.) in twelve steps and for the other quantities the same values have been used as in case a). Table II: A. The main expected interharmonic frequencies are 190Hz and 290Hz.. LEz7 = -120" + 1*30°. with identical phase and with highest values of about 20%. LE21=-1200. 19 V Vi. 7th and 1 I th harmonic currents. For the sake of brevity harmonics up to 550 Hz and the two main interharmonics only are included. with lower maximum values. f the percentage values. obtained in terms of a. LE35 = -120" + 1*30". al=29". E3 . with the 5th supply harmonic voltage phase-angle.87 1I 1 These results represent the base or control results that in the following tests would be obtained if the non-ideal conditions were not taken into account. E?.2.1.1 sec. with the 5th harmonic supply voltage phase angle..9 and for the harmonics in Fig. E3 l. The results are again plotted in terms of percentage variation of the values obtained in case a) as functions of phase angle of the 7th harmonic supply phase-voltage.. The amplitude variation of both interharmonic current curves are quasi-sinusoidal. -20 - P ! Y Fig. E2 . LEll=O". Iha.1. side current components in % of thefundamental Fig. =o The results. plotted as functions of phase-angle of the 5th harmonic supply phase-voltage.14 Ohms. lia. Five different tests are considered by a pro riatel selectin different values for E1 l. the drive working conditions are assumed to be unaffected. E1 . The variation of the interharmonic components is larger than that of the harmonics. Llink=75 mH. c) Supply voltage distorted by a 7th harmonic component Twelve simulations have been performed assuming: Ei7=1. Rlink=7. = o E ~ ~ Vi.98 I 550 I 190 I 7. fs=40 Hz. the following data have been preserved for all the tests: Ll=L2=L3=14 mH.1580 To aid comparisons between the various studies that have been carried-out. obtained in case a) 11 frequency I .49 5. E37.40 1 290 4. Es=45.. Considerations similar to those of case b) apply for interharmonic curves. side current components. Similar considerations apply to the 5th and 11th harmonic amplitude variation curves.7 and for the harmonic currents in Fig. The 12 simulation results for the interharmonic currents are plotted in Fig. the values are in terms of percentage variation of the basic values (in percentage of the fundamental) obtained in case a). the phase-angles of the harmonic voltages have been varied (1=0. are reported in Table 11. the results are a percentage of the percentage values. LEi5 = 1*30°.04 I 350 I 9. E2 l. obtained the results are a percentage o in case a) 2o (A Ih/Lha)* 100 T 10 0 1 ~-5th +-7th +llth] a) Ideal supply In this case the following conditions are assumed: -1 0 Ei1=46. AIh.77 V Vi (corresponding to the 6% of Eil). The 290Hz component variations are larger than those of the 190Hz component. Ali.32 V. b) Supply voltage distorted by a 5th harmonic component Twelve simulations have been performed assuming: Ei5= 2. a2=137". 7: Variations o f the 19OHz and 290Hz interharmonic currents.2. 8: Variations of the Sth. Ls=lO mH.8.10. . the phase-angles of the harmonic voltages have been varied (1=0.39 V Vi (corresponding to the 3% of Eil). E ~ ~ Vi.. The harmonic curves are still sinusoidal like but with distributed phase. LE17 = 1*30°.
26 V. [ I -32777 I -3 1.] phase 1 amplitude[%] phase 2 amplitude(%] 0.39 4. 7th and I Ith harmonic currents.91 I 350 9. side current harmonic and interharmonic components for all three phases.18 9.75 . The maximum variations obtained. with the phase-angle a. 12) in terms of percentage variation of the percentage values obtained under ideal conditions (Tab. LE25 =45 -240°.70 5.62 10. Table IV: Three phase a x . Variation of $5 and $7 have been considered in tune with tab. LE27 3 7 -120°.1581 (A IMha)*100 2o T The interharmonic current component variation reach as about +/. LE35 =45 -120°. (AIMha)*100 25 15.78 -235.05 the other quantities having the same values as case a).LE3 '=-240".] 1 20 30 40 50 Fig.22 -196. 7th and I I th harmonic currents.63 21. The results obtained are summarised in Table IV. LEi7 =47 .c.5=2. Ali. 11 frequency [Hz] I 150 I 250 22. Iia. obtained in case a) (A IMha)*100 2o -5 I 30 60 Fig. Ali. with the 7th harmonic supply voltage phase angle. 1 1 V LEil=O'.12 I 550 7.45 ~. A Zh. IO: Variations o f the 5th.39 V Vi(correspondingto the 3% of Eili LEi5 =45 . obtained in case a ) d) Supply voltage distorted by typical 5th and 7th harmonic components Six simulations have been performed assuming: E. 9 6 V.81 0.~e-*e[deq 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 2o (A IMha)*100 T Fig. Iha. 11: Variations o f the 190Hz and 290Hz interharmonic currents. the results are a percentage o f the percentage values obtained in case a) e) Unbalanced supply voltages It is assumed in this case that: E1 '= 45. the results are a percentage o f the percentage values. in comparison to the case a) results. as functions of the delay-angle values a. LE37 =i)7 -240°.09 5. with the 7th supply harmonic voltage phase-angle. side current components in % o f the fundamental which results from the distortion caused by a large rectifier on the common coupling point busbar with the synchronous motor drive operating with a firing delay angle. -20 1 Fig. LE~~=-120'. 11) and for the harmonic currents (Fig. in terms of a..45 6. E 2 k 5 .43 7. are reported in Table V.95 I 190 5.II).93 1.25% and both components are very similar.30 1 amplitude["/. P. 111: -20 10 Phase-angle[deg.27 ~~ -213. A Ih.93 5. these data correspond to an unbalance of the fundamental supply voltages of 2%. The harmonic variations are lower than those of the interharmonics and have signs for 5th and 11th harmonics opposite to that of 7th harmonic. 12: Variations o f the 5th. The 6 simulation results are plotted for thc interharmonic currents (Fig. with the phase-angle a. 9: Variationso f the I90Hz and 290Hz interharmoniccurrent. E 3 l 4 7 .~-286. pyE--pq 1 30 40 50 I I I -163.77 V Vi(correspondingto the 6% of Eil) Ei7=1.95 I 290 5. as a percentage o f the percentage values.67 21.04 . the results are a percentage o f the percentage values obtained in case a) -20 .
analogue. where the harmonic transfer through converters and DC links is analysed showing how the converters intercouple the a.c. only to the case b) results. minor variations occur for further dc side harmonic currents and in particular for the d. 26th Universities .68 Once again the variations of interharmonic components are greater than those of the harmonics. E. side 6-th harmonic current which causes. E.  IEC. if the effect of the background distortion is ignored any calculation used may predict values which are lower than would be found on the real system. R. A good agreement between the results of the methods considered occurs under ideal conditions. the results of a sensitivity analysis to the supply voltage distortion and unbalance obtained by means of time domain simulations are reported. it is possible to observe that: a) the use of simplified models assuming ideal working conditions may lead to numerical results very far from the actual physical system behaviour. IEE conf.  Delaney. systems and act as a tranfer medium for harmonics. component and for the 12-th. b) interharmonic currents seem more sensitive to the background supply distortion or unbalance than the harmonic currents. at the same time. as % ofpercentage values Ira man (AIr/AIra)* 100 100. (ii) the frequency domain models do not require a heavy computational effort and are simple to apply. it is here indicated that the presence of a fifth harmonic voltage of 6 percent may cause a 20 percent increase in the value of the dominant interharmonic currents (Fig. (iii) the time domain models offer high accuracy and are the most flexible in taking into account non-ideal working conditions. the d. industrial plants 'I. CONCLUSIONS The harmonic and interharmonic distortion in current source type inverter drives has been considered. and Morrison. in particular. for the sake of semplicity. REFERENCES: [l] Ivner.c.02 -7. The most appropriate. iii toghether with the d.c. S. publ.c. the 12-th component causes variations of the supply side 11-th and 13-th harmonic currents. side 6-th harmonic variation mentioned in i). J.:" Harmonic generation from a variable speed synchronous motor drive". " Compatibility levels in Document 77B (Sec) 49. Finally. IV. March 1988. Acktiowledgements . Gagliardi for his valuable comments arid discussions. side current ripple caused by the inverter and determining the variation of the supply side interharmonics.0 2. and d. 1985. On many systems the background distortion is low and may be ignored. :"Interharmonic Currents in Synchronous Motor Drive". component causes a variation of the inverter working conditions so modifving the d. except for the case of the third harmonic which appears in the presence of unbalance.The aitthors wish to tliatik Professor F.19 10. pp 339-343. also a variation of the supply side 7-th harmonic current. obtained by means of both frequency domain and time domain models. Since the exact nature of background distortion is often not well understood it is safer to assume that the interharmonic components are elevated. Sub-committee 77B. Referring to the previously reported test results and. 250. on some private supplies such as ships and oil platforms the background distortion is significant and therefore it should be considered to avoid undesirable errors. C. have been reported. Therefore. the greater variations of the interharmonics. in particular.86 -8.21 10. ii) the absolute values of the 5 t h and 7-th harmonic variations tend to be the same and this justify the greater percentage variations of the 7-th which are referred to a lower base value. However. The effect of the background distortion is to either increase or decrease the amplitude of the interharmonic currents related to those expected from an undistorted supply.c. this is highly undesirable.7). the following explanations can be given: i) the impressed 5 t h harmonic supply voltage distortion causes a variation of the supply side 5 t h harmonic current which corresponds mainly to a variation of the d.c. Similar results have been obtained by introducing voltage phase unbalance. The interharmonic variations mechanism in iii) is more complex than that of the harmonic in i) and seems to amplify the percentage variations of the interharmonic components.1582 Table V: ibfaxinium variations of ac current compotietits dlrfor 2% unbalanced supplying voltages. Explanations can be carried out by using the amplitude modulation theory as in [ 5 ] . Experimental measurements on low power analogue models and numerical simulation results. Comments It is usefull to get an insigth into the mechanism behind the aforementioned variations of the harmonic and interharmonic currents and.c. However. frequency domain and time domain models available have been described and their characteristics compared: (i) the analogue models is simple to set up but there are complications to obtaining results.
Sept.D. 494-503. U:K: in 1990. Vancouver. Italy. IEEE Trans on Power Electronics. f r o m Staforshire University in 1973 and his Ph. C.  K.Dommel. A. Italy. W-P. A.139 n. R. P. Estimates of Existing Values in the Network".E. G. in 1984 and 1989 respectively. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery. [ 171 Electro Magnetic Transient Program. S . Italy. J. Dr Menniti is a member of the AEI (the Italian Institute of Electrical Engineers). ICHPS V International Conference on harmonics in power systems. July 18-22. R E.77 1981. Sc. D. C. Morrison: "A Fast Convertor Model for Use in Monte-Carlo Calculations".1583 Power Engineering Conference (UPEC) pp 389-392. He is working towards the Ph.  CIGRE WG 36-05: "Harmonics Characteristic Parameters. Ali I. E. Morrison received his B. pp 35-54. Rashid.105-114. Romrio Carbone was bom in Taurianova. Carpinelli. and Morrison.3 July p. E. He is cumently Head of power Engineering Dr. 514 to 525. 1992.  Delaney.E. Callaghan. control and automation. [IO] G. He received the B. Electra n. Sakui.. Alfred0 Testa was bom in Naples. pp.2. Electrical Energy Conversion in Power Systems (EECPS).. D. His current research interests concern electrical power system a~ l y ~real-time k . His fields of His fields of research are Harmonic generation by Variable Frequency Synchronous Motor Drives and Active Filtering Techniques. Bodger: "Power System Harmonics".: 'lComparison of steady-state and. on December 12. Watson. He received his degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of Calabria. Eng. 1993. IEEEPES 1993 Summer Meeting. Gagliardi. Vo1. Vo1. N. in 1990. on March 10. 1965.7 n. Eggleston.1993. Italy on September 23. Since graduation he has worked as a Research Associate with StafForshireUniversity and has obtained a Ph.K. degree in Electrical Engineering at the Department of Electrical Engineering of University of Naples.. Testa: 'I Combined Use of Segmented Chrp Z-Transform and of Multiple Deep Dip Windows for Power System Harmonic Analysis''. F. 1985. M.  M. Testa: "A multiple attenuation frequency window for harmonic analisys in power systems". J. from 1973 to 1983 and has worked at StafForshire University since leaving G. Methods of Study. degree in Electrical and Electronic Engineering from Nottingham Polytechnic. May/June 1988. F. J. He received the degree in Electrical Engineering f r o m University of Calabria. Russo and A.2. He is a Reseacher at the Electronic. August 1986. Italy. and Yacamini R. UK 1991. Sturchio: "Steady-state mathematical models of battery storage plants with biparametric regulation".8 n. Carpinelli.: "Power system harmonic models".1. FalcomatA. vo1. vo1. D. R. IEE Pr0c. IEE Proc.  Arrillaga. Dr Carbone is a member of the Italian Instituteof Electrical Engineers.dynamic models for the calculation of ACDC system harmonics". Italy. John Wiley and Sons.-B. Arrillaga.  J. Russo and A. H. Canada. M. A.  P. 1958.  G. South Wales in 1968. pp. 1992.  Hu L.C. E. Vol. C 134 (1987) n. Italy. Maswood: "Analysis of three-phase AC-DC converters under unbalanced supply conditions". Submitted for pubblication on IEEE Trans.. degree in Electical Engineeringfrom University of Naples. pp 31-37. F. He is an degree in Electrical Engineeringf Associate Professor in Electrical Power Systems at the Department of Electrical Engineering of the University of Naples. D. UK 1987. CamUItaly 1989. Gagliardi. .  Muhammad H.ffom the institutionin 1981. E E Proceedings pt. Sturchio: "Steady-state Mathematical Models of Battery Storage Plants with Line Commutated Converters". prepared by H.3. Proc. : "Harmonic transfer through converters and HVDC links". Goh and R. April 1993. He received the r o m University of Naples. M. :"The calculation of harmonic and interharmonic distortion in current source converter system". Fujita: "Calculation of harmonic currents i t h unbalanced power supply in a three-phase convertor w conditions. on Industry Applications.1950. IEEE Trans. Reference Manual (EMTP Theory Book). [ l l ] P. W. in 1975. Eamon John Delaney was b o m in Aberdare. Computer and Systems Science Department of University of Calabria. cOSenza/Italyand the Pk D.for his work.  Arrillaga. He worked as power systems engineer wthin G.Morrison is a member of the institution of Electrical Engineers ofthe U.5. 140. on Instrumentations and Measurements.l. J. n.24 n. Daponte. Bradley.C. Daniele M e n n i t i was b o m in Susa(TO). Daponte. He is engaged in researches on electrical power systems reliability and harmonic analysis Dr T e s t a is a member IEEE Power Engineering Society and of AEI (the Italian Institute of ElectricalEngineers). Universities Power Engineering Conference (UPEC).
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