VOR is the acronym of VHF omni-directional range. It is a short-range navigation system that, like the ADF, supplies the bearing of the aircraft to a ground radio beacon. The ground station is made of a group of antennas able of generating two radio signals: a reference phase signal and a variable phase signal. The difference in phase between the two signals changes with the radial position around the beacon, in such a way to represent the radial with respect to the North: for example, a receiver exactly located East of the beacon will read a phase difference of 90°, an so on. From the practical point of view, it is as if the variable phase signal is a directional rotating signal and the reference phase signal is emitted every time the directional one passes through the North (fig. 1). The ground station aerials are usually fixed, so that the variable phase signal is electronically generated; older versions used a rotating antenna for the variable phase signal. The airborne system is a receiver where the radio signal is split into three sub-signals, obtaining one signal for radio beacon identification and two signals for phase difference evaluation. A VOR, like an ADF, enable a bearing evaluation. Two beacons should be at least necessary to evaluate the position, but this would require an intensive VOR distribution on a territory. For this reason a VOR is usually associated to a DME, or distance measuring equipment, that works in the UHF band. The ground station of a DME is a transponder that is interrogated by a radio signal transmitted from the airborne DME system. This signal is made of pulses sequenced in a random fashion, within certain limits. The signal is received by a ground transponder that, after a 50 ms delay, re-sends the sequence. The airborne receiver reads the signal, easily discriminated from all those concerning other aircraft and, from the time between transmission and reception, the distance is measured. A VOR system is then able to find a polar position with respect to the ground station, in terms of bearing and distance, and then to fully localise the aircraft.

Fig. 1– VOR functioning principle

and the range varies proportionally to the altitude of the receiving equipment. 2. The aerial polar diagram of the beacon is of the shape shown in Fig. The airborne equipment consists of an interrogating transmitter and a receiver which includes suitable demodulating circuits to enable the information contained in the beacon's response to be extracted. are re-transmitted in place of the particular random pulses that the beacon would have transmitted in the absence of interrogation. comprising a single radiator and a ring of nine. TACAN: "Tacan" stands for "Tactical Air Navigation" and is a system which.0 to 117.VORs operate within the 108.214 Mc/s (Megacycles/second). between 962 and 1. .f. Bearing information can be obtained without interrogation since the beacon is continuously transmitting. gives to a pilot continuous information as to his range and bearing from a beacon. working in the u. after a fixed delay. This is produced by placing parasitic radiators.Aerial polar diagram of the beacon In addition to transmitting a random series of pulses the beacon also periodically transmits a signal by which it identifies itself. These are received at the beacon and. To avoid mistakes arising from multiple interrogation the airborne transmitter emits its pairs of pulses at random intervals. in the positions shown in Fig.. In the absence of interrogating signals the beacon transmits a series of random pulses together with groups of marker or reference pulses which are locked to the aerial rotation.95 MHz frequency band and have a power output necessary to provide coverage within their assigned operational service volume. 2. Fig. 3. They are subject to line-of-sight restrictions. The receiver only recognises an exactly similar set of reply pulses all delayed by the same amount. To determine range the airborne transmitter radiates a series of pairs of pulses. The ground equipment consists of a beacon provided with a rotating aerial system.h. band.

A phase comparison circuit is used to measure the phase difference between the 15 c/s modulation and the 15 c/s reference signal from detector number two. A marker signal is transmitted every time the main lobe of the polar diagram passes due magnetic East.m. The first is an envelope detector whose output consists of a composite 15 and 135 c/s signal due to the rotation of the aerial pattern.Fig. 3. This circuit enables the bearing of the beacon to be measured to within ±20o A second phase comparison circuit compares the phase of the 135 c/s modulation with that of the 135 c/s reference signal from detector number three. The second and third detectors are used to isolate the 15 and 135 c/s reference signals respectively. The signal from the envelope detector is passed through filters to separate the 15 c/s and 135 c/s modulations. As the aircraft flies round the beacon the time of receipt of the marker signals with respect to the phase of the amplitude modulation of the received signal varies.Plan of Tacan beacon aerial system By rotating these parasitic elements around the radiator the polar diagram is caused to rotate in space. The airborne receiver has five detectors. This gives the bearing of the beacon to an accuracy of about ±1o There is no limit to the number of aircraft which can simultaneously obtain bearing information from a Tacan beacon but no more than 100 aircraft at a time can obtain distance information. Further marker signals are transmitted after every 40o of rotation of the aerial pattern. caused by the rotation of the single radiator. and at 135 c/s caused by the rotation of the group of nine radiators. The fourth detector is used to feed the range measurement circuits and the fifth to extract the beacon identification signal. This system of markers provides reference signals at 15 and 135 c/s for phase comparison with the signals received in the aircraft.p. The parasitic elements spin round the aerial at 900 r. Somewhat misleadingly this is known as the "N " or north marker. so that the received signal is amplitude modulated at 15 c/s(cycles/second). .

once intercepting the glidepath. These radar sensors can be complied through the sub-system for radar data processing. . their elevation. Controller in charge of PAR should not be responsible for any duty other than the PAR approach concerned. During a radar approach. During the radar vector procedure. Air traffic controllers must transmit a minimum of every 5 seconds to the pilot their relation to the azimuth portion and. You have been introduced to vectoring procedures during radar vectors to finalapproach course. Precision approach radar (PAR) or Ground Approach radar(GCA) is a type of radar guidance system designed to provide lateral and vertical guidance to an aircraft pilot for landing. The operator uses this information to guide the aircraft to a landing in bad weather. The GCA (ground controlled approach) or PAR (precision approach radar) provides on operator with high accuracy aircraft position information in both the vertical and horizontal. It is similar to an instrument landing system (ILS) but requires control instructions. After the aircraft reaches the decision height (DH) or decision altitude (DA). The pilot is guided by ground control using precision approach radar. Nevertheless. The approach is terminated when the aircraft reaches the OCA/H (Obstacle Clearance Altitude/Height). the approach controller used the radar capability to direct the aircraft onto a segment of a standard Instrument Approach Procedure. operator's display consoles and radio-communication equipments. The system consists of assembly of primary and secondary surveillance radar (PSR/MSSR) and precision approach radar forming set of radar sensors. until the landing threshold is reached. The ground-controlled approach is a control mode in which an aircraft is able to land in bad weather. The precision or ground approach radar (PAR) approach uses radar vice aircraft equipment to vector the aircraft toa position for landing during conditions of low ceiling and/or poor visibility. guidance is advisory only. The guidance information is obtained by the radar operator and passed to the aircraft by either voice radio or a computer link to the aircraft.GCA: GCA system represents complete technical equipment for control and navigation of the aircrafts approaching to the runway. the controller will direct the aircraft to a position from which it can safely land. Controllers monitoring the PAR displays observe each aircraft's position and issue instructions to the pilot that keep the aircraft on course and glidepath during final approach. information is provided till threshold and aircraft may be monitored by controller till touchdown.

extract FM frequency band which is located 9. along with the variable the variable signal. The resulting signal is then fed to a phase comparator. for demodulation by passing amplitude limiter extract change of carrier frequency to output voltage. The output of AM detector is referred to as the composite audio signal. VOR Receiver block diagram A standard analog VOR receiver includes a RF front end and AM detector. 4. Finally.960Hz far from carrier. The reference portion is then frequency detected and bandpass filtered. The output of phase comparator is the bearing from the VOR transmitter. .VOR RECEIVER A block diagram of the airborne receiver is shown below Fig. Then detect AM signal and through the 12KHz filter. The signal is then split into two parts using 30Hz(variable signal) and 12KHz (reference signal) filter.

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