HISTORIA DO MEIO AMBIENTE

Guia bibliográfico

Funchal, 1998

Com este guia e compilação pretende-se orientar o leitor interessado no conhecimento da produção bibliográfica. Para isso, a cada tema juntaram-se breves textos introdutórios, ou uma indicação para uma pesquisa mais aprofundada com a procura nas diversas bibliotecas especializadas neste tipo de fundos bibliográficos. A actualidade da edição disponível muitas vezes via Internet permite um acesso rápido e imediato. Deste modo deu-se atenção, quando possível, a este novo suporte que está a revolucionar as formas de acesso à informação. A maior parte da pesquisa foi feita nas Bibliotecas do Congresso em Washigton e Publica de Nova York, da biblioteca da Univ. de Columbia(NY), na Biblioteca do Museu de História Natural(NY), completando-se a informação por pesquisas on-line através da Internet. A cronologia das edições permite fazer o enquadramento histórico da abordagem da temática, situação imprescindível na compreensão dos conteúdos que são um reflexo de conjunturas que marcaram a evolução da História da Ciência e da relação do Homem com o meio natural. A bibliografia arruma-se em Biobibliografias, um inventário geral, publicações periódicas e uma ordenação por temas fundamentais: História da Ciência, Religião, A Arte, Ecofeminismo, Agricultura, a Floresta e Literatura. No conjunto desta produção bibliográfica aqui reunida merecem destaque isolado os autores e textos considerados clássicos, por aquilo que deram de forma directa ou indirecta para a afirmação da História da Ciência e do Meio Ambiente, do conhecimento do quadro natural que nos rodeia e no germinar de uma diferente visão da relação do homem com o meio natural. A História do Meio Ambiente é uma criação da geração de sessenta do presente século, mas lança as suas raízes em épocas recuadas. Este conjunto de autores, que se repartem entre a observante extasiado e o cientista atento, são os pilares fundamentais da História da Ciência nos séculos XVIII e XIX, ou então a expressão plena do romantismo literário. Aqui estão reunidos alguns dos protagonistas mais marcantes desta geração. No domínio da História da Ciência temos: Comte de Buffon, Carl von Linné, Joseph Banks, Charles Darwin, Ernst Haeckel, John James Adubon. A Literatura da descoberta e defesa da natureza tem nos EUA uma conjuntra influente de autores que influenciaram o mundo europeu. São eles: Gilbert White, David Henry Thoreau, Thomas H. Huxley, John Muir e William H. Hudson. Neste domínio é rica a oferta digital, como se poderá verificar através da listagem das páginas web, onde é possível encontrar os textos fundamentais. Num domínio à parte reunimos a informação referente ao arquipélago da Madeira . Aqui estão reunidos os testemunhos de autores nacionais e estrangeiros. Os Livros ilustrados e as gravuras apresentam-se também como uma fonte fundamental para a descoberta da evolução do quadro natural. Eles são um dado imprescindível na descoberta da relação dos madeirenses e visitantes com o quadro natural.

HISTORIA DO AMBIENTE- TEORIA

Man and nature is the basic fundamental fact of History. The relationship is mutual and necessary". Arthur A. Ekirch, Man and Nature in America, Colombia, 1963

A História do Meio ambiente é sem dúvida uma criação do mundo científico e universitário americano e por isso teve aqui desde a sua origem até a actualidade uma valorização inexcedível. A década de sessenta foi o momento ideal para o seu nascimento, contribuindo para isso alguns trabalhos que hoje são um marco do alerta para a situação em que o Homem estava intervindo e destruindo o meio natural. São dois os livros que se assumem como o despertar das consciências dos cidadãos e dos políticos para esta cruzada. Em 1962 Rachel Carson publica "Silent Spring", considerado o verdadeiro alerta para os efeitos do "DDT" sobre a Natureza e ficou como o grito de alerta às autoridades e motivo de reflexo de jovens de gerações de académicos. Seis anos depois juntou-se o texto de Paul Ehrlich: The Population Bomb1. A década de sessenta é na verdade o momento de afirmação simultânea do movimento ambientalista na historiografia com a "Environmental History". Daqui deverá resultar, certamente, a tendência para identificação de "Environmental History" com a História do ambientalismo2, o que é insistentemente negado pelos teóricos e historiadores desta nova disciplina. O ambiente não foi apenas motivo de denuncia pública, mas também de reflexão filosófica e historiográfica. E é precisamente neste domínio que ganha forma o novo domínio historiográfico. Na década de setenta para além de se assistir as reedições de clássicos do século XIX, como Henry David Thoreau e Ralph Aldo Emerson3, é de salientar a publicação destas novas reflexões. O ciclo inicia-se em 1935 com Paul Sears em Deserts on the March e prossegue na década de cinquenta. Primeiro em 1957 com "Nature and the American” de Hans Hunt, que é secundado com "Conservation and the Gospel of Efficiency" de Samuel P. Hays(1959). O movimento prossegue nos anos imediatos com uma maior precisão temática: 1963: Man and Nature in America de Arthur A. Ekirch Jr. 1967: Wilderness and the American Mind de R. Nash In the House of Stone ou Light: A Human History oh the Grand Canyon de J. Donald Hughes. 1970: The Greening of America de Charles A. Reich 1972. Columbian Exchange de A. Crosby 1973: American Environmentalism de Donal Worster4
1 Carl G. Hernsl, Green Culture, 1996, pp.21-45. 2 . D. Worster "World without borders: the internationalizing of environmentel History: critical issues", K. E. Bailes (ed.) Environmental History: critical issues in comparative perspective, Lanham, 1985, 664.
3

. Sand County Almanac foi reeditado em 1968. . Char Miller e Hall Rothman, Out of the Woods. Essays in Environmental History, Pittsburgh, 1997, XXII-XXIII.

4

Este movimento, tal como o referimos, ganhou fortes raízes nos meios académicos5. Deste modo por iniciativa de R. Nash, na Universidade de Califórnia, Donald Worster na de Yale e Brandeis no Hawaii a disciplina entrou nos currículos de ensino. Estava lançada a semente que cedo iria justificar. Enquanto na América crescia esta consciência ambientalista, fruto dos alertas para a destruição da Natureza, na Europa a História Social, que a Escola dos Annales era a principal promotora, desembocava no mesmo rumo e na clara definição a valorização desta nova disciplina. Note-se que um número dos Annales de 1974 dedica especial atenção ao tema. Por outro lado F. Braudel, um dos expoentes máximos desta escola, pode ser considerado o pai desta disciplina no continente europeu. Este novo movimento historiográfico vai ao encontro das solicitações da sociedade. Em 1970 temos a primeira comemoração do dia da terra e a criação da EPA Environmental Protection Agency. Era também a época de pujança dos movimentos ecológicos6. E foi também a duvida levantada sobre a historicidade do movimento ecológico que levou a esse novo olhar sobre o passado humano e a sua interacção com o meio natural7. Os estudos acabaram por provar que a ideia de preservação do meio ambiente não surgiu apenas após a segunda Guerra Mundial8. Daqui resultou a revelação do fulgurante movimento ambientalista de finais do século passado e princípios do nosso, bem como a revelação do primeiro ambientalista radical na figura de John Evelyn (1620-1706) 9. Todavia os trinta anos que se sucedem à década de setenta são cruciais para a sua afirmação. É o período de mudança do ambientalismo entendido como religião para uma actividade profissional orientada de acordo com os ditames da ciência10 . Neste contexto a afirmação da História do meio ambiente lança as suas raízes institucionais e académicas, sendo de realçar a criação em 1976 da "American Society for Environmental History" e a revista "Environmental Review"11 a uma interpretação ecológica da História12. O reconhecimento definitivo de "Environmental History" está patente na mesa redonda organizada em 1990 por "The Journal of American History". De acordo com J. Donald Hughes "Environmental history, as a subject, is the study of how humans have related, to the natural world through time. As a method, it is the application of ecological principles to history"13. Para Donald Worster "its principal peal
5 . O primeiro curso "American Environmental History" surgiu em 1970 na Universidade de California (Santa Barbara), Vide Carolyn Merchant, “Major Problems in American Environmental History" surgiu em 1970 na Universidade de Califórnia (Santa Barbara), vide Carolyn Merchant, Major Problems in American Environmental History, Lexington, 1983. E o significativo estudo de R. Nash, "American Emvironmental History. A new teaching frontier", Pacific Historical Review, 363 (1974), 362-372.

6

. K. Wallace, No turning back..., N. York, 1994, 28-55; Derek Wall, Green History, N. York, 1994. . D. Wall, ibidem, p. 1-3.

7

8

. Tenha-se em conta os estudos de C. Glacken, Traces on the Rhodian Shore, Berkeley, 1967; Richard Grove, Green imperialism, Cambridge, 1994; Donald Worster, Nature's Economy, Cambridge, 1977. . P. Brimblecombe, The big smoke. A history of air pollution in London since medieval time, London, 1987 (48-52). . R. Nash American Environmentalism, N. York, 1990.

9

10

11

. A Revista sofreu várias transformações no seu título. Veja-se Capitulo Revistas. A primeira fase da publicação até 1983 foi coordenada por John Opie, altura em que lhe sucedeu J. Hughes. . C. Merchant, Major problems in American Enviromental History, 1993, 2. . Pan's Travail, London, 1994, p. 3.

12

13

became of deepening our understanding of how humans have been affected by their natural environemtal through time and, conversely, how they have affected that enviroment and with that results"14. E W. Beinart precisa que a "Environmental history deals with the various dialogues over time between people and the rest of nature, focusing on recipocal impacts"15. Neste contexto poderá referenciar-se a página na Internet da Forest History Society (Durham-North Carolina) onde encontramos a mais intuitiva definição e objecto que nos ocupa: "Understanding the past for its impact on the future"16. Já Joachim RadKau, à pergunta sobre o que é a História do Meio Ambiente responde que esta nova disciplina "investiga cómo el ser humano mismo ha influido en estas condiciones y cómo reaccionó ante las alteraciones."17 Tal como nos refere Donald Worster18 a ideia de ecologia é anterior ao aparecimento da palavra oecologia. Esta surge pela primeira vez em estudo de Ernst Haeckel e em 1893 era já usual no Congresso Internacional de Botânica A partir deste enquadramento global desenvolveram-se vários ramos da História do Ambiente, que têm evidenciado nos últimos anos uma tendência para a especialização. O clima é uma das evidências do impacto negativo das questões ecológicas. Deste modo a História do clima é o meio para averiguar da forma de intervenção do homem no quadro natural e dos seus efeitos secundários. Depois do celebrado estudo de E. le Roy Ladurie19 sucederam-se estudos de grande impacto: Raymond Bradley e Philip D. Jones (1992), F. M. Chambers (1993), Richard H. Grove (1997), H. Lamb (1982, 1995) e T. M. L. Wigley (1981)20 Um ramo da Arqueologia, do meio ambiente começou após a II Guerra Mundial e ganhou notoriedade na década de setenta. De acordo com Johan Evans "Environmental Archaelogy is the study of the past environment of man"21. Por outro lado E. J. Reitz22 destaca que "Environmental Archaeology is an ecletic field that encompasses the earth sciences, zoology and botany". Na verdade, são vários os factores determinantes do quadro natural que perdura nas várias camadas de sedimentação. É através da recolha de informações sobre animais, plantas, solo é possível reconstruir o ambiente do passado. E é essa a função primordial da Arqueologia do Meio-Ambiente e que faz com que à mesma se liguem as Ciências da Terra, Arqueo-botanica, Zoo-arqueologia e a Geo-arqueologia23. Os

14

. The ends of the earth, 1988, p. 290-291. . Environmental and History, 1995, p. 1.

15

16 Forest History Societey, 1997-98[on-line], disponível em http://www.lib.duke.edu/forest/index.html[06-07-98].
17

. Gonzalez Molina, Historia y Ecologia, 1993, p. 121. . Generelle Morphologie der organis men, Berlim, 1866.

18

19 Histoire du Climat depuis L'An Mil, Paris, 1972. 20 . Vide Bibliografia Geral 21 . J. Evans, 1978.
22

. Case Studies in Environmental Archeology, 1996, p. 1.

23 . E. J. Reitz et alia "Issues in Environmental Archaelogy", in E. J. Reitz (eds), Case Studies in Environmental Archaelogy, N. York, 1996, pp. 3-16.

estudos sobre Zoo-arqueologia tiveram em Elizabeth Wing a sua líder nos EUA e América Latina24.

BIBLIOGRAFIA
BERNART, W. e P. Coates " The Nature of Environmental History. The United States and South Africa Compared", in Environmental History, London, 1995, pp. 1-161. CRONON, William, "A Place for Stories: Nature, History, and Narrative." Journal of American History, 78 (March 1992): 1347-1376.. "The Uses of Environmental History."Environmental History Review 17 (Fall 1993): 1-22. CROSBY, Alfred W. "The Past and Present of Environmental History." American Historical Review 100,no. 4 (October 1995): 1177-1190. HUGHES, J. Donald, "Storici e storia ambientale. L'"American Society for Environmental History", Quaderni storici, v. 21, (2) 1986, pp. 505 "Ecology and Development as Narrative Themes of World History," Environmental History Review 19:1-16 (Spring 1995) Pan's Travail, London, 1994, pp. 1-7 JAEHN, Thomas, The Environment in the Twentieth-Century American West: A Bibliography (Albuquerque: Center for the American West, University of New Mexico, 1990) JAMIESON, Duncan R. "American Environmental History."CHOICE 32, no. 1 (September 1994): 49-60. LEIBHARDT, Barbara. "Interpretation and Causal Analysis: Theories in Environmental History." Environmental Review 12 no. 1 (1988): 23-36. LEWIS, Chris H., "Telling Stories About the Future: Environmental History and Apocalyptic Science," Environmental History Review, 17:43-60 (Fall 1993) MERCHANT, C., "What is Environmental History?", in Major problems in American Environmental History, Lexington, 1983, pp. 1 - 31 "Gender and Environmental History", Journal of American History (Abilene, Kan.), v. 76, (4), 1990, pp. 1117 ed., Major Problems in American Environmental History (Lexington: D.C. Heath, 1993) MILLER, Char e Hall Rothman, "Introduction", in Out of the Words. Essays in Environemtal History, Pittsburgh, 1997, pp. XI-XVI. MUGERAUER, Robert, Interpreting Environments: Tradition, Deconstruction, Hermeneutics, Austin: University of Texas Press, 1996. NASH, R. F., "The Potential of Environmental History" in American Environmentalism. Readings in Conservation History, N. York, 1990, pp. 1-8 Environmental History, in the state of American History, Chicago, 1970, pp. 249-260. RADKAY, Joachim, "Qué es la Historia del Medio Ambiente?", in M. Gonzalez Molins, Historia y Ecologia, Madrid, 1993, pp. 119-146
24 . Cf. Elizabeth J. Reitz, Case Studies in Envrionmental Archaelogy, 1996, pp.359-371

WHITE, Richard, "American Environmental History: The Development of a New Historical Field", Pacific Historical Review, v. 54, 1985, pp. 297 "Environmental History, Ecology, and Meaning", Journal of American History (Abilene, Kan.), v. 76, (4), 1990, pp. 1111 WORSTER, Donald, "Doing Environmental History," in Donald Worster, ed., The Ends of the Earth: Perspectives on Modern Environmental History 289-307 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988) "Nature and the Disorder of History," Environmental History Review 18:1-15 (Summer 1994) ed. The Ends of the Earth: Perspectives on Modern Environmental History. Cambridge; New York: CambridgeUniversity Press, 1988., et al. "A Roundtable: Environmental History." Journal of American History 74, no. 4 (March 1990): 1087-1147. "Nature and the Disorder of History."Environmental History Review 18 (Summer 1994):1-15. "History as natural History" in the Weath of Nature, Oxford, 1993; pp. 30. "Appendix: doing enviromental history" in The Ends of the Earth, Cambridge, 1988, pp. 289-307.

OS CLÁSSICOS

Sob o epígrafe reunimos aqueles autores que mais influenciaram os rumos da Ciência e História Natural a partir do século XVII. Note-se que a primeira resenha dos diversos aspectos do quadro natural surge com Theophrastus (380-287 A.C.) com Historia Plantorum, só editada em 1483. Depois temos a volumosa obra, História Natural, de Plínio o Velho (23-79 D.C.). Os descobrimentos europeus do século XV provocaram novas orientações para o conhecimento e estudo do mundo natural. O Novo Mundo, pelos seus aspectos exóticos, exerce um certo fascínio: Garcia da Orta (1501-1563) com o Colóquio dos Simples (1563) é pioneiro disso. Todavia é na segunda metade do século XIX que estes ganham toda a sua pujança. São três os pioneiros neste movimento: Carl von Linné (1707-1778) foi pai da classificação das plantas, seguido de perto pelo Comte de Bufon (1707-1786). Gilbert White (1720-1793) surge nos EUA com a sua proclamada obra "The Natural History of Selborne" (1789) como o iniciador dos ensaios de História Natural. Teve seguidores em G. Perkins Marsh e John Muir (1838-1914), David H. Thoreau (1817-1862) e Leopold Aldo (1886-1948). Este último tornou-se famoso com a sua obra "A Sand County Almanac" (1949), que cedo se transformou na Bíblia dos activistas ecológicos dos anos sessenta e setenta. A actividade científica teve continuadores em Alexander Von Humbolt e Charles Darwin (1809-1882). Este último ficou célebre com a sua obra "On the Origin of Species" (1859). Nos Estados Unidos da América aquele que se tornou mais popular foi John James AUDUBON[1785-1851]. O seu amor e dedicação pela Natureza ficou concentrado nos pássaros. A Ornitologia foi a sua paixão, legando-nos uma valiosa colecção de gravuras destes: The Birds of America (4 vols., 1827-1838, e 1840-1844) e (5 vols., 1831-1939) Ornithological. Biography (5 vols., 1831-1839). Em 1886 surgiu Audubon Society, que passou a publicar no ano seguinte uma revista: Adubon Magazine. Este movimento é fruto da iniciativa de George Bird Grinnell, quem melhor entendeu a obra de John James Audubon.

CRONOLOGIA DA BIBLIOGRAFIA FUNDAMENTAL
380-287 A.c.: Theophrastus: De Historia Plantorum, publicado em Latim em 1483 384-322 Ac.: Aristóteles: Historia Natural 234-149 A.c.: Cato De Re Rustica 116-26 A.c.: Varro De Re Rustica c.100-55 Ac.- Poeta Lucrecius que publicou De Natura Rerum

106-43 Ac.- Cícero que publica De Natura Deorum 70-19 A.c.: Vergilio Georgicas Séc. I .:Columella: De re rustica e De Arboribus 23-79. : Plinio o velho que publica Historia Naturalis em 37 livros c.50: Lucius Columella: De Re Rustica em 12 livros e De Arboribus c.250.: Palladius: De Re Rustica, 12 livros 1470. Publicação do primeiro herbário: Encyclopaedia of Bartholomaeus 1526. Gonzal Ferandez de Oviedo y Valdés(1478-1557): De la Natural Hystoria de las Indias 1530. Otto Brunfeld publica Herbarium Vivae Icones 1542. Leonhard Fuchs(1501-1566) publica De Historia Stirpium 1551-58. Konrad von Gesner(1516-1565) publica Historia Animalium em 5 vols 1563. Garcia Da Orta(1501-1568): Coloquios dos Simples e Drogas e Cousas Medicinas da India 1573. Cristovão da Costa(1540-1599): Tractado de las Drogas y Medicinas de las Indias Orientales. 1583. Andrea Cesalpino(1519-1603) publica De Plantis Libri XVI. Contem os rudimentos do sistema de Lineo de classificação das plantas. 1589. José d'Acosta(1539?-1600): Historia Natural y Moral de las Indias. 1590: Jose de Anchieta: Historia Natural y Moral de las Indias(reedição em 2 vols em 1894) 1592. John Manwood: A Treatise of the Laws of Forest. Adam Zaluziansky von Zaluzian(1558-1613): Methodi Herbariae

1597. John Gerard: The Herballor Generall Histoire of plantes. Com edição revista em 1633 por Thomas Jonhson(c.1600-1644). 1607.:Edward Topsell: Historie of Four- Footed Beastes 1616: Godfrey Godman: The Fall of Man, or the Corruption of Nature, Proved by the Light of Our Natural Reason. 1627. Kaspar Bauhin: Chart of the Botanical Theater. 1629.John Parkinson: Paradisi in Sole, Paradisus Terrestris, or a Garden of all sorts of Pleasant Flowers which our English Aure Will Permit.(com ed. de 1971 com introdução de Harold J. Abrahams) 1651. Jean Bauhin(1541-1613): Histoire Universelle des Plantes. 1662/1664. John Evelyn(1620-1706): Silva. A discourse of Forest Trees and the Propaganda of Timber in His Majesty´s Dominions 1665. Jean Baptiste Colbert: Memoire on Forests

1666. Robert Boyle: Origin of forms and Qualities 1669. Robert Morison: Praeludia Botanica. Principio do sistema de classificação das plantas. 1675.: Marcello Malpighi(1628-): Anatome Plantarum 1676. Francis Willoughby: Ornithologia 1677. John Ray: Catalogus Plantorum Angliae. 1678. Martin Lister: Historiae Animalium Angliae. 1686 John Ray(1628-1705) um dos fundadores da História Natural sistematizada: Historia Plantarum Generalis. A segunda parte foi publicada em 1704 1687 . Isaac Newton publica: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy 1691. John Ray publica o seu tratado de Teologia Natural: the Wisdon of Good Manifested in the Works of the Creation 1695. John Woodward[1665-1728]: Essay Towards a Natural History of the Earth 1731.: Philip Miller(-1771), considerado o principe dos jardins: The Gardeners Dictionary John Arbuthnot: An Essay Concerning the Effects of Air on human Bodies. 1737. Carl von Linné(Linnaeus)[1707-1778], publica: Genera Plantorum 1748. Montesquieu publica L'Esprit des Lois. 1749. Carl von Linné(Linnaeus)[1707-1778], publica The Oeconomy of Nature(atribuída ao seu discípulo Isaac Bilberg) e Histoire Naturelle Génerale Comte de Buffon[1707-1788]: Histoire Naturelle, générale et Particulière. Em 44 vols, publicada entre 1749 e 1804. A edição em inglês é de 1812. 1751-1765 Diderot publica Encyclopédie 1753. Carl von Linné(Linnaeus)[1707-1778], publica Species Plantarum. Introdução de um sistema para classificar os seres vivos. 1764 Comte de Buffon: De la Nature, Première Vue 1778. Carl von Linné(Linneo/Linnaeus)[1707-1778], publica Systema Naturae Johann Reinhold Forster(1739-98) publica Observations made during a Voyage round the World. 1788. Gilbert White publica The Natural History of Selborne. É o iniciador dos ensaios sobre História Natural na América. 1789 William Aton: Hortus Kewenses or a catalogue of the Plants Cultivated in the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kews. Apresenta uma lista de 5.500 plantas. 1792. O Botânico alemão, Karl Willdenow(1765-1812), publica Principles of Botany [traduzido para inglês em 1805] 1798. Cuvier{[1769-1832]: Tableau of the Natural History of Animals.

1807. Alexander von Humboldt: Essai sur la Geographie des Plantes 1831. HMS Beagle de Charles (Robert) Darwin Montly American Journal of Geology & Natural Science 1809. Lamarck[1744-1829]: Philosophie Zoologique 1830. Johann Friedrich Blumenbach[1752-1840], conhecido com o Buffon alemão, publica: Handbook of Natural History. 1833. Charlotte de Latoru: Le Langaje des Fleurs 1835. David H Thoreau inicia o seu Daily Journal 1849. David H Thoreau publica A Week on the Concord and Merrimack 1851. Melville: Moby Dick 1854. David H Thoreau publica Walden, or Life in the Woods 1857-1861. H. T. Buckle publica History of Civilization in England em três volumes. 1859. On the Origin of Species de Charles (Robert) Darwin 1864. George Perkins Marsh publica Man and Nature. 1866. Ernest Haeckel, no seu livro, Generelle Morphologie, a palavra Oecologie 1871. The Descent of Man de Charles (Robert) Darwin 1877. W. H. Hudson publica A Chrystal Age, criando o conceito de ecotopia 1878. John Wesley Powell: Report on the Lands of the Arid Region of the United States 1884. David H Thoreau publica Summer 1887. David H Thoreau publica Winter 1894. John Muir publica The Mountains of California 1895. Eugenius Warming(1841-1924): Plantesamfund. Edição em inglês em 1909: The Oecology of Plants: an Introduction to the Study of Plany Comunities. 1896. Andrew Dickison White: History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom 1901. Our National Parks de John Muir 1903: Mary Hunter Austin: The Land of Little Rain 1905. John Burroughs: Ways of Nature 1915. Travels in Alaska de John Muir 1916. A Thousand-Mile Walk to the Gulf de John Muir 1939. John Steinbeck: The Grapes of Wrath

1945. A. G. Tansley: Our Heritage of Wild Nature 1948. Fairfield Osborn[1887-1969]: The Plundered Planet 1949 A Sand County Almanac Leopold, (Rand) Aldo(1887-1948) . É considerada a "biblia" dos activista ecológicos dos anos 60 e 70 1962. Rachel Carson: Silent Spring. 1968. René Dubois: The Wooing of the Earth 1972: Edward Abbey: A Walk in the Park Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie: Histoire du climat Alfred W. Crosby: The Columbian Exchange: biological and cultural consequences of 1492 1979. James Lovelock: Gaia. A new Look at Life of Earth 1986. Alfred W. Crosby:Ecological Imperialism- the Biological Expansion of Europe 900-1900 1992 . Al Gore: Earth in the Balance

BIBLIOGRAFIA: CLÁSSICOS

PÁGINAS WEB: Ashton Nichols, Department of English, Dickinson College, A Romantic Natural History [on-line] disponível em http://media.dickinson.edu/english/romnat/romnat1.htm Página sobre as relações entre a Literatura e a História Natural no século antes da publicação por Charles Darwin de On the Origin of Species (1859) Don Weis, A Project of EcoTopia /USA 1997 [on-line] disponível em http://www.ecotopia.org/ehof/ Projecto dedicado aos heróis do movimento ambientalista: H. Thoreau, J. Muir, Aldo Leopold(…)

BUFFON, George Louis Leclerc, Comte de, 1707-1788.
Buffon's Natural History, abridged: including the history of the elements, the earth, mountains, rivers, seas, winds, whirlwinds, waterspouts, volcanoes, earthquakes, man, quadrupeds, birds, fishes, shell-fish, lizards, serpents, insects, and vegetables. London: Published for C. and G. Kearsley, 1792. Correspondance Générale, recueillie et annotée par H. Nadault de Buffon, Genève, Slatkine Reprints 1971, 2 vols. Correspondance Générale. Recueillie et annotée par H. Nadault de Buffon. Genève, Slatkine Reprints, 1971. Correspondance Inédite, recueillie et annotée par H. Nadault de Buffon, París, Hachette, 1860, 2 vols. De l'Homme. Présentation et notes de Michèle Duchet.Paris, F. Maspero, 1971. Histoire Naturelle: g'en'erale et particuliere; avec la description du Cabinet de roi. Paris : De l'Imprimerie royale, 1749-1789. Contents: t. 1. De la maniere d'etudier et de traiter l'histoire naturelle. Histoire et th'eorie de la terre / par m. Buffon. 1749.t. 2. Histoire generale des animaux. Histoire naturelle de l'homme / par m. de Buffon. 1799.--t. 3. Description du Cabinet du roy / par m. Daubenton. Histoire naturelle de l'homme / par m. de Buffon. 1749.--5.4-15. [Quadrupeds] / par m. de Buffon et m. Daubenton. 1753-67. Suppl'ement. 7 v. / par m. de Buffon. 1774-89.-t. 16-24. Histoire naturelle des oiseaux / par m. de Buffon et m. Gueneau de Montbeillard. 9 v. 1752-83.--t. [25-29] Histoire naturelle des min'eraux / par m. de Buffon. Histoire Naturelle des Minéraux, París, Imprimerie royale, 1783-1788, 5 vols. Histoire Naturelle des Oiseaux, París, Imprimerie royale, 1770-1783, 9 vols. Histoire Naturelle Générale et Particulière.. Suppléments, París, Imprimerie royale, 1774-1789, 7 vols. Histoire Naturelle, Générale et Particulière, París, Imprimerie royale, 1749-1767, 15 vols. Histoire Naturelle. Choix et préface de Jean Varloot, Gallimard, Col. Folio, París 1984. Las Épocas de la Naturaleza, edición de Antonio Beltrán Mari, Madrid, alianza Editorial, 1997. 1ª edição em 1779. Les Époques de la Nature. Édition critique avec le manuscrit, une introduction et des notes par Jacques Roger. Memoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Nouvelle Série. Série C, Sciences de la Terre. Tome X. París. 1962/Reeditado em Éditions du Muséum, 1988. Oeuvres Complètes de Buffon, avec la nommenclature linnéenne et la classification de Cuvier, revues et annotées par M. Flourens... Garnier frères, París, 1853-1855, 12 vols. Oeuvres Complètes de Buffon. Nouvelle édition annoté et précédée d'une introduction par J. L. de Lanessan... Suivie de la correspondance général de Buffon, recueillie et annotée par M. Nadault de Buffon... A. Le Vasseur, París, 1884-1885 14 vol.

Oeuvres Philosophiques de Buffon. Texte établi et présenté par Jean Piveteau, Presses Universitaires de France, París, 1954 (Corpus Général des Philosophes Francais. Auteurs modernes, tome XLI, 1). Un Autre Buffon / préf. de Jacques-Louis Binet ; introd. et annotation de Jacques Roger. Paris: Hermann, c1977.

ESTUDOS SOBRE O AUTOR: A Cabinet of Natural History: containing pretty pictures of birds, animals, fishes, reptiles, serpents & insects / embellished with engravings on wood, by Thomas Bewick of Newcastle. Alnwick: Printed at the Apollo Press, by and for W. Davison, 1809. BARSANTI, G. «Linné et Buffon: deux visions différentes de la nature et de l'histoire naturelle», Revue de Synthèse, 1984. n° 113-114, pp. 83-112. Buffon / par Léon Bertin [et al.]. Paris: Muséum National dHistoire Naturelle, 1952 Buffon: Biographie Imaginaire et Rréelle / par Yann Gaillard, suivie de Voyage à Montbard / par Hérault de Séchelles ; préf. d'Edgar Faure.Paris : Hermann, c1977. Buffon 1788-1988 / [Paul-Marie Grinevald ... et al.; introduction de Jean Dorst]. Paris: Impr. Nationale, [1988] Buffon 1788-1988 / c[Paul-Marie Grinevald ... et al.; introduction de Jean Dorst].Paris: Impr. Nationale, [1988] Buffon 88: Actes du Colloque International pour le Bicentenaire de la Mort de Buffon: (Paris, Montbard, Dijon, 14-22 juin 1988) / réunis par Jean-Claude Beaune ... [et al.]; sous la direction de Jean Gayon; préface d'Ernst Mayr; postface de Georges Canguilhem. Paris: J. Vrin; Lyon: Institut interdisciplinaire d'etudes epistémologiques, 1992. BUTLER, Samuel, 1835-1902. Evolution, Old and New; or, The Theories of Buffon, Dr. Erasmus Darwin, and Lamarck, as compared with that of Charles Darwin.London, A.C. Fifield [191-?] COMAS, J. Buffon, 1707-1788, Precursor de la Antropologia Fisica. Mexico: Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico . 1958 FARBER, Paul L. «Buffon and the concept of species», em Journal of History of Biology, vol. 5, 1972. 259284. «Buffon and Daubenton: divergent tradicions within the Histoire Naturelle», em Isis, vol. 66, .1975, 63-74. FELLOWS, Otis Edward, 1908- Buffon, by Otis E. Fellows and Stephen F. Milliken. New York, Twayne Publishers [1972] «Voltaire and Buffon: Clash and Conciliation», em Symposium, 1955, vol. IX, 2, 222-235. «Buffon and Rousseau: Aspects of a Relationship», em Publications of Modern Language Association, junho. 1960. «Buffon Place in the Enlightenment», em Studies on Voltaire and Eigeteenth-Century, Genève. 1963. FLOURENS, Pierre, 1794-1867. Histoire des Ttravaux et des Idées de Buffon. 2. ed. rev. et augm. Paris, Hachette, 1850. Des manuscrits de Buffon, Paris, Garnier, 1860 GAILLARD, Yann, Buffon. Biographie Imaginaire et Réelle. Hermann, Col. Savoir. París. 1977.

GASPAR, Pierre, 1916- Buffon / Pierre GasPar. [Paris]: Gallimard, c1983. GAYON, J., et al., eds. (1992) Buffon 88. Paris: J. Vrin. GÓMEZ TORRES, Ana María. Las Ideas de Buffon sobre Retórica y Poética en los Inicios de la Teoría Literaria Moderna / Ana María Gómez Torres. [S.l.]: AEDILE, [1996] HANKS, Lesley. Buffon avant l'"Histoire Naturelle" / par Lesley Hanks.1er éd. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1966. Henri Nadault de Buffon et Buffon: Catalogue de l'exposition présentée au Musée Buffon de Montbard, 31 juillet-1er novembre 1993 / par Luc Dunias et Pierre Ickowicz.Montbard: Musée Buffon, 1993. HÉRAULT DE SECHELLES, Marie Jean, 1760-1794. Voyage à Montbar, contenant des détails trèsintéressants sur le caractère, la personne et les écrits de Buffon. Cet ouvrage, auquel on a joint des notes curieuses, est suivi de Réflections sur la déclamation, d'un Eloge d'Athanase Auger, et d'autres morceaux de littérature du même auteur. Paris, Solvet, an IX [i. e. 1801] LEBASTEUR, Henri. Buffon, par Henri Lebasteur ... Quatrième édition. Paris, Soc. française dimprimerie et de libraire [189-?] MAYR, E. (1982) The Growth of Biological Thought. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. NADAULT DE BUFFON, Henri, 1831-1890. Buffon, sa Famille, ses Callaborateurs et ses Familiers. Mémoires par M.Humbert-Bazile, son secrétaire, mis en ordre, annotés et augmentés de documents inédits par M. Henri Nadault de Buffon. Paris, J. Renouard, 1863. NORTH-COOMBES, Alfred.The Vindication of François Leguat: a comprehensive appraisal of Leguat's natural history observations in the Island of Rodrigues, Indian Ocean (1708) and a thorough refutation of his detractors from Buffon and Cuvier to the late Professor Geoffrey Atkinson and his supporters / by Alfred North-Coombes. Port Louis, Mauritius: Service Bureau, 1979. PICASSO, Pablo, 1881-1973. Picasso, il Bestiario per la Storia Naturale di Buffon: 31 rami biffati / a cura di Alfonso Ciranna. Milano: Mazzotta, c1988. ROGER, Jacques, professeur. Buffon, un Philosophe au Jardin du Roi / Jacques Roger. [Paris] : Fayard, c1989. «Diderot et Buffon en 1749», em Diderot Studies, vol. IV, 221236, Genéve, Droz. 1963. Buffon un Philosophe au Jardin du Roi, Fayard, Paris. 1989. Les Sciences de la Vie dans la Pensee Francaise du XVIII Siecle. Paris: Armand Colin. 1963 SCAMMON, R. E. (1927) The first seriatim study of human growth. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 10:329-336. SLOAN, Philip R. «The Buffon-Linnaeus Controversy», en Isis, 67, 1976. 356-375. Buffon, German Biology, and the Historical Interpretation Tradução inglesa de J. G. Winter, com prefacio de W. H. Hobbs, Ann Arbor, Univ. of Michigan (orig. 1669). 1979. WILKIE, J. S. «Buffon, Lamarck, and Darwin: the originality of Darwin's theory of evolution», em P. R. Bell (Ed.) Darwins Bzologzeal Work, The Cambridge Univ. Press. 1959 «The Idea of Evolution in the Writings of Buffon» I, II y III, Annals of Science, vol. 12, n.° 1, 3 y 4 de Março, Setembro eDezembro, 1956. 48-62,212-227 y 255-266, respectivamente. ZOCCHI, F. (1988) Accuracy of Buffon's 200-year-old experimental data., Nature, 336:318.

PÁGINAS WEB Jonathan Marks University of California at Berkeley, George-Louis Leclerc, Count of Buffon French naturalist, 1707-1788 [on-line] disponível em http://pantheon.yale.edu/~jmarks/Buffon/Buffon1.htm Friends of Buffon Society Home Page, [on-line] disponível em http://www.geology.washington.edu/~ghiorso/BuffonWWW/ JOC/EFR December 1996, Louis Leclerc Comte de Buffon, 1996 [on-line] disponível em http://www.vma.bme.hu/mathhist/Mathematicians/Buffon.html

LINNÉ, Carl von, 1707-1778.
Systema Naturae: Sistens Regna tria Naturae, in Classes et Ordines Genera et Species Redacta Tabulisque Aeneis Illustrata. Lipsiae: G. Kiesewetter, 1748. Systema Naturae. Stockholm: Laurentii Salvii Holmiae, 1735. [10th ed. 1758]. Amoenitates Academicae. 7 vols. Stockholm: Laurentii Salvii Holmiae, 1749-69. Species Plantarum. 1753; London, 1959. A Dissertation on the Sexes of Plants. London, 1786. Lapland Journey (Lachesis Lapponica), trans. Carl Troilius, ed. James Edward Smith. London, 1792. A Selection of the Correspondence of Linnaeus and Other Naturalists, ed. James Edward Smith. London, 1821.

ESTUDOS SOBRE O AUTOR: ALIX, Pierre Michel, 1762-1817. Charles Linné. [graphic] / P.M. Alix Sculpt. ca. 1775-1800. BOBROV, Evgenii Grigorevich. Karl Linnei. 1707-1778.Leningrad, "Nauka," Leningr. otd-nie, 1970. CADDY, Florence, 1837- Through the Fields with Linnæus; a Chapter in Swedish History, by Mrs. Florence Caddy. London, Longmans, Green, and co., 1887. CALLOT, Emile. La Philosophie de la Vie au XVIIIe Siècle, étudiée chez Fontenelle, Montesquieu, Maupertuis, La Mettrie, Diderot, d'Holbach, Linne. Paris, M. Rivière, 1965 DICKINSON, Alice, Carl Liannaeus, Pionner of Modern Botany, N. York, 1967. DURIS, Pascal.Linné et la France, 1780-1850 / Pascal Duris.Genève: Librairie Droz, 1993. FRANGSMYR,Tore. Linnaeus. The Man and his Work, University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, Londres. 1983 FRIES, Robert Elias, 1876-1930. Linné af Rob. E. Fries. Stockholm: H. Geber [1907] GAGE, A. T. (Andrew Thomas), 1871-1945. A Bicentenary History of the Linnean Society of London / Andrew Thomas Gage and William Thomas Stearn. London; San Diego, CA: Published for the Linnean Society of London [by]Academic Press, c1988.

GOERKE, Heinz. Carl von Linné. Arzt, Naturforscher, Systematiker. 1707-1778. Mit 28 Abbildungen. Stuttgart, Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, 1966. GOURLIE, Norah. The Prince of Botanists, Carl Linnaeus. London, H.F. & G. Witherby [1953] GREENE, Edward Lee, 1843-1915. Carolvs Linnaevs, by Edward Lee Greene with an Introdvction by Barton Warren Evermann. Philadelphia, Christopher Sower company [c1912] HAGBERG, Knut, 1900- Carl Linnaeus / Knut Hagberg. Stockholm: Bokförlaget Natur och Kultur, 1939. Carl Linnæus, den Linneanska Ttraditionen. Stockholm, Natur och kultur [1951]. Com tradução para inglês por Alan Blair. Carl Linnaeus, Translated from the Swedish by Alan Blair.New York, Dutton, 1953. HAMMARSKJÖLD, Dag, 1905-1961. The Linnaeus Tradition and our Ttime. [Stockholm] Norstedt [1957] Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society. Botany.Vol./date v. 1-7 ; 1857-1864.London, Linnean Society, Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts & Green, Williams and Norgate. KROK, Th. O. B. N. (Th. Ossian Bolivar Napoleon), 1834-1921. Bibliotheca Botanica Suecana ab Antiquissimis Temporibus ad Finem Anni MCMXVIII, Auctore Th. O.B.N. Krok. Svensk botanisk litteratur fran äldsta tider t.o.m. 1918, av Th. O.B.N. Krok. Utg. efter författarens död.Uppsala, Stockholm, Almqvist & Wiksells boktryekeri-a.-b. (i distribution) [1925] LARSON, James L. Reason and Experience; the Representation of Natural order in the Work of Carl von Linné, by James L. Larson. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1971. LEVERTIN, Oscar, 1862-1906. Carl von Linné: Nagra Kapitel ur ett Oafslutadt Arbete / af Oscar Levertin. Stockholm: Bonnier, 1906. LIMOGES, Camille (Ed.) , Carlo Linneo. L'Equilibrio della Natura. Edição italiana (com texto de Linneo «De fundamento scientiae oeconomicae e physica et scientia naturali petendo» de 1740) de Giuliano Pancaldi, Feltrinelli, Milano. 1982. Linnaeus, the Man and his Work / edited by Tore Frangsmyr; with contributions by Sten Lindroth, Gunnar Eriksson, Gunnar Broberg. Berkeley: University of California Press, c1983. LIOY, Paolo, 1836-1911. Linneo, Darwin, Agassiz: nella Vita Intima / Paolo Lioy. Milano : Fratelli Treves, 1904. MALMESTRÖM, Elis, 1895- Carl von Linné, Geniets kamp för Klarhet. [Stockholm] Bonnier [1964] 1895- Carl von Linnés Religiösa Askadning ...Stockholm, Svenska kyrkans diakonistyrelse [1926] MARCUCCI, Silvestro. Bentham e Linneo: una Interpretazione Singolare / Silvestro Marcucci. Lucca: M. Pacini Fazzi, 1979 MILLER, John. An Illustration of the Sexual System of Linnaeus. London: Miller, 1799. MYER, Tore Frangs, Linnaeus the Man and his Work, Berkeley, 1983. NORTON, Charles Eliot, 1827-1908. The Poet Gray as a Naturalist, with Selections from his Notes on the Systema Naturæ of Linnæus and Facsimiles of some of his Drawings, Boston, C. E. Goodspeed, 1903. Sandbergs bokhandel, Stockholm. A Catalogue of the Works of Linnaeus Issued in Commemoration of the 250th Anniversary of the Birthday of Carolus Linnaeus, 1707-1778. Stockholm [1957]

STÖVER, Dietrich Johann Heinrich, 1767-1822. The Life of Sir Charles Linnæus ... to which is added, a Copious List of his Works, and a Biographical Sketch of the Life of his Son: by D. H. Stoever, by D. H. Stoever, PH.D. Tr. from the original German by Joseph Trapp, A. M. London, B. and J. White, 1794. SYDOW, Carl Otto von. Carl von Linné 1778-1978: utställning i Uppsala universitetsbibliotek. [Uppsala: Uppsala universitetsbibliotek, 1978] UGGLA, Arvid Hj. (Arvid Hjalmar) 1883-1964. Carl von Linné [Aus dem Schwedischen von Herbert A. Frenzel] Stockholm, Schwedisches Institut [1959] Universität Tübingen. Universitätsbibliothek. Carl von Linné und die Deutschen Botaniker seiner Zeit: Ausstellung zum300jährigen Bestehen des Botanischen Gartens im Rahmen des 500 jährigen University of Kansas. Libraries. A Catalog of an Exhibition Commemorating the 250th Anniversary of the birth of Carolus Linnaeus, 1707-1957, and the 200th Anniversary of theIissue of the Systema Naturae, 10th edition, 1758-1958. By Thomas R. Buckman. Lawrence, 1957.

PÁGINAS WEB The Strandell Collection Hunt Institute, 1997, [on-line] disponível em http://huntbot.andrew.cmu.edu/HIBD/HIBD-T/HI-Strandell-T.html "includes all published works, in almost every known edition and translation, by the great Swedish naturalist-physician Carl Linnaeus as well as most of those by his many students, and most of the world's literature about Linnaeus and his students". Carolus Linnaeus, [on-line] disponível em http://mail.utep.edu/~means/linnaeus.html, "Stuart Carran The Pennsylvania Electronic Edition, Carolus Linnaeus, or Carl Linné, 1707-1778, Swedish botanist". Peter Sengbusch, CARL von LINNÉ (1707-1778) [on-line] disponível em http://www.english.upenn.edu/~jlynch/Frank/People/linnaeus.html CARL von LINNÉ [on-line] disponível em http://www.rrz.uni-hamburg.de/biologie/b_online/d01/linne.htm

WHITE, Gilbert, 1720-1793.
Antiquities on Selbourne in the County of Southampton.London, Falcon press, [1950] Selborne, et Sogns Natur og Fugleliv. [Oversat af Niels Haislund] Illustreret af Mads stage. Kobenhavn, H. Hagerup, 1951. Selections. 1993 Passages from the Natural History of Selborne, Naturalist's Journal and other Writings / selected and introduced by Colin Campbell; wood engravings by Thomas Bewick. Cambridge: Silent Books, 1993. The Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne / Gilbert White; introduced by Ian Niall ; engravings by Chris Wormell.London: Folio Society, 1994 (1995 printing)

TEXTOS SOBRE O AUTOR: CARNOCHAM, W. B., Cultural Landscapes. Gilbert White and the Natural History of Selbourne, Stanford, Cal., 1989.

CHRISTOPHER, John. Gilbert White and his Selborne.London, Kimber, 1970. EALING, Eng. Public Libraries. Selborne Society Library; a Catalogue of mss., Books and Periodicals Devoted to Gilbert White and Natural History. [Ealing] Ealing Reference Library, 1958. EMDEN, Cecil Stuart. Gilbert White in his Village. Illus. by Lynton Lamb.London, New York, Oxford University Press, 1956. HODGSON, John (John R.) Matter of Curious Inquiry: Gilbert White and the Natural History of Selborne / text by John Hodgson.1st ed. [Manchester] : JRULM, 1993. HOLT-WHITE, Rashleigh. The Life and Letters of Gilbert White of Selborne. Written and edited by Rashleigh Holt-White.New York, AMS Press [1969] JOHNSON, Walter, 1867- Gilbert White, Pioneer, Poet, and Stylist, by Walter Johnson ...London, J. Murray [1928] MARTIN, Edward Alfred, 1864- A Bibliography of Gilbert White, the Natural Historian and Antiquarian of Selborne [by] Edward A. Martin.Westminster, Roxburghe Press [1897] A Bibliography of Gilbert White, the Naturalist & Antiquarian of Selborne. With a biography and a descriptive account of the village of Selborne, London, Halton & co, 1934 SCOTT, Walter S. (Walter Samuel), 1870-1951. White of Selborne and his Times. [London] J. Westhouse, 1946. SHELLEY, Henry C. (Henry Charles). Gilbert White and Selborne. Illustrated from photographs by the author. New York, C. Scribner's Sons [1909] WRIGHT, John Charles, 1852- "Saint" Gilbert: the Story of Gilbert White and Selborne / by J.C. Wright.London: Elliot Stock, 19PÁGINAS WEB Hampshire County Council, Hantsweb - Selborne Parish Council, 1997 [on-line] disponível em http://selborne.parish.hants.gov.uk/ Hampshire County Council, Gilbert White's House & Selborne, 1998 [on-line] disponível em http://www.hants.gov.uk/leisure/house/gilbwhit/index.html Gilbert White (1720-1793) A Walk around Selborne [on-line] disponível em http://www.townpages.co.uk/fitness/walks/literary/white.htm

Banks, Joseph Sir, 1743-1820
Banks' Florilegium: 1900 London: Alecto Historical Editions in association with the British Museum (Natural History), <1981 >-1988. A Short Account of the Cause of the Disease in Corn, ca 1805 London, Printed for J. Harding, 1805. The Journal of Joseph Banks in the Endeavour / 1980 Guildford, Surrey, England: Genesis Publications in association with Rigby, 1980. The Sheep and Wool Correspondence of Sir Joseph Banks, 1979 [London]: British Museum (Natural History) [for] the Library Council of New South Wales, 1979.

ESTUDOS SOBRE: BEASLEY, A. W. Fellowship of Three: the Lives and Association of John Hunter (1728-1793), the Surgeon; James Cook (1728-1779), the Navigator; and Joseph Banks (1743-1820), the Naturalist / A.W. Beasley. Kenthurst, N.S.W.: Kangaroo Press, c1993. British Museum (Natural History) Catalogue of the Natural History Drawings Commissioned 1984 Westport, CT; London: Meckler Publishing in Association with British Museum (Natural History), 1984-1987. Captain Cook's Florilegium; 1973 London, Lion and Unicorn Press, 1973. CARTER, Harold Burnell His Majesty's Spanish Flock; Sir Joseph Banks and the Merinos of George III of England, by H. B. Carter. [Sydney] Angus & Robertson [1964] Sir Joseph Banks (1743-1820): a Guide to Biographical and Bibliographical Sources / by Harold B. Carter.Winchester, UK: St Paul's Bibliographies in Association with British Museum (Natural History), 1987/ 1988. COOK, James, 1728-1779. The Journal of H.M.S. Endeavour 1768-1771 / by Lieutenant James Cook.Guildford, Surrey, England: Genesis Publications; Adelaide [South Australia]: Rigby Limited, 1977. CORSI, Pietro. The Age of Lamarck: Evolutionary Theories in France 1790-1830 / Pietro Corsi. Berkeley: University of California Press, c1988. DAWSON, Warren R. (Warren Royal), 1888- The Banks letters; a calendar of the manuscript correspondence of Sir Joseph Banks, preserved in the British Museum, the British Museum (Natural History) and other collections in Great Britain. Edited by Warren R. Dawson.London, Printed by order of the Trustees of the British Museum, 1958. GASCOIGNE, John, Ph. D., Joseph Banks and the English Enlightenment: useful knowledge and polite culture / John Gascoigne.Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994. LYSAGHT, Averil M., comp. Joseph Banks in Newfoundland and Labrador, 1766; his diary, manuscripts, and collections. [Edited by] A. M. Lysaght. With a foreword by Joseph Smallwood. Berkeley, University of California Press [1971] LYTE, Charles. Sir Joseph Banks: 18th century explorer, botanist, and entrepreneur / Charles Lyte. Newton Abbot, Devon; North Pomfret, Vt.: David & Charles, c1980. MAIDEN, J. H. (Joseph Henry), 1859-1925, Sir Joseph Banks, the "Father of Australia," / by J. H. Maiden. Sydney: W. A. Gulick; London: K. Paul, 1909. O'BRIAN, Patrick, 1914- Joseph Banks, a life / Patrick O'Brian. London: C. Harvill, 1987//Boston, 1993. RUTHERFORD, Homer Vincent, 1921-, Banks, K.B., P.R.S.; the autocrat of the philosophers. London, Batchworth Press [1952] Sir Joseph Banks: a global perspective / editors, R.E.R. Banks ... [et al.]; production editor, S. Dickerson. [Richmond, England]: Published by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew on behalf of the co-sponsors, c1994. Rydén, Stig, 1908-1965. SMITH, Edward, 1839-1919. The life of Sir Joseph Banks, president of the Royal society, with some notices of his friends and contemporaries, by Edward Smith, with a photogravure frontispiece and sixteen other illustrations. London, John Lane; New York, John Lane, 1911.

PÁGINAS WEB The Natural History Museum. A unique resource. The Banks Archive 1997 [on-line] disponível em http://www.nhm.ac.uk/info/banksarchive/ Jim Devine, Hunterian Museum, Univ of Glasgow, Captain Cook Voyages of Discovery: Sir Joseph Banks 1743- 1820, [on-line] disponível em http://www.gla.ac.uk/Museum/HuntMus/cook/banks.html Alan Ventress, State Library of New South Wales Sir Joseph Banks' papers [on-line] disponível em http://www.slnsw.gov.au/Banks/ Stuart Curran, English Department at the Univ of Pennsylvania , People, Joseph Banks, 1998 [on-line] disponível em http://www.english.upenn.edu/~jlynch/Frank/People/banks.html

AUDUBON, John James, 1785-1851
The art of Audubon: the complete birds and mammals / John James Audubon ; with an introd. by Roger Tory Peterson, New York : Times Books, c1979. Audubon and his journals, by Maria R. Audubon, with zoölogical and other notes by Elliott Coues ..., New York, C. Scribner's Sons, 1899. Audubon birds from the original water colors in the New York historical society; Audubon's text with notes by Donald A. Shelley., New York, Hastings house [1946] Audubon, by himself; a profile of John James Audubon from writings selected, arranged, and edited, by Alice Ford., [1st ed.], Garden City, N.Y., Published for the American Museum of Natural History [by] the Natural History Press [1969 Audubon in Louisiana, New Orleans, Louisiana State Museum; Friends of the Cabildo, 1966. Audubon in the West Compiled, edited, and with an introd. by John Francis McDermott, [1st ed.], Norman, University of Oklahoma Press [1965] Audubon reader: the best writings of John James Audubon / edited by Scott Russell Sanders, Bloomington : Indiana University Press, c1986. Audubon watercolors and drawings, [Utica? 1965] Audubon's America; the narratives and experiences of John James Audubon, edited by Donald Culross Peattie; illustrated with facsimiles of Audubon's prints and paintings, Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1940. Audubon's story of his youth. Introduction by Maria R. Audubon, [New York] C. Scribner's Sons, c1893. Audubon's wildlife.With selections from the writings of John James Audubon. [Editor:] Edwin Way Teale, New York, Viking Press [1964] Bird biographies. Selected and edited by Alice Ford, New York, Macmillan, 1957. Birds of America.Audubon's Birds of America. Introduction and descriptive captions by Ludlow Griscom, Popular ed., New York, Macmillan Co., 1950. The birds of America, from drawings made in the United States and their territories, New York, J.J. Audubon; Philadelphia, J.B. Chevalier, 1840-44. Delineations of American scenery and character, by John Audubon; with an introduction by Francis Hobart Herrick ..., New York, G.A. Baker & Company, 1926. Journal The 1826 journal of John James Audubon. Transcribed with an introd. and notes by Alice Ford from the original in the collection of Henry Bradley Martin. Edition [1st ed.], Norman, University of Oklahoma Press [1967] Journal of John James Audubon made during his trip to New Orleans in 1820-1821, edited by Howard Corning, foreword by Ruthven Deane., Boston, The Club of odd volumes, 1929. Journal of John James Audubon made while obtaining subscriptions to his "Birds of America"1840-

1843, edited by Howard Corning, foreword by Francis H. Herrick., Boston, The Club of odd volumes, 1929. The life and adventures of John James Audubon, the naturalist. Ed., from materials supplied by his widow, by Robert Buchanan, London, S. Low, son, & Marston, 1868. The original water-color paintings by John James Audubon for The birds of America. Reproduced in color from the collection at the New-York Historical Society. Introd. by Marshall B. Davidson.Original ed. New York: American Heritage Pub. Co.; Distributed by Crown Publishers, 1966. Ornithological biography, or An account of the habits of the birds of the United States of America; accompanied by descriptions of the objects represented in the work entitled The birds of America, and interspersed with delineations of American scenery and manners. By John James Audubon . . ., Edinburgh, A. Black; [etc., etc.] 1831-1849 [i.e. 1839] Works. 1979 The complete Audubon / a precise replica of the complete works of John James Audubon, comprising the Birds of America (1840-44) and the Quadrupeds of North America (1851-54) in their entirety, 75th Anniversary ed.Kent [Ohio]: Published for the National Audubon Society by Volair Books, 1979, c1978. Scènes de la nature dans les États-Unis et le Nord de l'Améríque / ouverage traduit par Eugène Bazin. Paris : P. Bertrand, 1857. A synopsis of the birds of North America. By John James Audubon ..., Edinburgh, A. and C. Black; [etc., etc.] 1839 The viviparious quadrupeds of North America / [text] by John James Audubon and John Bachman, New York : Audubon, 1846-53. Works. 1979 The complete Audubon / a precise replica of the complete works of John James Audubon, comprising the Birds of America (1840-44) and the Quadrupeds of North America (1851-54) in their entirety, 75th Anniversary ed., Kent [Ohio]: Published for the National Audubon Society by Volair Books, 1979, c1978.

Estudos Sobre o Autor
ADUBON, Maria(ed.), John James Audubon and His Journals, N. York, Putman, 1900. ADAMS, Alexander B. , John James Audubon; a biography, New York, Putnam [1966] BURROUGHS, John, 1837-1921. , John James Audubon, Woodstock, N.Y. : Overlook Press, 1987. FORD, Alice, 1906- , John James Audubon: a biography, Norman, univ. of Oklahoma Press., 1954/ New York : Abbeville Press, c1988 FOSHAY, Ella M., 1948-, John James Audubon, New York : Harry N. Abrams, in association with the National Museum of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, 1997. GRAHAM, JR, Frank, The Audubon Ark. A History of the National Audubon Society, Austin, Univ, of Texas, 1990. John James Audubon, peintre naturaliste américain, 1785-1851: [exposition], Centre Culturel Américain octobre-novembre 1960, Paris : Le Centre, [1960]Julho 15, 1998 John James Audubon, The birds of America and other important printed books by Audubon, Mark Catesby and John Gould: the properties of the University of Edinburgh, The Roman Catholic Dioceseof Lexington, the Redwood Library and Athenaeum : Friday, April 24, 1992 at 2:00 p.m., New York, N.Y. : Christie, Manson & Woods International, 1992. KASTNER, Joseph, John James Audubon , New York : H.N. Abrams, [1992] KIERAN, Margaret Ford, 1905-, John James Audubon, by Margaret and John Kieran; illustrated by Christine Price, New York, Random House [1954] OWENS, Carlotta J., John James Audubon : The birds of America ,Washington, D.C. : National Gallery of

Art, c1984.Christie, Manson & Woods International Inc. PROBY, Kathryn Hall, 1921-, Audubon in Florida. With selections from the writings of John James Audubon, Coral Gables, Fla., University of Miami Press c1974. REYNOLDS, Gary A, John James Audubon & his sons: catalog, New York, N.Y. (33 Washington Pl., New York) : Grey Art Gallery and Study Center, c1982. WEED, Clarence Moores, 1864-1947, comp., Bird life stories, comp. from the writings of Audubon, Bendire, Nuttall, and Wilson, by Clarence Moores Weed., Chicago [etc.] Rand, McNally & company [1904]

DARWIN, Charles, 1809-1882.
A Calendar of the Correspondence of Charles Darwin, New York: Garland Pub., 1985. /Cambridge; New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1994. A Concordance to Charles Darwin's Notebooks, 1836-1844, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1990. A Monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, Washington Square, N.Y. : New York University Press, 1988. Charles Darwin, 1809-1882, Napoli: Macchiaroli, 1982/ Wellington, N.Z.: Nova Pacifica, 1982. Charles Darwin's Beagle diary, Cambridge [Cambridgeshire]; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988. Charles Darwin's Letters, Cambridge; New York, NY, USA: University of Cambridge, 1996. Charles Darwin's Marginalia, New York: Garland, 1990 Charles Darwin's Natural Selection, London; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1975. Charles Darwin's Notebooks, 1836-1844, [London]: British Museum (Natural History) ; Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1987. Darwin a Barcelona, Barcelona: Promocions Publicacions Universitaries, c1984. Darwin en Chile, Santiago de Chile: Editorial Universitaria, 1996. Darwin en el Archipielago de Galapagos, [Quito, Ecuador?]: Comision Permanente para la Defensa del Patrimonio Nacional, [1985] Darwin on Man: A Psychological Study of Scientific Creation, New York, E. P. Dutton, 1974. Darwin, Charles, 1809-1882. Metaphysics, Materialism, & the Evolution of Mind , Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980. Darwin's Forgotten World, Los Angeles: Reed Books, 1978. Diary of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle, New York: New York University Press, 1987. Darwin and Henslow: the Growth of an Idea; Letters 1831-1860. Edited by Nora Barlow for the Bentham-Moxon Trust.Berkeley, University of California Press, 1967 [Extracts from Letters Addressed to Professor Henslow], [Cambridge, Cambridgeshire: J.S. Henslow, 1835] Fertilization of Orchids by Insects, Stanfordville, N.Y.: E. M. Coleman, 1979. Human Nature, Darwin's View, New York: Columbia University Press, 1985. Insectivorous Plants, New York: New York University Press, 1989. Journal of Researches, New York: New York University Press, 1987. Monographs of the fossil Lepadidae and the fossil Balan, Washington Square, N.Y.: New York University Press, 1988. On Evolution, Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Pub., c1996. On the Movements and Habits of Climbing Plants, (Bruxelles, Culture et civilisation, 1969) On the Origin of Species, 1859, Washington Square, N.Y.: New York University Press, 1988. Por Darwin en el Centenario de su Muerte, 1882-1982, Ciudad de La Habana: Editorial CientificoTecnica, c1985. The Autobiography of Charles Darwin, 1809-1882, New York: Norton, 1969, 1993.

The Collected Papers of Charles Darwin, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977./Chicago : University of Chicago Press, 1980, c1977. The Correspondence of Charles Darwin, Cambridge [England]; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985-<1994 > The Darwin Reader, New York: Norton, 1987. /New York: Norton, 1996. The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex, Franklin Center, Pa.: Franklin Library, 1980./ 1981 Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1981./ 1989 New York: New York University Press, 1989. / Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1997. The Different Forms of Flowers on Plants of the Same Species, Bruxelles, Civilisation, 1969]. / Chicago: University of Chicago Press, c1986. /New York: New York University Press, 1989. The Effects of Cross and Self Fertilisation in the Vegetation, New York: New York University Press, 1989. The Essential Darwin, Boston: Little, Brown, c1984. The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals, London: Julian Friedmann; New York: St. Martin's Press, 1979. / London ; Dover, N.H.: F. Pinter, 1983. /Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1989. The Formation of Vegetable Mould Through the Action of Bruxelles, Impression Anastaltique Culture et Civilisation, [1970]. / Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985. /1989 New York: New York University Press, 1989. The Foundations of the Origin of Species, New York: New York University Press, 1987. The Geology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle, New York: New York University Press, 1987. The Illustrated Origin of Species, New York: Hill and Wang, 1979/ London: Faber and Faber, 1979. The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin, New York, Johnson Reprint Corp. [1969] The Movements and Habits of Climbing Plants, Washington Square, N.Y.: New York University Press, 1988. The Origin of Species, London: Dent; New York: E. P. Dutton, 1972. /Franklin Center, Pa.: Franklin Library, 1975./Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. The origin of species / 1975 New York: Norton, [1975] The Origin of Species: Complete and Fully Illustrated, Harmondsworth, Penguin, Franklin Center, Pa.: Franklin Library, 1978. /New York: Gramercy Books, c1979. /New York: Avenel Books:distributed by Crown Publishers, [1979] / Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., c1990. / New York: Modern Library, 1993. The Origin of Species, 1876, Washington Square, N.Y.: New York University Press, 1988. The Portable Darwin, New York: Penguin Books, 1993. The Power of Movement in Plants, New York: New York University Press, 1989. The Red Notebook of Charles Darwin, [London]: British Museum (Natural History); Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1980. The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs, Tucson, Ariz.: University of Arizona Press, c1984. The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication, Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998. The Various Contrivances by which Orchids are Fertilise, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984. / Washington Square, N.Y. New York University Press, 1988. The Voyage of Charles Darwin, New York: Mayflower Books, [1979] /1986 New York : Parkwest Publications; London: British Broadcasting Corp., 1986. The Voyage of the Beagle, London: Dent; New York: Dutton, 1967. / London, England; New York, N.Y., USA: Penguin Books, 1989. The Works of Charles Darwin, New York: New York University Press, 1987-1989. The Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle. The Zoology of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle, under the command of Captain Fitzroy, R.N.,during the years 1832 to 1836 : published with the approval of the Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury, edited and superintended by Charles Darwin, Esq. London: published by Smith, Elder and Co., 1839-1843./ New York: New York University Press, 1987. Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication., Washington Square, N.Y.: New York University Press, 1988. What Darwin Saw in his Voyage round the World …, New York: Weathervane Books: distributed by Crown Publishers, [1978]

ESTUDOS SOBRE: ALEXANDER, Richard D., Darwinism and Human Affairs / Richard D. Alexander.Seattle: University of Washington Press, c1979 APPLEMAN, Philip, 1926- comp. Darwin / edited by Philip Appleman.2d ed. New York: Norton, c1979. Darwin's Ark: Poems / by Philip Appleman; illustrations by Rudy Pozzatti.Bloomington: Indiana University Press, c1984. ARNOULD, Jacques, Frère. Darwin, Teilhard de Chardin et cie: l'Eglise et l'évolution / Jacques Arnould. Paris: Desclée de Brouwer, c1996. Autobiographies / Charles Darwin, Thomas Henry Huxley; edited with an introd. by Gavin de Beer. London; New York: Oxford University Press, 1974. BALDWIN, James Mark (1910), Darwin and the Humanities, 2nd ed (London: Swann Sonnenschein). BANTON, Michael P. ed. Darwinism and the Study of Society, a Centenary Symposium. With contributions by Michael Banton [and others] Edited by Michael Banton. With an introd. by J.Bronowski.London, Tavistock Publications; Chicago, Quadrangle Books [1961] BARKOW, Jerome H. Darwin, Sex, and Status Biological Approaches to Mind and Culture / Jerome H.Barkow. Toronto; Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, c1989. BARRETT, Paul H., A Concordance to Darwin's Origin of Species, first edit, Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell University Press, 1981. BARZUN, Jacques, 1907- Darwin, Marx, Wagner: Critique of a Heritage. Rev. 2d ed. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1958. BECKSTROM, John H., 1932- Darwinism Applied: Evolutionary Paths to Social Goals / John H. Beckstrom.Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1993. BEER, Gillian. Darwin's Plots: Evolutionary Narrative in Darwin, George Eliot, and Nineteenth-Century Fiction / Gillian Beer.London; Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1983. BELL, Peter Robert. ed. Darwin's Biological Work; Some Aspects Reconsidered, by P.R. Bell [and others] Edited by P.R. Bell.Cambridge [Eng.] University Press, 1959. BEVERLEY, Robert Mackenzie, 1796(?)-1868. The Darwinian Theory of the Transmutation of Species Examined by a Graduate of the University of Cambridge.London: J. Nisbet, & Co., 1867. BOWLER, Peter J. Darwinism / Peter J. Bowler.New York: Twayne Publishers; Toronto : Maxwell Macmillan Canada; New York Maxwell Macmillan International, c1993. BRADFORD, Gamaliel, 1863-1932. Darwin, by Gamaliel Bradford Boston, New York, Houghton Mifflin company, 1926. BROWN, Ron. Darwin Dilemmas / by Ron Brown and Pat Studdy-Clift.Carlisle, W.A.: Hesperian Press, 1992. BURNABY, John Darwin and the Human Situation.Cambridge, W. Heffer [1959] CAUDILL, Edward. Darwinism in the Press: the Evolution of an Idea / Edward Caudill. Hillsdale, N.J.: L. Erlbaum Associates, c1989.

COBBE, Frances Power, 1822-1904. Darwinism in Morals, and other Essays. Reprinted from the Theological and Fortnightly reviews, Fraser's and Macmillan's magazines, and the Manchester friend. By Frances Power Cobbe.London, Edinburgh, Williams and Norgate, 1872. COMFORT, Alex, 1920- Darwin and The Naked Lady; Discursive Essays on Biology and Art. London, Routledge & K. Paul, [c1961] CONRY, Yvette. Correspondance entre Charles Darwin et Gaston de Saporta. Précédée de Histoire de la Paléobotanique en France au XIXe siècle. Paris, Presses universitaires de France, 1972. CROOK, D. P. (David Paul) Darwinism, War, and History: the Debate over the Biology of war from the "Origin of species" to the First World War / Paul Crook.Cambridge [England]; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994. DALE, Peter Allen (1989), In Pursuit of a Scientific Culture: Science, Art, and Society in the Victorian Age (Madison: U. of Wisconsin Press). DARLINGTON, C. D. (Cyril Dean), 1903- Darwin's Place in History. Oxford, Blackwell, 1959. Darwin and Evolution / David Corbett, editor.[Adelaide]: Dept. of Continuing Education, University of Adelaide, 1980 Darwin in Retrospect / H.H.J. Nesbitt, editor; J.C.S. Wernham [et al.]Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1960. Darwin to Einstein: Historical Studies on Science and Belief / edited by Colin Chant and John Fauvel.London; New York: Longman, 1980. Darwin, Marx, and Freud: their Influence on Moral Theory / edited by Arthur L. Caplan and Bruce Jennings. New York: Plenum Press, c1984. Darwinism and Divinity: Essays on Evolution and Religious Belief / edited by John Durant. Darwinisme et Société / sous la direction de Patrick Tort. 1 re éd. Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1992. Paper presented at a conference held June 4-6, 1991, in Paris, France.Includes bibliographical references and index. Darwin's Laboratory: Evolutionary Theory and Natural History in the Pacific /edited by Roy M. MacLeod and Philip F. Rehbock.Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, c1994. DE LA FUENTE, Carlo A. Darwin e il Cammino Verso il DNA / [a cura di Carlo A. de la Fuente].- Roma : Cremonese, 1974 DENNETT, Daniel Clement. Darwin's Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meanings of Life / Daniel C. Dennett.New York: Simon & Schuster, c1995. DESMOND, Adrian, 1947- Darwin / Adrian Desmond and James Moore. London: Michael Joseph, 1991. Appleman, Philip, 1926- comp. Darwin. [1st ed.] New York, Norton [1970] DORDOLOT, Canon, 1855-1929. Darwinism and Catholic Thought, by Canon Dorlodot. Translated by the Rev. Ernest Messenger.London [etc.] Burns, Oates and Washbourne, ltd., 1922DUROUX, Paul Émile. Les Darwin.Paris, Éditions Universitaires [1972] EISELEY, Loren C., 1907-1977. Darwin and the Mysterious Mr. X: new Light on the Evolutionists / by Loren C.Eiseley. 1st ed. New York: Dutton, c1979.

FISKE, John, 1842-1901 Darwinism and other Essays, by John Fiske. New ed., rev. and enl.Boston and New York, Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1900. GLICK, Thomas F. Darwin y el Darwinismo: en el Uruguay y en América Latina / Thomas F. Glick. [Montevideo, Uruguay]: Universidad de la República, Facultad de Humanidades y Ciencias, Departamento de Publicaciones, [1989] GRAY, Asa, 1810-1888. Darwiniana; Essays and Reviews Pertaining to Darwinism. Edited by A. Hunter Dupree.Cambridge, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1963. GREENE, John C. Darwin and the Modern World View.Baton Rouge, Louisiana State University Press [1961] GRINNELL, George James. The Darwin Case, a Computer Analysis of Scientific Creativity [by George James Grinnell] Berkeley, Cal., 1969. GRUBER, Howard E. Darwin on Man: a Psychological Study of Scientific Creativity / Howard E. Gruber; foreword to the 1st ed. by Jean Piaget.2nd ed Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981. HAYCRAFT, John Berry, d. 1922. Darwinism and Race Progress, by John Berry Haycraft. London, S. Sonnenschein; New York, Scribner, 1895. HEADLEY, F. W. (Frederick Webb), 1856-1919. Darwinism and Modern Socialism / by F. W. Headley. London: Methuen, 1909 HENKIN, Leo Justin, 1906- Darwinism in the English Novel, 1860-1910; the Impact of Evolution on Victorian Fiction. New York, Russell & Russell, 1963 [c1940] HIMMELFARB, Gertrude. Darwin and the Darwinian Revolution. London, Chatto & Windus, 1959. HINGSTON, R. W. G. (Richard William George), 1887- Darwin, by F. W. G. Hingston HOPKINS, Robert S. Darwin's South America [by] Robert S. Hopkins. New York, John Day Co. [1969] HULL, David L. Darwin and his Critics: the Reception of Darwin's Theory of Evolution by the Scientific Community / David L. Hull.Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983, c1973. HUXLEY, Thomas Henry, 1825-1895. Darwiniana; Essays. New York, D. Appleton and Company, 1897. Il Darwinismo in Italia: Testi / di Filippo De Filippi ... [et al.]; a cura di Giacomo Giacobini e Gian Luigi Panattoni. Torino: Unione tip.-editrice torinese, 1983. Il Darwinismo nel Pensiero Scientifico Contemporaneo.Napoli: Guida, [1984] IRVINE, William (1959), 'The influence of Darwin on literature', Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 103 (October), pp. 616-28. ISAACS, Leonard, 1939- Darwin to Double Helix: the Biological Theme in Science Fiction / Leonard Isaacs. London; Boston: Butterworths, 1977. JOHNSON, Phillip E., 1940- Darwin on Trial / Phillip E. Johnson. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, c1991. JONES, Arthur Edward (1950), Darwinism and its Relationship to Realism and Naturalism in American Fiction, 1860 to 1900 (Madison: Drew University Press).

KEITH, Arthur, Sir, 1866-1955. Darwin Revalued. London, Watts [1955] KOHN, David ed (1986), The Darwinian Heritage (Princeton: Princeton University Press). LACK, David Lambert. Darwin's Finches; an Essay on the General Biological Theory of Evolution by David Lack.New York, Harper [1961] LADOUS, Régis. Darwin, Marx, Engels, Lyssenko et les Autres / par Régis Ladous. Paris: J. Vrin; Lyon: Institut interdisciplinaire d'études epistemologiques, 1984. LANDUCCI, Giovanni. Darwinismo a Firenze: tra Scienza e Ideologia (1860-1900) / Giovanni Landucci. Firenze: L. S. Olschki, 1977. LEROY, Jean-F. Darwin, Paris, Seghers, 1966. LEVINE, George, 1931- Darwin and the Novelists: Patterns of Science in Victorian Fiction / George Levine.Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988. LOEWENBERG, Bert James, 1905- Darwin, Wallace, and the Theory of Natural selection; including the Linnean Society papers. Cambridge, Arlington Books, 1959. LOEWENBERG, Bert James, 1905- ed. Darwinism; Reaction or Reform? New York, Rinehart [1957] LOVTRUP, Soren. Darwinism: the Refutation of a Myth / Soren Lovtrup.New York: Croom Helm in association with Methuen, c1987. MACHIN, Alfred, 1888- Darwin's Theory Applied to Mankind, by Alfred Machin ... With a foreword by Sir Arthur Keith, F.R.S.London, New York [etc.] Longmans, Green and Co. [1937] MCNEIL, Maureen. Under the Banner of Science: Erasmus Darwin and his Age / Maureen McNeil. Manchester, UK; Wolfeboro, NH, USA: Manchester University Press, c1987. MITCHELL, P. Chalmers (Peter Chalmers), Sir, 1864-1945. Evolution and the War. French Le Darwinisme et la Guerre / par P. Chalmers Mitchell; traduit de l'anglais par Maurice Solovine; lettre-préface de Émile Boutroux. Paris: F. Alcan, 1916. MOORE, James R. (James Richard), 1947- The Darwin Legend / James Moore.Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Books, c1994. MOOREHEAD, Alan, 1910- Darwin and the Beagle / Alan Moorehead. New York: Crescent Books: Distributed by Crown Publishers, 1983, c1969. MORTON, Peter (1984), The Vital Science: Biology and the Literary Imagination 1860-1900 (London: Allen & Unwin). MURPHY, Elymer J., Beyond Darwin, Sussex, England: Book Guild, c1982. NADVI, Khurshid S. Darwinism on Trial / Khurshid S. Nadvi.2nd rev. ed. London: Ta-Ha, 1993 NOBEL CONFERENCE (18th 1982: Gustavus Adolphus College) Darwin's Legacy / Nobel Conference XVIII, Gustavus Adolphus College, St. Peter, Minnesota edited by Charles L. Hamrum; with contributions by Stephen Jay Gould ... [et al.].1st ed. San Francisco: Harper & Row, c1983. NORRIS, Margot (1985), Beasts of the Modern Imagination: Darwin, Nietzsche, Kafka, Ernst and Lawrence (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP).

O'HANLON, Redmond (1984). Joseph Conrad and Charles Darwin: The Influence of Scientific Thought on Conrad's Fiction (Atlantic Highlands: Humanities Press). OLDROYD, David Roger. Darwinian Impacts: an Introduction to the Darwinian Revolution / David Roger Oldroyd.Kensington, Australia: New South Wales University, c1980. ONG, Walter J., ed. Darwin's Vision and Christian Perspectives; [Papers] Foreword by John Wright. New York, Macmillan, 1960. ORMSBY, Robert McKinley, 1814-1881. Darwin / by Robert McK. Ormsby.New York: Printed by P.F. McBreen, [1876] OSPOVAT, Dov, 1947-1980. The Development of Darwin's Theory: Natural History, Natural Theology, and Natural Selection, 1838-1859 / Dov Ospovat. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981 (1995 [printing]) PANCALDI, Giuliano. Darwin in Italia. English Darwin in Italy: Science Across Cultural Frontiers / Giuliano Pancaldi; translated by Ruey Brodine Morelli.Updated and expanded ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, c1991. PARODIZ, Juan J. (Juan José) Darwin in the New World / J.J. Parodiz.Leiden: Brill, 1981. PECKHAM, Morse (1959), 'Darwinism and Darwinisticism', Victorian Studies, vol. 3 (September), pp. 3-40. PELLEGRINO, Charles R. Darwin's Universe: Origins and Crises in the History of Life / Charles R. Pellegrino, Jesse A. Stoff. 2nd ed. Blue Ridge Summit, PA: TAB Books, 1986. PLAINE, Henry L., ed. Darwin, Marx, and Wagner; a Symposium. [Columbus] Ohio State University Press [1962] PLOTKIN, H.C. (Henry C.) Darwin Machines and the Nature of Knowledge / Henry Plotkin. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1994. QUATREFAGES DE BRÉAU, Armand de, 1810-1892. Darwin et ses Précurseurs Français étude sur le Ttransformisme, par A. de Qutrefages.2. éd. rev. et augm.Paris, G. Baillière, 1892. RICHARDS, Robert John, 1942- Darwin and the Emergence of Evolutionary Ttheories of Mind and Behavior /Robert J. Richards.Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. RITCHIE, David George, 1853-1903. Darwin and Hegel, with other Philosophical Studies, by David G. Ritchie.London, S. Sonnenschein & Co.; New York, Macmillan & Co., 1893. RITVO, Lucille B., 1920- Darwin's Influence on Freud: a Tale of two Sciences / Lucille B. Ritvo. New Haven: Yale University Press, c1990. ROBERTS, Jon H. Darwinism and the Divine in America: Protestant Intellectuals and Organic Evolution, 1859-1900 / Jon H. Roberts.Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press, 1988. ROPPEN, George (1956), Evolution and Poetic Belief. A Study in Some Victorian and Modern Writers (Oslo: Oslo University Press). ROUTH, Harold Victor (1937), Towards the Twentieth Century: Essays in the Spiritual History of the Nineteenth (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). RUSE, Michael. Darwinism Defended: a Guide to the Evolution Controversies / Michael Ruse; foreword by Ernst Mayr.Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, Advanced Book Program/World Science Division, 1982.

RUSE, Michael. The Darwinian Paradigm: Essays on its History, Philosophy, and Religious Implications / Michael Ruse. London; New York: Routledge Selections. 1956 The Darwin Reader; edited by Marston Bates and Philip S. Humphrey. New York, Scribner [1956] SIMPSON, George Gaylord, 1902- The Book of Darwin, New York: Washington Square Press, c1982. SIMS, Michael, 1958- Darwin's Orchestra: an Almanac of Nature in History and the Arts / Michael Sims.1st ed. New York: Henry Holt, 1997. SNELL, Reginald. Darwin [by] L. B. Pekin [pseud.] London, L. and Virginia Woolf at the Hogarth Press, 1937. STEVENSON, Lionel, 1902- Darwin Among the Poets, Lionel Stevenson.Chicago, Ill., The University of Chicago press [c1932 'Darwin and the novel', Nineteenth-Century Fiction, vol. 15 (June), 1960, pp. 29-38. STORNAIOLO, Ugo. Darwin, Marx, Freud, Einstein: l'Avventura del Pensiero Occidentale / Ugo Stornaiolo.Milano, Italy: Centro studi Terzo mondo, [1992] The Darwinian Heritage: Including Proceedings of the Charles Darwin Centenary Conference, Florence Center for the History and Philosophy of Science, June 1982 / edited by David Kohn, with bibliographic assistance from Malcolm J. Kottler. Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, in association with Nova Pacifica, c1985. The Fragile Environment: the Darwin College Lectures / edited by Laurie Friday and Ronald Laskey.Cambridge [England] ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 1989. THORNTON, Ian W. B. Darwin's Islands: a Natural History of the Galápagos [by] Ian Thornton. [1st ed.]Garden City, N. Y., Published for the American Museum of Natural History [by] Natural History Press, 1971. TODES, Daniel Philip. Darwin without Malthus: the Struggle for Existence in Russian Evolutionary Thought / Daniel P. Todes.New York: Oxford University Press, 1989. TURNER, John Mills (1944), 'The Response of Major American Writers to Darwinism, 1859-1910', unpublished PhD thesis, Harvard University. VANDERPOOL, Harold Y., comp. Darwin and Darwinism; Revolutionary Insights Concerning Man, Nature, Religion, and Society. Edited and with an introd. by Harold Y. Vanderpool. Lexington, Mass., Heath [1973] VUCINICH, Alexander, 1914- Darwin in Russian Tthought/ Alexander Vucinich. Berkeley : University of California Press, c1988. WEINDLING, Paul. Darwinism and Social Darwinism in Imperial Germany: the Contribution of the cell Biologist Oscar Hertwig (1849-1922) / Paul Julian Weindling. Stuttgart; New York: G. Fisher, 1991. WHITE, Michael, 1959- Darwin: a Life in Science/ Michael White and John Gribbin. London: Simon & Schuster, 1995. WINSLOW, John H., 1932- Darwin's Victorian Malady; Evidence for its Medically Induced Origin [by] John H. Winslow. Philadelphia, American Philosophical Society, 1971.

YOUNG, Robert Maxwell. Darwin's Metaphor: Nature's Place in Victorian Culture/ Robert M. Young. Cambridge [Cambridgeshire]; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985. ZIMMERMAN, Paul Albert, 1918- ed. Darwin, Evolution, and Creation [by] Paul A. Zimmerman, editor [and others] Saint Louis, Concordia Pub. House, 1959. ZIRKLE, Conway (1959), Evolution, Marxian Biology, and the Social Scene (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press). PÁGINAS WEB Dr Graham Smith Darwin, Charles (author), Darwin, Charles (author) [on-line] disponível em http://indigo.stile.le.ac.uk/~sgj/STILE/t0002448.html Internet Infidels, Charles Darwin [1809 - 1882], 1995-1998, [on-line] disponível em http://infidels.org/library/historical/charles_darwin/ livros: The Descent Of Man (1871) On the Origin of Species (1859) The Voyage Of The Beagle (1909) Sébastien Rouget , Charles Darwin et L'évolution, 08 novembre 1997 [on-line] disponível em http://users.aol.com/darwinisme/index.html James Cook University, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural, Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured, Races in the Struggle for Life. Charles Darwin, M.A, 1996[on-line] disponível em http://www.cimm.jcu.edu.au/hist/stats/galton/darwin/index.htm Discover Galapagos - Darwin's Enchanted Islands [on-line] disponível em http://www.discovergalapagos.com/ Stuart Curran, Pennsylvania Electronic Edition of Frankenstein, Charles Darwin, 1809-1882 [on-line] disponível em http://www.english.upenn.edu/~jlynch/Frank/People/cdarwin.html Johannah E. Barry, International Galapagos Tour Operators Association, The Charles Darwin Foundation [online] disponível em http://www.igtoa.org/darwin.htm. Descent of Man [ 1871]Charles Darwin [ 1809 - 1882 ]1995-1998, [on-line] disponível em http://www.infidels.org/library/historical/charles_darwin/descent_of_man/ Department of Rare Books and Special University of South Carolina, Collections.The C. Warren Irvin, Jr., Collection of Charles Darwin and Darwiniana, 16 July 1997[on-line] disponível em http://www.sc.edu/library/spcoll/nathist/darwin/darwin.html The Secular Web, On the Origin of Species (1859) Charles Darwin [on-line] disponível em http://www.secular.org/library/historical/charles_darwin/origin_of_species/ The Secular Web, The Voyage of The Beagle (1909) Charles Darwin[on-line] disponível em http://www.secular.org/library/historical/charles_darwin/voyage_of_beagle/

THOREAU, David Henry, 1817-1862.

A Pig Tale, New Fairfield, Conn.: Bruce Rogers, 1947.

A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers, Avon, Conn.: Limited Editions Club, 1975./Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1980. /Franklin Center, Pa.: Franklin Library, 1983./ New York : AMS Press, 1982. /New York, N.Y.: Literary Classics of the United States: Distributed to the trade in the U.S. and Canada by Viking Press, c1985. A Yearning toward Wildness, Atlanta: Peachtree Publishers, c1991. / New York: Penguin Books, 1993. An American Landscape, New York: Paragon House, 1991. Autumnal Tints, Bedford, Mass.: Applewood Books, [1996] Backwoods and along the Seashore, Boston: Shambhala, 1995. Cape Cod, Portland, Me., Printed at the Anthoensen Press for the members of the Limited Editions Club, 1968/ New York: AMS Press, [1982] /Boston: Little, Brown, c1985. / Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1988/City at bay: 1979 New York: Arbor House, c1979 Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1993. Civil Disobedience, and other Essays, New York: Dover Publications, 1993. Civil Disobedience, Boston, D. R. Godine, 1969. Clear Dky, Pure Light, Lincoln, Mass.: Penmaen Press, c1978. Consciousness in Concord, New York: AMS Press, [1985] Dynasty of Power, New York: Arbor House, c1982. Early Essays and Miscellanies, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1975. Excursions, and Poems, New York: AMS Press, [1982] Faith in a Seed, Washington, D.C.: Island Press/Shearwater Books, c1993. Familiar Letters, New York: AMS Press, [1982] Great Short Works of Henry David Thoreau, New York: Harper & Row, 1982. Henry D. Thoreau, Paris: L'Herne, c1994. Henry David Thoreau, New York: Gramercy; Avenel, N.J.: Distributed by Outlet Book Co., c1993. House-warming and Winter Visitor, Camden, N.J.: Haddon Craftsmen, 1936. In the Footsteps of the artist, Wilmington, Del.: Middle Atlantic Press, c1986. In the Woods and Fields of Concord, Salt Lake City, Utah: G.M. Smith, 1982. In Wildness is the Preservation of the World, San Francisco: Sierra Club, [1988], c1962. Journal, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1981-<1992 > / New York: AMS Press, [1982] Letters to Various Persons, Folcroft, Pa.: Folcroft Library Editions, 1975./ Norwood, Pa.: Norwood Editions, 1976. / Philadelphia: R. West, 1978. Life without Principle, Folcroft, Pa.: Folcroft Library Editions, 1977./ Norwood, Pa. : Norwood Editions, 1978. Political Writings, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Reflections at Walden, [Kansas City, Mo., Hallmark, 1971] Selected Writings, Arlington Heights, Ill.: H. Davidson, [1988] Selections 1988 Thoreau's Comments on the art of Writing / edited and with an introduction by Richard Dillman. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, c1987. Selections from the Journals, New York: Dover Publications, c1995. Simplify, Simplify and other Quotations from Henry David, New York: Columbia University Press, c1996. Solitude, New York: Modern Library, 1996. Some Unpublished Letters of Henry D. and Sophia E. Thor, New York: AMS Press, [1985] Sweet, Wild World, Boston: Charles River Books, c1982. The Annotated Walden: Walden; New York, C. N. Potter; distributed by Crown Publishers [c1970] The Bluebird Carries the Sky on his Back. , [Los Angeles] Stanyan Books [1970] The green Thoreau, San Rafael, Calif.: New World Library, c1992. The Illustrated A Week on the Concord and Merrimack river, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1983. The Journal of Henry David Thoreau, Salt Lake City: Peregrine Smith Books, 1984. The Maine Woods, New York, N.Y.: Penguin Books, 1988. The Maine woods. 1982 New York: AMS Press, [1982] / New York: Perennial Library, 1987, c1864. The Moon, New York: AMS Press, [1985] The Natural History Essays, Salt Lake City: Peregrine Smith, 1980. / 1989 Salt Lake City: Peregrine Smith Books, [1989]

The Natural Man, Wheaton, Ill.: Theosophical Pub. House, 1978. The Poet's Delay, New York: Rizzoli, 1992. The Portable Thoreau, New York: Penguin Books, 1977, c1964. The Santanic Condition, New York: Arbor House, c1981. The Service, New York: Gordon Press, 1976, c1902. The Thoreau Calendar, Norwood, Pa.: Norwood Editions, 1977. The Thoughts of Thoreau, New York: L. Dodd, Mead, 1987. The Winged Life, Covelo, Calif.: Yolla Bolly Press, c1986. /San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, c1986/ New York: HarperPerennial, 1992. The Works of Henry David Thoreau, Stamford, Conn.: Longmeadow Press, 1995. The Writings of Henry David Thoreau, New York: AMS Press, [1982] Thoreau Country, San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1975. Thoreau in the Mountains, writings by Henry David Thoreau; commentary by William Howarth. New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, c1982. Thoreau on Birds, Bosto : Beacon Press, c1993. Thoreau on Writing, Conway, AR: University of Central Arkansas Press; Lanham, MD Distributed by arrangement with University Pub. Associates, c1989. Thoreau Today; Selections from his Writings. Edited by Helen Barber Morrison. With an introd. by Odell Shepard. New York, Comet Press Books, 1957. Thoreau's Cape Cod, with the early photographs of Herbert W. Gleason. Edited, with an introd., by Thea Wheelwright. Barre, Mass., Barre Publishers, 1971. Thoreau's Comments on the Art of Writing, Lanham, MD: University Press of America, c1987. Thoreau's Garden , Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, c1996. Thoreau's Literary Note-book 1840 [1840-1848?] in the Library of Congress. Facsimile text edited by Kenneth Walter Cameron. Hartford, Transcendental Books [c1964] Thoreau's Minnesota Journey, New York: AMS Press, [1985] Thoreau's Vision: the Major Essays. Edited by Charles R. Anderson. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall [1973] Thoreau's Walde, Waukesha, Wis.: Country Beautiful, c1976. Thoreau's World; Miniatures from his Journal, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall [1971] Two Fragments from the Journals, Iowa City: Windhover Press, University of Iowa, c1968. Walden,/ 1969 Columbus, Ohio, C. E. Merrill [1969] / London : W. Scott, [1886]/1981. /1982 New Yor: AMS Press, [1982] / Walden; 1970 [London] Distributed by Heron Books [c1970] / Salt Lake City: G.M. Smith, 1981. /Philadelphia, Pa: Running Press, c1987./Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1989. /Philadelphia, Pa: Courage Books, c1990. /London: J.M. Dent; Rutland, Vt.: C.E. Tuttle, c1992./ Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1995 /Stamford, CT : Longmeadow Press, 1996. /Boston: Beacon Press, c1997. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. Walden; and, Civil Disobedience, Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England; New York, N.Y.: Penguin Books, 1983. Walden; and, Resistance to Civil Government, New York: W.W. Norton, c1992. Walden and other Writings of Henry David Thoreau, New York: Modern Library, 1992. Walden, a Concordance, New York: Garland Pub., 1985. Walden, and other Writings, Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday [1970] / New York; Modern Library, c1981. Walden, or Life in the Woods; On the duty of Civil dis , New York: Collier Books, 1986, c1962. / Philadelphia: H. Altemus, [1899?] / New York: A.A. Knopf, c1992/ Walden, or, Life in the woods / 1973 Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Press/ Doubleday, 1973. /Franklin Center, Pa.: Franklin Library, 1981. / Franklin Center, Pa.: Franklin Library, 1983. / New York: Vintage Books/The Library of America, 1991./ New York: Dover Publications, 1995. Walden Salt Lake City, G.M. Smith, / Franklin Center, Pa: Franklin Library, 1976. Walking, Boston: Applewood Books, 1987. / Dallas: Heritage Press, 1989/ San Francisco: Harper San Francisco, c1994. Where I Stand, Greensboro, N.C.: Tudor Publishers, c1992. Wild Apples, [Bedford, Mass.]: Applewood Books; Chester, CT: Distributed by Globe Pequot Press, [1992] Wood-notes Wild: 1995 Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, c1995.

Works of Henry David Thoreau, New York: Avenel Books: distributed by Crown Publishers, c1981./ New York, NY: Longmeadow Press, 1986, c1981. ESTUDOS SOBRE: ANDERSON, Charles. The Magic Circle of Walden. New York, 1968. BENNETT, Jane, 1957- Thoreau's Nature: Ethics, Politics, and the Wild / Jane Bennett. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications, c1994. BICKMAN, Martin. Walden: Volatile Truths. New York, 1992. BOONE, Joseph Allen. "Delving and Diving for Truth: Breaking through to Bottom in Thoreau's Walden." ESQ 27 (1981): 135-46. BOUDREAU, Gordon V. The Roots of Walden and the Tree of Life. Nashville, 1990. CAVELL, Stanley. The Senses of Walden. New York, 1972. CAMERON, Kenneth Walter, 1908- The Thoreau Secondary Bibliography. Supplement two (1836-1940): with an Appendix of Commentary and Documents / by Kenneth Walter Cameron. Hartford: Transcendental Books, c1997. ed. Thoreau's Harvard Years; Materials Introductory to new Explorations, Record of fact and Background. Hartford, Transcendental Books [1966] CHANNING, William Ellery, 1817-1901. Thoreau: the Poet-naturalist; with Memorial Verses / by William Ellery Channing; new ed., enl., edited by F. B. Sanborn.New York: Biblo and Tannen, 1951 CHRISTIE, John Aldrich. Thoreau as World Traveler. New York: Columbia University Press with the cooperation of the American Geographical Society, 1965. DICKENS, Robert. Thoreau: the Complete Individualist; his Relevance--and Lack of it--for our Time.[1st ed.]New York, Exposition Press [1974] DOMBROWSKI, Daniel A. Thoreau the Platonist / Daniel A. Dombrowski.New York: P. Lang, c1986. FLAK, Micheline. Thoreau; ou la Sagesse au Service de l'Action. [Paris] Seghers [1973] GARBER, Frederick. Thoreau's Fable of Inscribing / Frederick Garber. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, c1991. . Thoreau's Redemptive Imagination / Frederick Garber. New York: New York University Press, 1977. GOLEMBA, Henry L. Thoreau's Wild Rhetoric / Henry Golemba. New York: New York University Press, c1990. GURCHE, Charles. Thoughts from Walden Pond by Henry David Thoreau, San Francisco: Pomegranate, 1998. HAMILTON, Franklin W. Thoreau on the Art of Writing, by Franklin W. Hamilton. [n.p., 1967] HANSON, Elizabeth I. Thoreau's Indian of the Mind / Elizabeth I. Hanson. Lewiston, N.Y. : Edwin Mellen Press, c1991.

HARDING, Walter Ray, 1917- A Thoreau Handbook / Walter Harding.New York: New York University Press, c1959. The New Thoreau Handbook. New York, 1980. ed. Thoreau: a Century of Criticism. Dallas, Southern Methodist University Press, 1954. ed. Thoreau, Man of Concord. New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston [1960] Thoreau's Library.Charlottesville, University of Virginia Press, 1957. Harvard University. Class of 1837. Memorials of the Class of 1837 of Harvard University Thoreau and his Harvard Classmates; Henry Williams' Memorials of the Class of 1837. With a commentary and an index by Kenneth Walter Cameron. Hartford, Transcendental Books [1965] HICKS, John H. (John Harland), 1919- ed. Thoreau in our Season, edited with an introd. by John H. Hicks. [Amherst] University of Massachusetts Press [1966] HILDEBIDLE, John, 1946-, Thoreau, a Naturalist's Liberty / John Hildebidle. Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press, 1983. HOUGH, Henry Beetle, 1896- Thoreau of Walden; the Man and his Eventful Life. New York, Simon and Schuster, 1956. JOHNSON, Linck C., 1946-, Thoreau's Complex Weave: the Writing of A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers, with the Text of the First Draft / Linck C. Johnson. Charlottesville: Published for the Bibliographical Society of the University of Virginia, by the University Press of Virginia, 1986. JONES, Samuel Arthur, 1834-1912. Thoreau Amongst Friends and Philistines, and other Thoreauviana / by Samuel Arthur Jones; edited by George Hendrick. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, c1982. KEYES, Langley Carleton. Thoreau, Voice in the Edgeland; a Biography in Sonnets. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press [1955] LANE, Lauriat, Jr. ed. Approaches to Walden. Belmont, 1961. LEBEAUX, Richard, 1946- Thoreau's Seasons / Richard Lebeaux. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1984. MCINTOSH, James, 1934- Thoreau as Romantic Naturalist; his Shifting Stance Toward Nature.Ithaca. Cornell University Press [1974] MELTZER, Milton, 1915- ed. A Thoreau Profile, by Milton Meltzer and Walter Harding. New York, Crowell [1962] METZGER, Charles Reid, 1921- Thoreau and Whitman: a Study of their Esthetics. Seattle, University of Washington Press, 1961. MOLLER, Mary Elkins, 1929- Thoreau in the Human Community / Mary Elkins Moller.Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1980. PAUL, Sherman. ed. Thoreau, a Collection of Critical Essays.Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall [1962] The Shores of America: Thoreau's Inward Exploration. Urbana, 1958 PECK, H. Daniel. Thoreau's Morning Work, memory and perception in A week on the Concord and Merrimack rivers, The journal, and Walden / H. Daniel Peck. New Haven: Yale University Press, c1990. REDDY, V. Narayan Karan. Thoreau, Gandhi, Vinoba/ by V. Narayan Karan Reddy. Hyderabad : India Sahitilata Publications, [1962?]

RULAND, Richard, ed. Twentieth Century Interpretations of Walden: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, 1968. SATTELMEYER, Robert. Thoreau's Reading: a Study in Intellectual History with Bibliographical Catalogue / Robert Sattelmeyer.Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, c1988. SAYRE, Robert F. Thoreau and the American Indians / Robert F. Sayre.Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, c1977. SCHNEIDER, Richard J., Henry David Thoreau, Boston, 1987. SEAL, Cheryl, 1951-, Thoreau's Maine Woods, photographs by Robert F. Bukaty. Emmaus, Pa.: Yankee Books; New York: Distributed by St. Martin's Press, 1992. SEEFURTH, Nathaniel Henry. Thoreau; a View from Emeritus, by Nathaniel H. Seefurth.Chicago, Seefurth Foundation [1968] SEYBOLD, Ethel. Thoreau; the Quest and the Classics. New Haven, Yale University Press, c1951 SHANLEY, J. Lyndon. The Making of Walden. Chicago, 1957. STOWELL, Robert Frederick, 1920- A Thoreau Gazetteer, by Robert F. Stowell. Edited by William L. Howarth.Princeton, N.J., Princeton University Press, 1970. The Thoreau log: a Documentary Life of Henry David Thoreau, 1817-1862 /[compiled by] Raymond R. Borst.New York: G.K. Hall; Toronto: Maxwell Macmillan Canada; New York :Maxwell Macmillan International, c1992. Thoreau Abroad; twelve Bibliographical Essays. Edited by Eugene F. Timpe. With a foreword by Walter Harding. [Hamden, Conn.] Archon Books, 1971. Thoreau as Seen by his Contemporaries / edited by Walter Harding.New York: Dover Publications, 1989. Thoreau Country: Photographs and Text Selections from the Works of H. D. Thoreau / by Herbert W. Gleason; edited by Mark Silber; introd. by Paul Brooks. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1975. Thoreau: Philosopher of Freedom; Writings on Liberty by Henry David Thoreau, selected, with an introduction, by James MacKaye New York, The Vanguard Press, 1930 Thoreau's Psychology: Eight Essays/ edited by Raymond D. Gozzi.Lanham, MD: University Press of America, c1983. Essays originally presented at a conference held in Apr., 1978 at the State University College of Arts and Sciences at Geneseo, N.Y. and sponsored by the Conversations in the Disciplines Program of the State University of New York.Includes bibliographical references. WOLF, William J. Thoreau: Mystic, Prophet, Ecologist [by] William J. Wolf. Philadelphia, United Church Press [1974]

PUBLICAÇÕES PERIÓDICAS: Thoreau Journal Quarterly. Vol./date v. 1-13; Jan. 1969-July/Oct. 1981.Orono, Me. [etc.] Published by the Thoreau Fellowship. The Thoreau Quarterly. Vol./date Vol. 14, no.1 (winter 1982)-v. 17, no.1 & 2 (winter/spring 1985). [Minneapolis, Minn.] : Thoreau Quarterly, Inc., 1982-1985.

The Thoreau Society Bulletin.Chapel Hill, N. C. [etc.]Irregular, 1941-43; quarterly, 1944-Published by the Thoreau Society.

PÁGINAS WEB TEXTOS: A Plea for Captain John Brown [on-line] disponível em gopher://gopher.vt.edu:10010/02/149/2 Life Without Principle [on-line] disponível em gopher://gopher.vt.edu:10010/02/149/3 Slavery In Massachussetts [on-line] disponível em gopher://gopher.vt.edu:10010/02/149/4 Another site with Walden [on-line] disponível em gopher://gopher.vt.edu:10010/02/149/5 Thoreau, Henry David: Walden [on-line] disponível em gopher://gopher.vt.edu:10010/02/149/5 David Henry Thoreau [on-line] disponível em http://burn.ucsd.edu/~anow/ppl/wri/thoreau/index.html University of Toronto, The Maine Woods , [on-line] disponível em http://dev.library.utoronto.ca/utel/nonfiction/thoreauh_mw/mw_titlepage.html Josh Knauer, Henry David Thoreau a biography , 1995 [on-line] disponível em http://envirolink.org/elib/enviroethics/thoreaubio.html Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) , [on-line] disponível em http://history.hanover.edu/19th/thoreau.htm Henry David Thoreau [on-line] disponível em http://members.tripod.com/~TortiseShell_Cottage/tthoreau.htm Jone Johnson, Henry David Thoreau,1995 [on-line] disponível em http://miso.wwa.com/~jej/1thorea.html Links to all the sources of Thoreau's writings on the Web Jone Johnson, Henry David Thoreau,1995 [on-line] disponível em http://miso.wwa.com/~jej/1thorea.html TEXTOS: Civil Disobedience: 1849 Life Without Principle: 1863 Plea for Captain John Brown: 1859 Slavery in Massachusetts: 1854 Walden; or Life in the Woods: 1854 Index of Walden [on-line] disponível em http://rotten.egg.com/ReadingRoom/Literature/OnWaldenPond/index.html University of Maryland , Sean Mahoney, CyberSaunter: Henry David Thoreau [on-line] disponível em http://umsa.umd.edu/thoreau/ University of Maryland, The Life of Henry David Thoreau [on-line] disponível em http://umsa.umd.edu/thoreau/history.html Civil Disobedience , [on-line] disponível em http://www.cs.indiana.edu/statecraft/civ.dis.html Cynthia Melville and Dara Murray, Henry David Thoreau, 1997 [on-line] disponível em http://www.delta.edu/~anburke/amlit/studentwork/thoreau.html Walden [on-line] disponível em http://www.ecomall.com/wood.htm Walking by Henry David Thoreau [on-line] disponível em http://www.glue.umd.edu/~pdouglas/walking.html Writings of Henry D. Thoreau: The Journal [on-line] disponível em http://www.gsu.edu/~wwwhdt/ Ray Angelo, Botanical Index to Henry Thoreau's Journal. Web Introduction, 1998 [on-line] disponível em http://www.herbaria.harvard.edu/~rangelo/BotIndex/WebIntro.html

New England Literary Tour [on-line] disponível em http://www.inc.net/~fhs/littour/walden.html Universit of California, ElizabethWhiterell, The Writing of Henry D. Thoreau , 1998 [on-line] disponível em http://www.library.ucsb.edu/depts/thoreau/ Universit of California , The Writings of Henry D. Thoreau: Frequently Asked Questions [on-line] disponível em http://www.library.ucsb.edu/depts/thoreau/bfaq.html WALDEN Mailing list, [on-line] disponível em http://www.mcelhearn.com/thoreau/waldenlist.html WALDEN is a mailing list dedicated to Henry David Thoreau (July 12, 1817 to May 6, 1862) Thoreau, Henry David, [on-line] disponível em http://www.netwalk.com/~vireo/Thoreau_Henry_David.html Genius Ignored. Chapter 5. Thoreau, [on-line] disponível em http://www.serve.com/Lucius/Thoreau.index.html The Electronic Drummer(The Thoreau Institute), 1998 [on-line] disponível em http://www.teleport.com/~rot/index.html The Thoreau Society [on-line] disponível em http://www.waldenfont.com/thoreau/thorsoc.htm Henry David Thoreau Pages, 1996 [on-line] disponível em http://www.wwander.com/hdtp.html

HUXLEY, Thomas Henry 1825-1895

A Course of Elementary Instruction in Practical Biology, 1876 London and New York, Macmillan and co., 1876./ 1879 London, Macmillan and co., 1879. / 1883 London, Macmillan and co., 1883. A Manual of the Anatomy of Vertebrated Animals. 1871 London, J. & A. Churchill, 1871. / New York, D. Appleton and company, 1872. /1886 New York, D. Appleton and company, 1886. / Agnosticism and Christianity, and other Essays / 1992 Buffalo, N.Y. : Prometheus Books, 1992. American Address, with a Lecture on the Study of Biology, 1877 London, Macmillan and co., 1877. An Introduction to the Classification of Animals. 1869 London, J. Churchill & sons, 1869 Animal Autotism, and other Essays, Science and Culture; 1884 [New York, J. Fitzgerald & co., 1884] Autobiography and Selected Essays, 1909 Boston, New York [etc.] Houghton Mifflin company [c1909] / 1910 New York, Chicago, D. Appleton and company, 1910/1911/1912 / 1896 [New York, D. Appleton and company, 1896-1902] /1968 New York, Greenwood Press [1968] Critiques and Addresses. 1873 London, Macmillan and co., 1873. / 1873 New York, D. Appleton and company, 1873. Darwiniana. 1896 New York, D. Appleton and company, 1896. Discourses, Biological and Geological; 1968 New York, Greenwood Press [1968] Essays upon some Controverted Questions, 1892 New York, D. Appleton, 1892. / 1929 New York, The Macmillan company, 1929. Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature. 1863 London and Edinburgh, Williams and Norgate, 1863. / 1871 New York, D. Appleton and company, 1871/1880 New York, The Humboldt publishing co. [1880] Evolution and Ethics and other Essays, 1893 London, New York, Macmillan and co., 1893/1896 New York, D. Appleton and company, 1896. /, 1893-1943, 1947 London, Pilot Press, 1947. /, 1902 New York, D. Appleton and company, 1902. // 1960 St. Clair Shores, Mich., Scholarly Press [196-?] /1989 Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, c1989 Freedom in Science and Tteaching. 1879 London, C. K. Paul & co., 1879.

Hume, 1879 New York, Harper & brothers [1879]/ 1884 New York, J. W. Lovell company [1884] / New York, Harper & brothers [1887] / 1902 New York, D. Appleton and company, 1902. /1968 New York, AMS Press [1968] Hume, with Helps to the Study of Berkeley; 1894 New York, D. Appleton and company, 1894./ 1896 New York, D. Appleton and company, 1896. Huxley's Autobiography and Selected Essays from Lay Sermons, 1910 New York [etc.] Longmans, Green, and co., 1910. Introduccion al Estudio de las Ciencias. 1890 Nueva York, D. Appleton y compania, 1890. Introductory [science primer] /1880 London, Macmillan and co., 1880. /1882 New York, D. Appleton and company, 1882. /1890 New York, Cincinnati [etc.] American book company [189-?] Lay Sermons, Addresses and Reviews. 1870 New York, D. Appleton & company, 1870. / 1871 New York, D. Appleton & company, 1871. Lectures & Lay Sermons, 1926 London & Toronto, J. M. Dent & sons, ltd.; New York, E. P. Dutton & co. [1926] Lectures and Essays, 1902 New York, The Macmillan Company, 1902. Lectures on Evolution: with an Appendix on the Study of Biology. 1882 [New York, J. Fitzgerald & co., 1882] Lectures on the Elements of Comparative Anatomy. 1864 London, J. Churchill and sons, 1864. Lessons in Elementary Physiology, 1900 New York, The Macmillan company; [etc., etc.] 1900. Life and Letters of Thomas Henry Huxley, 1913 London, Macmillan and co., ltd., 1913. Man's Place in Nature, and other Anthropological Essays, 1890 New York, Hurst and company [189-?] / 1894 New York, D. Appleton and company, 1894. / 1896 New York, D. Appleton and company, 1896. / 1902 New York, D. Appleton and company, 1902. / 1904 New York, J. A. Hill and company, 1904. / [Ann Arbor] University of Michigan Press [1959] Method and Results; Essays 1893 New York, D. Appleton and company, 1893. / New York, D. Appleton and company, 1896. /. 1902 New York, D. Appleton and company, 1902./ 1933 London, J. M. Dent & sons, ltd.; New York, E. P. Dutton & co., inc.[1933] /1968 New York, Greenwood Press [1968] More Criticisms on Darwin, and Administrative Nihilism. 1883 New York, D. Appleton and company, 1883. On a Piece of Chalk. 1967 New York, Scribner [1967] On Education in Universitites. 1876 [n.p.] 1876. On our Knowledge of the Causes of the Phenomena of Organic Nature. 1863 London, R. Hardwicke, 1863. On the Educational Value of the Natural History Sciences. 1854 London, J. Van Voorst, 1854. On the Origin of Species: 1863 New York, D. Appleton and company, 1863/ New York, D. Appleton and company, 1872. / 1878 New York, D. Appleton and company, 1878. / 1968 Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press [1968] On the Physical Basis of Life. 1869 New Haven, Conn., The college courant, 1869. /1870 New Haven, Conn., C. C. Chatfield, 1870. On Yeast, Protoplasm, and the Germ Theory. 1873 Boston, Estes & Lauriat [1873] Physiography: 1888 New York, D. Appleton and company, 1888. Physiography: an Introduction to the Study of Nature. 1877 London, Macmillan and co., 1877. / 1878 London, Macmillan and co., 1878. / 1892 New York, D. Appleton & company, 1892. / 1893 London and New York, Macmillan and co., 1893. /1900 New York, D. Appleton and co., limited; London, Macmillan and co., limited, 1900. / 1934 New York, Harcourt, Brace and company [c1934] Science and Christian Tradition. 1894 New York, D. Appleton and company, 1894. / 1896 New York, D. Appleton and company, 1896. /1902 New York, D. Appleton and company, 1902./ New York, Greenwood Press [1968] Science and Culture, and other Essays. 1882 New York, D. Appleton and company, 1882. Science and Education Essays 1896 New York, D. Appleton and company, 1896. /New York, D. Appleton and company, 1901. /1904 New York, J. A. Hill and company, 1904./ 1925 London, Macmillan and co., limited, 1925. /1964 New York, Philosophical Library [1964] Science and Hebrew Tradition; Essays 1894 New York, D. Appleton and company, 1894. / 1897 New York, D. Appleton and company, 1897. /1901 New York, D. Appleton and company, 1901. Selected Essays and Addresses of Thomas Henry Huxley; 1910 New York, The Macmillan company, 1910.

Selections from Huxley, 1912 New York, H. Holt and company, 1912. Selections from Huxley, Embracing the Autobiography; On the Advisableness of Improving Natural Knowledge; A Liberal Education and where to find it; On a Piece of chalk. 1911 Boston, New York [etc.] Ginn and company [c1911] Selections from the Essays of Thomas Henry Huxley. 1948 New York, F. S. Crofts, 1948. /1986 Arlington Heights, Ill. : H. Davidson, [1986] printing, c1948. Social Diseases and Worse Remedies. 1891 New York, The Humboldt publishing co. [1891] /1891 London, and New York, Macmillan and co., 1891. Social Diseases and Worse Remedies; Letters to the "Times" on Mr. Booth's Scheme with a pref. and reprinted introductory essay. 1891 London, New York, Macmillan, 1891. T. H. Huxley's Diary of the Voyage of H. M. S. Rattlesnake. 1935 London, Chatto and Windus, 1935. / 1936 Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, Doran & company, inc., 1936. Technical education, and other essays. 1885 New York, J. Fitzgerald, 1885. The Advance of Science in the last Half-century, 1887 New York, D. Appleton and company, 1887. / 1888 New York, D. Appleton and company, 1888. The Crayfish. 1880 New York, D. Appleton and company, 1880. / 1881 London, C. K. Paul & co., 1881. The Elements of Physiology and Hygiene; 1868 New York, D. Appleton and company, 1868. / 1873 New York, D. Appleton and company, 1873. / 1896 New York, Cincinnati [etc.] American book company [c1896] The Essence of T. H. Huxley: Selections from his Writin 1967 London, Melbourne [etc.] Macmillan, New York, St. Martin's P.,1967 London. University. Imperial College of Science and Technology. The Huxley Papers; a Descriptive Catalogue of the Correspondence, Manuscripts and Miscellaneous Papers of the Rt. Hon. Thomas Henry Huxley ... 1946 London, Published for the Imperial College of Science and Technology by Macmillan, 1946. The Major Prose of Thomas Henry Huxley / 1997 Athens: University of Georgia Press, c1997 The Oceanic Hydrozoa; a Description of the Calycophoridae and Physophoridae Observed during the Voyage of H.M.S. "Rattlesnake," 1859 London, Printed for the Ray society, 1859. The Scientific Memoirs of Thomas Henry Huxley, ed. --Supplementary volume 1903 London, Macmillan and co., limited; New York, D. Appleton and company, 1903. Touchstone for Ethics, 1893-1943 1947 New York, Harper [1947] ESTUDOS SOBRE: AINSWORTH DAVIS, J. R. (James Richard), 1861-1934. Thomas H. Huxley; by J.R. Ainsworth Davis ...London, J.M. Dent & co.; New York, E.P. Dutton & co., 1907 AYRES, Clarence Edwin, 1891-1972. Huxley, by Clarence Ayres. New York, W.W. Norton & Company, inc. [c1932] BIBBY, Cyril. T. H., Huxley; Scientist, Humanist and Educator. London, Watts [1959] CLODD, Edward, 1840-1930. Thomas Henry Huxley, by Edward Clodd ... New York, Dodd, Mead and Co., 1902. COLLIE, Michael. Huxley at Work: with the Scientific Correspondence of T.H. Huxley and the Rev. Dr George Gordon of Birnie, near Elgin / Michael Collie.Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Macmillan, 1991. COURTNEY, Janet Elizabeth (Hogarth) 1865-, Freethinkers of the Nineteenth Century, by Janet E. Courtney. New York, E.P. Dutton, 1920. DESMOND, Adrian J., 1947-, Huxley: the Devil's Disciple / Adrian Desmond. London: Michael Joseph ; New York, N.Y. : Viking Penguin, 1994.

HUXLEY, Leonard, 1860-1933. Thomas Henry Huxley, a Character Sketch, by Leonard Huxley. London, Watts & Co., 1920. Imperial College of Science and Technology. The Huxley Papers; a Descriptive Catalogue of the Correspondence, Manuscripts and Miscellaneous Papers of the Rt. Hon. Thomas Henry Huxley ... Preserved in the Imperial College of Science and Technology, London, by Warren R. Dawson. London, Published for the Imperial College of Science and Technology by Macmillan, 1946. IRVINE, William, 1906-1964. Thomas Henry Huxley.[London] Published for the British Council by Longmans, Green [1960] JENSEN, J. Vernon (John Vernon), 1922-, Thomas Henry Huxley: Communicating for Science / J. Vernon Jensen.Newark: University of Delaware Press; London; Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Presses, c1991. MITCHELL, P. Chalmers (Peter Chalmers), Sir, 1864-1945. Thomas Henry Huxley; a Sketch of his Life and Work, by P. Chalmers Mitchell. New York [etc.] G.P. Putnam's sons, 1900. PARADIS, James G., 1942-, T. H. Huxley: Man's Place in Nature / James G. Paradis. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, c1978. PETERSON, Houston, 1897- Huxley, Prophet of Science, by Houston Peterson. [1st ed.] London, New York, Longmans, Green, 1932. PINGREE, Jeanne. Thomas Henry Huxley: a list of his Scientific Notebooks, Drawings and other Papers, Preserved in the College Archives. London, Imperial College of Science and Technology, 1968. SHAFER, Robert, 1889-1956. Christianity and Naturalism; Essays in Criticism, second series, by Robert Shafer. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1926 VOORHEES, Irving Wilson, 1878- The Teachings of Thomas Henry Huxley, by Irving Wilson Voorhees. New York, Broadway Publishing Co., 1907

PÁGINAS WEB Valencia Community College, Hudson, William Henry (1841-1922), 1997[on-line] disponível em http://valencia.cc.fl.us/lrcwest/hudson.html Alan Pert, Green Mansions, [on-line] disponível em http://www.harbour.sfu.ca/~hayward/van/glossary/mansions.html The Secular Web, Thomas Henry Huxley [1825-1895] Christianity and Agnosticism (1889) Collected Essays - Volume V (1893) [on-line] disponível em http://www.infidels.org/library/historical/thomas_huxley/ James Cook Univ., Thomas Henry Huxley, 1997[on-line] disponível em http://www.cimm.jcu.edu.au/hist/stats/hux/index.htm Thomas Henry Huxley (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 1996[on-line] disponível em http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/h/huxley.htm Darwin, Huxley and the Natural Sciences, [on-line] disponível em http://www.routledge.com/psmedia/darwhuxl.htm

HAECKEL, Ernst Heinrich Philipp August, 1834-1919.
HAECKEL, Ernst Heinrich Philipp August, 1834-1919. The Evolution of Man: a Popular Exposition of the Principal Points of Human Ontogeny and Phylogeny. New York: Appleton, 1879. Aus Insulinde Malayische Reisebrief. Bonn:Emil Strauss, 1901.

ESTUDOS SOBRE O AUTOR: CARNERI, B. Bartholomäus von Carneri's Briefwechsel mit Ernst Haeckel und Friedrich Jodl, Herausgegeben von Margarete Jodl. Leipzig, K.F. Koehler, 1922. HECHT, Gerhard. Botanická Cinnost Ernsta Haeckela na Teplicku 1852: príspevek k zivotopisu pokrokového nemeckého prírodovedce = Botanische Tätigkeit Ernst Haeckels in der Teplitzer Gegend 1852; ein Beitrag zur Biographie eines fortschrittlichen deutschen Wissenschaftlers/ Gerhard Hecht.Teplice: Oblastní muzeum, 1974. HUBBARD, Elbert, 1856-1915. Little Journeys to Homes of Great Scientists ... written by Elbert Hubbard ... East Aurora, N.Y., The Roycrofters, 1905 KLEMM, Peter. Ernst Haeckel, der Ketzer von Jena; ein Leben in Berichten, Briefen und Bildern. Leipzig, Jena, Berlin, Urania-Verlag (1966) MAURER, Friedrich, 1859- Ernst Haeckel und die Biologie. Festrede zur Feier von Ernst Haeckels 80. Geburtstag. Jena, Fischer, 1914 PARTENHEIMER, Maren. Goethes Tragweite in der Naturwissenschaft: Hermann von Helmholtz, Ernst Haeckel, Werner Heisenberg, Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker/ von Maren Partenheimer. Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, c1989. PÁGINAS WEB Ernst Haeckel (foto) [on-line] disponível em http://www.rrz.uni-hamburg.de/biologie/bonline/d36/hackel.htm The Museum of Paleontology, University of California at Berkeley Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) , [on-line] disponível em http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/haeckel.html

MUIR, John, 1838-1914.
A Thousand-mile Walk to the Gulf, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, [1981] c1916. /Atlanta, Ga.: Cherokee Pub., 1990./ San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, c1991. /New York: Penguin Books, 1992. A Foot to Yosemite, San Francisco: Published for its members by the Book Club of California, 1936, c1924. Alaska, the Harriman Expedition, 1899, New York: Dover Publications, 1986.

All the World Over, San Francisco, Calif.: Sierra Club Books, 1996. John Muir, London : Diadem Books; Seattle: Mountaineers, [1992] / London : Baton Wicks; Seattle : Mountaineers, 1996. John Muir: his Life and Letters and other Writings / edited and introduced by Terry Gifford. London: Baton Wicks; Seattle: Mountaineers, 1996. John Muir Summering in the Sierra, Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984. ."Articles written by John Muir for the San Francisco Daily evening bulletin in the years 1874-1875"--Pref. John Muir, in his own Words , Lafayette, Calif.: Great West Books, 1988. John Muir's Guide to Cape Town and the Western Cape / photos. by Sally Whately-Smith ; shopping guide by Trisha Campbell & Carol J. Foy, Cape Town : H. Timmins, 1976 John Muir's Longest Walk: John Earl, a Photographer, Traces his Journey to Florida; with Excerpts from John Muir's Thousand-mile Walk to the Gulf. John of the Mountains, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, [1979] c1938. Letters from Alaska, Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press, c1993. Letters to a Friend, Written to Mrs. Ezra S. Carr, 1866, Atlanta, Ga.: Cherokee Pub., 1990. Mountaineering Essays, Salt Lake City: Peregrine Smith Books, 1984. / Salt Lake City: Peregrine Smith Books, [1989] / Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, c1997. Muir among the Animals the Wildlife Writings of John Muir / Lisa Mighetto, editor. San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club Books, c1986. My First Summer in the Sierra, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1979, c1916. / New York, NY: Penguin Books, 1987/.Covelo, Calif. : Yolla Bolly Press, 1988. /1990 Atlanta, Ga.: Cherokee Pub., 1990. / San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, [1990 Nature Writings, New York, N.Y.: The Library of America : distributed to the trade in the U.S. by Penguin Books USA, c1997. Northwest Passages, Palo Alto, Calif.: Tioga Pub. Co., c1988. Our National Parks. Boston, Houghton Mifflin [1901] St. Clair Shores, Mich., Scholarly Press [1970?] /Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press, [1981] /San Francisco : Sierra Club Books, c1991. Rambles in King's River Country, Ashland, Or.: L. Osborne, 1977. Rambles of a Botanist Among the Plants and Climates of 1974 Los Angeles: Dawson's Book Shop, 1974. South of Yosemite, Berkeley: Wilderness Press, c1988. Steep Trails. Edited by William Frederic Bade. Dunwoody, Ga., N. S. Berg, 1970 [c1918] / Atlanta, Ga.: Cherokee Pub. Co., 1990, c1909./ San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, c1994. The Cruise of the Corwin, San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, c1993. The John Muir Papers / R.H. Limbaugh and K.E. Lewis, editors. Alexandria, VA: ChadwyckHealey, 1985. Accompanied by guide: The guide and index to the microform edition of the John Muir papers, 1858-1957 (1986) The Mountains of California, New York, N.Y., U.S.A.: Penguin, 1985. / San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, c1988. / Atlanta, Ga.: Cherokee Pub., 1990. /New York: Penguin Books, 1993. The Story of my Boyhood and Youth, San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, c1988. The Wild Muir, Yosemite National Park, Calif.: Yosemite Association, c1994. The Yosemite, Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press, 1986, c1912. /San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, c1988. / San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, c1989. To Yosemite and beyond: Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1980. Trails of Wonder; [Kansas City, Mo., Hallmark, c1972] /New York: AMS Press, 1978, c1915. /Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1979. / San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, c1988. /New York: Penguin Books, 1993. West of the Rocky Mountains, Philadelphia: Running Press, c1976. Wilderness Essays, Salt Lake City: Peregrine Smith, 1980-1988.

ESTUDOS SOBRE: ANDERSON, Peter, 1956- John Muir: Wilderness Prophet / by Peter Anderson. New York: Watts, c1995. DINES, Glen. John Muir / 1974 New York: Putnam, [1974]

DUNHAM, Montrew. John Muir: 1975 Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, c1975. John Muir: Young Naturalist / by Montrew Dunham; illustrated by Al Fiorentino. 1st Aladdin Paperbacks ed. New York: Aladdin Paperbacks, 1998. EMANUELS, George. John Muir, Inventor / by George Emanuels. 1st ed. Fresno, Calif.: Panorama West Books, 1985. FORCE, Eden. John Muir / 1990 Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Silver Burdett Press, c1990 FOX, Stephen R. John Muir and his Legacy: the American Conservation Movement / Stephen Fox. 1st ed. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, c1975. FULLER, O. Muiriel. John Muir of Wall Street: a Story of Thrift/ by O. Muiriel Fuller.New York: The Knickerbocker Press, c1927. GRAVES, Charles Parlin, 1911-1972. John Muir, 1973 New York, Crowell, [1973] ITO, Tom. John Muir / 1996 San Diego, CA: Lucent Books, c1996. John Muir / by Thomas J. Lyon; editors, Wayne Chatterton, James H. Maguire. Boise, Idaho: Boise State College, c1972. JONES, Dewitt. John Muir's America / photos. by Dewitt Jones; text by T. H. Watkins. 1st ed. New York: Distributed by Crown Publishers, c1976. JONES, Holway R. John Muir and the Sierra Club; the Battle for Yosemite, by Holway R. Jones. San Francisco, Sierra Club, 1965. KIMES, William F. John Muir: 1977 Palo Alto, Calif.: W. P. Wreden, 1977. John Muir, a Reading Bibliography. Chronologically compiled and annotated by William F. Kimes & Maymie B. Kimes. Foreword by Lawrence Clark Powell. Palo Alto, Calif. W. P. Wreden, 1977. 1986 LEDBETTER, Cynthia E., 1950- John Muir/ 1993 Vero Beach, Fla.: Rourke Publications, c1993. LIMBAUGH, Ronald, John Muir's "Stickeen" and the Lessons of Nature, Fairbanks, Alaska: University of Alaska Press, c1996. LYON, Thomas J. (Thomas Jefferson), 1937- John Muir / 1972 Boise, Idaho: Boise State College, c1972. National Broadcasting Company, inc. John Muir, a Great American Conservationist. [Washington, Forest Service, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture [1938] NORMAN, Charles, 1904- John Muir, Father of our National Parks. New York, Messner [1957] SEATTLE. John Muir School. John Muir; a Pictorial Biography, 1938 [Seattle, Wash., Printed by Lowman and Hanford co., c19 SMITH, Herbert F. (Herbert Franklin), 1933- John Muir, by Herbert F. Smith.New York, Twayne Publishers [1965] TALMADGE, Katherine S. John Muir: 1993 New York: Twenty-first Century Books, 1993. John Muir: at Home in the Wild / Katherine S. Talmadge; illustrated by Antonio Castro. 1st ed. New York: Twenty-first Century Books, 1993.

The Guide and Index to the Microform Edition of the John Muir Papers, 1858-1957 / edited by Ronald H. Limbaugh and Kirsten E. Lewis.Alexandria, VA: Chadwyck-Healey Inc., 1986. TOLAN, Sally. John Muir: Naturalist, Writer, and Guardian of the North American Wilderness / by Sally Tolan. Gareth Stevens Children's Books ed. Milwaukee: G. Stevens Children's Books, 1990. WILKINS, Thurman. John Muir: Apostle of Nature/ by Thurman Wilkins. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, c1995. WINKLEY, John W. John Muir, Naturalist; a Concise Biography of the Great Naturalist. Martinez, John Muir Historical Park Assn. [1959]

PÁGINAS WEB Muir, John: Steep Trails[on-line] disponível em ftp://uiarchive.cso.uiuc.edu/pub/etext/gutenberg/etext95/sttrl10.txt Larry Spencer, The John Muir Homepage, [on-line] disponível em http://oz.plymouth.edu/~lts/muir.html Mountain Thoughts Texts (anchored html) John Muir [on-line] disponível em http://pantheon.cis.yale.edu/~thomast/texts/ TEXTOS: Mountain Thoughts , A Near View of the High Sierra , Snow-Storm on Mount Shasta Illustrated, Wild Wool texts (anchored html) John Muir [on-line] disponível em http://pantheon.cis.yale.edu/~thomast/texts/snow/snow.html TEXTOS: Steep Trails: California - Utah - Nevada - Washington - Oregon - The Grand Canyon, Storm on Mount Shasta, Wild Wool Strathclyde University, John Muir Centre Welcome , 1994 [on-line] disponível em http://www.cs.strath.ac.uk/contrib/JMC/ Horacio Arevalo's Muir Woods, 1997[on-line] disponível em http://www.geocities.com/Yosemite/Rapids/3439/index-i.html Denis Mollison , The John Muir Trust [on-line] disponível em http://www.ma.hw.ac.uk/jmt/ “The John Muir Trust was formed in 1983 to safeguard and conserve wild places and to increase awareness and understanding of the value of such places.” Don Weiss , John Muir & I, The Man, The Trail, and The Wilderness Ideal, 1990, [on-line] disponível em http://www.mandala.co.jp/echoes/JMI/JMIhome.html Sierra Club--John Muir, 1996, [on-line] disponível em http://www.sierraclub.org/history/muir/ TEXTOS: The Water Ouzel, Stickeen Harold Wood and Harvey Chinn, The John Muir Exhibit, 1996[on-line] disponível em http://www.sierraclub.org/john_muir_exhibit/ TEXTOS: A Rival of the Yosemite, Man's Place in the Universe, Mt. Ritter, My First Summer in the Sierra, Our National Parks, The Earthquake , The Story of my Boyhood and Youth, The Treasures of the Yosemite, Features of the Proposed Yosemite National Park, College of the Siskiyous Library Mount Shasta Collection John Muir, 1997 [on-line] disponível em http://www.siskiyous.edu/Library/ShastaCollection/Literature/jmuir/index.html Artigos: Modoc Memories (1874), Notes from Shasta (1877), Salmon Breeding (1874), Shasta Bees (1874), Shasta Game (1874) , Shasta in Winter (1874), Snow-Storm on Mount Shasta (1877)

College of the Siskiyous Library Mount Shasta Collection John Muir, 1997 [on-line] disponível em http://www.siskiyous.edu/Library/ShastaCollection/Mountaineering/snowstrm.htm TEXTOS: Snow-Storm on Mount Shasta

HUDSON, W. H. (William Henry), 1841-1922
A Shepherd's Life: Impressions of the South Wiltshire Downs / by W.H. Hudson; illustrated by Bernard C. Gotch. London: Methuen, 1910. Far Away and long Ago: a Childhood in Argentina / W.H. Hudson; introduction by Sir Nicolas Cheetham. London: Century, 1985. Green Mansions: a Romance of the Tropical Forest, by W.H. Hudson. New York, G.P. Putnam's Sons; London, Duckworth & Co., 1904. Idle Days in Patagonia, by W. H. Hudson ... Illustrated by Alfred Hartley and J. Smit. London, Chapman & Hall, ltd., 1893. Landscapes and Literati: unpublished letters of W.H. Hudson and George Gissing / edited and introduced by Dennis Shrubsall and Pierre Coustillas. Salisbury, Wiltshire: M. Russell, 1985. Letters from W. H. Hudson, 1901-1922, edited and with an introduction by Edward Garnett. New York, E.P. Dutton & company [c1923] Men, Books and Birds, by W.H. Hudson; with notes, some letters, and an introduction, by Morley Roberts. London, E. Nash & Grayson, Limited [1925 South American Sketches / by W. H. Hudson. London: Duckworth, 1909. The Land's End; a Naturalist's Impressions in West Cornwall, by W. H. Hudson. With forty-nine illustrations by A. L. Collins.London, Hutchinson & Co., 1908. The Purple Land: Being the Narrative of one Richard Lamb's Adventures in the Banda Orientál in South America, as told by himself / W.H. Hudson; illustrated by Keith Henderson. [2d ed.]New York: Three Sirens Press, [1904?] W. HW. H. Hudson's Tales of the Pampas. New York: A. A. Knopf, 1939. SOBRE AUTOR GODDARD, Harold Clarke, 1878-1950. W. H. Hudson: Bird-man, by Harold Goddard. New York, E.P. Dutton & Company [c1928] HAMILTON, Robert, 1908- W. H. Hudson; the Vision of Earth, by Robert Hamilton. London, J.M. Dent and sons ltd. [1946] LIANDRAT, Fancisque. W. H. Hudson, 1841-1922, Naturaliste; sa Vie et son Oeuvre.Lyon, M. Audin, 1946. MILLER, David, 1950- W.H. Hudson and the Elusive Paradise/ David Miller. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Macmillan, 1990. ROBERTS, Morley, 1857-1942. W.H. Hudson: a Portrait / by Morley Roberts. London: Eveleigh Nash & Grayson, 1924 RONNER, Amy D. W.H. Hudson: the Man, the Novelist, the Naturalist / Amy D. Ronner. New York: AMS Press, c1986. SHRUBSALL, Dennis. W. H. Hudson: Writer and Naturalist / [by] Dennis Shrubsall.Tisbury [Eng.]: Compton Press, c1978.

TOMALIN, Ruth. W. H. Hudson. London, H. F. & G. Witherby [1954] WILSON, George Francis. A Bibliography of the Writings of W.H. Hudson, by G.F. Wilson. London, The Bookman's Journal, 1922. PÁGINAS WEB Valencia Community College, Hudson, William Henry (1841-1922), 1997[on-line] disponível em http://valencia.cc.fl.us/lrcwest/hudson.html

LEOPOLD, ALDO, 1886-1948.

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WILSON, Chris and David Kammer. Community and Continuity: The History, Architecture and Cultural Landscape of La Tierra Amarilla (Santa Fe, New Mexico: Historic Preservation Division, Office of Cultural Affairs, 1989). WILSON, Chris. The Myth of Santa Fe: Tourism, Ethnic Identity, and the Creation of a Modern Regional Tradition (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1997). . New Mexico in the Tradition of Romantic Reaction Pueblo Style and Regional Architecture Nicholas C. Markovich, Wolfgang F.E. Preiser, and Fred G. Sturm, eds. (New York: Van Norstrand Reinhold, 1990). WILSON, David. The Wasting of America’s Built Environment. Rowman and Littlefield, 1992. WILSON, Edward O. Naturalist. Covelo, CA: Island P, 1994. The Diversity of Life. New York: Norton, l992. WILSON, Peter J., The Domestication of the Human Species, New Haven, 1988. WINTHROP, Theodore, The Canoe and Saddle, or: Klalam and Klickatat (Tacoma: J. Williams, 1913) WISSLER, Clark, 1870-1947. The Relation of Nature to Man in Aboriginal America, by Clark Wissler ... New York, London [etc.] Oxford University Press, 1926. WOLFE, Cary. “Alone with America: Cavell, Emerson, and the Politics of Individualism.” New Literary History 25.1 (1994): 137-57. WOLKE, Howie. Wilderness on the Rocks.. Foreword by Edward Abbey. Tucson, AZ: Ned Ludd Books, 1991. WONG, Thomas Toone, The Chinese Response to the American Environment, 1849-1902, Ann Arbor, MI. : UMI, 1994. WOOD, C.T. Big Muddy: Down the Mississippi through America’s Heartland. New York: Plume, 1992. WOOLBBRIDGE, K., Landscape and Antiquity: Aspects of English Culture at Stourhead, 1718-1838, Oxford, 1970. World Who is Who and Does what in Environment & Conservation / edited by Nicholas Polunin; compiled by Lynn M. Curme. London: Earthscan, 1997. WORSTER, Donald (ed.). 1988. The Ends of the Earth: Perspectives on Modern Environmental History. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ed. American Environmentalism: The Formative Period, 1860-1915. New York: Wiley, 1973. Nature’s Economy: The Roots of Ecology (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2d ed. 19771985-1994) “Transformations of the Earth: Toward an Agroecological Perspective in History,” The Journal of American History v.76 nº 4 (Mar 1990): 1087-1110 An Unsettled Country: Changing Landscapes of the American West. Albuquerque, NM: U of New Mexico P, 1994. The Wealth of Nature: Environmental History and the Ecological Imagination. New York: Oxford UP, 1993. Under Western Skies: Nature and History in the American West. New York: Oxford UP, 1992. WPA Guide to 1930’s Montana. Tucson: U of Arizona P, 1994 WRIGHT, Will. Wild Knowledge: Science, Language, and Social Life in a Fragile Environment. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1992.

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GRANDES TEMAS

HISTÓRIA DA CIÊNCIA
The first step of Science is to know one thing from another.This knowledge consits in their specific distinctions; but in order that it may be fixed and permanent distinct names must be given to different things and those names must be recorded and remembered. Carolus Linaeus[1707-1778]

O século XVIII é sem duvida o grande momento de afirmação da ciência. O século XVIII é na verdade o século da ciência. Tudo isto é fruto de um triunvirato de cientistas que estão na origem de academias em Paris, Gottingen e Uppsala: George Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1701-88), Albrecht von Haller (1708-77), Carl von Linné (Linnaeus) (1707-78)25. Não obstante a curiosidade do homem sobre a Natureza ter-se iniciado no séc. III A.C. com o Museu de Ptolomeu em Alexandrina26.Todavia os rumos da actual ciência, na sua busca incessante de descoberta da natureza declinaram-se a partir do século XVI tendo como principais alicerces os museus de História Natural e os jardins botânicos. Os jardins são primeiro definidos como hortus medicas, locais de cultivo de plantas com valor medicinal. O mais antigo surgiu em 1545 em Pisa, Florença e Heidelberg. A estes seguiram-se outros: Zurique (1560), Bolonha (1547), Leiden (1577), Leipzig (1579) Montpellier e Heidelberg (1594), Jardin des Plantes-Paris /1635) The Royal Botanical Garden of Edimburgh (1690), Capetown (1694), Mauritius /1735), Oxford (1621), Cambridge (1761), Chelsea Physic Garden (1673)27. A estes seguiram-se no século XVIII os museus de História Natural: Coimbra (1772), Charleston (1773), Madrid (1776), Filadelfia (1786), Rio de Janeiro (1818), Buenos Aires e Bogotá (1823), Santiago do Chile (1830), Boston e N. York(1860), Belem (1871), Milwaukee (1880) S. José da Costa Rica (1887), Chicago e S. Francisco (1890) e S. Paulo (1894), Praga (1894), Bruxelas (1903), Viena (1889)28. No caso inglês o Royal Botanic Garden exerceu também um papel fundamental na afirmação colonial. Segundo Lucille M. Brockway (1979) - the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew... served as a control centre which regulated the flow of botanical information from of the metropolis to the colonial satellites, and disseminated information emanating from them.". Tal como afirma N. Reingold (1987, p. 354) ao referir-se ao Bristish Museum (1881) o edifício é um "templo de ciência". Jardins botânicos e museus de História Natural detêm um papel fundamental na afirmação da ciência e no apoio aos cientistas, mas são as instituições que servem de suporte a toda uma rede de contactos que a revelação das descobertas tornava necessária a sua divulgação. As sociedades científicas desde o século XVII quebram o isolamento dos cientistas 29. A Royal Society em Londres (1662) foi o embrião deste suporte institucional. Os seus ideais alargaram-se às colónias e difundiram-se em toda a Europa: 1760 - American Philosophical Society 1768 - American Philosophical Society at Philadelphia 1805 - Charleston Botanical Society and Garden 1846 - Smithsonian Institution 1848 - American Association for the Advancement of Science 1854 - Société Zoologique d'Acclimatation (Paris) 1890) - Botanical Society of America 30
25

. J. L. Larson (1994). . Nathan Reingold (1987), p. 352. . P. Petitjean (1992), R. P. Stearns (1970), Lucille M. Bockway (1979). . P. Petitjean (1992), Ch. M. Porter (1986), N. Reingold (1987); W. J. Simon (1983), H. R. Fletcher (1970). . David Elliston Allen (1976). A primeira associação foi o Royal College of Physicians of London (1518). . Elizabrth B. Keeney (1992), P. Petitjean (1992), R. P. Stearns (1970).

26

27

28

29

30

A par disso este enquadramento institucional é reforçado no século XIX com o aparecimento de publicações periódicas especializadas. Esta iniciativa está associada a uma retaguarda institucional. Assim a Royal Society edita desde 1665 "the Philosophical Transactions". Do outro lado do Atlântico tivemos desde 1818 o "American Journal of Science"31.

GUIAS DE DOCUMENTOS E OBRAS RARAS A Directory of History of Medicine Collections. Compiled by Elizabeth Tunis. Seventh edition. Bethesda: U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine, 1997. American Museum of Natural History, New York. Library. Research Catalog of the Library of the American Museum of Natural History: Authors. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1977. British Museum Library (Natural History Department). Catalogue of the Books, Manuscripts, Maps and Drawings in the British Museum (Natural History). London: Printed by order of the Trustees, 1903-40. BRUEMMER, Bruce. Resources for the History of Computing: a Guide to U.S. and Canadian Records. Minneapolis: Charles Babbage Institute, Center for the History of Information Processing, University of Minnesota, 1987. Chemical, Medical, and Pharmaceutical Books Printed Before 1800, in the Collections of the University of Wisconsin Libraries. Edited by John Neu. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1965. GOTTLIEB, Jean. A Checklist of the Newberry Library's Printed Books in Science, Medicine, Technology, and the Pseudosciences ca. 1460-1750. New York: Garland, 1992. HARPER, Peter. Guide to the Manuscript Papers of British Scientists Catalogued by the Contemporary Scientific Archives Centre and the National Cataloguing Unit for the Archives of Contemporary Scientists 1973-1993. Bath : NCUACS, 1993. John Crerar Library, Chicago. A List of Books on the History of Science. Prepared by Aksel G. S. Josephson. Chicago: Printed by order of the Board of Directors, 1911; New York: Kraus Reprint Corp., 1966. Supplement, 1916. New York: Kraus Reprint Corp., 1967. LAYTON, Edwin T. A Regional Union Catalog of Manuscripts Relating to the History of Science and Technology Located in Indiana, Michigan, and Ohio. Cleveland: Program in the History of Science and Technology, Case Western Reserve University, 1971. LINDBERG, David C. A Catalogue of Medieval and Renaissance Optical Manuscripts. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies, 1975. Linnean Society of London. Catalogue of the Printed Books and Pamphlets in the Library of the Linnean Society of London. New edition. London: The Society, 1925. Linnean Society of London. Library. Catalogue of the Manuscripts in the Library of the Linnean Society. London: Linnean Society, 1934-48. MCGURK, Patrick. Astrological Manuscripts in Italian Libraries Other Than Rome. London: Warburg Institute, 1966. MOORE, Keith. A Guide to the Archives and Manuscripts of the Royal Society. London: Royal Society, 1995.
31

. Elizabeth B. Keeney (1992). Confronte-se capítulo sobre as Publicações Periódicas.

MOYAL, Ann Mozley. A Guide to the Manuscript Records of Australian Science. Canberra: Australian Academy of Science in association with Australian National University Press, 1966. NEBEKER, Frederik. Astronomy and the Geophysical Tradition in the United States in the Nineteenth Century: a Guide to the Manuscript Sources in the Library of the American Philosophical Society. Philadelphia: The Society, 1991. Rare Books and Special Collections in the Smithsonian Institution Libraries. Ellen B. Wells and Leslie K. Overstreet. Washington, D.C.: The Libraries, c1995. Royal Society of London. Catalogue of Scientific Papers, 1800-1900. Metuchen: Scarecrow Reprint Corp., 1968. Catalogue of Scientific Papers, 1800-1900: Subject Index. Metuchen: Scarecrow Reprint Corp., 1968. SINGER, Dorothea. Catalogue of Latin and Vernacular Alchemical Manuscripts in Great Britain and Ireland, Dating from Before the XVI Century. Brussels: M. Lamertin, 1928-31. Smithsonian Institution. Manuscripts of the Dibner Collection in the Dibner Library of the History of Science and Technology of the Smithsonian Institution Libraries. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Libraries, 1985. STANTON, William. American Scientific Exploration, 1803-1860: Manuscripts in four Philadelphia Libraries. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society Library, 1991. SUMMERS, Anne. How to find Source Materials: British Library Collections on the History and Culture of Science, Technology and Medicine. London: The British Library, Science Reference and Information Service, 1996. Union Catalogue of Scientific Libraries in the University of Cambridge: Scientific Conference Proceedings, 1644-1972. London: Mansell, 1975. University of California, Los Angeles. A Descriptive list of Arabic Manuscripts on Medicine and Science at the University of California, Los Angeles. Edited by A.Z. Iskandar. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1984.

BIOBIBLIOGRAFIAS BATSCHELET, Margaret. Early American Scientific and Technical Literature: an Annotated Bibliography of Books, Pamphlets, and Broadsides. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1990. BERETTA, Marco. Bibliotheca Lavoisieriana: the Catalogue of the Library of Antoine Laurent Lavoisier. Firenze: L.S. Olschki, 1995. Bibliografia Italiana di Storia della Scienza. Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza. Firenze: L. S. Olschki, 1985 --. Bibliografia Kopernikowska. Warsaw: Panstwowe Wydawn. Naukowe, 1958. Bibliographia Kepleriana. Edited by Max Caspar. Munich: Beck, 1936. Bibliography of Astronomers: Books and Pamphlets in English by and about Astronomers. Volume one: The spirit of the nineteenth century. Compiled by Paul Luther. Bernardston Mass.: Astronomy Books, 1989.

Bibliography of Reports by the National Academy of Sciences, 1945-1985. Prepared by the Task Force on Science Policy, Committee on Science and Technology, House of Representatives. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1986. Bibliography of Studies and Reports on Science Policy and Related Topics, 1945-1985. Prepared by the Task Force on Science Policy, Committee on Science and Technology, House of Representatives. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1987. Bibliography of the History of Medicine. National Library of Medicine. Bethesda: U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Library of Medicine. Bibliography on the History of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, 17th to the 19th century. Edited by Valentin Wehefritz; with the assistance of Zoltan Kovats. Munchen: K.G. Saur, 1994. Three volumes. Biblioteca Galileiana. Edited by Giampaolo Rocco di Torrepadula. Firenze, Sansoni, 1957. BISKUP, Marian. Regesta Copernicana: Calendar of Copernicus' Papers. Wroclaw: Ossolineum, 1973. BLACK, George W. American Science and Technology: a Bicentennial Bibliography. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1979. BLACKWELL, Richard J. A Bibliography of the Philosophy of Science, 1945-1981. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1983. BOFFITO, Giuseppe. Bibliografia Galileiana, 1896-1940. Rome: Libreria dello stato, 1943. See also Carli, and Galileo, Man of Science. BRIDSON, Gavin and James White. Plant, Animal and Anatomical Illustrations in Art and Science: a Bibliographic Guide from the 16th Century to the Present Day. Detroit: Omnigraphics, 1990. BRIDSON, Gavin. The History of Natural History: an Annotated Bibliography. New York: Garland, 1994. BRUSH, Stephen G. The History of Geophysics and Meteorology: an Annotated Bibliography. New York: Garland Publishing, 1985. The History of Modern Physics: an International Bibliography. New York: Garland Publishing, 1983. The History of Modern Science: a Guide to the Second Scientific Revolution, 1800-1950. Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1988. CALDWELL, Lynton Keith. Science, Technology, and Public Policy: a Selected and Annotated Bibliography. Volumes 1-3. Bloomington: Indiana University, 1968. CARLI, Alarico and A. Favaro. Bibliografia Galileiana: 1568-1895. Firenze: Bencini, 1896. See also Boffito, and Galileo, Man of Science. CHANNELL, David. The History of Engineering Science: an Annotated Bibliography. New York: Garland, 1989. CHUBIN, Daryl E. Sociology of Sciences: an Annotated Bibliography on Invisible Colleges, 1972-1981. New York: Garland Publishing, 1983. COHEN, Morris, L. Law and Science: a Selected Bibliography. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1980. COLE, William A. Chemical Literature, 1700-1860: a Bibliography with Annotations, Detailed Descriptions, Comparisons, and Locations. London: Mansell, 1988.

Companion to the History of Modern Science. Edited by R.C. Olby. London: Routledge, 1990. CORSI, Pietro. Information Sources in the History of Science and Medicine. Boston: Butterworth Scientific, 1983. CORTADA, James W. A Bibliographic Guide to the History of Computer Applications, 1950-1990. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1996. A Bibliographic Guide to the History of Computing, Computers, and the Information Processing Industry. New York: Greenwood Press, 1990. An Annotated Bibliography on the History of Data Processing. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1983. Second Bibliographic Guide to the History of Computing, Computers, and the Information Processing Industry. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1996. DAUBEN, Joseph Warren. The History of Mathematics from Antiquity to the Present: a Selective Bibliography. New York: Garland Publishing, 1985. DEVORKIN, David H. The History of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics: a Selected, Annotated Bibliography. New York: Garland Publishing, 1982. DUNBAR, Gary S. The History of Modern Geography: an Annotated Bibliography of Selected Works. New York: Garland Publishing, 1985. DURBIN, Paul. A Guide to the Culture of Science, Technology, and Medicine. New York: Free Press, 1980. DUVEEN, Denis I. A Bibliography of the Works of Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, 1743-1794. London, Dawson, 1954. Supplement. London: Dawson, 1965. EISEN, Sydney. Victorian Science and Religion: a Bibliography with Emphasis on Evolution, belief, and Unbelief, Comprised of Works Published from 1900-1975. Hamden, Conn.: Archon Books, 1984. ELLIOTT, Clark A. History of Science in the United States: a Chronology and Research guide. New York: Garland, 1996. ERNEST Rutherford, a Bibliography of his Non technical Writings. Berkeley: Office for History of Science and Technology, University of California, 1979. FERGUSON, Eugene S. Bibliography of the History of Technology. Cambridge: Society for the History of Technology, MIT, 1968. FERGUSON, John. Bibliotheca Chemica: a Bibliography of Books on Alchemy, chemistry, and Pharmaceutics. London: Derek Vershoyle, Academic and Bibliographical Publications, 1954. FINE, Bernard S. The History of Electrical Technology. New York: Garland, 1991. FREEMAN, Richard Broke. The Works of Charles Darwin: an Annotated Bibliographical Handlist. London: Dawsons of Pall Mall, 1965. Second edition. Front Page Physics: a Century of Physics in the News. Compiled by A.J. Meadows and M.M. HancockBeaulieu. Philadelphia: Institute of Physics Pub., 1994. FRUTON, Joseph Stewart. A Bio-bibliography for the History of the Biochemical Sciences since 1800. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1982. Supplement, 1985. Galileo, Man of Science. Includes the "Bibliografia Galileiana, 1940-1964: being the second supplement to the original Carli-Favaro Bibliografia Galileiana," p. I-lxxxii. Edited by Ernan McMullin. New York: Basic Books, 1967. See also Carli, and Boffito.

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RELIGIÃO
"Christianity taught that man had dominion over natural and so man has treated nature in a destrutive way. " (Francis A. Schaeffer, Pollution and the Death of Man, Illinois, 1973)

O debate entre a Religião e a Ciência parece eterno a partir dele parte o referente à relação entre este e a Ecologia. A forma como o homem se relaciona com o quadro natural prendese muito com as suas crenças religiosas. Insiste-se que o Cristianismo com base na Bíblia defende uma relação dominadora do homem face ao meio que o envolve. O texto que encima esta breve referência assim o reitera. Todavia a partir da década de setenta muitos teólogos e pastores da igreja participam activamente no movimento ambientalista, dandonos uma imagem distinta da relação do Cristianismo com a Ecologia. Neste domínio salientam-se os livros de Richard Austin(1987), Daniel Spring[1974, John Camody(1983), Ian Bradley(1992), Ian Barbour(1966 e 1977), P. W. Bakken(1955). Neste quadro justifica-se a valorização dada à vida e obra de S. Francisco de Assis, considerado o patrono da Ecologia. Ele é a resposta aos detractores do Cristianismo. Confira-se por exemplo os textos de Maio Marzi(1981), Roger Souell(1988), P. D. Allen(1996).
Todavia o mais destacado deste tema e a polémica ateou-se em torno da Religião e da Ciência, tendo como principal palco a centúria oitocentista mercê dos avanços da Ciência que para muitos foi uma reacção aos dogmas da Bíblia. Os dois mais destacados expoentes deste debate são John W. Draper[1811-1882] e Andrew Dickson White[1832-1918] com textos clássicos publicados, respectivamente, em 1874 e 1896. A sua aportação é corolário do debate que se ateou desde 1859 com Origin of Species de Charles Darwin. A bibliografia propicia-nos alguns textos orientadores da descoberta deste debate. Chama-se a atenção dos interessados para Francis C. Haber(1959), T. Cosslett(1984), David C. Lindberg(1986).

AGAR, William Macdonough, 1894- Catholicism and the Progress of Science, New York, The Macmillan company, 1940. ALLEN, Paul Marshall e Joan de Ris Allen. Francis of Assisi's Canticle of the Creatures: a Modern Spiritual Path.New York : Continuum, 1996. ALON, Azariah. The Natural History of the Land of the Bible / [by Azaria Alon]. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1978 ANDERSON, Alexander Walter, Plants of the Bible. New York, Philosophical Library [1957] Creation in the Old Testament, Philadelphia: Fortress Press; London: SPCK, 1984. ANDERSON, Paul Russell, 1907- Science in Defense of Liberal Religion; a Study of Henry More's Attempt to link Seventeenth Century Religion with Science, New York and London, G. P. Putnam's sons, 1933. ARMSTRONG, Edward A., Saint Francis: Nature Mystic- The Derivation and Significance of the Nature Stories in the Franciscan Legend, Berheley, 1973

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A ARTE
Uma das fontes privilegiadas para estudo do impacto humano no quadro natural é a gravura e pintura. É nos EUA que esta fonte tem merecido nos últimos anos destacada atenção32. Na verdade a pintura americana do século XIX revela um desusado apego ao quadro natural do continente numa onda de fundamentação do sentimento nacional33. É o período de Hudson River School. Note-se que desde meados do século XIX há na pintura americana uma busca pelo espaço não produtivo, dominado pelos pântanos e selva. Situação que dá lugar após à guerra civil aos temas exóticos. Por outro lado a pintura é também um meio de estudo ou a expressão da actividade e exploração dos cientistas. Humbolt teve a noção disso 34. Deste modo o período que decorre de 1840 a 1880 é o momento do livro ilustrado em toda a Europa35. Tenha-se em conta que a fotografia é a memória estática do momento do "click"., enquanto a gravura regista tudo isso pelo olhar do desenhador ou pintor. No primeiro caso tudo depende da qualidade da objectiva, da película e câmara enquanto no segundo é o crivo do olhar do seu autor, os seus interesses, objectivos e formação cultura que fazem saltar para a tela ou papel os pormenores desse quadro e a sua disposição e tamanho. É comum questionar-se sobre uma imagem, quem, quando e o quê, mas poucos se perguntam sobre o porquê destes ou daqueles motivos e quais os objectivos que os regeram. Note-se que as diversas leituras ecológicas da pintura e gravura valorizam a luz e a paisagem e nesta última a presença do arvoredo, os lagos, as montanhas e as quedas de água. A figura do homem varia da Europa para a América. Enquanto no velho continente a presença humana é assídua e de escala bastante notória, já do outro lado do Atlântico é evidente essa ausência e quando aparece é em pose contemplativa36. Note-se que no fim do século é evidente a atenção nos aspectos geológicos, as rochas são as protagonistas. Assim John Barrow [1792-1793] é atraído pela "Loo Rock of Funchal"37. Já na década de sessenta do século XIX foi evidente o gosto pelas árvores milenares, que fizeram a fama de algumas localidades, correndo mundo em descrição e ilustrações38. Os jardins são outra forma do homem se relacionar com o meio natural. Aliás, Paul Shepard (1991) confirma que através deles o homem comunica com a natureza do mundo. E Duck Clifford (1963) precisa: "garden is man's idealized view of the world... Gardens cannot be considered in detachment from the people who made them"39 O jardim no mundo cristão esta inevitavelmente ligado à ideia de Paraíso. E a ideia de Paraíso está associada a flores e fontes 40. Todavia esta comunhão do homem com a natureza não é apenas apanágio do mundo cristão. A ideia de jardim com o espaço de retiro, reflexão e comunhão com a natureza está presente na civilização muçulmana oriental desde a China ao Japão. Daqui resulta a forte presença dos jardins muçulmanos41, chinês42, ou japonês que influenciaram de forma decisiva os do mundo cristão. Uma das visões mais completas disso é-nos dada por Cristopher Thacher (1979) e Marie Luise Gothein (1966).
32

. Barbara Novak (1980), Ann Bermingham (1986), David Miller (1989) e Angela Miller (1993) . A. Miller (1993), p.8. . "Landscape painting in its influence on the study of nature",in Cosmos, 1850. . B. Novak (1980), pp. 116-117.

33

34

35

36 Barbara Novak, 1980, pp.35, 184-189
37 Barbara Stafford, 1984, 68-72 38 Hans Hunt, 1990, p.142 39 . Derek Clifford (1963), p. 15.
40

. K. Thomas (1983), p. 243. . R. Stewart Johnston (1991). . J. G. Simmons (1996), p. 166.

41

42

O Primeiro jardim terá surgido na China no tempo do imperador Wu Ti(140-86 A.C.). Na Europa os primeiros jardins surgiram em Itália - Pisa(1543), Padua (1545) -mas foi o de Versailles (1662) aquele que mais fama adquiriu e foi alvo de cópias43. Todavia o século XVII anuncia já um novo tipo de jardim que tem como referência os jardins de Oxford (1621), Chelsea (1673), Edimburgh (1680)e Kew (1759)44 É o início dos actuais jardins botânicos que se afirmam como repositórios de plantas exóticas de todo o mundo. Por outro lado os séculos XVI/XVIII são o momento da grande revolução na arte da jardinagem. Os jardins tornam-se populares, sucedendo-se inúmeras edições de livros sobre flores e jardins. Existem vários tipos de jardins que se popularizam no mundo ocidental. O jardim italiano do século XVII é dominado pela água estatuária e uma ponte central. Já o jardim francês é um espaço traçado a esquadria, situação que vai influenciar a jardinagem até ao século XX altura em que estes sob influência do Japão perde a sua geometria45. Todavia, em Inglaterra temos desde fins do século XVII o chamado "Tudor Garden" em que a geometria cede lugar ao quadro natural46. Os elementos fundamentais dos jardins são as flores, árvores, água e elementos arquitectónicos (pontes, estátuas) que se articulam de forma harmónica de acordo com a sensibilidade cultural da cada região e época47. Tudo isto porque o jardim não é apenas "design" e estilo mas também é fruto de inspiração da pintura e literatura. Note-se ainda que o culto pelas árvores é já evidente no século XVII. São elas que orientam a afirmação das classes possidentes e lhe dão grandiosidade em avenidas em frente das suas casas48. O próprio acto de plantar uma árvore, que hoje se celebra com grande pompa no dia dedicado à mesma, está já documentado no século XVIII49.

A Europa parte no século XV à procura do Éden, bíblico ou descrito na literatura clássica greco-romana50. Foi este um dos motivos do empenho de Colombo, mas também dos navegadores portugueses. O seu reencontro era encarado como uma conciliação com Deus, o apagar do pecado original de Adão e Eva. Esta imagem persegue quase todos os navegadores quinhentistas e deverá estar por detrás do empenho daquelas que aportaram à Madeira . Tenha-se em conta que as duas primeiras crianças nascidas na ilha, filhas de Gonçalo Aires Ferreira tiveram nomes bíblicos de Adão e Eva51. Era o retorno ao Éden, que aos poucos foi sendo perdido, tal como sucedera aos primogénitos Adão e Eva. A recuperação desta imagem acontecerá mais tarde no século XVIII em que a ilha é de novo o paraíso redescoberto para o viajante ou tísico ingleses, recuperado e revelado ao cientista, seja ele inglês, alemão ou francês, através das recolhas ou da recriação através dos jardins botânicos.

BIBLIOGRAFIA ADAMS, William Howard, Nature Perfected Gardens Through History, NY, 1991.
43

. J. G. Simmons (1996), p.166. . K. Thomas (1983), p. 227. . P. Shepard (1991), pp. 78-117. . Johan Dixom Hunt e P. Willis (1975). . Terry Comito (1971) . K. Thomas (1983), pp. 297-209) . K. Thomas (1983), pp. 210-221.

44

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46

47

48

49

50 Cf. Jean DELUMEAU, Une Histoire du paradis- le jardin des délices, Paris, 1992; John PREST, The Garden od Eden: the botanic garden and the re-creation of paradise, New Haven, 1988, pp.30-33. 51 Ernesto GONÇALVES, Portugal e a ilha, Funchal, 1992, pp.13-17

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LITERATURA

A vaga romântica da literatura que cedo se expandiu de França até o mundo ocidental veio a colocar o escritor e poeta próximo da Natureza. Esta corrente literária tem paralelo nos Estados Unidos com o pastorialismo que se desenvolve a partir do século XVII. De acordo com estes as explorações são apresentadas na primeira pessoa numa descrição real Exemplo disso são J. White, Th. Cole e George Marsh52. O pastorialismo é uma revolta pacifica contra a Revolução Industrial. Dois livros demarcam o romantismo americano Walde. Or Life in the Woods(1854) de Henry David Thoreau e Moby-Dick (1851) de H. Melville. Este último é, segundo Annie Dillard, "the best book ever written about nature"53. Thoreau é uma referência no panorama de "nature writing". A sua obra abriu uma nova era na valorização do mundo natural pela influência que teve. Thoreau afirmava que "a writer is the scribe of all nature""54 e que tem como função fazer compreender a natureza. Ele é na verdade o escritor mais popular da literatura romântica nos EUA e que influenciou com a sua obra os estudos de História Natural55. É, por isso mesmo considerado o santo patrono dos escritores sobre o meio-ambiente americano56. Se Thoreau merece o epíteto de patrono dos escritores da Natureza já John Muir (1813-1914) e John Burroughs (1837-1921) estão nas origens do movimento ecológico57. Movimento que tem a sua plena afirmação no post segunda guerra mundial, com reflexos evidentes no discurso literário58. Na poesia americana a expressão mais evidente do romantismo é Wodsworth59. Mas note-se que a Natureza é um constante motivo de inspiração dos poetas. Mesmo Fernando Pessoa[1888-1935] num dos seus heterónimos não perde a oportunidade para afirmar: Além disso, fui o único poeta da natureza"60. Nos últimos anos editaram-se diversas colectâneas destes textos agora recuperados numa perspectiva de História do meio-ambiente61. Em Portugal o romantismo legou-nos algumas paginas de ouro da literatura do século XIX. A produção literária e de estudos teóricos62 envolve alguns dos nomes sonantes: que vão desde Júlio Dinis a Almeida Garrett. É aliás o primeiro quem inaugura a escola naturalista com os Serões na Província(1870)63.

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ECOFEMINISMO
He says that woman speaks with nature. That she hears voices from under the earth. That wind blow in her ears and trees whisper to her.(…) Susan Griffin[1978]

Um dos movimentos radicais ecologistas é o Ecofeminismo. A ele liga-se também uma corrente literária. O termo foi usado pela primeira vez por Françoise d'Eauboune64. Desde a década de setenta que o movimento feminista defende a ideia de que o ambiente é feminino, deste modo o combate ecológico está ligado à libertação da mulher65. De acordo com Karen J. Warren "ecological feminism is the name give to a variety of position that have roots in different feminist practices and philosophies"66. Por outro lado para Carolyn Merchant, uma historiadora deste movimento, "women and nature have an age-old association - an affiliation that has persisted throughout culture, language, and history"".67 Tenha-se em atenção que foi Rachel Carson [1907-1964], com o seu livro "Silent Spring" (1962) que fez despertar a consciência dos cientistas, políticos e historiadores para o movimento ecológico68. Esta aproximação ao Ecofeminismo deu-se em 1987 com a conferência "Ecofeminist perspectives", preparada para celebrar os 25 anos de publicação do livro de Rachel Carson. Todavia a primeira conferência a fazer apelo a esta aproximação da mulher aos problemas do ambiente teve lugar em 1974 na Universidade da Califórnia, a que se seguiram outras na década imediata69. Os dois textos mais marcantes que historiam este movimento são os de Susan Griffin, Women and Nature (1978) e Carolyn Merchant, the Death of Nature (1980) É de salientar aqui o papel assumido pelas mulheres no passado na defesa e valorização do meio ambiente. O facto mais evidente disto está na obra de Rachel Carson70, a que poderá juntar-se a iniciativa de outras mulheres desde o século XVIII, como o prova o estudo de Marcia Myers Bonta Women in the Field (1991)71. BIBLIOGRAFIA Agricultural and environmental policies and their impact on advancement of professional women and on rural women's effort in attaining sustainable food security in East Africa : a summary / by the Kenya National Action Committee (NAC) of the East African Women Leaders in Agriculture and Environment (AWLAE) Program. [Nairobi, Kenya?] : NAC, [1994] AOKI, Yayoi, 1927- Kyosei Jidai no Feminizumu: Hirakareta Mirai o Motomete / Aoki Yayoi. Tokyo : Orijin Shuppan Senta, 1994.

64 . François d'Eauboune, le féminisme ou la mort, Paris, 1974, pp. 213-252. Irene Diamond, Reweaving the world, S. Francisco., 1990, p. 100.

. M. Zimmerman, Contesting Earth's Future, Berkely, 1994, p. 233-319; M. Zimmerman, Environmental Philosophy..., NY, 1993, p. 263.
66

65

. M. Zimmerman, 1993, p. 264. . C. Merchant, the Death of Nature, S. Francisco, 1980, p. XIX.

67

68 . Outras obras: Under the Sea Wind(1941), The Sea Around US(1951), The Edge of the Sea(1955). 69 . Irene Diamond, Reweaving the world... S. Francisco, 1990, p. 8.
70

. Veja-se Mary A. Mccay (1993), Linda Lear (1997), Carol B. Garter (1983) Martha Freeman (1994).

71 Aqui são assinaladas algumas destas pioneiras: Jane Colden(1724-1766), Agnes Chase, Alice Eastwood, Elizabeth K. Britton, Martha Maxwell, Kate Brandegee.

BIEHL, Janet, 1953- Finding our Way: Rethinking Ecofeminist Politics / Janet Biehl. Montreal ; New York : Black Rose Books, c1991. BIGWOOD, Carol, 1957- Earth Muse: Feminism, Nature, and Art / Carol Bigwood. Philadelphia : Temple University Press, 1993. BIRKE, Lynda I. A. Feminism,Animals, and Science: the Naming of the Shrew / Lynda Birke. Buckingham [England] ; Philadelphia : Open University Press, 1994. BONTA, Marcia Myers, Women in the Field. Americas Pioneering Women Naturalists, Texas, 1991. BRANDT, Barbara.Whole Life Economics: Revaluing Daily Life /Barbara Brandt.Philadelphia, PA: New Society Publishers, c1995. BROOKS, Paul , The House of Life : Rachel Carson at work, with selections from her writings published and unpublished / by Paul Brooks London : Allen and Unwin, 1973 Speaking for Nature: how Literary Naturalists from Henry Thoreau to Rachel Carson Have Shaped America / Paul Brooks; with drawings by the author, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1980 BUDAPEST, Zsuzsanna Emese, 1940- The Goddess in the Office: a Personal Energy Guide for the Spiritual Warrior at Work / Zsuzanna E. Budapest. [San Francisco, Calif.] : HarperSanFrancisco, c1993. CALDECOTT, Leonie e Stephanie Leland, eds. Reclaim the Earth: Women Speak Out for Life on Earth. London: Women's Press, 1983. Caputi, Jane. Gossips, Gorgons & Crones: the Fates of the Earth / by Jane Caputi ; foreword by Paula Gunn Allen. Santa Fe, N.M. : Bear & Co. Pub., c1993. CARSON, Rachel, 1907-1964 , Silent Spring, London Peguin Group, 1991[1ª edição em 1962] Always, Rachel : the letters of Rachel Carson and Dorothy Freeman, 1952-1964 / edited by Martha Freeman, Boston : Beacon Press, c1995 Under the Sea-Wind, a Naturalist's Picture of Ocean Life, by Rachel L. Carson. Illustrated by Howard French. New York, Simon and Schuster, 1941. The Sense of Wonder [by] Rachel Carson. Photos. by Charles Pratt and others., New York, Harper & Row [1965, c1956] Of Man and the Stream of Time, Claremont, Calif., Scripps College, 1962. The Edge of the Sea. With illus. by Bob Hines,Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1955. Of Man and the Stream of Time,Claremont, Calif., Scripps College, 1962. CHENEY, Jim. "Ecofeminism and Deep Ecology." Environmental Ethics 9 (no.2: Summer 1987): 115-45. Clark, J. Michael (John Michael), 1953- An Unbroken Circle: Ecotheology, Theodicy, & Ethics / by J. Michael Clark ; with a prefatorial essay by Arthur Frederick Ide. Las Colinas, Tex.: Monument Press, 1996. Defying the Darkness: Gay Theology in the Shadows / J. Michael Clark. Cleveland, Ohio : Pilgrim Press, 1997. Con-spirando: Revista Latinoamericana de Ecofeminismo, Espiritualidad y Teologia. Santiago, Chile : Colectivo Con-spirando, 1992COOPER, Susan, Made from this Earth - American Women and Nature, Chapel Hill, 1993 Cuomo, Chris J.Feminism and Ecological Communities: an Ethic of Flourishing / Chris J. Cuomo.London ; New York : Routledge, 1998. Daly, Mary, 1928-, Quintessence--Realizing the Archaic Future: a Radical Elemental Feminist Manifesto / Mary Daly. Boston : Beacon Press, 1998.

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FLORESTA
A floresta é indissociável da História do Homem. Não obstante o cristianismo assumir uma atitude hostil ela esteve sempre presente nos grandes momentos da História da Cristandade. A Floresta é a nossa principal reserva de riqueza, fornece-nos lenha e madeiras que até meados do século XIX se tornaram indispensáveis à sobrevivência e comodidades humanas. Por todos os tempos a riqueza de uma região dependeu desta reserva que delimitava a fronteira do espaço agrícola e humanizado. No século XVIII com Rousseau o quadro natural assumiu um papel distinto, passando a estar envolvido no quotidiano. O homem do século XIX vê a floresta com outro olhar. Perdeu o medo e o instinto dominador, procurando nela a harmonia. É essa a lição de David Thoreau em "Waden"72. Mas também é neste momento que o homem toma consciência da sua acção devastadora sobre a floresta. O primeiro grito é de Marsh em "Man and nature" (1874). Perante isto sucederam-se reacções, com as medidas de protecção da floresta em 1669 a ordenança francesa das florestas de Colbert e depois como o free timber act (1873) e a criação dos parques e reservas: Yosemite National Park em 1890 - ou as associações privadas - Sierra Club (1892) - e publicas - Divisão de Florestas (1886)73. Na verdade a devastação da floresta causou efeitos destrutivos considerados catastróficos.A situação mais evidente nas ilhas onde o hinterland é reduzido. A primeira imagem disto é a ilha de Chipre, onde a construção naval e a exportação levaram a que esta perdesse o epíteto de ilha verde, dado pelos antigos74. A situação repete-se na Madeira, Canárias e Antilhas. Um dos aspectos significativos do recurso à floresta foi a construção naval. A expansão europeia desde o século XV implicou uma revolução na construção naval. Os séculos XVII e XVIII de forte competência das potências europeias no domínio do mar e do Novo Mundo conduziu ao forte incremento da construção naval. Até 1862, altura em que se atinge a idade do ferro, a madeira é a matéria prima de construção naval75. O caso mais evidente disto é a Inglaterra que perdida a sua floresta socorre-se das madeiras de América do Norte. Aliás este continente foi a principal reserva europeia: a Nova Inglaterra para os ingleses e o Canadá para os franceses76. A Madeira assume aqui um lugar de destaque, pois a ilha ganhou o seu nome do denso arvoredo, mas a presença do homem desde o século XV rapidamente conduziu ao seu desaparecimento da vertente sul. Tal como afirma S. Pyne77 a situação da Madeira não é uma caricatura desse processo de deflorestação, mas a sua evidencia. Tendo em conta estas múltiplas funções da floresta os estudos realizados repartem-se em a História da Floresta em geral78, os seus múltiplos usos que vão desde o combustível79 a construção naval80. A sua incessante procura conduz o homem à busca de medidas da sua defesa que surgem em circunstâncias e conjunturas de crise deste inestimável recurso81

72

. Robert Pogue Harrison, 1992. . Michael Wiiliams (1992), p. 375-460. . J. V. Thirgood (1981), p. 125; F. Perlin (1989). . R. G. Albion (1926). . F. Palin (1991), p. 175-176, 266; M. Williams (1992), p. 82-101. . S. J. Pyne (1982), p. 124. . M. Williams (1989), W. Dean (1995). . R. Reynolds (1942), Teresa Botelho(1986). . Robert Albion (1965), P. Bamford (1956), R. Fries (1951). . L. Wilson (1948), J. Malone (1964), W. Schofield (1968), L. Rakestraw (1979).

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Da leitura dos clássicos e da produção recente releva-se uma situação particular que toca de novo o arquipélago da Madeira. A Madeira não se posiciona apenas nos anais da História universal como a primeira área de ocupação atlântica, pioneira na cultura e divulgação do açúcar ao Novo Mundo. A expansão europeia não se resume apenas ao encontro e desencontro de Culturas, mas também marca o início de um processo de transformação ou degradação do meioambiente82. O europeu carrega consigo a fauna e flora do seu convívio e com valor económico, que irão provocar profundas mudanças nos novos eco-sistemas. Com isto acontece que o espaço vivido e natureza se universalizam. O processo de imposição da chamada biota portátil europeia, no dizer de Alfred Crosby83, foi responsável por alguns dos primeiros e mais importantes problemas ecológicos . Quem não se lembra da praga dos coelhos do Porto Santo? Que dizer do incêndio que lavrou na ilha durante sete anos ? Estas situações são assiduamente referenciadas pela actual historiografia norte americana que se dedica ao estudo da História do meio ambiente, sendo o seu ponto de partida e alento para esta incursão temática inovadora. Outro facto também insistentemente referido é o da própria ilha da Madeira. O nome foi o atributo para referenciar a abundância e aspecto luxuriante do seu bosque. Tão pomposamente referida por Camões84: Passamos a grande ilha da Madeira Que do muito arvoredo assim se chama Das que povoamos a primeira mais célebre por nome que por fama (…) Mas em pouco tempo, as queimadas para abrir clareiras de cultura e habitação, o debaste para fruição das lenhas e madeiras, fizeram-na desmerecer tal epíteto. Da Madeira quase só ficou o nome…! A tradição refere que os navegadores portugueses atearam um incêndio à densa floresta para poder penetrar, mas este ganhou tais proporções que os atemorizou. Foram sete anos de chama acesa, diz a tradição. Todavia, hoje ninguém acredita nesta versão divulgada por Francisco Alcoforado e repetida em Cadamosto e outros autores da época. Hoje ninguém acredita nesta História, que a ser verdade teria reduzido a ilha a carvão… Esta situação expressa uma realidade que pautará a expansão europeia e que só nos últimos anos tem cativado a atenção do historiador. Tudo isto tem origem num produto devorador que conquista a economia de mercado e que pautou a evolução da economia atlântica a partir do século XV. O carrasco é o açúcar. A sua disponibilidade só é possível com esse processo de degradação do meio que viu nascer os canaviais.
82 . Cf. Elionor G. K. MELVILLE, A Plague of sheep- Environmental consequences of the conquest of Mexico, N. York, 1994, p.88 83 Imperialismo ecológico- a expansão biológica da europa. 900-1900, S. Paulo, 1993, 87, 238 84 Lusíadas, est.5, canto V, 1613

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AGRICULTURA
O desenvolvimento da agricultura é considerado um dos factores fundamentais de intervenção do Homem no quadro natural. O processo de sedentarização humana e a consequente domesticação de animais e plantas implicaram a mais evidente mudança85. Foi o coumt de Buffon quem primeiro se deu conta deste impacto, sendo secundado por George Perkins Marsh em 1864 com "Man and Nature". Para além dos estudos que tratam de História de Agricultura temos que evidenciar aqueles que estabelecem uma relação deste sector de actividade com a Ecologia86 e da perspectiva de uma intervenção harmónica através de uma agricultura sustentada87. Neste contexto é evidente o papel assumido pela cana de açúcar, cujos efeitos devastadores são notórios nas áreas onde a cultura se fez88 Josué de Castro89 traça-nos o retrato violento da cana de açúcar: "Já afirmou alguém, com muita razão, que o cultivo da cana de açúcar se processa em regime de autofagia: a cana devorando tudo em torno de si, engolindo terras e mais terras, dissolvendo o húmus do solo, aniquilando as pequenas culturas indefesas e o próprio capital humano, do qual a sua cultura tira toda a vida. E é a pura verdade... Donde a caracterização inconfundível das diferentes áreas geográficas açucareiras, com seu ciclo económico, com as fases de rápida ascensão, de esplendor transitório e de irremediável decadência. ". Esta ideia é corroborada por Mário Lacerda de Melo90: "Dificilmente se encontrarão formas de utilização dos recursos dos solos que se possam rivalizar com a agro industria canavieira quanto à capacidade de condicionar um tipo de sociedade e de economia, de modelar um tipo de paisagem e de estruturar um tipo de arranjo económico do espaço".

A cana de açúcar poderá ser considerada como a cultura agrícola mais importante da História da Humanidade, pois provocou o maior fenómeno em termos de mobilidade humana, económica, comercial e ecológica. A sua afirmação como cultura agrícola é milenar e abrange vários quadrantes do planeta. É de todas as plantas domesticadas pelo Homem aquela que acarreta maiores exigências. Ela quase que escraviza o homem, esgota o solo, devora a floresta e dessedenta os cursos de água. A sua exploração intensiva desde o século XV gerou grandes exigências em termos de mão-de-obra, sendo responsável pela maior fenómeno migratório à escala mundial que teve por palco o Atlântico: a escravatura de milhões de africanos. Ligado a tudo isso está também um conjunto variado de manifestações culturais que vão desde a literatura à musica e à dança.
Foi o Oriente descobriu a doçura, tendo a Papua Nova Guiné como Berço. Os árabes fizeram-no chegar ao ocidente e foram os principais arautos da sua expansão. Genoveses e venezianos encarregaram-se do seu comércio e Europa. Mas é nas ilhas que ela encontrou um dos principais viveiros da sua afirmação e divulgação no Ocidente: Creta e Sicília no Mediterrâneo, Madeira, Açores, Canárias, Cabo Verde e S. Tomé no Atlântico Oriental Puerto Rico, Cuba, Jamaica, Demerara(…) nas Antilhas. A realidade sócio-económica que serve de suporte ao açúcar diferencia-se no seu percurso do Pacífico/Índico para o Mediterrâneo/Atlântico. Assim, no primeiro caso não assume a posição dominante na economia, primando pelo carácter secundário, enquanto no segundo é patente o seu efeito dominador na economia e sociedade/associação ao escravo, que começa no Mediterrâneo e se reforça no Atlântico.
. Andrew Goudie, 1994, p. 20: "Both the domestication of animals and cultivation of plants have been among the most significant causes of human impact". Cf. P. Ucko, 1969.
86 85

. A. Bergeret, 1997, N. Gligo, 1986, D. Vasey, 1992, W. Weischet, 1993, D. Helms, 1993, John Jones, 1993, B. Glaeser,

1995.
87

. G. Douglas, 1984, N. Jackson, 1984, M. Hatfield, 1994, Miguel Altieri, 1995, L. Burssarard, 1997.. . Cf. para Antilhas David Watts, 1987.

88

89 Geografia da Fome, R. Janeiro, 1952, p.73 90 O Açúcar e o homem, 1975

A cana, tal como afirma Josué de Castro91, é autofágica. A realidade histórica dos últimos cinco séculos, em que ela assumiu um estatuto de produção em larga escala, assim o confirma. Aquilo que aconteceu na Madeira dos séculos XV e XVI, repetiu-se nas Canárias, Caraíbas e só não atingiu idênticas proporções no Brasil, porque a mata atlântica era extensa. Mesmo assim aqui os problemas, embora mais tarde, também tiveram lugar. Gilberto Freire92 afirma que "o canavial desvirginou todo esse mato grosso de modo mais cru pela queimada. A cultura da cana… valorizou o canavial e tornou desprezível a mata".
O processo é simples. Para plantar a cana derruba-se ou queima-se a floresta. Depois para fabricar o açúcar essa floresta faz falta para manter acesa a chama dos engenhos, ou construir estas infra-estruturas. A cana tem na floresta o seu maior amigo e inimigo. Um exemplo apenas evidencia a dimensão que assumiu este processo. Para o Brasil no século XVIII cada quilo de açúcar equivale a 15 kg de lenha queimada, dando média anual de 210.000 toneladas. A cada hectare deverá corresponder 200 toneladas93. A evolução recente da mata atlântica no Brasil, passados mais de cem anos sobre o incremento da máquina a vapor nos engenhos, continua a ser tragada por outros agentes. Assim entre 1985 a 1990 ela perdeu 5.330 km2, ficando em 83.500km2, isto cerca de 8% da floresta encontrada portugueses em 22 de Abril de 1500. Esta continuada acção devastadora é assim descrita: "Durante quinhentos anos, a Mata Atlântica propiciou lucros fáceis: papagaios, corantes, escravos, ouro, ipecacuanha, orquídeas e madeira para o proveito de seus senhores coloniais e, queimada e devastada, uma camada imensamente fértil de cinzas que possibilitavam uma agricultura passiva, imprudente e insustentável. A população crescia cada vez mais, o capital "se acumulava", enquanto as florestas desapareciam; mais capital então "se acumulava" - em barreiras à erosão de terras de lavoura, em aquedutos, controle de fluxos e enchentes de rios, equipamentos de dragagem, terras de mata plantada e a industrialização de sucedâneos para centenas de produtos outrora apanhados de graça na floresta. Nenhuma restrição se observou durante esse meio milénio de gula, muito embora, quase desde o início, fossem entoadas intermitentes interdições solenes que, nos dias atuais, são contínuas e frenéticas."94 Esta situação, não obstante a extensa mata disponível, provocou alguns problemas. Deste modo em 1660 o município de Salvador da Baía definiu um conjunto de medidas, que não foram suficientes uma vez que em 1804 no Recôncavo era evidente a falta de lenhas e madeiras95. O desaparecimento da floresta próxima dos engenhos fazia aumentar os custos de fabrico do açúcar, agora onerados com os da lenha.

O processo é similar nas regiões que antecederam o boom do açúcar americano. Senão vejamos. Em Motril a primeira metade do século XVI é definida por uma situação de quebra da produção açucareira, atribuída à falta de lenhas, o que levou a uma tomada de medidas desde 154096. A situação repete-se na Madeira e Canárias97, o que provoca uma reacção dos proprietários de engenho, materializada em medidas exaradas em ordens régias e posturas Municipais98. As ilhas, pela limitação do seu espaço, são as primeiras a ressentir-se desta realidade. Sucede assim em ambos os lados do Atlântico, apontando-se como única
91 Josué de CASTRO, Geografia da Fome, R. Janeiro, 1952, p.73 92 Nordeste- aspectos da influência da cana sobre a vida e a paisagem do nordeste do Brasil, R. Janeiro, 1985 93 Warren DEAN, A ferro e fogo. A História e a devastação da mata atlântica brasileira, S. Paulo, 1995, pp.191-196 94 Ibidem, 380 95 Shawn W. MILLER, "Fuelwood in colonial Brazil: The economic consequences of fuel depletion for the Bahian Recôncavo, 15491820", in Forest and Conservation History, XXXVIII, 1994, pp. 181-192

96 . Antonio MALPICA CUELLO, "Medio físico y territorio- el ejemplo de la caña de azúcar a finales de la edad media", in Paisajes del azucar, Actas del quinto seminario internacional sobre la caña de azúcar", motril, 1995, p.34; Margarita M. BIRRIEL SALCEDO, "la producción azucarera de la Andalucía mediterránea. 1500-1750", in Producción y comercio del azúcar de caña en época preindustrial, Actas del tercer seminario d internacional, Motril, 1993, p.130.
97 Cf. James J. PARSONS, "Human influences on the pine and laurel forests of the Canary islands", in Geographical Review, LXXI, nº.3, 1981, pp.253-271 98 Alberto VIEIRA,"introdução a estudo do direito local insular", in VII Colóquio de História Canario americana(1986), Las Palmas, 673-712

excepção as ilhas de S. Tomé e Príncipe. Nas Caraíbas a situação é igual. A ilha de Santo Domingo, hoje Haiti e Rep. Dominicana, a cultura da cana teve um apogeu curto de pouco mais de cinquenta anos, pois que em 1550 a notória escassez de lenha conduziu ao abandono de muitos engenhos desde 1570. Já em Jamaica, a promoção pelos ingleses da cultura, levou à busca de soluções. Primeiro o trem jamaicano que terá sido a solução mais eficaz. Com este sistema de fornalha o aproveitamento de lenha era evidente, pois apenas com uma só fogueira se conseguia manter as três fornalhas. Concomitantemente tivemos o recurso ao bagaço como combustível. Note-se que ambas as situações difundem-se primeiro nas Antilhas inglesas a partir da década de oitenta do século XVII e só depois atingem as demais áreas açucareiras99. A generalização deste sistema aconteceu primeiro nas ilhas, carentes de lenha, e só depois chegou ao Brasil. A sua entrada definitiva na industria açucareira do Brasil é de 1806, altura em que Manuel Ferreira da Câmara, na Baía, adaptou o seu engenho a esta nova situação. Todavia nesta época a grande inovação era já a maquina a vapor, que começou a ser usada no Brasil a partir de 1815. Entretanto a Caldeira de vacum, inventada em 1830 por Norbert Rillius de New Orleans, foi a técnica que revolucionou o fabrico do açúcar e que mais contribuiu para a economia de combustível. Todavia não se fica por aqui os efeitos negativos da actividade agrícola no quadro natural. Vários são os estudos que nos elucidam sobre os efeitos resultantes da domesticação de animais e plantas, processo que ocorre a partir de 800 A.C. Daniel E. Vasey[1992] traça-nos esse processo e evidencia as transformações ocorridas a partir da segunda metade do século XIX com o recurso a adubos quimicos, pesticidas e herbicidas. Foi, aliàs, de acordo com este quadro que no após II Grande Guerra surgiu o grito de Rachel Carson[1962] face a uma Primavera de silêncio e clama para que todos a entendam: The history of life on earth has been a history of interaction between living hings and their surroundings.(…) The most alarming of all man's assaults upon the environment is the contamination of air ,earth, rivers, and sea with dangerous and even lethal materials"100. Foi este grito ecologico sobre os efeitos dos produtos quimicos que fez despertar a consciência de políticos, cientistas, fazendo despoletar a afirmação do movimento e das publicações científicas e Historiográficas.

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PUBLICAÇÕES PERIÓDICAS
As publicações periódicas exercem um papel importante na divulgação da ciência, na descoberta do mundo natural. No século XVII tivemos Journal des Savants e Philosophical Transactions. Em finais do século XIX tivemos a popular Science (1883) seguida em 1900 de Natural History. Depois disso, dentro de uma perspectiva restrita de História do meio-ambiente a publicação periódica mais significativa surge em 1990: Environmental Review e Environmental History Review. Este último publicado por American Society for Environmental History têm mudado de título: Forest & Conservation History (1990-1995), Journal of Forest History (1975-1989), Forest History (1959-1974), Forest History Newsletter (1957-1958) 1.CRONOLOGIA DAS PUBLICAÇÕES PERIODICAS 1631. Teofrasto Renaudot(1586-1653) publica a Gazeta de França 1665. Denis de Sallo(1626-1699) publica Journal des Savants Em Londres publica-se: Philosophical Transactions 1804. Philadelphia Medical & Physical Journal 1810. American Mineralogical Journal 1817. American Monthly Magazine & Critical Review 1818. American Journal of Science 1822. New York Medical & Physical Journal Western Quarterly Reporter of the Medical, Surgical & Nature 1823. Boston Journal of Philosophy & the Arts. 1827. Western Journal of Medical & Physical Sciences. 1828. Publica-se em Londres: The Magazine of Natural History. 1835. Magazine of Horticulture & Botany 1845. American Journal of Agriculture & Science 1846. Charleston Medical Journal and Review 1865. American Journal of Conchology 1883. Science 1887. Publica-se em Londres: Journal of Botany 1900. Natural History 1963. Publicação revista Environment 1990. Environmental Review Forest & Conservation History

2.Guias
BOLTON, Henry Carrington. A Catalogue of Scientific and Technical Periodicals, 1665-1895. Second edition. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1897. New York: Johnson Reprint Corp., 1965. FOWLER, Maureen J. Guides to Scientific Periodicals: Annotated Bibliography. London: Library Association, 1966. GASCOIGNE, Robert Mortimer. A Historical Catalogue of Scientific Periodicals, 1665-1900: with a Survey of their Development. New York: Garland Publishing, 1985. Scientific and Technical Periodicals of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries: a Guide. Compiled by David Kronick. Metuchen: Scarecrow Press, 1991. Scudder, Samuel H. Catalogue of Scientific Serials of all Countries Including the Transactions of Learned Societies in the Natural Physical and Mathematical Sciences, 1633-1876. New York: Kraus Reprint Corporation, 1965. World list of Scientific Periodicals Published in the Years 1900-1960. Fourth edition. Edited by Peter Brown and George Burder Stratton. London: Butterworth, 1963-1965. Supplement. World list of scientific periodicals: new periodicals titles, 1960-1968. London: Butterworth, 1970.

3.LISTA
Acta Botanica Fennica. Helsinki: Societas pro Fauna et Flora Fennica, 1925-. Irregular Vol.1(1925)-. Notes: Text in Finnish, German, English Acta Forestalia Fennica. [Helsinki]: Suomen Metsatieteellinen Seura, 1913-. Irregular Vol.1 (1913)-. Notes: "Arbeiten der Forstswissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft in Finland," 1913-Contributions in English, German, Finnish, French or Swedish Cumulative index 1913-72, 1v. Acta Oecologica. Oecologia Generalis. [Paris]: Gauthier-Villars, 1980-. Trimestral. Vol. 1, no. 1-10(19801989). ISSN: 0243-766X African Journal of Ecology. Oxford [Eng., etc.] Published for the East African Wild Life Society by Blackwell Scientific Publications. ISSN: 0141-6707 Agricole: Journal of Makerere Agricultural and Forestry Society. Kampala, Uganda: Faculty of Agriculture, Issues for <1976-> published by Makerere University, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry. Ambio. A Journal of the Human Environment, Research and Management. [Stockholm] : Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences ; [Boston Universitetsforlaget] [distributor], c1972-, Bimensal, Vol. 1, no. 1 (Feb. 1972)-, ISSN: 0044-7447 American Forests. Washington, D.C.: American Forestry Association, - ISSN: 0002-8541 0002-854 1931-, Issued by: American Forests, Vols. for 1978-<1992> include section: National register of big trees, also published separately <1994?->; Issues for Mar./Apr. 1995-Aug. 1995 include special section titled: Urban forests, previously published separately. Annales Botanici Fennici. 1964- ISSN: 0003-3847 Notes:Articles in English and German.Vols. for 1964issued by Suomalainen Elèainja Kasvitieteellinen Seura Vanamo; for <1975-> by Suomen Biologian Seura

Vanamo.Supersedes: Suomalaisen Elèainja Kasvitieteellisen Seuran Vanamon Kasvitieteellisièa julkaisuja; and in part: Archivum Societatis Zoologae Botanicae Fennicae 'Vanamo.' Annual journal/ Forestry Association of Botswana. Gaborone, Botswana: The Association, 1984-Continues: Annales botanici Societatis Zoologic Botanic Fennic Vanamo Archivum Societatis Zoolog Botanic Fennic Vanamo. Helsinki: Societas Zoologica Annales Botanici Fennici. Helsinki, Societas Biologica Fennica Vanamo, 1964-, Articles in English and German. Vols. for 1964- issued by Suomalainen Elèainja Kasvitieteellinen Seura Vanamo; for <1975-> by Suomen Biologian Seura Vanamo. Supersedes: Suomalaisen Elèainja Kasvitieteellisen Seuran Vanamon Kasvitieteellisièa julkaisuja; and in part: Archivum Societatis Zoologae Botanicae Fennicae 'Vanamo.' Annual Journal (Forestry Association of Botswana). Annual journal/ Forestry Association of Botswana. Gaborone, Botswana: The Association, 1984Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics v. 1- 1970- Editor: 1970- R. F. Johnston Palo Alto, Calif. Annual Reviews 23 v. 1- 1970- ISSN 0066-4162 Arboretum Amazonicum: iconographia dos mais importantes vegetães espontaneos e cultivados da região amazônica. decada l-4; 1900-1906. Belém, Museu Paraense de Historia Natural e Ethnografia, 1900-1906. A 5th vol. was appended to the series in 1988: Arboretum Amazonicum. 5a década: iconografia dos mais importantes vegetais espontaneos e cultivados da região amazônica, by Paulo B. Cavalcante. Editor: J. Huber. Arboretum Amazonicum: Iconographia dos mais importantes vegetaes espontaneos e cultivados da região amazônica. decada l-4; 1900-1906. Belém, Museu Paraense de Historia Natural e Ethnografia, 1900-1906. Note: In Portuguese and French.A 5th vol. was appended to the series in 1988: Arboretum Amazonicum. 5a década: iconografia dos mais importantes vegetais espontaneos e cultivados da região amazônica, by Paulo B. Cavalcante. Editor: J. Huber. Asclepio: Archivo Iberoamericano de Historia de la Medicina y Antropologia Medica.1964- Madrid: Instituto "Arnaldo de Vilanova" de Historia de la Medicina, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 1964- v. Annual ISSN:0210-4466 Continua: Archivo Iberoamericano de Historia de la Medicina y Antropologia Medica 1954-1963 Atlantic Forestry Journal. [Halifax, N.S.: Atlantic Forestry Journal Pub., 1987]-, ISSN: 0832-5502 "Serving all forestry sectors in Atlantic Canada". Audubon magazine July/Aug. 1961-July/Aug. 1966, [New York, N.Y.: National Audubon Society, Quinzenal, Começa com v. 63, no. 4, July/Aug. 1961. ISSN: 0097-7136, Volumes 99(1966-1997) Audubon Action, [New York, N.Y.: National Audubon Society, 1982-, Vol. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1982)-, ISSN: 0738-2111 Audubon Field Notes. [New York]: National Audubon Society, [1947-1970], Periodicidade: quinzenal, Vol. 1, no. 1 (Jan. 1947)-v. 24, no. 6 (Dec. 1970). Antigos títulos: Audubon magazine 0004-7694; American birds 0004-7686 Audubon Magazine., New York, National Audubon Society., v. 43-63, no. 3; Jan. 1941-May/June 1961. ISSN: 0004-7694 Audubon Wildlife Report. New York, N.Y.: National Audubon Society, c1985-, Periodicidade: annual, 1985-, ISSN: 0885-6044 Australian Journal of Ecology. Oxford [Eng.] Published for the Ecological Society of Australia by Blackwell Scientific Publications. Australian Natural History [ANH].Continues:Australian museum magazine, Nature Australia, Periodical,

Sydney : Australian Museum, 1962-1995. Quarterly Notes:From Vol. 22, no. 12 (1989) title reads: ANH: Australian natural history; From v. 24 (1) 1992 : ANH Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. Berlin, New York, Springer-Verlag, 1976-, 8 edições (2 vols.) yearly, <1981->, ISSN: 0340-5443 Bibliographia Forestalis 1941-, Berlin-Wannsee. Annual Biological Conservation. v. 1- Oct. 1968-, Barking, Eng. [etc.] Applied Science Publishers [etc.] eight no. a year, 1975-, Quarterly, 1968-74, English or French. Biological Conservation. Barking, Essex England: Applied Science Publishers, 4 edições por per vol., 3 vols. por ano <, 1979-> Vol. 1, no. 1 (Oct. 1968). ISSN: 0006-3207 Botanica Fennica Vanamo, 1964-, Quarterly, Vol. 1 (1964) -. Notes: Vols. for 1964- issued by Suomalainen Elain- ja Kasvitieteellienen Seura Vanamo; for 1975- by Suomen Biologian Seura Vanamo English and German Botanical Jjournal of the Linnean Society. [http://www.hbuk.co.uk/www/ideal/journals/ bt.htm]. v. 62- Jan. 1969- [London, New York] Academic Press. Academic Press, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10003 8 no. a year Chemosphere. v. 1- 1972-, Oxford, New York, Pergamon Press. Bimonthly "Chemistry, physics, and biology as focused on environmental problems." Ciência Hoje: revista de divulgação científica da Sociedade Brasileira para o Progresso da Ciência. Ano 1, no. 1 (jul./agosto de 1982)-, [Rio de Janeiro]: A Sociedade, 1982-, Av. Venceslau Braz, 71, fundos, casa 27, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22290 Commonwealth Forestry Review(The). London: Commonwealth Forestry Association, [1962- ISSN: 00103381 Current Advances in Ecological Sciences. Oxford, New York, Pergamon Press. v. 1-14; Jan. 1975-Dec. 1988. Titulos antigos: Current Advances in Ecological & Environmental Sciences 0955-6648, ISSN: 0306-3291 E : the Environmental Magazine. Norwalk, CT: Earth Action Network, c1990-, Bimensal vol. 1, no. 1 (Jan./Feb. 1990)-, ISSN: 1046-8021 East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. Nairobi: Govt. Printer, [1960-. ISSN: 0012-8325 Some issues combined. Issued by: East Africa High Commission, 1960-1961; East African Common Services Organization, 1962-1967; East African Community, 1968-Apr. 1970; East African Agriculture and Forestry Research Organization, July 1970- ; Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, East African Wildlife Jjournal. [Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, -1978]. ISSN: 0070-8038 Published for the East African Wild Life Society. Continued in Mar. 1979 by: African journal of ecology. Earth Care Annual(The) [Vienna, Va.]: National Wildlife Federation; Emmaus, Pa.: Rodale Press; [New York, N.Y.?]: Distributed by St. Martin's Press, c1990Ecologia Mediterranea. Marseille: Universite de Droit, d'Economie et des Sciences d'Aix-Marseille, 1975-. Annual, Vol.1(1975)-. Subtitulo: revue d'ecologie terrestre et limnique. Ecology [Tempe, Ariz., etc., Ecological Society of America, etc.] v. 1- Jan. 1920- "Official publication of the Ecological Society of America."

Ecological Economics: the Journal of the International Society for Ecological Economics . Amsterdam, The Netherlands; New York: Elsevier, c1989-. 6 ano, 1991-, Vol. 1, no. 1 (Feb. 1989)-, ISSN: 0921-8009 Ecologist Quarterly(The). [Wadebridge, Eng.: Ecosystems Ltd., Trimestral. Nos.. 1 (spring 1978)-. 4 (winter 1978). Títulos antigos: Ecologist 0012-9631; New Ecologist 0141-6952; Ecologist (Wadebridge, England: 1979) 0261-3131. ISSN: 0142-0399 Ecologist(The) "Journal of the Post Industrial Age.", Wadebridge, Eng. : Ecosystems Ltd. 1979-, Vol. 9, no. 3 (May/June 1979)-, Títulos antigos: Ecologist Quarterly; New Ecologist. ISSN: 0261-3131 Ecology "Official publication of the Ecological Society of America." [Brooklyn, N.Y., etc. : Brooklyn Botanic Garden, etc.], 6 números ao ano, Vol. 1 (Jan. 1920)Títulos antigos: Plant World 0096-8307, Vols. 1-30, 1920-49. 1 v.; vols. 31-50, 1950-69. 1 v., ISSN: 0012-9658 Ecology and Religion Newsletter, 1, Janeiro de 1973 Ecumene: a Journal of Environment, Culture, Meaning, [Ecumene (Sevenoaks, England) Sevenoaks, Kent, U.K.: E. Arnold, 1994-, Trimestral, Vol. 1, no. 1 (Jan. 1994)-. ISSN: 0967-4608 Ekonesia: a Journal of Indonesian Human Ecology. Jakarta: Forum Penelitian dan Pengembangan Antropologi Ekologi, Program Studi Antropologi-Program Pascasarjana, Universitas Indonesia, [1993- ISSN: 0854-2163 Empire Forester. Syracuse, N.Y., SUNY College of Forestry. Annual. Issued by the Forestry Club of the New York State College of Forestry at Syracuse University, 1919-55; by the Forestry Student Association, 195660; by the college's Students Association, 1961Empire Forestry: journal of the Empire Forestry Association. London; New York: Macmillan, [1922] Issue for Mar. 1922 called v. 1 but consititutes, v. 1, no. 1. Empire Forestry Review. London: Empire Forestry Association, [1946-1962]. Whole numbering begins with: v. 37 (1958) = no.91. Environment Abstracts. Vol. 4, no. 1 (Jan. 1974)-, New York: Environment Information Center, 1974-, Monthly. Published by: Environment Information Center, 1974-1981; by: EIC Intelligence Inc., 1982-1987; by: Bowker A&I Pub., 1988-. Vols. Observações: 1980- edição encadernada anual. Vols. 1974-1987 com indice anual: Environment index. Vols. for 1988-1993 o índice: Environment abstracts annual. Vols. for 1994- indice mensal dos volumes, cumulativo por quatro números. Environment Africa. No. 1 (Dec. 1980)-, Nairobi : Regional Office for Africa, UNEP, 1980Environment and Behavior. EB. Environment and Behavior <, Dec. 1969->. [Beverly Hills, Calif.] : Sage Publications. Bimensal desde Jan. 1981->, Vol. 1, (June 1969)-. ISSN: 0013-9165 Environment this Month (The). Lancaster, Eng., MTP Environment Ltd. Mensal, v. 1, no. 1-2; July-Aug. 1972. Titulos antigos: Environment & Change Environmental Conservation. "The international journal devoted to maintaining global viability through exposing and countering environmental deterioration resulting from human population pressure and unwise technology." Lausanne, Elsevier Sequoia. Quarterly, v. 1- spring 1974-. ISSN: 0376-8929

Environmental History Review: EHR: a publication of the American Society for Environmental History.HER. Newark, N.J.: New Jersey Institute of Technology, c1990-, American Society for Environmental History.New Jersey Institute of Technology. Periodicidade quadrimestral Vol. 14, nos. 1-2 (spring/summer 1990)-. Antigo título: Environmental Review (Pittsburgh, Pa.) 0147-2496. ISSN: 1053-4180 0147-2496, Volumes 19(1990-1995) Environmental History Review Merged with: Forest & Conservation History, to form: Environmental History.: EHR : a publication of the American Society for Environmental History.(HER). Newark, N.J.: New Jersey Institute of Technology, c1990-1995. Periodicidade: trimestral.Vol. 14, nos. 1-2 (spring/summer 1990)-v. 19, no. 4(winter 1995). Titulos antigos: Environmental Review (Pittsburgh, Pa.) 0147-2496; Forest & Conservation History 1046-7009; Environmental History 1084-5453. ISSN: 1053-4180 0147-2496 Environmental Review An Interdisciplinary Journal. [Pittsburgh, Pa., American Society for Environmental History]. Periodicidade: trimestral, No. 1-6, 1976-1978; v. 3-v.13, no.3-4 (fall1978-fall/winter 1989), Titulo antigo: Environmental History Review 1053-4180. ISSN: 0147-2496 Forest & Conservation History. Vol. 34, no. 1 (Jan. 1990)-v. 39, no. 4 (Oct. 1995). Durham, NC: Forest History Society, 1990-1995. Forest History Society, 701 Vicker Ave., Durham, Quarterly. Foresters; 1982- by: Institute of Chartered Foresters. Vols. 1 (1927)-10 (1936) with v. 9-10; Vols. 11 (1937)20 (1950); Vols. 21 (1951)-30 (1958) Forestry Abstracts. Slough, Eng., Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux. Note: Quarterly, 1939-72; monthly, 1973-74. Prepared by the Commonwealth Forestry Bureau. Includes supplements. Indexes: Vols. 1-5, 193944. 1 v. Forestry: Journal of the Institute of Forestry. Kathmandu: The Institute, English and Nepali. Forestry: the Journal of the Society of Foresters of Great Britain. London: Oxford University Press, ISSN: 0015-752X Vols. for <1939-> issued by: Society of Foresters of Great Britain; -1981 by: Institute of Foresters; 1982- by: Institute of Chartered Foresters. Vols. 1 (1927)-10 (1936) with v. 9-10; Vols. 11 (1937)20 (1950); Vols. 21 (1951)-30 (1958) Notes:, no. 1, published in 1939. Alguns números com suplementos. Vols. for <1939-> issued by: Society of Foresters of Great Britain. Forestry Abstracts. Slough, Eng., Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux.Quarterly, 1939-72; monthly, 197374. Prepared by the Commonwealth Forestry Bureau. Includes supplements. Forestry Quarterly. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University, 1902-1916.Vol. 1 published under the direction of a Board of Advisers of the Faculty and Alumni of the New York State College of Forestry; v. 2-14 under the direction of a Board of Editors. In Jan. 1917, Forest quarterly merged with: Society of American Foresters. Proceedings of the Society of American Foresters to form: Journal of forestry, and continued the vol. numbering of the former. GeoJournal. v. 1- 1977-, Wiesbaden, Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft.8 issues a year, 1984-, Bimonthly, 1977-1983. "International journal for physical, biological and human geosciences and their application in environmental planning and ecology." Includes occasional consecutively numbered supplementary issues. Ghana Forestry Journal. Kumasi, Ghana: Ghana Forestry Association, 1968-, None published 1968-June 1976. Ghana Journal of Forestry. Kumasi, Ghana: Forestry Research Institute of Ghana (CSIR), [1994Indian Forester(The). Dehra Dun, etc. Monthly. Began publication in 1875.Ceased publication with v. 96, no. 5, May, 1970?

Indian Journal of Ecology. [Ludhiana] Indian Ecological Society. ISSN: 0304-5250 Notes: Australian journal of ecology. Published: Oxford [Eng.] Published for the Ecological Society of Australia by Blackwell Scientific Publications. Indian Journal of Forestry. Dehra Dun, Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh. ISSN: 0250-524X Notes: "A quarterly journal of forestry, agriculture, horticulture, natural history, wild life, and field botany." International Forest Fire News. Continues: Forest fire newsletter. Geneva [Switzerland] : ECE/FAO Agriculture and Timber Division, [1989-. Semiannual Vol. numbering dropped with no. 2, Dec. 1989.Vol. 2, no. 1 (July 1989)International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Published: Jaipur, International Scientific Publications. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology(The). London; New York: Parthenon Pub. Group, 1994Irish Forestry; journal of the Society of Irish forestors. Wexford. ISSN: 0021-1192 Vol. 1 has sub-title: The official publication of the Society of Irish Foresters. ISLE(Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment), Indiana, PA: Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Periodicidade:bienal, Primeiro nº1.1 (Primavera,1993), Numeros Publicados: 4(1993-1997). ISSN: 1076-0962 Journal of Animal ecology(The). Oxford [etc.] Blackwell Scientific Publ. [etc.]. ISSN: 0021-8790 Edited for the British Ecological Society. Journal of Applied Ecology(The). Oxford [Eng.] Blackwell Scientific Publications. ISSN: 0021-8901 Edited for the British Ecological Society. Journal of Beijing Forestry University.English ed. Beijing, People's Republic of China: Beijing Forestry University, [1992-. ISSN: 1004-7301 Notes: Issued also in Chinese: Pei-ching lin yeh ta hsèueh hsèueh pao. Journal of Ecology(The). v. 1- Mar. 1913- Oxford [etc.] Blackwell Scientific Publ.Frequency 6 issues a year, <1996>-Four no. a year, <1960>Journal of Forestry.Washington, Society of American Foresters.ISSN: 0022-1201 Notes: "Official organ of the Society of American Foresters." Formed by the union of: Forestry quarterly, and:Society of American Foresters. Proceedings of the Society of American Foresters, continuing the volume numbering of the former.Beginning in 1947, Proceedings issued separately Journal of Ecology(The), v. 1- Mar. 1913-, Oxford [etc.] Blackwell Scientific Publ., 6 issues a year, <1996>Four no. a year, <1960> Journal of Forestry. Washington, Society of American Foresters. "Official organ of the Society of American Foresters." Formed by the union of: Forestry quarterly, and: Society of American Foresters. Proceedings of the Society of American Foresters, continuing the volume numbering of the former. Beginning in 1947, Proceedings issued separately Journal of Human Ecology (Delhi, India) Journal of human ecology. Delhi: Kamla-Raj Enterprises, 1990ISSN: 0970-9274 Journal of Human Ecology. Madrid, Spain: Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 1990-, ISSN: 1130-071X In English with summaries in English and Spanish. Journal of Northeast Forestry University (English edition). Harbin, China: Northeast Forestry University,

1990- ISSN: 1002-5618 Journal of Sustainable Forestry. Binghamton, NY: Food Products Press, c1993- ISSN: 1054-9811. Some issues have also distinctive titles. Journal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History(The). Cincinnati: The Society, 1878/79 [i.e. 1878 or 1879]-1945. ISSN: 0885-3487 Vols. 3-4 include four reports on archaeological explorations near Madisonville, O., conducted under the direction of the Literary and Scientific Society of Madisonville. (Also issued separately). Journal of the Forestry Commission. London: Forestry Commission, 1922-1969. No. 1 (1922)-no. 36 (196869) Journal of the South African Forestry Association(The). Pretoria: The Association, [1938]-1962. None published 1945.Text mostly in English; some Afrikaans.No. 11-20, 1944-51, 1 v.; No. 21-30,1951-57, 1 v.; 31-40, 1958-62, 1 v. Journal of Tropical Ecology. Cambridge [Cambridgeshire] ; New York, NY :Published for INTECOL and the ICSU Press by Cambridge University Press, 1985- ISSN: 0266-4674 Journal of Vegetation Science: official organ of the International Association for Vegetation Science. Knivsta, Sweden: Opulus Press, [1990-. ISSN: 1100-9233 Imprint varies: Uppsala, Sweden, <1993-> Klinki: the Jjournal of the Forestry Society of the Papua New Guinea University of, Papua New Guinea University of Technology. Forestry Society. Landscape Ecology.The Hague: SPB Academic Pub., c1987-. Periodicidade: Quarterly, Vol. 1, no. 1 (July 1987)-. ISSN: 0921-2973 Many Smokes. -v. 18, no. 2 (summer 1984). Reno, Nev.: Sun Bear, 1966-1984. 3 no. a year, 1982-summer 1984, Quarterly, 1966-1977, 3 no. a year, 1978, 2 no. a year, 1979-1981.Began publication in 1966. Issues for spring 1974-1975 published in Klamath Falls, Or.; for 1976-summer 1984 in Spokane, Wash. Publisher varies: Many Smokes Pub. Co., spring 1974-1975; Bear Tribe, winter 1976; Medicine Chief of the Bear Tribe Medicine Society, 1976-summer 1984. Suspended publication during 1971. Mesopotamia: the Journal of Agriculture and Forestry Research. Mosul, Iraq: College of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Baghdad, [1966-. Text in English; summaries in Arabic. National Parks & Conservation Magazine "The Environmental Journal.". [Washington] National Parks & Conservation Association], v. 44-54 (no. 271- ); Apr. 1970-Dec. 1980. Titulos antigos: National Parks Magazine 0730-9473; National Parks (Washington, D.C.) 0276-8186. ISSN: 0027-9870 Natural History. [New York, American Museum of Natural History], v. 1- Apr. 1900-Mensal desde 1980. Titulos antigos: Nature Magazine Jan. 1960. ISSN: 0028-0712 Natural History. [New York, N.Y.: American Museum of Natural History, [1919-. Mensal Dec. 1980-. Vol. 19, no. 1 (Jan. 1919)-. Titulos antigos: American Museum Journal (New York, N.Y.) 1049-1112; Nature Magazine Jan. 1960. ISSN: 0028-0712 Naturaliste Canadien(Le). Quebec: Universite Laval, 1868-, Monthly 1868-Jan. 1942; Bimonthly Feb./Mar. 1942- Nov./Dec. 1946; 1966-1979; Quarterly 1980-, Vols. 21-56 called also "2e serie". v. 1-36; v. 57-73 called also "3e serie", v. 1-17 Vol. 1 (Dec. 1868) -. Notes: Cover subtitle v. 101 no. 6(Nov.-Dec. 1974): Nature Magazine"An illustrated monthly with popular articles about nature.", [Baltimore, Md.: American Nature Association], 1923-1959. Vol. 1 (Jan. 1923)-v. 52, no. 10 (Dec. 1959).

Titulos antigos: Nature-Study Review 0734-7006; Natural History Jan. 1960 0028-0712, Vol. 1 (1923)-v. 20 (1943) Nature of Woman (The).. "An encycopedia & guide to literature.". Inverness, Calif., Edgepress. 1980, Warren, Mary Anne. ISSN: 0197-842X Nature Study. "A journal of environmental education and interpretation." [Morehead, KY, etc.] American Nature Study Society. Quarterly, v. 19- Mar. 1965-. Titulos antigos: American Nature Study Society. ANSS news. ISSN: 0028-0860 Nature. [London, etc., Macmillan Journals ltd., etc.]. Semanal 1981-.v. 1- Nov. 4, 1869- v.390:no.6656 (1997:Nov. 13). ISSN: 0028-0836 0302-2889 Nature/Science Annual. New York: Time-Life Books. 1970-1978 ed. ISSN: 0085-3860 New Ecologist(The).. "Journal of the post industrial age." With: The Ecologist quarterly, supersedes: The Ecologist [Wadebridge, Eng., Ecosystems Ltd.]. Bimensal, v. [8]-9, no. 2; Jan./Feb. 1978-Mar./Apr. 1979. Titulos antigos: The Ecologist, ISSN 0012-9631; e juntou-se a Ecologist Quarterly 0142-0399 para dar origem a Ecologist (Wadebridge, England: 1979) 0261-3131. ISSN: 0141-6952 New Zealand Forestry: journal of the N.Z. Institute of Foresters Inc. Wellington, N.Z.: New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science. [Rotorua, N.Z.: Forest Research Institute, ISSN: 0048-0134 Vols. for 1971-<76> issued jointly by the New Zealand Forest Service. New Zealand Journal of Forestry(The). [Tokoroa, etc.] New Zealand Institute of Foresters. Official journal of the New Zealand Institute of Foresters. ISSN: 0048-0134 Vol. 8, 1959-63, with v. 8, no. 5. Vols. 9-11, 196466, with v. 11, no. 2. Vols. 12-14, 1967-69, with v. 14, no. 2. Nigerian Journal of Forestry(The). Ibadan: Forestry Association of Nigeria, Northern Journal of Applied Forestry. Bethesda, MD: Society of American Foresters, c1984Oikos. Supplementum. "Acta Oecologica Scandinavica" 1951-73; "A journal of ecology" 1975 [Copenhagen, Munksgaard], No. 1-15, 1951-73 (inclui v. 1-25, 1949-74 de Oikos) in 16, 1975.ISSN: 0078-4265 Pakistan Journal of Forestry(The). Peshawar [etc.] Pakistan Forest Institute [etc.]. ISSN: 0030-9818 Editor: 1951- S. A. A. Anvery Papua New Guinea Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Konedobu, Papua New Guinea: Dept. of Primary Industry, 1984- ISSN: 0256-954X. Some no. are issued in combined form. Philippine Journal of Forestry(The). Manila: Dept. of Agriculture and Commerce, 1938-, "Official organ of the Bureau of Forestry." Suspended between 3d quarter of 1941 and June/Sept. 1947. None published 1948. No more published? Vol. 1- issued by the Dept. of Agriculture and Commerce; -issued by the Dept. of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Continues: Makiling echo.Other authors: Philippines. Dept. of Agriculture and Commerce. Philippines. Dept. of Agriculture and NaturalResources. Philippines. Bureau of Forestry. Popular Science monthly(The) New York, D. Appleton v. 1-47; May 1872-Oct. 1895 Continued by: Appleton's popular science monthly Popular Science, monthly [New York: McClure, Phillips and Co., 1900- Vol. 57 (June 1900)-v. 156, no. 6 (June1950) Note: no number issued Nov. 1919 Quarterly Journal of Forestry. London, Royal Forestry Society of England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Official publication of the Royal Forestry Society. ISSN: 0033-5568 Published by the society under earlier

names: V.1-25, Royal English Arboricultural Society; v. 26-41, Royal English Forestry Society Revue d'Ecologie et de Biologie du Sol. Continued by: European Journal of Soil Biology. Paris : GauthierVillars, [1964] - 1991. Quarterly. Vol.1, no.1(Juin 1964) - v.28 (1991). Notes: Text in English, French, German, Spanish; summaries in French, English . ISSN: 0035-1822 Science AAAS observer; Guide to scientific instruments. Cambridge, Mass.: Moses King, [1883-. Semanal, [Vol. 1], no. 1 (Feb. 9, 1883)-v. 23, no. 581 (Mar. 23, 1894); New ser., v. 1, no. 1 (Jan. 4, 1895)-. Titulos antigos: Science Scientific monthly 1958 0096-3771. ISSN: 0036-8075 Science. [Science (Weekly). Cambridge, Mass.: Moses King, [1883-, [Vol. 1], no. 1 (Feb. 9, 1883)-v. 23, no. 581 (Mar. 23, 1894); n.s., v. 1, no. 1 (Jan. 4, 1895). Titulos antigos: Science 0036-8075; Scientific Monthly 0096-3771 Jan. 1958. ISSN: 0036-8075 0038076 Science. [Washington, D.C., American Association for the Advancement of Science], 10 edições ano, Nov. 1980-86, v. 1-7, no. 6; Nov./Dec. 1979-July/Aug. 1986. ISSN: 0193-4511 Scientific Monthly (The) [Washington, etc., American Association for the Advancement of Science, etc.] v. 185; Oct. 1915-Dec. 1957 Note: Official publication of the American Association for the Advancement of Science Edited for many years by J. M. Cattell Continues Absorbed by: Science Scottish Forestry. Edinburgh, Royal Scottish Forestry Society. ISSN: 0036-9217 "The journal of the Royal Scottish Forestry Society." Sierra [San Francisco, Sierra Club. Monthly (except July/Aug. and Nov./Dec.), v. 62, no. 8- Oct. 1977-. Titulos antigos: Sierra Club bulletin 0037-4725 Society and Natural Resources. New York: Taylor & Francis, 1988-, Vol. 1, no. 1(1988)South African Forestry Journal: the official journal of the S.A. Forestry Association = Suid-Afrikaanse bosboutydskrif: die offisièelle tydskrif van die S.A. Bosbouvereniging. Pretoria: The Association, [19621996] Chiefly English, with some Afrikaans. Issued by: S.A. Forestry Association in collaboration with the S.A. Institute of Forestry, 1972-1989; by: Southern African Institute of Forestry, 1990-1996. No. 41 (Apr./June 1962)-60 (1967) 1 v.; No. 156 (1987)-177 (1996) 1 v. ISSN: 0038-2167 Soviet Journal of Ecology(The). New York, Consultants Bureau.Translation from the Russian. ISSN: 00967807 Notas: Bibliography of Agriculture 0006-1530 Vol. 18, Tradução de Russian. International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Jaipur, International Scientific Publications. ISSN: 0377-015X Soviet Journal of Ecology(The). New York, Consultants Bureau. v. 2- Jan./Feb. 1971-.ISSN: 0096-7807 Terra Nova: Nature & Culture. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, c1996-. Periodicidade: trimestral, Vol. 1, no. 1 (winter 1996)-. ISSN: 1081-0749. Volumes publicados: 2 (1996-1997) Trends in Ecology & Evolution. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers, 1986-. Annual, Vol. 1 -12(1986-1997)-. ISSN: 0169-5347 Western Journal of Applied Forestry. Bethesda, MD: Society of American Foresters, c1986-,- ISSN: 08856095 Jan. 1986, "premier issue".Publication of the Society of American Foresters. Whole Earth Rev. Whole Earth Review. [Sausalito, CA: Point, c1984Wildfire.Vol. 1, no. 1 (winter solstice issue 1984)-, [Spokane, Wash.: published by the Medicine Chief of the Bear Tribe Medicine Society], 1984-. Continues: Many smokes

World Animal Review. Rome: FAO, 1972-. Quarterly. Suspenso entre no. 65 (1988) e 66 (1991), No. 1 1972-. Subtitulo: "A quarterly journal on animal health, production and products" desde nº.66 (1991) Outros títulos: Revue Mondiale de Zootechnie; Revista Mundial de Zootecnia, Yale Conservation Studies. New Haven, Yale Conservation Club. v. 1-6; 1952-57.

MADEIRA

A ECOMONIA DA MADEIRA E A EVOLUÇÃO DO QUADRO NATURAL

Nos primeiros momentos de ocupação do solo, o vinho, o trigo, e, depois, o açúcar, surgem como elementos aglutinadores desta peculiar vivência com inevitáveis implicações políticas e urbanísticas. Os primeiros materializaram a necessária garantia das condições de subsistência e do ritual cristão, enquanto o ultimo encerrou a ambição e voracidade mercantil da nova burguesia europeia que fez da Madeira o principal pilar para afirmação na economia atlântica e mundial. O processo é irreversível de modo que, em consonância com os movimentos económicos sucede-se uma catadupa de produtos, com valor utilitário para a sociedade insular, ou com capacidade adequada para activarem as trocas com o mercado externo. Se na primeira fase o domínio pertenceu à economia agrícola, no segundo, que se aproxima da nossa vivência, ele reparte-se em serviços, industrias artesanais (vimes e bordado) e de novo produtos agrícolas. O enquadramento e afirmação económica não é pacífico, sendo feito de embates permanentes entre essa necessária manutenção de subsistência e da animação comercial externa. Desse afrontamento resultou a afirmação, num ou noutro momento, do produto que adquire maior pujança e numero de defensores nessa dinâmica. É nesta luta permanente de produtos de uma subsistência familiar, local e insular com os impostos pela permanente solicitação externa que se alicerçou a economia da ilha até ao limiar do século XIX. Deste modo esses produtos serão os pilares mais destacados para a compreensão da realidade socio-economica madeirense, ao longo destes quinhentos anos, com reflexos inevitáveis na actualidade. Por isso proponho uma breve reflexão sobre a sua importância no devir e quotidiano madeirense.

UMA ECONOMIA DE EQUILIBRIO ENTRE A SUBSISTÊNCIA E O MERCADO. A tradição mediterranio-atlantica, que define a realidade peninsular, repercute-se, inevitavelmente na estrutura agraria do Novo Mundo e por consequência no impacto ecológico que acompanha a expansão atlântica. Da Europa saíram as sementes, utensílios e homens que lançaram as bases da nova vivência insular e atlântico., mas também aí se situavam as principais solicitações e orientações. A par disso o confronto com as novas realidades civilizacionais americanas e indicas contribuiu para um paulatino desencravamento planetário da ecologia e cardápio dos séculos XVI e XVII, com inevitáveis repercussões na economia e hábitos alimentares do europeu. A Europa contribuiu com os cereais (centeio, cevada e trigo), as videiras e as socas de cana, enquanto da América e Índia aportaram ao velho continente o milho, a batata, o inhame. o arroz e uma variada gama de árvores de fruto. Nesse contexto as ilhas atlânticas, pela sua posição charneira no relacionamento entre esses mundos, surgem como viveiros da aclimatação desses produtos às novas condições eco-sistémicas que se acolhem. A Madeira deteve uma posição importante, afirmando-se no século XV como o viveiro experimental das culturas que a Europa pretendia implantar no Novo Mundo - os cereais, o pastel, a vinha e a cana de açúcar.

A expansão europeia, que desde o século XV veio revolucionar o cardápio europeu, enriqueceu-se, aumentando a gama de produtos e condimentos. A tradição culinária europeia foi destronada pelo exotismo das novas sensações gustativas que acabaram por afeiçoar o paladar. Mas ate que isso se generalizasse tornava-se necessário conduzir aos locais mais recônditos o cereal e o vinho. Assim, as embarcações que sulcavam o oceano levavam nos seus porões, para alem das manufacturas e bugigangas aliciadoras das populações autóctones, inúmeras pipas de vinho e barris de farinha ou biscoito. Se o cereal poderá encontrar similar, como o milho e a mandioca, o mesmo não acontecia com o vinho que era desconhecido e incapaz de se adaptar as novas condições mesológicas oferecidas pela colónias europeias. Desta forma o vinho foi conduzido da Europa ou das ilhas, onde ele se afirma com essa finalidade aos mais recônditos espaços em que se fixou o europeu. Este era o inseparável companheiro dos mareantes, expedicionários, bandeirantes e colonizadores. Aos primeiros servia de antídoto ao escorbuto, aos segundos saciava a sede, enquanto aos últimos servia como recordação ou devaneio hilariante da terra-mãe. 0 vinho é assim um dos principais traços de união das gentes europeias na gesta de expansão além-Atlântico. No imaginário e devir histórico madeirense paira sempre essa visão tripartida da faina agrícola: o vinho e o cereal que a tradição impõe como necessários ao quotidiano espiritual e alimentar, o açúcar que se afirma como provento excedentario capaz de atrair a atenção dos mercados europeus e de trazer a ilha as manufacturas que necessita. Esta harmónica trifuncionalidade produtiva pela extrema dependência as dinâmicas e directrizes europeias esteve sujeita a diversos sobressaltos que contribuirão para uma desmesurada desarticulação do quotidiano e economia madeirenses. Assim, a concorrência do aguçar americano lança o pânico na ilha e obriga a uma necessária afirmação da cultura da vinha, cujo derivado, o vinho, se afirmou como a moeda de troca, substitutiva do açúcar. A precariedade da economia madeirense não deriva apenas da posição dependente em relação ao velho continente, mas também radica-se nas diminutas possibilidades de usufruto dos 741 Km2 de superfície da ilha. O lançamento e afirmação de uma sociedade em moldes europeus depende sempre das possibilidades de afirmação simultânea deste conjunto de produtos; motores da expansão atlântica e da europeização do espaço insular. E todos os autores coevos são unânimes em afirmar a apetência da ilha para satisfazer as expectativas dos primeiros povoadores. Assim o enuncia Gaspar Frutuoso que "a terra foi mostrando seus frutos e dando a fama deles no regno, e enobrecendo-se com moradores ricos"101. Esta inaudita riqueza foi o motor do sucesso do povoamento da ilha, tal como nos elucida o mesmo autor: "crescendo e multiplicando seus frutos, assim iam crescendo as povoações e moradores com a fama de sua fertilidade."102 Neste processo de labuta, mais do que uma revolução ecológica, assiste-se a uma humana e técnica. Se as condições eco-sistemicas favoreceram a transplantação das primeiras sementes, ao homem estava reservada a mais espinhosa e hábil tarefa. Primeiro ergueram
101 . Livro segundo das Saudades da Terra, P. Delgada, 1979, p.96. 102 . Ibidem, p.97

os socalcos (poios), depois adaptaram as técnicas e as alfaias agrícolas às condicionantes do novo espaço cultivado. A testemunhar tudo isso perduram os poios, ladeados de levadas, que bem podem ser considerados entre as principais realizações do homem sobre a terra. Esta homenagem deverá ser concedida ao cabouqueiro, colono que recebe das principais gentes da ilha o encargo de valorizar economicamente as parcelas que estas receberam como benesse. O investimento da sua capacidade de trabalho terá justificação jurídica nas chamadas benfeitorias, que englobavam paredes, casas de habitação, lagares ou lagariças, arvores de fruto, latadas, etc. é, assim, o colono que lança as bases dessa revolução técnica e agrícola e um dos principais obreiros dessa harmoniosa paisagem rural os proprietários preferiam os bulício ribeirinhos da cidade ou do burgo que tentam erguer, fazendo com que a arquitectura e viver quotidiano se adaptassem a medida volume dos reditos acumulados com o comércio do açúcar e vinho; estava-lhes reservado o usufruto da vida no espaço urbano, empenhados nas lides administrativas ou ocupados nos jogos de pela e canas. Um dos aspectos mais salientes das ilhas é estamos perante espaços limitados, que condicionam e são influenciados de forma evidente pela presença humana. Aqui o processo económico quando assume uma posição de sucesso mercê da sua inserção no mercado mundial provoca obrigatoriamente uma forma de exploração intensiva que acabe inevitavelmente por provocar o desequilíbrio entre aquilo que possibilita o quadro natural e o que o Homem exige dele. A exploração económica faz-se de forma intensiva e de acordo com as solicitações de um mercado exterior, agravando o afrontamento com o quadro natural e arrastando este para uma situação de total degradação. Um breve relance pelos testemunhos historiográficos dos séculos XV e XVI reforça esta realidade. O primeiro testemunho desta deterioração dos solos frutos de um cultivo intensivo, surgem já em meados do século XV com Cadamosto: "As suas terras costumavam dar a princípio, sessenta por um, o que presentemente está reduzido a trinta e quarenta, porque se vão deteriorando dia a dia "103. A situação resultou da solicitação do cereal para abastecer as cidades do reino e praças africanas. Rapidamente o cereal cedeu lugar aos canaviais que em pouco tempo dominaram todo o espaço agrícola. A indústria que se promoveu na rectaguarda para o fabrico do açúcar exigiu muito do quadro natural, lançando a ilha para um processo de desflorestação de consequências imprevisíveis. Esta situação arrastou o solo agrícola da ilha para a quase total exaustão. Em 1689 John Ovington testemunha de forma lapidar a realidade: "A fertilidade da ilha decaiu muito relativamente ao período das primeiras culturas. A cultura sem descanso dos terrenos tornou os fracos espaços em muitos lugares e de tal modo que os abandonam periodicamente, tendo de ficar de posio três ou quatro anos. Depois desse tempo, se não crescer nenhuma giesta como sinal de fertilidade futura, abandonam-nos, com estéreis. A actual aridez de muitas das suas terras atribuem-na simploriamente ao aumento dos seus pecados"104. A vinha e o vinho assumem particular destaque na caracterização do processo histórico madeirense ao longo destes quase seiscentos anos de labuta. Desde os primórdios da
103 A. Aragão, A Madeira vista por Estrangeiros, pp.36-37 104 Ibidem, p.201.

ocupação da ilha até a actualidade este produto manteve a mesma vivacidade na vida agrícola e comercio da ilha. Dos mais não houve capacidade suficiente para resistir a concorrência desenfreada de novos e potenciais mercados Fornecedores de aquém e alémmar. Os cereais tiveram saque fácil nos Açores, Canárias, Europa e, depois América, sofrendo, mais tarde, a concorrência do abundante fornecedor americano. Apenas o vinho resistiu a concorrência do dos Açores, Canárias, Europa e Cabo da Boa Esperança, mantendo o tradicional grupo de apreciadores no velho e novo Mundo.

AS DOMINANTES DA ECONOMIA AGRÍCOLA. No principio da ocupação da ilha as necessidades do cardápio e ritual cristão comandaram a selecção das sementes que acompanharam os primeiros povoadores. As do precioso cereal acompanharam os primeiros cavalos de cepas peninsulares nesse processo de transmigração vegetativa. A fertilidade do solo, resultante do seu estado virgem e das cinzas fertilizadoras das queimadas, fizeram elevar a produção a níveis inatingíveis, criando excedentes que supriram as necessidades de mercados carentes, como foi o caso de Lisboa e praças do norte de África. Até a década de setenta a Madeira firma a sua posição de celeiro atlântico, perdendo-a, depois em favor dos Açores que emergem desde então, com uma posição dominante na política e economia frumentaria do Atlântico. Na Madeira inverte-se a situação; a ilha de área excedentaria passa a uma posição de dependência em relação ao celeiro açoriano, canário e europeu. O estabelecimento de uma rota obrigatória, a partir do fornecimento de cereal açoriano à Madeira, criará as condições necessárias à afirmação da cultura da cana sacarina, produto tão insistentemente solicitado no mercado europeu. O empenho do senhorio e coroa na cultura deste novo produto conduziu a afirmação preferencial de uma nova vertente da economia atlantico-insular. A partir de então os interesses mercantis dominam a dinâmica agraria madeirense. Na ilha as searas deram lugar aos canaviais, enquanto as vinhas mantém-se de modo insistente numa posição de destaque. Se o cereal pouco contribuía para aumentar os reditos dos seus intervenientes o mesmo não se poderá dizer em relação ao açúcar e vinho que, a seu tempo contribuíram para o enriquecimento das gentes da ilha. A própria coroa e senhorio fizeram depender grande parte das suas despesas ordinárias desta fonte de receita. A par disso o enobrecimento da vila, mais tarde, cidade do Funchal fez-se à custa desses dinheiros. O Funchal avançou para poente e adquiriu fama de novos e potenciais mercados. Todavia esta opulência foi de vida efémera. Desde a terceira década do século XVI o açúcar madeirense é destronado da posição cimeira no mercado europeu, perdendo a preferencia em favor do canário ou brasileiro, de menor qualidade, mas que ai aparecem com preços mais baratos. A persistência de alguns lavradores, a celebridade da superior qualidade e a solicitação pela doçaria e casquinha madeirenses fizeram com que a cultura dos canaviais se mantivesse por largos anos atingindo, em momentos de crise nos mercados americanos, alguma pujança. Mas, irremediavelmente condenada a sua cultura, o madeirense foi forçado a canalizar todas as suas atenções nas vinhas, fazendo-as assumir o espaço abandonado pelas socas de cana. Desta forma os canaviais deram lugar às latadas, enquanto os engenhos dão lugar aos lagares e armazéns.

Esta mudança na estrutura produtiva provocou alterações na dinâmica económica da ilha. O açúcar definia apenas um complexo industrial, o engenho, onde decorria a respectiva safra. O vinho necessitara de dois espaços distintos. O lagar onde as uvas dão lugar ao saboroso mosto e os armazéns da cidade onde este fermenta e é preparado para atingir o necessário aroma e bouquet. Deste modo o agricultor, colono ou não, detém apenas o controle da viticultura, ficando reservado ao mercador o moroso processo de vinificação. Por mais de dois séculos a vinha e o vinho surgem como os principais aglutinadores das actividades económicas da ilha; dando ao meio rural e urbano desusada animação; o Funchal cresce em monumentalidade e as principais famílias reforçam a sua posição económica. A conjuntura da primeira metade de oitocentos. demarcada pelos conflitos europeus, guerra de independência das colónias, associada aos factores de origem botânica (oidio-1852, filoxera-1872) conduziram ao paulatino degenerescimento da pujança económica do vinho. Como corolário, desse inevitável processo, sucedem-se as fomes, nos anos quarenta, e a sangria emigratória nas décadas de 50 e 80, para o continente americano, onde o madeirense vai substituir o escravo nas plantações. Por um período de mais de setenta anos a confusão institucional e económica alarga-se ao domínio social e alimentar. Assim sucedem-se novos produtos de importação do Novo Mundo que ganham uma posição de relevo na culinária madeirense. Destes destacam-se o inhame e a batata. A par disso definem-se políticas de reconversão e ensaios de novos produtos com valor comercial (tabaco, chá,...). A emigração oitocentista e no período post-segunda Guerra Mundial foi responsável pela por um acentuado processo de desertificação do interior da ilha, o que arrastou muitas terras para o abandono. Era o início de um pousio necessário para as terras já de si esgotadas com a exploração intensiva das culturas de subsistência e exportação. As políticas de reflorestação em ambos os momentos irão permitir o fácil aumento da mancha florestal, sem conflito com a actividade agrícola. Em pleno apogeu da indústria vinhateira tivemos a paulatina afirmação de um novo sector de serviços. Na segunda metade do século XVIII a ilha assumiu um outro papel. Alguém terá dito que os iniciais promotores do turismo insular foram os gregos, mas os primeiros turistas foram, sem dúvida, ingleses. Os gregos celebraram, na sua prolixa criação literária, as delícias das ilhas situadas além das colunas de Hércules. Os arquipélagos da Madeira e Canárias, são mitologicamente considerados a mansão dos deuses, o seu jardim das delícias, onde eles convivem com os heróis da mitologia. Todavia foram os ingleses, ainda que muito mais tarde, a desfrutar desta ambiência paradisíaca, reservada aos deuses e heróis, escolhendoas como rincão de permanência, breve ou prolongada. Diz-se até que a primeira viagem de núpcias, embora ocasional, terá sido protagonizada por um casal inglês. Mais uma vez a lenda que ficou conhecida como de Machim. Na verdade, foi esta visão mítica, perpetuada nos relatos antigos ou reavivada nos testemunhos coevos, que motivou o desusado interesse do inglês pelas belezas aprazíveis da Madeira. A Europa oferecia ao aristocrata britânico demasiados motivos para o "grand tour" cultural. O ilhéu, autêntico cabouqueiro e jardineiro deste rincão, estava por demais embrenhado na árdua tarefa de erguer paredes e arrotear os poios, e por isso mantinha-se alheio às suas

delícias. Para ele a beleza agreste dos declives não passava de mais um entrave na luta contra a natureza. Enquanto o madeirense cavava e traçava os poios o inglês entretinha-se nos passeios a cavalo ou em rede pelos mais recônditos locais da ilha. A verdadeira descoberta da Madeira foi obra dos ingleses. Mas foi o português descobriu apenas o caminho para cá chegar.

AS ROTAS DE MIGRAÇÃO DE HOMENS, PLANTAS E MERCADORIAS. A valorização do Atlântico nos séculos XV e XVI conduziu a um intrincado traçado de rotas de navegação e comércio que ligavam o Velho Continente ao litoral atlântico. Esta multiplicidade de rotas resultou das complementaridades económicas e de formas de exploração adoptadas. Se é certo que estes vectores geraram as referidas rotas, não é menos certo que as condições mesológicas do oceano, dominadas pelas correntes, ventos e tempestades, delinearam o seu rumo. As mais importantes e duradouras de todas as traçadas neste mar foram sem dúvida a da Índia e a das Índias que galvanizaram as atenções dos monarcas, da população europeia e insular, dos piratas e corsários. A par disso a Madeira surge, nos alvores do século XV, como a primeira experiência de ocupação em que se ensaiaram produtos, técnicas e estruturas institucionais. Tudo isto foi, depois, utilizado, em larga escala, noutras ilhas e no litoral africano e americano. O arquipélago foi, assim, o centro de divergência dos sustentáculos da nova sociedade e economia do mundo atlântico: primeiro os Açores, depois os demais arquipélagos e regiões costeiras onde os portugueses aportaram. No traçado das rotas oceânicas situava-se o Mediterrâneo Atlântico com uma actuação primordial na manutenção e apoio à navegação atlântica. As ilhas da Madeira e das Canárias surgem nos séculos XV e XVI como entreposto para o comércio no litoral africano, americano e asiático. Os portos principais da ilha da Madeira, Gran Canaria, La Gomera, Hierro, Tenerife e Lanzarote animavam-se de forma diversa com o apoio a esta navegação e comércio nas rotas da ida, enquanto nos Açores, com as ilhas de Flores, Corvo, Terceira, e S. Miguel, surgem como a escala necessária e fundamental da rota de retorno. A posição demarcada do Mediterrâneo Atlântico no comércio e na navegação atlântica fez com que as coroas peninsulares investissem aí todas as tarefas de apoio, defesa e controle do trato comercial. As ilhas eram os bastiões avançados, suportes e símbolos da hegemonia peninsular no Atlântico. A disputa pela riqueza em movimento neste oceano será feita na área definida por elas, pois para aí incidiam piratas e corsários ingleses, franceses e holandeses, ávidos das riquezas em circulação nas rotas americanas e indicas. Uma das maiores preocupações das coroas peninsulares terá sido a defesa das embarcações que sulcavam o Atlântico em relação às investidas dos corsários europeus. A área definida pela Península Ibérica, Canárias e Açores era o foco principal de intervenção do corso europeu sobre os navios que transportavam açúcar ou pastel ao velho continente. O papel da Madeira resulta muito do facto de ter sido o início da presença portuguesa no Atlântico, e o primeiro e mais proveitoso resultado desta aventura. Gaspar Frutuoso105

105 Livro primeiro das Saudades da Terra, Ponta Delgada, 1979, p.98.

testemunha esse papel de âncora atlântico quando afirma "... que Deus põs no mar oceano ocidental para escala, refúgio, colheita e remédio dos navegantes..." Vários são os factores que se conjugaram para esta situação. A inexistência de população, em consonância com a extrema necessidade de valorização para o avanço das navegações ao longo da costa africana, favoreceram a rápida ocupação e crescimento económico da Madeira. Por isso, a afirmação do arquipélago madeirense, nos primeiros anos dos descobrimentos, foi evidente: porto de escala ou apoio para as precárias embarcações quatrocentistas, que sulcavam o oceano; importante área económica, fornecedora de cereais, vinho e açúcar; modelo económico, social e político para as demais intervenções portuguesas no Atlântico106. A juntar a tudo isso temos que o rápido progresso social, resultado do porvir económico, condicionou o aparecimento de uma aristocracia-terratenente que, imbuída do ideal cavalheiresco e do espírito de aventura, se embrenhou na defesa das praças marroquinas, na disputa pela posse das Canárias e viagens de exploração e comércio ao longo da costa africana e, até mesmo, para Ocidente. A proximidade da Madeira ao vizinho arquipélago das Canárias, em conjugação com o rápido surto do povoamento e valorização sócio-económica do solo, orientaram as atenções do madeirense para as ilhas. Assim, decorridos apenas vinte e seis anos sob a ocupação, os moradores da Madeira empenharam-se na disputa pela posse das Canárias, ao serviço do infante D. Henrique. Em 1446 João Gonçalves Zarco, foi enviado a Lanzarote, como plenipotenciário para afirmar o contrato de compra da ilha. Acompanham-no as caravelas de Tristão Vaz, capitão do donatário em Machico e de Garcia Homem de Sousa, genro de Zarco107. Mais tarde em 1451, o infante enviou nova armada, em que participaram gentes de Lagos, Lisboa e Madeira, sendo de salientar, no último caso, Rui Gonçalves filho do capitão do donatário do Funchal108. A presença de gentes da Madeira continuará por todo o século XV em três frentes: Marrocos109, litoral africano além do Bojador e terras Ocidentais. Na primeira e última a presença dos madeirenses foi fundamental. A tradição refere que o primeiro homem a lançar-se à aventura do descobrimento das terras Ocidentais foi Diogo de Teive, que em 1451 terá saído do Faial à procura da ilha das Sete Cidades, mas que no regresso apenas descobriu as ilhas de Flores e Corvo110. Seguiram o seu exemplo outros madeirenses que gastaram muito de sua fazenda para abrir o caminho, mais tarde, trilhado por Colombo. Mesmo assim a valorização da Madeira no contexto da expansão europeia tem sido diversa. A historiografia nacional considera-a um simples episódio de todo o processo e, em face da posição geográfica, hesita no seu enquadramento, sendo levada, por vezes ao esquecimento.
106 Esta ultima ideia ficou expressa no nosso estudo sobre "A Madeira na rota dos descobrimentos e expansão atlântica", in Revista da Universidade de Coimbra, vol. XXXIV, 1988, pp. 571-580. 107 José PEREZ VIDAL, "Aportación portuguesa a la población de Canarias. Datos", in Anuario de Estudios Atlânticos, nº 14, 1968; A. SARMENTO, "Madeira & Canárias", in Fasquias e Ripas da Madeira, Funchal, 1931, 13-14. 108 Monumenta Henricina, Vol. XI, 172-179. 109 Veja-se a resenha de feitos em Alberto Artur SARMENTO, A Madeira e as praças de África, Funchal, 1932; João José de Abreu e SOUSA, "emigração madeirense nos séculos XV a XVII", in Atlântico, nº.1, Funchal, 1985, pp. 46-52. 110 Sobre esta figura veja-se o que diz Ernesto GONÇALVES, Portugal e a ilha, Funchal, 1992, pp.85-118.

A historiografia europeia, ao invés, não duvida em realçar a singularidade do seu processo neste contexto. A Madeira afirma-se no processo da expansão europeia pela singularidade do seu protagonismo. Vários são os factores que o propiciaram, no momento de abertura do mundo atlântico, e que fizeram com que ela fosse, no século XV, uma das peças-chave para a afirmação da hegemonia portuguesa no Novo Mundo. O Funchal foi uma encruzilhada de opções e meios que iam ao encontro da Europa em expansão. além disso ela é considerada a primeira pedra do projecto, que lançou Portugal para os anais da História do oceano que abraça o seu litoral abrupto. A fundamentação de tudo isto está patente acção da ilha e das suas gentes. À função de porta-estandarte do Atlântico, a Madeira associou outras, como "farol" Atlântico, o guia orientador e apoio para as delongas incursões oceânicas. Por isso nos séculos que nos antecederam, ela foi um espaço privilegiado de comunicações, tendo a seu favor as vias traçadas no oceano que a circunda e as condições económicas internas, propiciadas pelas culturas da cana sacarina e vinha. Uma e outra condições contribuíram para que o isolamento definido pelo oceano fosse quebrado e se mantivesse um permanente contacto com o velho continente europeu e o Novo Mundo. Como corolário desta ambiencia a Madeira firmou uma posição de relevo nas navegações e descobrimentos no Atlântico. O rápido desenvolvimento da economia de mercado, em uníssono com o empenhamento dos principais povoadores em dar continuidade à gesta de reconhecimento do Atlântico, reforçaram a posição da Ilha e fizeram avolumar os serviços prestados pelos madeirenses. Aqui surgiu uma nova aristocracia dos descobrimentos, cumulada de títulos e benesses pelos serviços prestados no reconhecimento da costa africana, defesa das praças marroquinas, ou nas campanhas brasileiras e Indicas111. A par disso a Madeira surge, nos alvores do século XV, como a primeira experiência de ocupação em que se ensaiaram produtos, técnicas e estruturas institucionais. Tudo isto foi, depois, utilizado, em larga escala, noutras ilhas e no litoral africano e americano. O arquipélago foi, assim, o centro de divergência dos sustentáculos da nova sociedade e economia do mundo atlântico: primeiro os Açores, depois os demais arquipélagos e regiões costeiras onde os portugueses aportaram. João de Melo da Câmara, irmão do capitão da ilha de S. Miguel, resumia em 1532112 de uma forma perspicaz a acção madeirense no espaço atlântico. Segundo ele a sua família era portadora de uma longa e vasta experiência "porque a ilha da Madeira meu bisavô a povoou, e meu avô a de São Miguel, e meu tio a de São Tomé, e com muito trabalho, e todas do feito que vê...". Isso dava-lhe o alento necessário e abri-lhe perspectivas para uma sua iniciativa no Brasil. Ele reclamava o protagonismo do seu ancestral Rui Gonçalves da Câmara que em 1474 comprara a ilha de S. Miguel, dando início ao seu verdadeiro povoamento. A mesma percepção surge em Gilberto Freire que em 1952 não hesita em afirmar o seguinte: A irmã mais velha do Brasil é o que foi verdadeiramente a Madeira. E irmã que se estremou em termos de mãe para com a terra bárbara que as artes dos seus homens,... concorreram para transformar rápida e solidamente

111 Confronte-se João José Abreu de SOUSA, "Emigração madeirense nos Séculos XV a XVII", in Atlântico, nº.1, Funchal, 1985, pp. 46-52. 112 História da colonização Portuguesa do Brasil, vol. III, p.90; cf Vera Jane GILBERT, "Os primeiros engenhos de açúcar"in Sacharum, nº.3, São Paulo, 1978, pp. 5-12.

em nova Lusitânia"113. Na verdade tudo o concretizado em termos do mundo atlântico português teve por matriz o sucedido na Madeira. A Madeira foi ao nível social, político e económico, o ponto de partida para o "mundo que o português criou..." nos trópicos. Neste contexto é sumamente importante o conhecimento do sucedido na Madeira quando pretendemos estudar e compreender as outras situações. O protagonismo das ilhas não se fica só pelos séculos XV e XVI, pois as navegações e explorações oceânicas nos séculos XVIII e XIX levam-nas a assumir uma nova função para os Europeus. De primeiras terras descobertas passam a campos de experimentação e a escalas retemperadoras da navegação na rota de ida e regresso. Finalmente, no século XVIII desvendou-se uma nova vocação: as ilhas como campo de ensaio das técnicas de experimentação e observação directa, que comandam a ciência das "luzes", e escala das constantes expedições científicas dos europeus. O enciclopedismo e as classificações de Linneo(1735) têm nas ilhas um bom campo de experimentação. O homem do século XVIII perdeu o medo ao mundo circundante e passou a olhá-lo com maior curiosidade, deste modo como dono da criação estava-lhe atribuída a missão de perscrutar os seus segredos. É esse impulso que justifica todo o afã científico que explode nesta centúria. A insaciável procura e descoberta da natureza circundante cativou toda a Europa, mas foram os ingleses quem entre nós marcaram presença, sendo menor a de franceses e alemães114. Aqui são protagonistas as Canárias e a Madeira. Tudo isto é resultado da função das mesmas como escala à navegação e comércio no Atlântico e para fora deste. Foi também aqui que a Inglaterra estabeleceu a sua base para a guerra de corso no Atlântico. Se as embarcações de comércio, as expedições militares cá tinham escala obrigatória, mais razões assistem às científicas para esta paragem obrigatória. As ilhas pelo seu endemismo, própria história geo-botânica, levavam obrigatoriamente a esse primeiro ensaio das técnicas de pesquisa a seguir noutras longínquas paragens. Também as ilhas foram um meio revelador dessa incessante busca do conhecimento da geologia e botânica. Instituições seculares, como o British Museum, Linean Society, e Kew Gardens, chegam a enviar especialistas a proceder à recolha das espécies. Os estudos no domínio da geologia, botânica e flora são resultado deste presença fortuita ou intencional dos cientistas europeus. Esta foi uma moda, no decurso do século XVIII, que levou a que algumas instituições científicas europeias ficassem depositárias de algumas dessas Colecções: o Museu Britânico, a Universidade de Kiel, Universidade de Cambridge, Museu de História Natural de Paris. E, por cá, passaram destacados especialistas da época, sendo de destacar John Byron, James Cook, Humbolt, John Forster. A lista é infindável, contando-se, entre 1751 e 1900, quase uma centena de cientista. Está aqui uma riqueza historial que ainda não foi devidamente explorada. James Cook escalou a Madeira por duas vezes(1768 e 2772), numa réplica da viagem de circum-navegação, mas desta feita apenas com interesse científico. Os cientistas que o acompanharam intrometeram-se no interior da ilha à busca das raridades botânicas para a sua classificação e depois revelação à comunidade científica.

113 Aventura e Rotina, 2ªed., pp 440-446, 448-449 114 Cf. "Algumas das Figuras Ilustres Estrangeiras que Visitaram a Madeira", in Revista Portuguesa, 72, 1953; A. Lopes de Oliveira, Arquipélago da Madeira. Epopeia Humana, Braga, 1969, pp. 132-134.

A tudo isto é de referenciar a função de hospital para a cura da tísica pulmonar ou de quarentena na passagem do calor tórrido das colónias para os dias frios e nebulosos da vetusta cidade de Londres. Esta função catapultou a ilha para um evidente afirmação. O debate das potencialidades terapêuticas da climatologia propiciou um numeroso grupo de estudos e criou uma escala de estudiosos, dentro e fora da ilha. Mais do que estes é de salientar os demais que correspondem, ao seu apelo. As filas intermináveis de aristocratas, escritores, cientistas desembarca no calhau e vão encosta fora à procura do ar benfazejo da ilha. Vem daqui muito do espólio hoje disponível na Casa Museu Frederico de Freitas e Biblioteca Municipal. A Madeira recriava os mitos antigos e reserva-lhe um ambiente paradisíaco e calmo para o descanso, ou, como sucede no século dezoito, o laboratório ideal para os estudos científicos; o endemismo insular propiciava esta última situação. De acordo com isso as ilhas tornaram-se no principal alvo de atenção de botânicos, ictiólogos, geólogos, o que levou Alfredo Herrera Piqué a considera-las "a escala científica do Atlântico". Por isso foram os ingleses os primeiros a descobrir as infindáveis qualidades de clima e paisagem e a divulga-las junto dos seus compatriotas. É esta quase esquecida dimensão da ilha como motivo despertador da ciência e cultura europeia desde o século XVIII que importa realçar. Ela partiu de campo experimental dos descobrimentos a sua afirmação, com a filosofia das luzes, como novo campo experimental de nova ciência que desabrocha, mercê da sua nova função de escala das expedições científicas. Mais uma vez fica demonstrado o activo protagonismo da Madeira no devir histórico ocidental. A sua acção não se resume apenas aos planos político-económico e social, pois se alarga ao científico, como acabamos de constatar. Para os navegadores do século XV aquilo que mais os emocionou foi o denso arvoredo, já para os cientistas, escritores e demais visitantes da ilha a partir do século XVIII aquilo que mais chama à atenção é, sem duvida, o aspecto exótico dos jardins e quintas que povoam a cidade. O Funchal se transformou assim num verdadeiro jardim botânico. Na Europa desde o século XVI que começaram a surgir os jardins botânicos. Em 1545 temos o de Pádua, seguindo-se o de Oxford em 1621. Em 1635 o de Paris preludia a arte de Versailles em 1662. Em todos é patente a intenção de fazer recuar o paraíso115. As ilhas não tinham necessidade disso pois já o eram. Diferente é a atitude do homem do século XVIII. Aliás, desde a segunda metade do século XVII que a atitude do homem perante as plantas mudou. Em 1669 Robert Morison publica Praeludia Botanica, considerada como o principio do sistema de classificação das plantas, que tem em Carl Von Linné (Linnaeus) (1707-1778) o seu principal protagonista. A partir daqui a visão do mundo das plantas nunca será a mesma. Contemporâneo dele é o Comte de Buffon que publica entre 1749 e 1804 a "Histoire Naturelle, générale et particuliére" em 44 volumes. Os jardins botânicos do século XVIII deixam de ser uma recriação do paraíso e passam a espaços de investigação botânica. O Kew gardens em 1759 é a verdadeira expressão disso. Note-se que Hans Sloane(1660-1753), presidente do Royal college of
115. Richard Grove, Ecology, climate and Empire. Studies in colonial enviromental. History 1400-1940, Cambridge, 1997, p. 46; J. Prest, The Garden of Eden: The Botanic Garden and the Re-creation of Paradise, New Haven, 1981.

physicians, da Royal Society of London e fundador do British Museum, esteve na Madeira no decurso das expedições que o levaram às Antilhas inglesas116. Por outro lado a aclimatação das plantas com valor económico, medicinal ou ornamental adquire cada vez mais importância. Aliás, foi fundamentalmente o seu interesse medicinal que desde o século XVII provocou o desusado empenho117. Assim em 1757 o inglês Ricardo Carlos Smith funda no Funchal um desses jardins onde reúne várias espécies com valor comercial. Já em 1797 Domingos Vandelli (1735-1816) e João Francisco de Oliveira no estudo sobre a flora apresentam no ano imediato um projecto para um viveiro de plantas. O viveiro foi criado no Monte e manteve-se até 1828. O Naturalista francês, Jean Joseph d'Orquigny, que em 1789 se fixou no Funchal foi o principal mentor da criação da Sociedade Patriótica, Económica, de Comércio, Agricultura Ciências e Artes. Mas este foi um projecto efémero, uma vez que a sua condenação como maçon em 1792 desfez todos os seus projectos. Aqui a ideia de progresso alia-se com o conhecimento do meio natural que nos rodeia118. De acordo com Elizabeth B. Keeney119 na América do Norte a partir de 1820 a Botânica tornou-se muito popular, fazendo surgir a figura do "botanizers", isto aqueles que por passatempo dedicavam-se à colecção, identificação e preservação das espécies botânicas. Afirma-se até que a História Natural é um bom exercício para a mente dos jovens120. Passados vinte anos o espectro muda no sentido da especialização surgindo as associações especializadas como Smithsonian Institution(1846) e American Association for the Advancement of Science(1848). Entretanto em Londres havia surgido em 1838 a Botanical Society Club. Em França, por iniciativa de G. Saint-Hilaire(1805-1861), foi criada em 1854 a Societé Nationale de Protection de la Nature et D'acclimatation. Os franceses a partir da obra de Buffon e Lamarckian foram os principais difusores da noção e prática de aclimatização. Tudo isto liga-se directamente com o processo de colonização africana, no caso francês assinala-se o processo em curso na Argélia121. Auguste Hardy é peremptório nesta aproximação: "it may be said that the whole of colonization is a vast deed of acclimatization"122. Esta opção ganhou adeptos em toda a Europa, merecendo o seguinte comentário de Michael Osborne123: "The proliferation of accliatization societies and its empires at midcentury indicates that acclimatization studies were tied to the pan-European phenomenon of settler colonies". Em 1850 José Silvestre Ribeiro, então governador civil da Madeira, avançou com um plano de criação do Gabinete de História Natural, a partir da exposição inaugurada a 4 de Abril no Palácio de S. Lourenço. Mas foi tudo em vão, uma vez que à sua partida em 1852 tudo se desfez. Note-se que nesse mesmo ano, a 23 de Setembro, surge a proposta de Frederico
116 Raymond R. Stearns, Science in the British Colonies of America, Urban, 1970 117 K. Thomas, Man and the Natural World. Changing attitudes in England. 1500-1800, Oxford, 1983, p. 27, 65-67. 118 Francisco Contente Domingues, "Jean Joseph d'Orquigny e a Sociedade Patriótica do Funchal", in Actas do II Colóquio Internacional de História da Madeira, Funchal, 1990, pp.231-245 119 The Botanizers-amateur scientits in nineteenth century America, Chapel Hill, 1992. 120 . Ibidem, p.45 121 Michael Osborne, Nature, the exotic, and the Science of French Colonialism, Bloomington, 1994 122 L'Algerie Agricole, Commerciale, Industrielle, Paris, 1860, p.7 123 Ibidem, p.176

Welwistsch124 para a criação de um jardim de aclimatação no Funchal e em Luanda125. A Madeira cumpriria o papel de ligação das colónias aos jardins de Lisboa, Coimbra e Porto. Note-se que este botânico alemão que fez alguns estudos em Portugal, passou em 1853 pelo Funchal com destino a Angola. A presença na Madeira do Padre Ernesto João Schmitz, como professor do seminário diocesano, levou à criação em 1882 um Museu de História Natural, que hoje se encontra integrado no actual Jardim botânico. Só passado um século o tema voltou a merecer a atenção dos especialistas. São várias as vozes que se ergueram em favor da criação de um jardim botânico na Madeira. Em 1936 refere-se uma tentativa frustrada de criação de um Jardim Zoológico e de Aclimatação nas Quintas Bianchi, Pavão e Vigia, que contava com o apoio do Zoo de Hamburgo126. Em 1946 António de Sousa da Câmara recomenda a criação de um jardim colonial. Apelo que se refere em António C. Teixeira de Sousa e ganha grande alento em 1950 com a realização no Funchal da "I Conferência da liga para a protecção da natureza"". O apelo de J. de Azevedo Pereira127 lançado neste evento teve repercussão nas autoridades da Junta Geral que souberam criar em 1960 o tão desejado jardim botânico. A criação do Jardim Botânico por deliberação da Junta Geral do Distrito Autónomo do Funchal a 30 de Abril de 1960 é o corolário dessa defesa secular das condições da ilha para a sua criação e a demonstração da sua importância científica revelada por destacados investigadores botânicos que procederam a estudos128. Tenha-se em consideração que esta iniciativa só foi possível graças à pertinaz acção de António Teixeira de Sousa como Presidente da Junta Geral. Assim em 1952 adquiriu-se a Quinta do Bom Sucesso onde ficaram os serviços da Estação Agrária, mas o objectivo era a criação do Jardim Botânico. Em qualquer dos momentos assinalados as ilhas cumprem de novo o papel de ponte e adaptação da flora colonial. Os jardins de aclimatação são a moda do momento, que entre nós tem por palco as amplas e paradisíacas quintas. O Marquez de Jácome Correia129 identifica as quintas do Palheiro Ferreiro e Magnólia como jardins botânicos. Estas são viveiros de plantas, hospital para acolher os doentes da tísica pulmonar e outros visitantes. O deslumbramento acompanha o interesse científico e convivem lado a lado nas inúmeras publicações que o testemunham no século XIX. Os jardins, através da harmonia do frondoso arvoredo e das garridas cores das flores têm nos séculos XVII e XVIII um avanço evidente. Os bosques deixam de ser espaços de maldição e as árvores entram no quotidiano das classes altas, alinhando-se em filas para dar acesso à casa de moradia. Os jardins adquirem a dimensão de paraíso bíblico e como tal espaço espiritual. Eles são a expressão do poder humano sobre a Natureza130. Na Inglaterra do século XIX os jardins e as flores tornam-se muito populares131. Essa ambiência chegou à ilha através dos mesmos súbditos de Sua Majestade. As ilhas
124 Cf. Ebarhard Axel Wilhelm, "Visitantes de língua Alemã na Madeira(1815-1915)", in Islenha, 6, 1990, pp.48-67. 125 . "um Jardim de Aclimatação na ilha da Madeira", in Das Artes e da História da Madeira, nº. 2, 1950, pp.15-16 126 César A. Pestana, A Madeira Cultura e Paisagem, Funchal, 1985, p.65 127. "Um jardim botânico na Madeira", in Das Artes e da História da Madeira, Vol. 2, n? 3, 1950, 24-26. 128 Cf Boletim da Junta Geral do Distrito Autónomo do Funchal, Abril de 1960; Rui Vieira, "Sobre o 'Jardim Botânico' da Madeira ", in Atlântico, 2, 1985, pp.101-109. 129 A Ilha da Madeira, Coimbra, 1927, p.173, 178 130 Peter j. Bowler, Fontana History of environmental Sciences. N. Y., 1993.,p.111. 131 . Cf. K. Thomas, ibidem, pp.207-209, 210-260

exerceram assim um fascínio especial sobre todos os visitantes e parece que nunca perderam a sua imortal característica de jardins à beira do oceano. Deste modo poderemos afirmar, com propriedade, que estas foram as ilhas jardins e que os seus jardins continuam a ser o encanto dos que a procuram, sejam eles turistas ou cientistas. A História do Meio Ambiente e Ecológica veio fazer apelo de novo ao pioneirismo da Madeira, naquilo que o devir mostra a gesta europeia destruidora do meio envolvente. O processo de expansão europeia não se afirma apenas pela novidade de descoberta de novos mundos, mas também pelos efeitos destrutivos da presença do europeu sobre a fauna e flora dos novos espaços. Tudo isto foi conseguido por exigências das leis do mercado de então que definiu uma estrutura de monoculturas e exploração intensiva do solo, através de culturas com elevado rendimento económico, como foi o caso da cana de açúcar. Da leitura dos clássicos e da produção bibliográfica recente releva-se uma situação particular que toca de novo o arquipélago da Madeira. A Madeira não se posiciona apenas nos anais da História Universal como a primeira área de ocupação atlântica, pioneira na cultura e divulgação do açúcar ao Novo Mundo, mas também como o primeiro exemplo dos efeitos nefastos de uma exploração intensiva132. A expansão europeia não se resume apenas ao encontro e desencontro de Culturas, mas também marca o início de um processo de transformação ou degradação do meio. O europeu carrega consigo a fauna e flora do seu convívio e com valor económico, que irão provocar profundas mudanças nos novos ecossistemas. Com isto acontece que o espaço vivido e natureza se universalizam. Nos séculos XV e XVI foram as viagens de descobrimento, enquanto no século XVIII sucederam as de exploração e descoberta da natureza, comandadas por ingleses e franceses. A Madeira foi o viveiro de aclimatação nos dois sentidos. Da Europa propiciou a transmigração da fauna e flora identificada com a cultura ocidental. No retorno foram as plantas do Novo Mundo que tiveram de novo passagem obrigatória pela ilha. A riqueza botânica do Funchal resulta disso. O processo de imposição da chamada biota portátil europeia, no dizer de Alfred Crosby133, foi responsável por alguns dos primeiros e problemas ecológicos mais importantes. Quem não se lembra da praga dos coelhos do Porto Santo134? Que dizer do incêndio que lavrou na ilha durante sete anos ? Estas situações são assiduamente referenciadas pela actual historiografia norte americana que se dedica ao estudo da História do meio ambiente, sendo o seu ponto de partida e alento para esta incursão temática inovadora. Outro facto também insistentemente referido é o da própria ilha da Madeira. O nome foi o atributo para referenciar a abundância e aspecto luxuriante do seu bosque. Mas em pouco tempo, as queimadas para abrir clareiras de cultura e habitação, o desbaste para fruição das lenhas e madeiras, fizeram-na desmerecer tal epíteto. Da Madeira quase só ficou o nome…!

132 , Madeira. Pearl of Atlantic, London, 1959 Veja-se Richard GROVE, Green Imperialism, N York, 1995, pp. 5-29; idem, Ecology, climate and empire, Cambridge, 1997, p. 45; John PERLIN, A forest journey, N. York, 1989. 133 Imperialismo ecológico. A expansão biológica da Europa. 900-1900, S. Paulo, 1993. 134 Tenha-se em atenção que estes foram motivo de um estudo do botânico alemão Ernest Haeckel(1834-1919 publicado em 1868. Foi ele quem em 1866 em "Generalle Morphologie" usou a palavra Oecologie. Cf. Eberhard Axel Wilhelm, "Visitantes de Língua Alemã na Madeira(1815-1915)", in Islenha, 6, 1990, 48-67.

A tradição refere que os navegadores portugueses atearam um incêndio à floresta densa para poder penetrar, mas este ganhou tais proporções que os atemorizou. Foram sete anos de chama acesa, diz a tradição. Todavia, hoje ninguém acredita nesta versão divulgada por Francisco Alcoforado e repetida em Cadamosto e outros autores da época. Hoje ninguém acredita nesta História, que a ser verdade teria reduzido a ilha a carvão… Esta situação expressa uma realidade que pautará a expansão europeia e que só nos últimos anos tem cativado a atenção do historiador. Tudo isto tem origem num produto devorador que conquista a economia de mercado e que pautou a evolução da economia atlântica a partir do século XV. O carrasco é o açúcar. A sua disponibilidade só é possível com esse processo de degradação do meio que viu nascer os canaviais. A Europa parte no século XV à procura do Eden bíblico ou descrito na literatura clássica greco-romana. Foi este um dos motivos do empenho de Colombo, mas também dos navegadores portugueses. O seu reencontro era encarado como uma conciliação com Deus o apagar do pecado original de Adão e Eva. Esta imagem persegue quase todos os navegadores quinhentistas e deverá estar por detrás do empenho daquelas que aportaram à Madeira . Tenha-se em conta que as duas primeiras crianças nascidas na ilha, filhas de Gonçalo Aires Ferreira tiveram nomes bíblicos de Adão e Eva135. Era o retorno ao Eden, que aos poucos foi sendo perdido, tal como sucedera aos primogénitos Adão e Eva. A recuperação desta imagem acontecerá mais tarde no século XVIII em que a ilha é de novo o paraíso redescoberto para o viajante ou tísico ingleses, recuperado e revelado ao cientista, seja ele inglês, alemão ou francês, através das recolhas ou da recriação através dos jardins botânicos. A cana de açúcar poderá ser considerada como a cultura agrícola mais importante da História da Humanidade, pois provocou o maior fenómeno em termos de mobilidade humana, económica, comercial e ecológica. A sua afirmação como cultura agrícola é milenar e abrange vários quadrantes do planeta. É de todas as plantas domesticadas pelo Homem aquela que acarreta maiores exigências. Ela quase que escraviza o homem, esgota o solo, devora a floresta e dessedenta os cursos de água. A sua exploração intensiva desde o século XV gerou grandes exigências em termos de mão-de-obra, sendo responsável pelo maior fenómeno migratório à escala mundial que teve por palco o Atlântico: a escravatura de milhões de africanos. Ligado a tudo isso está também um conjunto variado de manifestações culturais que vão desde a literatura à música e à dança. Foi o Oriente quem descobriu a sua doçura, tendo a Papua Nova Guiné como Berço. Os árabes fizeram-no chegar ao ocidente e foram os arautos principais da sua expansão. Genoveses e venezianos encarregaram-se do seu comércio e Europa. Mas é nas ilhas que ela encontrou um dos principais viveiros da sua afirmação e divulgação no Ocidente: Creta e Sicília no Mediterrâneo, Madeira, Açores, Canárias, Cabo Verde e S. Tomé no Atlântico Oriental Puerto Rico, Cuba, Jamaica, Demerara(…) nas Antilhas. A realidade sócio-económica que serve de suporte ao açúcar diferencia-se no seu percurso do Pacífico/Índico para o Mediterrâneo/Atlântico. Assim, no primeiro caso não assume a posição dominante na economia, primando pelo carácter secundário, enquanto no segundo
135 Ernesto Gonçalves, "Adão e Eva", in Portugal e a ilha, Funchal, 1992, pp.13-18.

é patente o seu efeito dominador na economia e sociedade/associação ao escravo, que começa no Mediterrâneo e se reforça no Atlântico. As ilhas, pela limitação do seu espaço, são as primeiras a ressentir-se desta realidade. A consciência ecológica do homem hodierno serve de apelo a esta viragem regressiva à História da Humanidade. O presente actua assim com expressão mediática para a descoberta desse passado que pode ter algum efeito pragmático nas actuais políticas de defesa do meio-ambiente, para que se alcance o limiar do século XIX com mais e melhor ambiente, preservando aquilo que os nossos antepassados nos legaram. O TURISMO E A DESCOBERTA DA NATUREZA.A partir da segunda metade do século dezoito foi a revelação da Madeira como estância para o turismo terapêutico, mercê das então consideradas qualidades profiláticas do seu clima na cura da tuberculose, o que cativou a atenção de novos forasteiros. A tísica propiciou-nos, ao longo do século dezanove, o convívio com poetas, escritores, políticos e aristocratas. Não obstante a polémica causada em torno das possibilidades deste sistema de cura a ilha permaneceu por muito tempo como local de acolhimento destes doentes, sendo considerada a primeira e principal estância de cura e convalescença do velho continente. Foi a presença, cada vez mais assídua, deste doentes que provocou a necessidade de criação de infra-estruturas de apoio: sanatórios, hospedagens e agentes, que serviam de intermediários entre estes forasteiros e os proprietários de tais espaços de acolhimento. Este último é o prelúdio do actual agente de viagens. Então o turismo, tal como hoje o entendemos, dava os seus primeiros passos. E foi como corolário disso que se estabeleceram as primeiras infraestruturas hoteleiras e que o turismo passou a ser uma actividade organizada e com uma função relevante na economia da ilha. E mais uma vez o inglês é o principal protagonista. Tenha-se em conta que este momento de forte afluência de estrangeiros coincide com a época de euforia da Ciência nas Academias e Universidades europeias. Desde finais do século XVII as expedições científicas tornaram-se comuns e o Funchal foi um porto fundamental de escala, para ingleses, franceses e alemãs. Esta função do Funchal como porto de escala das navegações oceânicas e estância de turismo terapêutico contribuiu para este valorizar do papel da ilha e justifica os inúmeros estudos científicos ou de viagem que se dedicam ou fazem referência à Madeira. O Turismo caminhou lado a lado com o vinho e o aparecimento de novas actividades. A vinha persistiu nas latadas e fez-se companheiros dos vimeiros e bordadeiras. Esta harmonia marchava a favor da ilha e tornava possível a existência de várias formas de actividade que garantiam a sobrevivência. A variedade foi a receita certa para manter de pé por algum tempo a frágil economia insular. Na década de quarenta define-se o "comércio, a navegação o turismo, os grandes propulsores do desenvolvimento insular". As actividades em torno da obra de vimes e bordados tiveram nos estrangeiros, principalmente ingleses os seus principais promotores. A primeira metade da presente centúria foi marcada por profundas mudanças na economia madeirense. É para aqueles que a viveram um momento para esquecer. Primeiro as guerras

mundiais(1914-19 e 1939-45) e depois os problemas políticos e económicos marcaram este como um momento negro da vida madeirense. A guerra evidenciou a fragilidade da economia da ilha e evidenciou a sua extrema dependência do mercado externo. Os problemas económicos arrastam convulsões sociais que se misturam com as políticas. Assim tivemos em Fevereiro de 1931 a Revolta das Farinhas, a que se seguiu em 1936 a Revolta do Leite. Para muitos madeirenses a solução foi a emigração para o Brasil, Venezuela, USA, Curaçau. O Brasil continua a ser o nosso El Dourado. Assim só em 1939 dos 1259 emigrantes temos 2235 para o Brasil. A emigração funciona em todos os tempos com válvula de escape para a miséria da sociedade. As medidas do governo, com a Comissão de Aproveitamentos Hidraulicos e as suas iniciativas atenuaram para algumas famílias os efeitos da crise. Começava aqui um plano de fomento de infra estruturas consideradas primordiais para o progresso da ilha. A reorganização do sistema de regadio, que através de novas levadas iria permitir um maior aproveitamento agrícola, o delinear de um plano viário, que permitiu a aproximação das diversas localidades da ilha e a possibilidade de um progresso harmonioso No passado foram as condições do meio que fizeram da ilha um dos principais motivos de atracção turística. Hoje o turista é outro e por isso também as exigências são diferentes. Assim aos motivos ambientais aliam-se os culturais, passando os dois a andar de braço dado. No fundo é a simbiose do "grand tour" europeu com o turismo terapêutico insular. A ilha continua a fascinar cientistas e visitantes. O clima, o endemismo, as particularidades do processo histórico, a evidência na História do Atlântico fazem dela, ontem como hoje, um pólo chave para o conhecimento científico. Hoje a ilha é tema de debate nos diversos areópagos científicos e cada vez mais se sentem o apelo da comunidade cientifica para o seu conhecimento e divulgação. Em certa medida esta próxima realidade vai ao encontro daquilo que foi a História do arquipélago. Na verdade, o passado histórico da ilha, relevado quase sempre pelos aspectos económicos e sociais, esquece uma componente fundamental da nossa aportação: a inovação e divulgação tecnológica que transformou a rotina das tarefas económicas e revolucionou o quotidiano dos nossos avoengos. Mais do que isso, o madeirense, além de exímio inventor - na inevitável tarefa de encontrar solução para as questões e dificuldades do dia a dia -, foi também um eficaz divulgador da sua tecnologia. A Madeira foi a primeira terra revelada do novo mundo, escala para a navegação e expansão dos produtos europeus no mundo atlântico. Com o século XVIII a ilha transforma-se em escala obrigatória das expedições cientificas que fizeram saciar a curiosidade inata do Homem das Luzes. Este evidente protagonismo da Madeira condicionou a evolução do quadro natural e a relação do madeirense com ele. No primeiro momento a ganância do lucro atirou os colonos para uma exploração intensiva do solo, procurando exaurir o máximo das suas riquezas. O desequilíbrio entre a permanente solicitação de um cada vez mais vasto mercado externo e as limitadas capacidades dos recursos naturais da ilha eram evidentes e arrastaram-na rapidamente para uma situação de rotura. Primeiro foi a crise da produção ceralifera a que se seguiu a da cana sacarina, todas elas em ultima estância resultado do

esgotamento dos solos. Perante isto, num ápice a floresta deu lugar aos poios e as culturas que depois fizeram surgir o espectáculo desolador dos terrenos inférteis abandonados. A viragem ocorre a partir do século XVIII, servindo-se mais uma vez da íntima aliança da ilha aos ingleses. As embarcações deste reino trouxeram-nos as plantas exóticas para recobrir o solo e os visitantes ávidos de conhece-las. Assim se avançou rapidamente para uma política de reflorestação que embelezou a cidade e arredores de espécies exóticas e povoou as escarpas escalvadas de pinheiros, eucaliptos e castanheiros. Também a curiosidade e espírito científico que marcou o mundo britânico desde o século XVIII teve os seus reflexos na ilha, provocando uma procura, descoberta e estudo do mundo vegetal e animal da ilha. Este espírito científico cativou também os madeirenses e levou-os a considerarem o quadro natural de forma diferente, fazendo frutificar o actual espírito ecológico, que rapidamente se transformou numa moda do mundo actual.

CIENTISTAS ESTRANGEIROS NA MADEIRA SÉCS. XVI-XX136

1601: Jean Mocquet[1575-?], viajante francês, que deixou impressões da sua viagem em Voyages en Afrique, Asie, Indes Orientales et Occidentales(1617) 1687: Dr. Hans Sloane[1660 1753], médico e naturalista britânico 1696: Rev. John Ovington, capelão Real e escritor britânico

1720: John Atkins, médico naval e escritor britânico 1740: George Anson[1697-1762], corsário, navegador britânico. Autor do livro: Voyage Round the World (1748) 1751: Dr. Thom. Heberden, cientista britânico 1755: J. de Bory, cientista, explorador e escritor 1764: Comodoro John Byron, navegador e explorador britânico 1766: Samuel Wallis[1728 95], oficial de marinha, cientista. Entre 1766 e 1768 fez viagem de circunnavegação no HMS Dolphin Capitain Philip Carteret[?--1796], célebre navegador e cientista britânico que acompanhou a viagem de John Byron em (1764--6) 1768: Ch. Green, astrónomo britânico . Setembro.13. Ancorou ao Funchal James Cook[1728 79], em viagem de circum-navegação a bordo do navio Endeavour Joseph Banks, botânico inglês Dr. Daniel Solander, naturalista sueco 1772: Segunda passagem de James Cook[1728 79] pela Madeira, sendo a descrição da Viagem da Autoria de George Forster em Voyage rounde the World(1797) Johann Reinhold Forster e George Adam Forster, cientistas alemães. São pai e filho e iniciaram as explorações botânicas na ilha. John George, naturalista britânico 1776: Francis Mason, botânico inglês Prof. Downe, botânico inglês 1785: J. F. Galaup de la Perouse, navegador e cientista francês Eng. Maneron, cientista francês Lepante Dagete, astrónomo francês

136 Lista elaborada com base nos seguintes estudos: "Algumas Figuras Ilustres Estrangeiras que Visitaram a Madeira", in Revista Portuguesa, nº.72, 1953; A Lopes de Oliveira, "Cientistas e Tecnicistas Nacionais e Estrangeiros", in Arquipélago da Madeira Epopeia Humana, Braga, 1969; Fernando Augusto da Silva, Elucidário Madeirense, 3 vols, Funchal, 1984; Eberhard Axel Wilhelm, Visitantes e Escritos Germânicos da Madeira.1815-1915, Funchal, 1997.

Prof. Lamanon, físico francês Prof. Collignon, botânico francês Prof. Monge, cientista francês 1789: Dr. J. J. de Orquigny, médico e naturalista francês 1792: John Barrow[1764 1848], administrador naval e aventureiro britânico Dr. Willian Gourlay, médico, meteorologista, escritor britânico 1799: Pascoal de Avezac Macaya, geógrafo francês Gabriel de Gorat, cientista Oscar Marc Carthy, cientista

1800: Turnbull, navegador britânico 1802: Robert Brow, botânico britânico Lieut. Colonel Roberts, oficial, escritor britânico J. Adams, médico, escritor britânico 1805: Dr. F. Spilsbury, médico naval, escritor britânico 1809: Robert Brown[1773 1858], botânico britânico 1815: Cristiano Leopoldo de Buch[1774-1853], geólogo, botânico, escritor alemão Chetien Smith, botânico norueguês 1816: Cap. J. K. Tuckey, cientista britânico 1817: Karl Friederich Philip von Martius[1794-1868], botânico germânico. Na sua obra Reise in Brasilien(1823) refere algumas espécies botânicas. João Baptista Emanuel Pohl[1782-1834], botânico e explorador austríaco publicou livro com referências à Madeira: Reise im Innern von Brasilien(1832) 1820: João Conrado de Hasselt[1797-1823], alemão, fez estudos de Ciencias naturais no arquipélago, deixando desenhos das Desertas, P. Santo e costa da Madeira. Henrique Kuhl[1797-1821], ornitólogo alemão, recolheu plantas na ilha como se vê do seu trabalho: Flora oder Botanische Zeitung(1821) 1821: Giuseppe Raddi, botânico italiano 1822: Dr. Tiarks, cientista britânico 1823: Prof. Karl Mayer, geólogo germanico T. E. Bodwich, naturalista britânico 1824: Dr. Ch. Heineken, especialista pulmonar britânico 1825: Kirvan, naturalista, meteorologista H. Nelson Coleridge, escritor britânico 1826: Dr. Renton, Médico, escritor britânico Rev. Thomas Lowe, sábio naturalista britânico 1827: Christian Frederic Holl[1794-1821], botânico germânico. Com vários estudos osbre a botânica da Madeira

Rev. James Bulwer, desenhista britânico 1828: Philip Baker Webb[1793-1853], botânico britânico W. P. Canning, oficial marinha britânica 1834: M. Raymond Brucker, escritor francês Dr. J. Manson, médico e escritor britânico 1835: Conte de Bedmar, geólogo dinamarquês 1836: Sir W. Jardin, aristocrata e ormtologista britânico 1837:Dr. Charles Lemann, botânico britânico 1838: J. D. Dane, geólogo britânico John Driver, escritor britânico Dr. Júlio F. Lippold[1788-1852], botânico alemão, fez recolha de plantas para herbário Tenente Charles Wilkes [1798--1877], oficial de Marinha norte americana e cientista 1839: Sir James Clarck Ross[1800 62], cientista e oficial da Marinha britânica Dr. James Macaulay, cientista e escritor britânico 1840: James Smith, geólogo britânico W. White Cooper, escritor britânico Zwinko Joksimowilsch, paleontologista polaco 1841: Dr. Carlos Guilherme Emílio Kampfer[1803-1848], cientista e escritor alemão Dr. George Carl Friederioch Tams[1813-1863], médico e escritor alemão Júlio Rodolfo Teodoro Vogel[1812-1841], botânico alemão, recolheu plantas para herbário em expedição ao Rio Níger. 1842:Cap. Vidal, oficial da Marinha e escritor britânico Andrew Picken, artista britânico 1844: Duncan Maclaren, escritor britânico Charles de Tryon Montalemberte, político e escritor 1845: Jeane Wallas Penfold, botânica britânica Dr. Schmeller, escritor alemão Rev. John Mason Neale[1818-1866], imunologista e pastor britânico Guilherme Frederico Jorge BEHN, médico e naturalista alemão 1846: Tito Omboni, escritor italiano John Osborne, escritor britânico 1847: T. Vermon Wallaston, naturalista britânico Rev. W. Harcourt, meteorologista britânico Eduardo Hildebrandt[1817-1868], pintor alemão. Registou alguns motivos da Madeira. 1848: Charles Mac Euen, meteorologista americano Frank Dillon, escritor e artista britânico A. Few, escritor britânico F. Kenworthy Brown, escritor britânico

Dr George Peacock[1791-1858], teólogo e astrónomo germânico, publicou em 1850 o livro: On the Agriculture and Tenure of land in Madeira 1849: Duc de Leuchtenberg, Princípe e oficial da Marinha alemã Sebastião Fischer[1806-1871], medico naturalista alemão. Fez alguns estudos sobre os crustáceos da Madeira. 1850:Prof. Joam Crist. Albers, naturalista alemão Robert White, escritor britânico Eduard Vernon d'Harcourt, ornitologista e escritor britânico Dr. Oswald Heer[1809-1883], botânico e paleontologo suiço, fez vários estudos sobre a fauna e geologia da ilha James Yate Johnson, naturalista britânico Eugene E. G. Jones, escritor britânico John Dix, escritor americano Dr. P. Garnier,médico e escritor francês D. Ramon Masferrer y Arquinbau, médico espanhol Joam Christoph Albers[1795-1857], médico e naturalista alemão. Publicou Malacographia Maderensis(1854). Carlos Jorge Frederico Hartung, geólogo alemão. Fez várias investigações geológicas de que resultou a publicação de três livros. 1851: João António Schmidt[1823-1905], botânico alemão 1852: Dr. Karl Mittermaier, médico e meteorologista alemão 1853: Dr. Friedrich Martin Joseph. Welwitsch[1806-1872], médico e botânico austríaco. Pertence-lhe a proposta de criação de uma jardim de aclimatação de plantas para o Funchal Charles Lyell, geólogo britânico Dr. George Hartung, geólogo alemão James Mackenzie Bloxam, escritor britânico Charles Bunbury, botânico e paleontologista britânico 1854: Robert Mac Andrew, cientista e escritor britânico T. S. Dyster, escritor britânico William Hadfield, escritor britânico Charles Perreymond, escritor francês Jacob Melchior Ziegler[1801-1883], cartógrafo suíço. Publicou em 1856 dois mapas sobre a Madeira. 1855: Dr. S. Fiocher, médico alemão Dr. S. Lund, médico meteorologista britânico Hermann Schacht [1814-1864], botânico alemão, publicou em 1859 um estudo botânico: Madeira under Tenerife mit ihrer vegetation João Guilherme Reisz [1838-1908], geólogo alemão, procedeu à recolha de fósseis marinhos de que publicou em estudos.

Augusto David Krohn[1803-1891], zoólogo alemão 1856. J. M. Ziegler,geólogo britânico D. Archibald Colquham Ross, médico britânico 1857: N. Haslop Manson, botânico britânico Comod. Welleratorf Urbair,cientista austríaco Dr. Ferdinand Ritter von Hochstetter, geólogo austríaco, publicou em 1861 o livro Madeira Vortrag. Richard C. Smith, botânico britânico 1858: George Busk , professor e naturalista britânico João Jacob Noeggerath[1788-1877], engenheiro de minas alemão 1859: Hermann Schacht, escritor alemão Eduardo de Martens[1831-1904] zoólogo alemão 1860: Max Ernesto Wichura[1817-1866], botânico alemão 1861: Sigor van Siver, cientista Dr. O. Hagem, escritor alemão 1862. Dr. Liebetruth, botânico austríaco, recolha algas marinhas Ludwig Storch, escritor alemão Carlos Guilherme Jorge de Fritsch[1838-1906], geólogo e paleontólogo alemão Maurício Afonso Stubel[1835-1904], geólogo e explorador alemão 1864: Dr. Robert Boog Watson, cientista britânico Josephine de Neuville, escritora francesa Hermano Cochius[1837-1905], geólogo alemão 1865: E. Cosson, naturalista francês Dr. Carlos Inácio Leopold Kny[1841-1916], botânico alemão 1866: J. Juratzka, cientista polaco Ernest Haeckel[1834-1919], zoólogo e filósofo alemão J. N. Quintus, escritor britânico Cap. F. Norman, botânico britânico Carlos Augusto Júlio Milde[1824-1871], botânico alemão especialista em fetos Ricardo Greeff[1829-1892], médico e zoólogo alemão Jorge Matias de Martens [1788-1872], botânico alemão 1868: Richard H. Major, geólogo e escritor britânico Dr. Richard Greeff, Doutor em Medicina e Filosofia, alemão E. Cosson, cientista C. Ph. Kerhallet, cientista francês Augusto Krempelhuber[1813-1882], botânico alemão 1870:Fred. du Cane Godmann, botânico britânico Conte de Goimpy,escritor e cientista francês Dr. Michael Grabham, médico, escritor britânico, fixou-se

1871:Júlio Fernando de Hann[1839-1921],físico e metereólogo alemão 1872.. Jacob Ricardo Senfter[1841-1887], físico alemão Aloísio Pokorny[1826-1886], botânico alemão 1873: Filipe Guilherme Adolfo Bastian[1826-1905], expedicionista alemão Hermano Henrique Augusto Luís Soyaux[1852-], botânico alemão 1874: Sir William Tompson-Lord Kelvin, cientista britânico Pe. Ernest João Schmitz[ 1845 - 1922], ornitólogo alemão. Fundou em 1882 o museu de História Natural no Seminário Diocesano do Funchal Carlos António Werner Huesker[1849-1928], medico e ornitólogo alemão 1875: Paulo Langerhans[1847-1888], médico e zoólogo alemão. Publicou Handbuch fur Madeira(1885) 1877: Green, astrónomo britânico 1878: D. Ventura Callejon, escritor e diplomata espanhol 1879: H. Grey, escritor britânico Ricardo Fritze[1841-1900], botânico alemão, recolha plantas para herbário Gaston Lemay, escritor francês Dr. Paul Lagerhans, cientista Príncipe. Alberto do Monaco, escritor e cientista oceanógrafo 1880: Julius Goldschmidt,médico e escritor alemão Dennis Embleton, escritor britânico Dr. Spencer Wells, médico e escritor britânico Gilherme Jorge Ritter[1850-1926], paisagista e litógrafo alemão. Visitou a Madeira em 1880-82, 1908 e 1909 1881: Dr. Jacoud, médico francês especialista pulmonar J. M. Rendell, escritor britânico 1882: Cap. Enrico Albertis, naturalista italiano E. Gardner, zoólogo e escritor C. Piazzi Smyth, meteorologista Alice Baker, artista britânica Helene Taulor, escritora e pintora britânica Bertoldo Stein[1847-1899], botânico alemão Frederico Carlos João Scmitz[1850-1895], botânico alemão 1883:Alphonse Milne Edwards, cientista britânico 1884: José Schroter[1837-1894], botânico alemão 1885: Dr. Karl Lindmann, botânico sueco Henrique Óscar Lenz[1848-1925], geógrafo e explorador austríaco 1886: Prof. Robert Collet, cientista francês Valdemar Hartwig[1851-1901], ornitólogo alemão com vários estudos sobre a Madeira Adalberto Geheeb[1842-1909], briólogo alemão

1887: José Ernesto Stizenberger[1827-1895], botânico alemão especializado em líquenes I. Tompson, escritor britânico L. Manchon, escritor francês 1888: A. Samler Erown, escritor britânico Dr. Charles Omnes, médico especialista francês Dr. Eugénio Fernando Christmann[1863-1894], médico alemão. Publicou em 1889: Funchal auf Madeira und sein Clima Alexandre Fernando Koenig[1858-1940], ornitólogo alemão 1890:Robert Collet, ictiologo Director do Museu de Cristiania Baron van Beneden, escritor belga 1891. Marquis degli Albizi, diplomata, escritor italiano 1892: Albert Girard, naturalista, oceanografo, francês 1893: Lothar Roediger, estudioso dos miriápodes da Madeira 1894: C. A. Gordon, escritor britânico Lorde Walsinghem, cientista ingês P. Murray, botânico inglês Emilio Kraepelin[1856-1926], botânico e zoólogo alemão 1895: Friedrich Wilhelm Bosenberg[1841-1902], zoólogo alemão Dr. Roberto Latzel[1845-1919], zoólogo austríaco Augusto Henrique Forel[1848-1931] entomólogo suíço 1896: W. Hartwing, ornitologista austríaco Heclor Leveillé, botânico francês Ernesto João Otão Hartert[1859-1933], ornitólogo alemão Paulo Gerhard Teodoro Grosser[1864- ?], mineralogista alemão 1897: Dr. Alfred Merle Normon, zoólogo britânico L. Cardol, escritor britânico Albert Fauvel, entomologista francês Edmond Fulgairolle, escritor francês W. Grant, ornitologista britânico Cap. Adrien Gerlache, comandante da expedição belga à reg. Artica Tenente Danco, cientista belga Dr. Artoski, meteorologista oceanógrafo Dr. Racsvitze, zoólogo e botânico 1898: Dr. Joannes August Bohm[1857-2938], paleontólogo alemão 1899: Dr. Reland Krohn, médico britânico V. Kulezynski, cientista polaco A. W. Waters, cientista britânico 18..: Rev. Thomas Hinks, naturalista britânico

Dr. Douglas, médico e escritor britânico William Hooker, cientista britânico Dr. Forel, cientista francês R. Fowler, cientista e escrita britânico M. Greshoff, cientista e escritor Profes. Guillin,geólogo francês Albert Gunther, ictiólogo britânico

1900: Friedrich. Nicolaus Joseph Bornmuller [1862-1948], botânico alemão. Procedeu a recolha de plantas para herbário A. Lorenzen[1862-1942], naturalista Anthony Drexel Biddle, escritor americano Vitor de Tschusi de Scmidhoffen[1847-1924], ornitólogo austríaco 1901: Robert Scott, navegador e cientista britânico Viktor Ferdinand. Schiffner, botânico alemão, que se dedicou ao estudo dos musgos Samuel Brow, escritor britânico Dr. Erich v. Drygalski, cientista alemão explorador do Antártico Dr. Martim Vahl, botânico dinamarquês 1902: Cap. Calbeck, comandante do barco britânico "Morning" ao Antártico Dr. Wilson, cientista britânico, explorador do Antártico Ewal Ricardo Henrique Alberto Rubsamen[1857-1919], entomólogo alemão 1903: Jean Charcot, navegador e cientista francês Frederico Augusto Guilherme Curt GAGEL[1865-1927], geólogo e paleontólogo prussiano 1904: Dr. Júlio José. Steiner[1844-1918], botânico austríaco James Britten, escritor britânico João Guilherme Teodoro Becker[1840-1928], dipterólogo alemão 1905: Paul Mantegazza, escritor italiano 1906: William Mitten, biologista britânico Johs Sfenzel, escritor alemão Gustav Monz, escritor alemão 1907: Prof. Pe. Alphonse Luisir S. J., botânico suíço João Jacob Geyr de Schweppenburg[1884-1963], ornitólogo alemão 1908: Th. Becher, naturalista alemão Ponsan By, cientista britânico Eugene Simon, cientista francês Maurício Leo Daniel de Komorowicz[1881-?], geólogo alemão 1909. W. H. Koebel, escritor britânico H. N. Dixon, botânico britânico

Florençe do Cane, artista, aguarelista Anatale France, escritor francês Pe. Camil Forrend S. J., cientista francês Carlos Zimmermann[1871--], botânico alemão 1910: Robert Scott, explorador das regiões antárticas Cap. Amundsen, explorador das regiões antárticas Pe. Longinos Navas S. J.; Liquenólogo espanhol Eugene Ackermann, desenhador britânico Adolfo Gustavo Henrique Engler[1844-1930], botânico alemão Walter Adolfo Bergt[1864-1941], geólogo alemão 1911: R. Kirkpatrik, naturalista do Museu de Londres Dr. Louis Gain, Naturalista francês Paulo Luis Finckh[1871-1930], geólogo alemão 1912: Dr. Hermam Winter, cientista germânico, recolha plantas para herbário Dr. Leonhard Lindinger, cientista germânico Martinho Alberto Rikli[1868-1951], botânico alemão 1914: F. Nansen, cientista norueguês Cap. Worsley, oficial da Marinha britânica, explorador pelo sul Cap. Somerville, cientista britânico Carlos Hermano Leonardo Lindinger[1879-1965], zoólogo alemão 1915: Eugene Ackermann, cientista 1920: Dr. Johannes Schmidt; ictiólogo e biologista dinamarquês 1921: Dr. C. Gagel, geólogo germânico 1922: Dr. Guida Paoli, fitopologista Director Observatório da Liguria 1937: Ernesto Walther Boesser [-1986], pintor e botânico. Nos anos de 1949 e 1950 trabalhou na Direcção Geral de Serviços Florestais, apoiando projectos reflorestação.

O MADEIRENSE E A DEFESA DO MEIO NATURAL
Quereis água de rega para fertilizardes vossos campos, para cultivardes terrenos áridos, até hoje incultos? Quereis conservar e aumentar as fontes que existem e fazer aparecer outras novas? Quereis chuvas mais frequentes , mais igualmente distribuídas? Quereis melhor o clima ? Quereis mais igualdade nas estações? Conservai como objectos sagrados os arvoredos que existem; plantai, semeai, criai novos arvoredos." [CORREIO DA MADEIRA, Nº. 32 , sabbado 8 de Setembro de 1849, p.1] No início era o denso arvoredo, que assim deu nome à ilha. Mas a acção do homem contribuiu para a sua total transformação. Foi um esforço hercúleo por parte do colono tal como nos descreve de forma poética Vieira Natividade(1947). Esta mudança é assim interpretada por Ferreira de Castro: "A ilha deixara de ser apenas bosque, para ser bosque, horta e jardim"137 No século XIX o manto florestal da vertente sul da Madeira havia atingido o limite. As encostas estavam totalmente escalvadas. A política de protecção das florestas que se havia incrementado desde o século XV não surtiu efeito ou incapaz de corresponder à cada vez mais incessante procura de lenhas e madeiras. Foram os efeitos devastadores das aluviões de 1803 e 1815 no Funchal que fizeram com que as autoridades despertassem para um conjunto de medidas mais eficazes de reposição florestal. De acordo com o relator da aluvião de 1815 a "natureza [estava] cansada de ser liberal"138 Este quadro é percebido e testemunhado desde muito cedo pelos estrangeiros. Estes sem dúvida que não se cansam em considerar a ilha, fundamentalmente a área da cidade e norte da ilha, como um jardim, um paraíso139. Mas esta opinião, habitualmente consignada aos guias de turismo, contraste com o testemunho atento dos botânicos que no decurso dos séculos XVIII e XIX frequentaram a ilha. A primeira e abalizada opinião é de John Barrow em finais do século XVIII. É ele o primeiro a dar conta do desaparecimento de algumas espécies como é o caso do cedro140. Um dos factos que chama à sua atenção prende-se com a permanente azáfama de mulheres, jovens e idosas na colheita de lenhas para a venda na cidade141. Estes lenhadores sem escrúpulos, segundo Isabella de França, cortam o seu e alheio sem qualquer critério: "encontram-se com frequência, naquelas imediações, homens e mulheres com carregamentos de troncos de pinho à cabeça; vêm vendê-los ao Funchal…"142. Já em finais do século XIX John A. Dix143 descreve o processo de aquisição das lenhas e dificuldade da colheita: "Vivem nas montanhas, onde cortam a sua
137 Cf. Colectânea de Textos: prosa 138 Cf. Colectânea de textos 139 Cf. H. Coleridge(1826), D. Embleton(1880), C. Thomas(1910), J. Hutcheon(1928), M. Graham(1942). 140 . A Voyage to Cochinchina in the years 1792 and 1793, London, 1806, p.18. 141 Ibidem, pp.11-12 142 Journal of a Visit to Madeira…, Funchal, 1970, p.139 143 . Um Inverno na Madeira, California, 1896,

lenha, começando o seu trabalho logo ao amanhecer. Preparam a lenha, e trazem-nas à cabeça para a cidade, às vezes duma distância de 3, 5, 7 e 8 milhas e vendem-nos a 14 e 18 cents(7 e 9 vinténs) quando acham quem lhos comprem"144. A visita à feira semanal da cidade leva-o a concluir que "a qualidade mostra a pouca abundância de lenha na Madeira "145. O Visconde do Porto da Cruz num estudo florestal de 1950 dá conta do consumo de carvão como combustível no Funchal, apontando a necessidade anual de 720 toneladas, se tivermos em conta que para cem toneladas deste são precisas 1000 toneladas de lenha é fácil de adivinhar o volume do desbaste necessário para abastecer a cidade. Ainda de acordo com o mesmo a destruição das matas madeirenses foi resultado:"1º o fabrico clandestino de carvão; 2º. Os abastecimentos for a da lei, de material para as construções; 3º. A escassez de pastagens para gado."146 A par do usufruto da floresta como fonte de combustível é de assinalar o aproveitamento das madeiras, consideradas a primeira riqueza dos povoadores, a fazer fé naquilo que referem Zurara, Valentim Fernandes e Gaspar Frutuoso. As madeiras de til, vinhático, aderno, barbuzano, cativaram a atenção do colonos e forasteiros. As serras de água proliferaram por toda a ilha, com maior incidência da encosta norte e podem ser consideradas o símbolo da busca desenfreada de árvores para abate. É certo que a necessidade de lenhas como combustível para o dia à dia caseiro, para a indústria de panificação, forjas e engenhos de açúcar levaram paulatinamente à diminuição das reservas florestais. Mas foi sem dúvida o desbaste para a agricultura que conduziu inevitavelmente a este processo destrutivo. A sentença estava dada: " In all new countries covered with forests the setlers are apt to consider trees as their enemy. They wage an implacable warfare agians them, until the whole face the land becomes naked, the streams driedun, the summers made hotter, and the winters colder, by opening the earth to the sun and winds. The succeedin generation labors as as industriously to produce shade as its predecessors did to destroyed it"147 Perante esta contingência do processo de aproveitamento económico da ilha, o espaço florestal desaparece a olhos vistos perante olhar atónito das autoridades e dos cientistas de passagem pela ilha. Daqui resultou uma situação particular da ilha que é insistentemente evidenciada por todos os visitantes. O Sul escalvado contrasta com o Norte, onde ainda persiste a floresta indígena148. Com isto é evidente o perigo de desaparecimento de algumas espécies da flora indígena. Em 1792 J. Barrow refere nesta situação o cedro, enquanto em meados do século J. Mason junta também o dragoeiro, folhado e vinhático. O processo de desflorestação é evidente a todos os observadores, sejam locais ou visitantes, e mereceu alguns reparos. Em 1817 Paulo Dias de Almeida aponta o dedo acusador aos carvoeiros ao ser confrontado com "as montanhas que não há muitos anos vi cobertos de
144 . Ibidem, p.191. 145 . Ibidem, p.60 146 O Problema Florestal no Arquipélago da Madeira, 1950, pp.4-6 147 . A Winter in Madeira…, N. York, 1850, p.125 148 Rambles in Madeira…, 1827, p.147; R. White, Madeira, 1859, p.69; W. Cooper, The Invalid's Guide to Madeira, 1840, p.13

arvoredos, hoje os vejo reduzidas a um esqueleto. O Centro da ilha se acha, todo descoberto de arvoredo, com apenas algumas árvores dispersas, e isto em lugares onde os carvoeiros não tem chegado"149. A par deste grito, face à ameaça de extinção de algumas espécies, é evidente o regozijo dos cientistas com o espectáculo que se deparam nas quintas do Funchal e arredores, e na exuberante floresta da encosta norte. Em 1812 o madeirense N. C. Pitta chamava a atenção para a abundância de espécies indígenas ou oriundas das Índias Orientais e Ocidentais em tão grande variedade que o levam a afirmar que a Madeira é o Jardim do Mundo150. Os jardins do Funchal são os locais de adoração para forasteiros e cientistas. Alguns não se cansam em exaltar esta riqueza e variedade. Em 1888 o Marquis degli Albizzi considera-os verdadeiros dicionários de Botânica, enquanto C. Stanford não hesita em comparar o Funchal ao Éden Bíblico, pois alguns dos seus jardins "are remarkable especially for thea collections of trees and shrubs from many countries and many climes…"151. Esta situação atinge também as áreas de floresta, onde segundo Bulhão Pato "os ramos de flora europeia abraçam e beijam as árvores dos trópicos…"152. Vários são os factores que contribuíram para esta situação. E isto também foi alvo da atenção dos cientistas visitantes. W. Combe(1821) diz-nos que o clima e solo permitem o cultivo de qualquer cultura. Já j. Johson(1885) releva o papel do clima, responsável pela rápida naturalização das plantas o que conduz os menos atentos a confundi-las com as indígenas:"…and there can be no doubt that many of the plants which seem to be indigenous in the lower region have seen introduced since the advent of man."153 Foi esta situação que levou Frederico Welwitsch a propor em 1853 a criação de um jardim de aclimação de plantas tropicais no Funchal. A ideia não era nova e foi alvo de sugestão de vários especialistas, sendo repetida em 1855 pelo Barão de Castelo de Paiva no relatório que fez sobre a situação da agricultura da ilha. Aqui é proposta a criação de um horto de aclimatação na cerca do extinto convento de S. Francisco. Tudo isto leva M. d'Avezac a considerar a ilha como o "jardim botânico experimental de todo o mundo"154 Este conjunto de condições terá propiciado a afirmação da Madeira como uma estância de aclimatação de plantas que se pretendia fazer chegar à Europa155. Opinião discordante tem C. Azevedo Menezes: "Dizem alguns auctores que na Madeira podem viver e frutificar ao ar livre na mais familiar companhia e illuminadas pelo mesmo sol, as pantas de todas as regiões do globo, mas isto não é rigorosamente exacto"156. Esta riqueza e particularidades da flora madeirense fizeram com que a ilha se transforma-se num local de permanente investigação para os cientistas europeus. A ilha era um local ideal para herborizar e um verdadeiro laboratório: "La botanique l'entomologie la météorologie
149 .Confronte-se texto na selecção de prosa 150 . Account of the Island of Madeira, 1812, p.59. 151 . Leaves from a Madeira Garden, 1909, pp.27, 270 152 Cf. Colectânea de textos 153 . Madeira…, 1885, p.225 154 . W. Wilde, Narrative of a Voyage to Madeira, 1840, p.104 155 . Îles de l'Afrique, 1848, p.107 156. A propaga e o ananaz na Madeira, Sep. Brotéria, XXIII, fasc. II, 1927, pp.78-80

sont les occupations favorites des savants pendant leur séjour dans l'île; mais cette étude atant d'attrait et de charme qu'elle entraine souvent au de là du but."157 Esta ideia é corroborada por E. Taylor(1882) e A. Drexel Biddle(1900). Este último considera a ilha "um paraíso para os naturalistas". E, na verdade foi isso que aconteceu, uma vez que desde muito cedo a atenção dos naturalistas fizeram da Madeira um dos recintos predilectos para herborizar158. Os Jardins Botânicos da Europa encheram-se de plantas e herbários da ilha. Tudo isto começou em 1687 com Hans Sloane e manteve-se até a actualidade. Se a atenção e preocupação do cientistas estava na descoberta e classificação das novas espécies, o empenho das autoridades estava na preservação do parco manto florestal, tão necessário à sobrevivência humana e ao equilíbrio da sua economia. Deste modo, logo desde o século XV até ao presente, é interminável o conjunto de regulamentos, ordenações e posturas sobre o assunto. A legislação florestal madeirense é prolixa, sendo de destacar o regimento das Madeiras de 1562, o mais antigo que se conhece pois faltam notícias sobre o de 1515, o regimento das matas e arvoredos de 1839, o plano de organização dos Serviços Florestais de 1886 e o Regimento do Serviço de Polícia Rural e Florestal de 1913 Estas regulamentações genéricas tiveram réplica nas posturas Municipais159 e nas recomendações dos corregedores lavradas nas correições160 completam o quadro das medidas protectoras do nosso manto florestal. Daqui se conclui que não houve esquecimento e falta de regulamentação. As contingências de cada época ditaram, sem dúvida, a ineficácia destas medidas. Estas medidas poderão resumir-se a duas situações: preservação daquilo que existe através de medidas limitativas do abate de árvores e recuperação do coberto florestal através de uma política de reflorestação das zonas ermas ou em abate. A salvaguarda da floresta passava não só pelo estabelecimento de medidas rigorosas que controlassem o seu abate, que deveria estar sujeito a licenças camarárias, mas também ao ataque em todas as frentes aos agentes devastadores, onde se incluíam o fogo e o gado solto. As queimadas, tão comuns desde o povoamento, são um dos principais agentes devastadores e por isso foram insistentemente proibidas. O gado é obrigatoriamente acantonado a espaços circundados por um bardo. Todavia a floresta não era para os nossos avoengos um espaço de diversão pois que adquiria um papel fundamental na economia da ilha. Vedar-lhe o seu acesso era impossível. Daí as medidas disciplinadoras do seu uso de acordo com um processo económico harmonioso. Foi com um violento incêndio que os povoadores, segundo Cadamosto, "varreram grande parte da dita madeira, fazendo terra de lavoura". As queimadas sucederam-se infinitamente e levaram a coroa a obstar esta situação. Outros violentos incêndios se sucederam. Os que ficaram para a História, fruto da acção humana, são de 1807161 e depois em 1910 e

157 . P. Jaunier, Itinéraire de Paris à Madère, 1859 158 . M Graham, Madeira…, 1942, pp.4-6. 159 , ARM, C. M. Santa Cruz, nº291, novo caderno de posturas; Posturas do Concelho de Santa Anna, Funchal, 1837; ARM, Governo Civil, nº.155, Posturas(1840); Posturas da Câmara Municipal da Cidade do Funchal, 1849 e 1895; Posturas da Câmara Municipal da Villa de Machico, 1856; ARM, C. M. Funchal, nº.239, Registo de posturas(1869-1885); Código de Posturas da Câmara Municipal do Concelho do Porto Moniz, 1890. 160 . ARM, C. M. Machico, nº.5-6, livro de correições 1768-1808; ARM, C. M. Funchal, nº168(1768); ARM, C. M. Porto Santo, nº.54(1780-1829); ARM, C. M. Santa Cruz, nº.171(1808-1832). 161 Paulo Dias Almeida, ob.cit.

1919162. Em 1593 documenta-se o fogo do céu que causam elevados danos na cidade e manto florestal. Note-se que muitos dos incêndios na floresta eram resultado da incúria ou malévola iniciativa dos carvoeiros. Estes são considerados em finais do século passado como os principais inimigos da floresta163.Sobre eles recaiam todas as culpas dos diversos incêndios que se ateavam com insistência nas serras da ilha. Paulo Perestrelo da Câmara é incisivo nas suas acusações: "os bárbaros carvoeiros cortão e queimão desapiedadamente, as árvores mais robustas e úteis e quazi todos os annos deixão atear fogos, que por dias e mezes consomem às vezes legoas de mato"164. A luta não permitia tréguas. Dum lado as medidas que procuravam assegurar a preservação da floresta, do outro a reposição do coberto vegetal. A política de reflorestamento da ilha só assumiu uma dimensão adequada na segunda metade do século XIX. A primeira indicação é de 1677, altura em que se recomendava o plantio de amoreiras em Machico, Santa Cruz e Porto Santo165. Mas o grande promotor desta política deverá ter sido o corregedor Francisco Moreira de Matos. Em 1769 o corregedor dava conta dos infractores de Santa Cruz quanto à fiscalização das medidas que determinavam a obrigatoriedade de plantar árvores nas terras baldias, o que prova estar já em execução166. Na Ponta de Sol em 1789 explicita-se que esse plantio deveria ser de árvores silvestres e de fruto167. Esta solução tornou-se extensiva a toda a ilha através da carta circular de 25 de Dezembro de 1770168. Ainda em Santa Cruz sabemos que esta medida era fiscalizada pelos próprios moradores, nomeando a vereação dois homens por cada localidade. Aos baldios juntam-se as escarpas montanhosas e as áreas de cultivo. Assim em 1791 recomendava-se aos lavradores das meias terras acima são obrigados a plantar meio alqueire ou uma quarta, dependendo da extensão das terras, de castanheiros, enquanto os outros deveriam plantar pelo menos duas laranjeiras e um limoeiro. Por outro lado as terras escalvadas e do interior seriam semeadas no decurso do mês de Setembro de pinheiros. Outra das propostas era a amoreira, pois que "alimenta bicho da seda e distraem lagartixas não comam uvas"169. Note-se que só nos dois anos que antecederam a visita do corregedor em 1795 a Ponta de Sol plantaram-se 35000 árvores170. Esta salutar medida teve diversas formas de concretização. Assim em 1800 aquele que cortava uma árvore era obrigado a plantar outra no seu lugar171. Esta é aliás testemunhada por W. Combe em 1821172.

162 M. B. Sequeira(1910); Visconde do Porto da Cruz(1960).Cf. testemunho de Assis Esperança, in Ilustração, 1929, publ. Cabral do Nascimento, Lugares Selectos dos autores Portugueses que Escreveram sobre o Arquipélago da Madeira, Funchal, 1949, p.185. 163 .J. Freitas Branco, Camponeses da Madeira, Liboa, 1987, pp.133-137; A. Marques da Silva, " Preocupações Ecológicas do Estrela do Norte", in Atlântico, 19(1989), 203-206. 164. Breve Noticia sobre a Ilha da Madeira, Lisboa, 1841, 34-35. 165. Excursão na Madeira, 1891, p.83. 166. ARM, C: M. Machico, nº.6, fl. 5vº, 7 de Abril de 1769. 167.ARM, C. M. Ponta Sol, nº.220, fl. 68vº-69, 19 Novembro 1789. 168. ARM, C: M. Machico, nº.5, fl. 16vº, 11 de Maio de 1771. 169. ARM, C. M. Machico, nº.5, fl.72, 22 de Novembro de 1791. 170. ARM. C. M. Ponta Sol, nº.220, fl.80vº, 29 de Agosto 1795. 171. ARM, C. M. Machico, nº.5, fl.83vº, 11 de Dezembro 1792. 172.A History of Madeira, p.23

Estas medidas passaram no imediato para o articulado das posturas173. Assim em Machico(1840) e Funchal(1849) reclamava-se que aqueles que viviam da serra com a lenha e carvão deveriam plantar em Janeiro seis árvores na terra. José Silvestre Ribeiro, como governador(1846-1851) teve uma actuação exemplar na defesa das florestas e de reposição do seu coberto174. Em 1849 apostou na distribuição de sementes de pinhão e no ano imediato propor à Junta Geral a criação de um viveiro geral para toda a ilha. Nesta sua proposta recomendava-se o plantio de árvores indígenas: vinhático, loureiro, aderno e perado. Uma das formas de incentivo desta política de reflorestamento estava na atribuição de prémios aos que mais se distinguiam nesta tarefa. A esta luta aderiu a Sociedade Agrícola Madeirense(1849-1880), promotora de sementeiras e legislação adequada. O Porto Santo é um caso extremo desta necessidade de rearborização, dependendo disso a reanimação agrícola da ilha, pelo menos assim se entendeu em 1771 com o Regimento de Agricultura, onde se insistia no plantio, nas montanhas, de pinheiros, zimbreiros, castanheiros e junto das áreas de cultura, de amoreiras e espinheiros. A razão disso estava em que elas faziam "sombra à terra e attrahião a umidade da gião de que a mesma terra hé sumamente estéril"175. Os resultados desta política são visíveis e testemunhados pelos estrangeiros. Em 1851 Robert White176 destaca a expansão do pinheiro face à floresta indígena. Dois anos após Isabella de França177 depara-se com uma floresta de castanheiros, loureiros e pinheiros: "no cimo dos montes plantaram uma infinidade de pinheiros, a mais parte nas duas últimas décadas.". Já em 1854 E. Wateley destaca esse trabalho e a presença de espécies da China, Austrália e Japão, nomeadamente no Jardim da Serra178. Já no nosso século o Marques de Jácome Correia destaca o esforço de plantio de árvores, de iniciativa pública e privada. Neste último caso temos o Visconde Cacongo e Luiz de Ornelas e Vasconcelos. De acordo com o mesmo em 1823 foram distribuídas por toda a ilha vinte mil árvores de eucaliptos, acácias, carvalhos e pinheiros179. Na verdade as décadas de quarenta e cinquenta foram tempos de reflorestação180. Tal como referia a Junta Geral no seu relatório de 1864 " a necessidade da arborização nas serras da Madeira, não se demonstra- sente-se"181. Daqui resulta a necessidade desta aposta seguindo-se o exemplo dos franceses(1860) e espanhóis(1863). Várias medidas sucederam-se para fazer desta política uma realidade na Madeira como foi o caso do alvará de 31 de Agosto de 1863 e o decreto de 21 de Setembro de 1867182. A aposta continuou no nosso século, tornando-se mais evidente a sua aposta com o avanço das encostas escalvadas fruto de desbastes ou dos incêndios que ocorreram. Face isto a aposta estava na arborização com o testemunho os estudos de Manuel Braz Sequeira(1913) e João Henriques
173 Veja-se a compilação da documentação e textos mais importantes de Fernando Augusto da Silva, Manuel Braz Sequeira, João Henriques Camacho e Visconde do Porto da Cruz. 174. Uma Época Administrativa da Madeira e Porto Santo, 3 vols, Funchal, 1850-1856. 175. cf. Textos em anexo 176. Madeira…, p.69. 177. Journal of a Visit to Madeira…, pp.48-49, 63, 76, 138-139. 178. A Visit to Portugal and Madeira, 1864, p.30. 179 A ilha da Madeira…, Coimbra, 1927, pp.155, 173 180. Manuel Braz Sequeira, 1913, p.15 181. Relatório…, Funchal, 1864, p.30. 182. A. c. Heredia, Observações sobre a situação económica da ilha da Madeira, Lisboa, 1888, p.26.

Camacho(1920). A própria câmara do Funchal apostou forte nesta acção com o montado do Barreiro183.

Cronologia
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1419-1420. Reconhecimento do arquipélago e início da ocupação 1461. O infante D. Fernando em respostas as reclamações dos madeirenses revela preocupação pelo despovoamento florestal, não obstante concede liberdade para o seu corte . 1485. Primeira referência à falta de lenhas no Funchal, proibindo-se a doação de novas terras a Norte 1489. Medidas no sentido de proibir as queimadas para abrir frentes de arroteamento 1514. D. Manuel autoriza o transporte de tabuado e madeira da jurisdição de Machico para o Funchal. 1515. Primeiro regimento das madeiras 1562.Agosto.27. Regimento das madeiras, considerado por Álvaro Rodrigues de Azevedo com o primeiro código florestal da Madeira . 1593. Outubro.28. alvará Régio sobre o aproveitamento das madeiras 1596. Janeiro.26. alvará Régio sobre o aproveitamento das madeiras 1737. Junho.1. Postura da câmara de Ponta de Sol em que proíbe o corte de madeiras sem licença. 1770.Dezembro.25. Carta circular determinando o plantio de árvores nas terras baldias. 1771. Maio.4. Portaria do Governador e Capitão General autoriza o comércio de madeiras e lenhas da capitania de Machico com o Porto Santo 1760.Dezembro.13. Ordem do Corregedor Pedro António Faria, em observância ao alvará de 29 de Maio de 1633, para se plantarem amoreiras. 1783.Agosto.8. Carta ao juiz e oficiais da câmara de S. Vicente para se proceder ao lançamento de bardos nas serras. 1789.Novembro.16. Correição em Ponta de Sol: ordem para plantio de árvores silvestres e de fruto nos terrenos baldios 1791. Maio 31. O Desembargador D. António Rodrigues de Oliveira em Correição no Porto Santo, recomenda o plantio de pinhões. 1791.Novembro.22. Correição em Santa Cruz. Determina-se que os lavradores das meias terras acima devem plantar meio alqueire ou uma quarta de castanheiros. 1792.Outubro.18. Instruções respeitantes ao bem geral da Agricultura do Desembargador D. António Rodrigues de Oliveira à Câmara da Calheta. 1804.Outubro.15. Circular do Governador Ascenso de Oliveira Freire recomendando às câmara de Ponta de Sol, Calheta e S. Vicente a arborização e limpeza das ribeiras.

183 Abílio Barros e Sousa, Plano de Arborização do Montado do Barreiro, Funchal, 1946.

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

1834. Introdução da cultura da tamargueira no Porto Santo 1835.Janeiro.2. Edital da Câmara do Funchal ordenando a retirado dos porcos da serra, devido aos danos que causavam às raízes da feiteira 1836.Julho.12. Postura da Câmara do Funchal proibindo a venda de lenha verde colhida junto às fontes e nascentes. 1839. Projecto de Regimento das Matas e Arvoredos da ilha da Madeira. 1841.Novembro 12. Lei que torna extensível às ilhas o alvará de 11 de Abril de 1815 1845.Agosto.25. Postura da câmara do Funchal: proibição da entrada na cidade de lenha verde ou seca de vinhático e loureiro 1849.Setembro.5. Carta do Governador civil, José Silvestre Ribeiro, para o Ministério do Reino para que fosse criado no Funchal um jardim botânico. 1850.Junho.14. Carta do Governador civil, José Silvestre Ribeiro, à Junta Geral recomendando a criação de um viveiro geral de plantas para toda a ilha 1850.Agosto.20. Proposta do Governador civil, José Silvestre Ribeiro, às câmaras Municipais, para atribuição de prémios aos proprietários que mais se distingam na arborização. 1851.Março.15. Postura da câmara de Machico: proibição de uso de lenha no fabrico de aguardente e fornos de cal. 1855. Doença dos Castanheiros 1886.Novembro.25. Decreto que aprova o Plano de Organização dos Serviços Florestais 1891.Outubro.29. Decreto de organização dos Serviços Agrícolas 1911. Março.11. Criação da Junta Agrícola da Madeira, que tinha como objectivo promover ao povoamento florestal das serras 1913. Março.8. Decreto que aprova o regulamento do serviço de policia rural e florestal da Madeira. 1913. Julho.23. Lei que regulamenta o serviço de concessão de licenças para a pastagem de gado suíno e caprino na serra 1919. Junho.12. Extinção da Junta Agrícola da Madeira 1958. A Câmara Municipal do Funchal compra o montado do Barreiro. 1982. Criação do Parque Natural da Madeira

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PERRY, M. C., Francis L. Hawks. Narrative of the Expedition of an American Squadron to the China Seas and Japan, New York, 1856. PICKEN, Andrew. Madeira Illustrated with a Description of the Island, London, 1840. PINHEIRO, Francisco Alves, Madeira e Açores. Excursão às Ilhas Adjacentes em 23.7.1938, Braga, 1950. PORTO DA CRUZ, Visconde do. O Problema Florestal no Arquipélago da Madeira, Lisboa, 1950. POWER, Charles Alexandre Le Poer, Compil. Power's Guide to the Island of Madeira, London, 1927. PROENÇA, Raul, Portugal, Madère: Iles Açores, Paris, 1935. QUINTINHA, Julião, Vizinhos do Mar, Lisboa, 1923. RAMBLES, in Madeira, and in Portugal in the Eearly Part of MDCCCXXVI, London 1827. RAMOS, Acúrcio Garcia. Ilha da Madeira, Lisboa, 1879. REID, William, Alfred Reid. Madeira. A Guide Book of Useful Information, London REI, Manuel Alberto, Como eu vi a Madeira sob o Aspecto Florestal, Figueira da Foz, 1939. RENDELL, J. M., Concise Handbook of the Island of Madeira with Plan of Funchal and Map of the Island, London, 1881. RIBEIRO PEREIRA, João Óscar. Recordando uma Viagem, Funchal, 1952. RIBEIRO, Emanuel Paulo Vitorino. Terra Nossa, Porto, 1936. RIDDELL, Maria. Voyages to the Madeira and Leeward Caribbean Isles, Edimburgo, 1792. ROCHA, Hugo. Primavera nas Ilhas. Crónicas dos Açores e da Madeira, Angra do Heroísmo, 1936. ROUNDELL, Charles. A Visit to the Azores with a Chapter on Madeira, London, 1889. S., F. R. G. Wanderings in West Africa, Londres, 1863. SARMENTO, Alberto Artur. A Proposito do Grande Brotero, 194? SCHODDUYN, René. Contribution pour l'Hydrobiologie des Iles de Funchal et Porto Santo, Caminha, 1927. SEQUEIRA, Manuel Braz. Argumento a Favor da Arborização Obrigatoria das Serras da Ilha da Madeira, Funchal, 1913. SERPA, António Ferreira de. Mónaco e Portugal, Porto, 1925. SILVA, Fernando Augusto da. O Revestimento Florestal do Arquipélago da Madeira, Funchal, 1946. SILVA, Mariana Xavier da. Na Madeira. Offerendas, Lisboa, 1884. SMITH, Emily Geneviève. A Panoramic View of the City of Funchal, in the Island of Madeira, Weymouth, 1844. SMYTH, Piazzi. Madeira Meteorologic, Edinburgh, 1882.

SPILSBURY, F. B. Accont of a Voyage to the Western Coast of Africa, London, 1807. SPRINGETT, W. S. Pitt. Recollections of Madeira, London 1843. STANFORD, Charles Thomas. Leaves from a Madeira Garden, London 1909. STAUNTON, George-Thomas. An Authhentic Account of an Eembassy from the King of Great Britain to the Emperor of China, London, 1797. STEELE, Robert. A tour Through Part of the Atlantic, London, 1810. TAYLOR, Ellen M. Madeira, its Scenery, and how to See it, London 1882. TAYLOR, Fitch W. The Flag Ship or a Voyage Around the World in the United States Frigate Columbia, New-York, 1840. TEIXEIRA, Luiz. Reportagem, 1932. THOMAS-STANFORD, Charles. Leaves from a Madeira Garden, London, 1910. TRIGO, Adriano A., Annibal A. Trigo. Roteiro e Guia do Funchal, Funchal, 1910. VALDEZ, Francisco Travaços. Africa Occidental. Noticias e Considerações, Lisboa, 1864. Six Years of a Traveller's Life in Western Africa, Londres, 1861. VELOZA, José Ezequiel. "O Fogo nas Serras foi de todos os Tempos", in Das Artes e da História da Madeira, Funchal, 1948-1949. WHITE, Robert, James Yate Johnson. Madeira. Its Climate and Scenery, Edimburgh, 1857. WHITE, Robert. Madeira. Its Climate and Scenery, London, 1851. WILDE, W. R. Narrative of a Voyage to Madeira, Dublin, 1840. Narrative of a Voyage to Madeira, Teneriffe and Along the Shores of the Mediterranean, Including a Visit to Algiers, Egypt, Palestine, Tyre, Rhodes, Telmessus, Cyprus and Greece, Dubin, 1840. WINTER, A Winter in Madeira and a Summer in Spain and Florence, New York, 1850. WORTLEY, Lady Emmeline Stuart. A Visit to Portugal and Madeira, London, 1854.

Aguarelas, estampas e desenhos da Madeira sécs. XVIII-XIX
As gravuras madeirenses são maioritariamente do século do século XIX e de mão inglesa. Note-se que de centúrias anteriores são apenas registadas seis. A maioria situa-se no período curto de pouco mais de trinta anos (1821-1858). As gravuras fazem parte de registos de viagem ou de tratados científicos. Tudo isto porque a Madeira apresenta-se neste momento como um eixo fundamental para a navegação e contactos entre a Inglaterra e as suas colónias na América e no Índico. Também a ilha se transformou rapidamente numa estância de turismo terapêutico que acolhe doentes de tísica de diversas proveniências. Aristocratas, cientistas e aventureiros acodem à ilha à procura do seu clima ameno para alívio e cura das doenças. Neste intervalo procuram descobri-la nas suas paisagens, na riqueza e variedade da sua flora. A posição da Madeira justifica esta desmesurada valorização inglesa que excede muitas vezes a das suas colónias das Caraíbas. Perante estas evidências a Madeira entrou rapidamente no universo da ciência europeia dos séculos XVIII e XIX. Ambas as centúrias são momentos assinaláveis de descoberta do mundo através de um estudo sistemático da fauna e flora184. Daqui resultará dois tipos de literatura com públicos e incidências temáticas distintas. Os textos turísticos, guias e memórias de viagem, apelam ao leitor para esta viagem de sonho à redescoberta deste recanto do paraíso que se demarca dos demais pela beleza incomparável da paisagem, variedade de flores e plantas. Tenha-se em conta que algumas colecções são feitas para deleite de alguns dos seus apreciadores, que figuram em lista que as antecede. Assim sucede com os desenhos de James Bulwer (1827), Andrew Picken (1842), W. S. Pitt Springett (1843), Frank Dillon (1850), J. Eckersberg (1853-1855)185. Já os tratados científicos aportam na divulgação deste recanto através daquilo que o identifica. As técnicas de classificação das espécies da fauna e flora têm aqui um espaço ideal de trabalho. Hoje a riqueza pictórica da ilha é devedora desta situação, existindo valiosas colecções separadas ou em livro. No primeiro grupo enquadra-se a maioria e riqueza da colecção de gravuras inglesas. De entre estas podemos destacar as de Andrew Picken (1840), Rev. James Bulwer (1927), P. H. Springett(1843), J. Selleny, Susan V. Harcourt (1851), Frank Dillon (1856), R. Innes, Joahn F. Eckersberg. Os temas são comuns a todos os intervenientes. O Funchal apresenta-se através da sua baía e o deslumbramento do casario da encosta tudo em várias perspectivas ou nos pormenores mais característicos de sua arquitectura - A Sé, Os Conventos de Sta. Clara e S. Francisco

184

. Mary L. Pratt (19--), Stafford (1984), pp. 565-634.
185

. Estampas, Aguarelas e desenhos da Madeira Romântica, Funchal, 1988.

O interior da ilha mantém a mesma insistência em algumas localidades que mais chamam à atenção do visitante e se encontram no traçado nas rotas de visita: Cabo Girão, Curral das Freiras, Encumeada, Boaventura, Rabaçal. O quadro natural tem em Rev. W. V. Harcourt (1851), John F. Eckersberg e Rev. James Bulwer (1827) os seus mais fieis e atentos observadores. A visão é atente e em alguns casos parece-se com um registo fotográfico. As perspectivas aproximam-se da realidade e o quadro enche-se com dados de observação directa. A vegetação é rainha logo seguida das quedas de água. Em quase todos o homem é uma presença obrigatória a sua pose é de contemplação, de êxtase face as belezas que o rodeiam, e raramente de total integração no conjunto. Mesmo assim esta presença, a pé ou cavalo, é secundária e anicha-se quase sempre no canto esquecido186 Através de algumas estampas e gravuras é possível descortinar a presença de algumas espécies arbóreas. Aquelas que assumem valor alimentar- como a vinha e a bananeiraassumem algum destaque, seguindo-se o dragoeiro. Todavia toda a tenção está desviada para a natureza selvagem que se afirma como o cumulo da beleza187. Os retratos do quadro natural madeirense não são tão variados nos temas, mas sim nos motivos e pormenores que enquadram e dão harmonia ao conjunto. A grande atenção está nas encostas onde o casario se entrelaça ou não com o arvoredo. O céu, a luz188, não pertencem ao universo destes artistas, pois aquilo que mais clama pela sua atenção são as encostas e o litoral abruptos, onde se anicham as quedas de água, o homem, o casario e o variado arvoredo. este último quase que parece ausente das encostas e vistas próximas à cidade do Funchal. Aqui as encostas apresentam-se escalvadas. Os efeitos da acção do homem são notórios. Só quando se penetra no interior, em Encumeada, Curral das Freiras, Boaventura e S. Vicente se redescobre a exuberância da floresta. Aliás, é este o motivo fundamental que domina o pincel do artista. O sul está cheio de motivos e dominado sempre pela presença do homem e dos registos da sua acção como o casario, pontes, etc. No grupo de textos científicos a atenção reparte-se entre a flora, destacando-se a variedade de flores, e as formações geológicas. Estas últimas surgem com grande evidencia em Edward Bowdich (1825).

BIBLIOGRAFIA Estampas, Aguarelas e Desenhos da Madeira Romântica. Julho-Dezembro de 1988, Casa Museu Frederico de Freitas (Organização e textos Dr. Paulo de Freitas e Francisco Clode), Funchal, 1988. NASCIMENTO, João Cabral do, Estampas Antigas da Madeira: Paisagem-costumes-traje-edifíciosmarinhas, Funchal, 1935.
186

. Esta ideia vai ao encontro do que sucede na Europa. Confronte-se Barbara Novak (1980), pp. 184-189. . Confronte-se K. Thomas (1980), pp. 260. . Confronte-se B. Novak (1980), p. 23 e 233, Angella Miller (1993)

187

188

-

Estampas Antigas com Assuntos Madeirenses, in Arquivo Histórico da Madeira[AHM], Vol. II 1933, IV, 1934-1935.

MACEDO, Diogo de, Notas sobre Pintores Portugueses que Estiveram na Madeira, in AHM, VII, 1949. PEREIRA, João Camacho, Colecção de Gravuras Portuguesas, V Série: Ilha da Madeira, Lisboa, 1948. VIEIRA, Augusto Elmano, A Madeira nas Estampas da 1ª metade do Século XIX, Das Artes e Da História da Madeira [DAHM], Vol. I, n1 2, 1950.

LISTAGEM Aguarelas, estampas e desenhos da Madeira
LIVROS ILUSTRADOS
ASTLEY, General Collection of Voyages and Travels, London, 1745-1747, Xilografia a preto: the dragon tree. BOWDICH, T. Edward, Excursions in Madeira nd Porto Santo During the Autumn of 1823, While on his Third Voyage to Africa, London, 1925. Estampas sobre a Madeira: Franciscano, Vilões, Viloas, Garapas, Canarios-Ruivo-TorrinhasSidrão, Cabo Girão e Jardim da Serra, Curral das Freiras, Serras da Madeira, segmentos geológicos. BOWLES, Wm Lisle, the Spirit of Discovery. A Descriptive and Historical Poem, London, 1804. Gravura de I. Neagle: the tomb of Anna d'Arfet in the island of Madeira. BRASSEY, Lady, In the Trades, the Tropics & the Roaring, London, 1885. 23 ilustrações alusivas à Madeira. BULWER, Rev. James, Views in the Madeiras. Executed on Stone by ;esrs Westace, Nicholson, Harding, Nash, Villeneuve, Gancy & after Drawings made from Nature, London, 1827. Colecção de 26 estampas Litografias a preto: The Loo Rock; Funchal from the Chapel of Santa Catharina; The Peak Fort; View among the Moinhos; The District of Funchal, from the Mountains-path above the Alegria; The Waterfall; Ribeiro dos Socorridos; Jardin de Serra; Descent into the Curral; The Church of Nossa Senhora do Livramento in the Curral; Ribeira Brava; Calheta; Pico Ruivo, the Torrinhas from the Paul da Serra; Encommiade of St. Vicente; The Church of Ponta Delgada; Pico Ruivo from the high grounds of St. Jorge; Ribeiro de St. Jorge; Ribeiro Meyo-Metade; Santa Cruz; Machico, Cliffs on the North East Side of Point Lorenzo; The Valley of Porto-Cruz, from the Portella; The town of Porto Santo; Interior of Porto Santo, Fayal. COMBE, William (?). A History of Madeira, London, 1821. Gravuras - 26 a cores: Inside of a Cottage; Rural Toil; Peasants going to the Marcket; Manner of Cultivating the Ground; A Farmer and his Daughter going to Town; Rural Occupations; Peasants in usual Costume, Costume peculiar to some of the Western Inhabitants of the Island; Fishermen; Country Musicians; Manner of bringing Wine to Town when clear; Manner of drawing Pipes &c. by means of the Sledge; An accident upon the Road; A Prior of the Order of St. Francis, & a Lay Brother; A Franciscan Friar Collecting Donations for his Convent; A Franciscan Father on a Journey; Priest in different Attire; Lay Sisters of the Order of the Lady of Mount Carmel; A Nun and her Attendant; A Lady & her Servant going to Church; Usual Manner of Travelling in Hammocks; Manner of Visiting among the Ladies at Funchal; Members of the Senate; Official Dress of the Members of the Camera or Senate on the Death of the King and Accession of his Successor; An Officer & Private of the Garnison of Funchal; Drilling; West View of Loo Fort.

DILLON, Frank, Scketches in the Island of Madeira, London, 1850-1856. Colecção de 14 estampas a cores e p/b: Robert Machim's Cahpel, Machico-portuguese Cemetery, Funchal; View looking up the Santa Luzia River; Town of Funchal (from the East); The Pontinha from the West; View Near the Grand Curral; Convent da Encarnação from the Ponte Novo - View near the Praça da Constituição; Cama de Lobos; The Governor's House; Fort St. Yago; Funchal Cathedral from the Beach; Franciscane Convento, Funchal; Convento de Santa Clara. DIX, John A. (?), A Winter in Madeira and a Summer in Spain and Florence, New York, 1850 Litografias de H. Vanostrand: Ravine east of Funchal; Funchal from St. John's; House of Colombus. ECKERSBERG, Johan E. Assichten von derIinsel Madeira, Dusseldorf, 1840 Litografias - partir de pinturas: Penha d'Águia (Adlerfels), Funchal von Ostern, Funchal von Western, Rabaçal, Wasserfall bei S. Vicente, Curral, das Thal von S. Jorge, thal von S. Vicente, thal von Boa Ventura, Kabo Girão. FRANÇA, Isabella de, Jornal de uma Visita à Madeira e a Portugal 1853-1854, Funchal, 1970 (edição também em inglês). Colecção de 24 gravuras. GRABHAM, Michael C., the Climate and Resources of Madeira, London, 1870. Ilustrações de T.A.K.: Funchal from the Palheiro Road, the Hammock, the bullock-car, from the fountain. HARCOURT, Lady Susan Vermon, Scketches in Madeira Drawn from Nature & ou Stone, London, 1851. Colecção de 14 desenhos a cores e preto e branco: Funchal from the West-Funchal from the East; The Penha d'Aguia from the vista of Faial, Fort St. Thiago, Funchal - Ribeira Brava; Near Santa-Cruz-On the Palheiro Road; View on the road from Funchal to St. Anne's; View of Funchal from the Sea; Fruit MarketWasher-women; Street in Funchal-Ribeiro de Santa Luzia; Quinta at Santa Cruz; View in Funchal; View from Pico Arriero; View behind the Jesuits'College; View from the Deanery; On the Ribeira St. João-View from St. Martinho; Machico, Quinta at Santa Cruz, View from Pico Arieiro. Gravuras : Group of peasants, english burial ground, Funchal from the sea, oxen car, view of Funchal from Hollways cottage HOCHSTETTER, Dr. Ferdinand von, Madeira ein Vortag, Wien, 1861, 1871. Litografia de E. Hotzel: Ausicht des Pico do Gato (as Tows) vom Encumiada alta aus gegum gud, Vila Davies. MICNER, Rev. Thomas, The Gallery of Nature, London, 18... Litografias a preto de J. Dryton: Estroza, Pass Madeira, descent of the Curral. Madeira. PENFOLD , Jane Wallas, Madeira, Fruits and Ferns, London, 1845 Desenhado e colorido por Jane Wallas Penfold. The belladona lily, the custard apple, the banana fruit, the septre isoplexis, Omiltrofalum arabicum, the castor oil plant, the guava fruit tomato or love aple, the Eltriopian sichardia. PICKEN, Andrew, Madeira Ilustrated, London, 1840-1842 Oito estampas: Funchal from the East, Ravine of St. SJorge, Penha d'Águia, Câmara de Lobos. - História da Ilha pelo sr. James Macaulay e general information Litografias a cor: Ravina of Camara de Lobos, Curral, the Curral Madeira, Quinta do Monte Funchal from the bay, Funchal from São Lázaro , Rabaçal. Aguarelas: Fajã do Mar, Near the file, Ribeiro Socorridos, on the road to the Courals the Ribeiro Frio, on the Ravina of the cold river, Penha d'Águia, Bella vista, um vilão nas montanhas, AchadaCampanário PITTA, N. C., Account of the Island of Madeira, London, 1802.

Litografia de E. Mitchell: Dress of the country people in Madeira. ROUNDELL, Mrs Charles, A Visit to the Azores with a Chapter on Madeira, London, 1889. 4 ilustrações de Madeira: Porto Santo: aproach to Madeira, Cape Stramer leaving Madeira, View from Quinta Sarmento. S., W. S. P., Recollections of Madeira, London, 1843. Gravuras: feriado na serra, moinho na serra SCHACHT, Dr. Hermann, Madeira und Tenerife mit ihrer Vegetation, Berlim, 1859. Litografias: Funchal, gesehen von den wage nach den Angustias, Haide, Krauter auf Madeira. SMITH, Richard, Madeira and its Associations, London, 1869(?) Cinco xilogravuras de Swain: entrance to the island, centre of Funchal, Penha d'Águia, the Eagle's Rock, The Rabaçal, Blasting for A Levada or Watercourse. SPRINGETT, W. S. Pitt, Recollections of Madeira Dedicated to Mrs Geo Stoddart, London, 1843 Colecção de 15 estampas a cores e preto e branco: The Promessa or Wow; Waiting for Daybreak on the Serra; Belfry attached to the chapel of N. S. do faial, "The Signal"; Stranger's Grave; Mill at the Serra; English Chapel, Funchal; Interior of a "Venda" in the Serra of St. Antonio; The Lagar or Wine Press; Girl grinding corn; The Palanquin-The Hammock; The Xerola; A Portrait-Shepherds recolling cattle by the Buzio; Roman Catholic Priest- A Nun of the Convent of Santa Clara; Madeira Peasant Girl; Madeira Peasant Boy., the xerola. VALDEZ, Francisco Travassos, Six years of a travellers life in Western Africa, 2 volumes, London, 1861. Gravura: Pontal da Cruz. Isle of Madeira. -Africa Ocidental. Notícias e considerações, Lisboa, 1864. Estampas de Madeira: Vista da Cidade do Funchal, Palheiro (vista da casa tirada da Horta) na ilha de Madeira. VIZETELLY, Henry, Facts About Port and Madeira. With Notices of the Wines Vintaged Around Lisbon and the wines of Tenerife, London, 1880. 22 estampas sobre a Madeira. Tema dominante a vinha e o vinho. WHITE, Robert, Madeira, its Climate and Scenery Containing Medical and General Information forIinvalids and Visitors; a Tour of theIisland, etc.; and an Appendix, London, 1851. Gravuras a partir de desenhos de John Botcherby: Penha d'Aguia (eagles rock) from the Lamaceiros, Pontinha and Bay of Funchal from the west, village of Cama de Lobos and Cape Giram, Coast view, From Heights above the fossil-bed, Rocks and Cliffs near the fossil-bed, Funchal from above São Gonçalves. WOLLASTON, T, Vernon, Insecta Madeirensia, Being an Account of the Insects of the Islands of Madeira Group, London, 1894. Litografia.

COLECÇÕES DISPONÍVEIS NO MUSEU FREDERICO DE FREITAS (FUNCHAL)189

BIGGE, F. E., 1855 Aguarelas: Loo rock, Desertas of Madeira, little loural GELLATLY, J. Cinco litografias: Costumes of Madeira - Melada Boy, Villão or Peasant, Villoa or Country-girl, Burroqueiro or Male teer, Woman spinning. INNES, J. R. Cinco litografias: Madeira sledge, Madeira hammock, Palácio de S. Lourenço, Palanquim e vista do Funchal. Machico, Cliffs on the north east side of point Lourenzo, the valley of Porto da Cruz from Portella, interior of Porto Santo. MAY ,W., séc. XIX Aguarelas: sunshine on the rock (form below the new road), salto do Cavalo, Curral dos Romeiros, A Country men-bananas ROBLEY, Cap. J. H., 1845 Desenho: Cheias de uma ribeira SELLENY, séc. XIX Litografia: Bucke riber den Ribeiro Secco, Curral dos frades. Editadas em Viena por L. T. Neuman. Litografias: Catedrale in Funchal, Buckliber den Ribeiro Secco (Ponte do Torreão na Ribeira de Santa Luzia) Curral dos Fraies, Funchal. THORMAN, C., séc. XIX Litografia: Prospect mellen Rio Frio of St. Anna, Rio Frio, Portrait of en Flores, WESTALL, R. Gravuras a cores e preto e branco - the Paúl da Serra, mountains above the river St. Vicente, view in the mountains between Funchal and Fayal.

189 Consideram-se apenas as estampas soltas

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