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Ludhiana College of Engg. & Tech.



SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Under the Guidance of: Name: Mr. Manu Singh Designation: Sr. Manager Department: R & D (Tractor Testing) Submitted By: Name: Jaspreet Singh College Roll No: 1008 University Roll No. 40911007

Industrial Training is a most important part of study curriculum in engineering education field . I am a student of B.Tech in Mechanical Engineering at Ludhiana College of Engineering & Technology, Ludhiana and had underwent industrial training for SIX WEEKS in SONALIKA International Tractors Limited. So for the industrial training I have preferred Tractors Industries because of its bright future. INTERNATIONAL TRACTORS LTD. vill.Chackgujran, Hoshiarpur is one of the best firm , which has got ISO 9001 certificate in just two years of its establishment. The firm has acquired the state of the art technology from Renault Agriculture Ltd. France with whom they have collaborated. Now company has joint venture with Yanmar, Japan. The profits and growth of company is amazingly superb. In just three years of establishment the company is ranked in top positions. The Research & Development center of firm is completely modern with latest technology. The work force of company is highly skilled at the top level as well as at the floor level. At the same time the fresh graduates bring in the fresh ideas. The company is contributing its maximum to agricultural sector of country in terms of tractor & its implements. The second unit of company is engaged in making tractor implements which is again have strong hold in market. So I have preferred to join INTERNATIONAL TRACTORS LIMITED for SIX WEEKS training.

Any sustained effort by untrained minds in a new work environment requires for culmination, a guiding hand that shows the way. It gives me immense pleasure to be able to present this project report in the present form for which I am deeply indebted to Mr. Manu Singh who not only assigned me a responsible role in the project but also guided and encouraged me at important junctures in the project lifecycle. I am also thankful to Mr. Paramjeet Singh for his invaluable advice, suggestions and encouragement that he gave me throughout my project work. Under their able leadership and guidance, I was able to meet the goals of the project in time. I am grateful to International Tractors Limited, for providing me with an opportunity to work with them and undertake a project of such importance. This training and experience has not only enriched me with technical knowledge but has also imparted the maturity of thought and vision, the attributes required to be a successful mechanical professional. Sincere thanks to all my colleagues at ITL for their support and assistance through out the project.

Topic. 1. Preface 2. Acknowledgement 3. Contents 3. Company Profile 4. Tractor 5. Tractor assembly shop Differential housing assembly Gearbox assembly Rear cover assembly Main chassis assembly phase Paint phase 6. Gear Shop 7. Light machine shop (LMS) 8. Heavy machine shop (HMS) 9. Heat treatment shop 10. Quality control shop 11. Roller testing 12. Engine assembly Introduction Connecting rod & Piston Assembly Head assembly Main assembly Engine specification Engine testing 13. Research & Development centre

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Sonalika group started its journey of success during 1976 with foundation of small unit to fabricate and assemble wheat-harvesting machines. With the passage of time this small initiative taken by Mittals in 1976 turned into a great success due to the undaunted efforts of its promoters and thousands of employees who worked unaltered throughout. The great success provided further motivation ultimately resulting in setting up a new plant in the name of International Tractors Limited for the production of tractors as the demand and requirement of which was growing at a good pace. The plant which was set up at village Chak Gujran, Hoshiarpur and is spread over an area of 65 acres (approx.) And obtained the certificate of incorporation on 26 th, February 1996. Now Sonalika group consists of 3 companies: 1. SONALIKA AGRICULTURE INDUSTRIES 2. INTERNATIONAL TRACTORS LIMITED 3. INTERNATIONAL CARS AND MOTORS LIMITED International tractor ltd was incorporated on October 17,1995.It was established on 1996 1997. Now in Feb-March, the production rate of tractor is 100-125 per day. The total no of employees working in ITL is more than 3000.The total no of dealers of ITL in India & neighboring countries are 548. ITL have introduced 15 models of tractors. There are 5 regional offices in India, which are at Delhi, Patna, Ahmedabad, Manipur and Bhopal. Company got ISO 9001 certificate in April 1999 by ICL. Company is also running its own agriculture equipment making industries, which is producing thrasher, disk harrow, wheat harvester etc. They have got collaboration with Renault agriculture ltd. France. The main head office of ITL is at Mauritius.


The company had signed a tie-up with Yanmar, Japan. The MOU signed by ITL with Yanmar, Japan is a three-pronged collaboration, technical, financial and commercial. 5

International tractors ltd. Offer quality product with distinctive features at reasonable price .the company ensure better than the best after sale service for the satisfaction of the customer .the firm is ranked as best in terms of its quality and production front. Company is African countries. exporting its tractors to different Asian as well as


Recently the company has also obtained the ISO 9001:2000 certifications thereby becoming the only tractor company in Punjab to obtain such certification.

RECRUITMENT: Diploma/graduate engineers are recruited through Campus interview Employment exchange Advertisement Also the candidates up to particular level have to undergo a better of compulsory selection tests, which include Personality, aptitude test & a series of functional tests, by which competence of the candidates at the cognitive level is assured. Important factor considered while selecting an individual are the set of aptitude and values an individual possess , as this determines the ultimate adjustments between organization and employee. Many times vacancies are also filled by circulating the requirement internally, for e.g. the scheme of fast track to managerial carriers. with the necessary aptitude under goes a selection grades. test Candidates programmers based

assessment center methodology. Those who are successful can jump almost four

TRAINING AND LEARNING:All classes of employee are trained. Non skilled are trained to become skilled worker and skilled worker are trained to acquire multiple skills. Diploma and graduates engineers are trained for one year. There are special managements programmers and 6

classes. In addition to the job related training all employee attend self-development programmes.

The ITL Seeks to create a culture where each employee, vendor, and dealer feels himself responsible and integral part of the enterprises. The work culture at ITL is open & participative. Learning is encouraged in the company. Every member respects 5 S formulas. 1.Seiri 2. Seiton 3.Seiso 4.Seiketsu 5.Shitsuke

5s stands for the first five letters of the Japanese words:

1s 2s 3s 4s 5s


Sorting out, clearing, segregation, proper selection and remove the waste Systematic arrangement, keeping things at proper place. A place for every thing and every thing in its place. Cleaning. Keep all the work place area, equipment clean Standardizing, environment, cleanliness. Light, noise, punctuality. (Order and save time) Maintain discipline and standards To maintain above 4s,respect the rules.

The 5s also helps to develop and maintain a good organizational behavior. This program started in ITL from December 2000. The ultimate goal of house keeping through 5s is to reduce the cost of product by increasing productivity and contributing to total quality.

OBJECTIVES OF COMPANY 1. The main objective of the company is to bring the latest technology of high
quality and cost advantage to its consumers. By having a strong R&D and the fully computerized manufacturing facility, ITL ensures a non-stop supply of quality tractors. 7

2. Apart from the general objective, every department has their own objectives,
which are in tune with the main objective of the company. In that sense the main objective of R&D department is to have the best in product development with maximum utilization of the human resources available.


To achieve international standards of excellence in all aspects of agriculture and diversified business with focus on customer delight To maximize creation of wealthy value and satisfaction for the shareholders. To attain leadership in developing, adopting and assimilating state of the art technology for competitive advantage. To provide technology and services through sustained research and development. To faster a culture of participation and innovation for employees growth and conditions. To cultivate high standards of business ethics and total quality management for a strong corporate identity and brand quality.


As the name suggests, the company is related with the production of tractors and started its commercial production on October 14th, 1996. At present, the company is producing different models of tractors, which are: DI-730 DI-745 DI- 90 Etc. DI-35 DI-745III DI-740 DI-750-1 DI- 55 DI-750-III DI-750 DI-60 DI-750III DI-75

The monthly production rate of tractors is 3000 to 3800 tractors. The assembly shop is designed such as to assemble 140 tractors per day. The tractors manufactured by the company have secured a special place in the market because of their maximum pulling power and minimum fuel consumption and have achieved a reputation for performance and quality. At present the company has a strong nationwide network of more than 528 dealers. This distribution of dealer network has helped the company to provide sales and services to its customers. The company is catering to the market throughout not only India but also various other countries like Nepal, Sri Lanka and South Africa, Nigeria, Zimbabwe.

Tractor-A brief introduction

A wheeled, self-propelled vehicle for hauling other vehicles or equipment and for operating the towed implements; also, a crawler, which runs on an endless, self-laid track and performs similar functions. A farm tractor is a multipurpose power unit. It has a drawbar for drawing tillage tools and a power takeoff device for driving implements or operating a belt pulley. The acreage to 10

be worked, type of crops grown, and the terrain all impose their requirements on tractor design. Accordingly, models vary in such details as power generated, weight, ground clearance, turning radius, and facilities for operating equipment. All models can, however, be grouped under four general types: four-wheel, row-crop or high-wheel, tricycle, and crawler. Tractors are rated by their horsepower they deliver at the drawbar and at the belt. On small models, the drawbar and belt horsepower may run as low as 10 (7.5 kW); on large models the drawbar horsepower runs as high as 132 (98 kW), while belt horsepower reaches about 144 (107 kW). The major components are engine, clutch, and transmission. These components are intimately related and designed to work in conjunction with each other to accomplish specific work. Tractor engines are relatively low-speed; their maximum horsepower is generated at crankshaft speeds in the neighborhood of 2000 rpm. These engines have one, two, three, four, six, or eight cylinders and operate on gasoline, kerosene, liquid petroleum gas, or diesel fuel. They are of the spark-ignition or diesel type, operating on the four-stroke-cycle principle, and are cooled by water or air. Power is transmitted to the rear wheels or to all four wheels. Drive to the front wheels is mechanical or hydrostatic, its purpose being to increase drawbar pull at the will of the operator. Transmissions have 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, or 12 forward speeds and one or two reverse gears. Clutch less hydraulic transmissions are also used, making it possible to shift gears while in motion. Vehicle speeds are low, ranging from slightly more than 1 mi/h (1.6 km/s) to about 18 mi/h (28 km/h) in high gear. The basic design of an industrial tractor for hauling and for operating construction equipment departs little from that of a farm tractor, and differences in design of models fit the vehicle to its intended work. Because high ground clearance is not needed for industrial work, the tractor is commonly built with a lower center of gravity and is capable of traveling a few miles per hour faster than a farm tractor. If its use is confined to hauling, it may not be equipped with hydraulic power. If it is to be used for operating a scraper, backhoe, or front-end loader, its structure may be heavier and more rugged.

Engine can be called as heart of automobile. Engines are used for different purposes. The engine used in INTERNATIONAL TRACTORS is of these types. The engine fitted in 740 DI is made by SYMPSONS, which are imported. The engine in 740 11

& 760 models are assembled in the engine assembly shop. The engine in 50 & 60 H.P. are of two types one is standard model and its design is taken from ZETOR of Checkosolavia and other is fuel efficient model in which crank case and head design is taken from AVL (Auto Vehicle Ltd.0 of Austria). Due to better performance of F.E. model engines the production of standard engines is stopped now. The engine shop of INTERNATIONAL TRACTOR LTD. is well furnished with latest fitting and checking instruments. . The workers in this shop are of high skill level and have lot of experience. The production of shop is about 50 engines per day and can be increased if required. All the component of engines except crankcase is brought from outsides. The shop is having latest engine testing shop and having latest equipment. In testing shop engine is checked for efficiency, specific fuel consumption, power, torque, leakage, rpm and other faults.


In this assembly we have to take four identical connecting rods are taken whose weight isnt differing by 10 grams. For that every connecting rod is weight and group of same weight connecting rod are kept separately. If there is difference in weights (more than 10gms) then it may cause vibration and stress over gudgeon pin. The four connecting rods are marked with identical marks. The piston is assembled to connecting rod with piston pin and locked with the cir-clip. The problem that may occur is that piston pin may not go easily. This problem can be removed by rubbing the pin by sand paper. Three rings are used in piston. Two top rings are used to maintain the compression and third is required for lubrication. The lubrication rings is having a groove in its center and spring is inserted into it. The spring acts as reservoir of lubrication and continuously applies oil to sleeves.


Wash the cylinder head block with diesel and dry it with air. Put the cylinder head on fixture and press injector holder bush into it with the help of hydraulic press. Check the leaking of water jacket around injector bush with the help of pressurized air. Valve lapping is done with the help of valve lapping compound called as silicon carbide .The machine automatically prepare the seats. Pouring diesel into the seats checks the valve seats. If there is leakage then again valve lapping is done with inlet and outlet valve is position locate the valve inner spring and lock it. Similarly the outer spring is loaded and locked it, after this cylinder pins are pressed and rocker arm support stud are 12

reserved. Oil seal is put in the counter proved in water hole. This prevents the water leakage into head assembly.


The crankcase from H.M.S. is first of all cleared with water .The washing machine is rotary type which revolve the crankcase along with it and water nozzles from all direction clear any rust and chips. The washed cylinder is then dried in the same procedure in which instead of water nozzles, hot air is blown. The washed and dried crankcase is than loaded on to the trolley. The trolley is special made on bearing which can rotate the engine at any angle and engine can be fixed at any place. The assembly of engine is done in stage that is described as below: -

3.4.1 STAGE: -1
1.LOADING OF CRANKCASE AND AIR BLOWING 2.CYLINDER LINER FITTING: The liners available in I.T.L.. are of three grades i.e. A, B & C grades. The A grade liner has dimension of +12 microns, B grade has dimension of +24 microns and C grade has dimension of +36 microns. The cylinder lining has 2 seats one is for oil and other is for water. The grade sign of liner should be kept toward camshaft. 3.CRANK SHAFT FITTING: -First of all bush type liner are inserted into the bearing holes. The linear is provided with recess to store a minimum amount of oil, which wets the crankshaft during starting of engine. The bearing cup is opened and crankshaft assembly is placed into it. The bearing cup is tightened again with 10-12-kgm torques and crankshaft is checked, that it is revolving easily.

3.4.2 STAGE: -2
1.TIMING GEAR FITTING: -The idler gear shaft is pushed into the crankcase and roller type bearing with lock is inserted into the shaft. The idler timing gear is then pressed into the bearing. The timing gear is punched at two places and punched sign has to be matched with the punched mark on crankshaft.


2.PISTON ASSEMBLY FITTING: -The piston assembly is fitted into the linear and big end is tightened to the crankshaft with 8-10 kgm torques. The pistons are also grade as A, B, C has same that A-grade line is fitted with A-grade piston assembly. the grade mark should be towards camshaft. The piston ring cuts should be so adjusted that there should not be in same line.

3.4.3 STAGE: -3
1.LUBRICATING OIL PUMP MOUNTING: -The lubrication oil pumps connected to crank shaft gear by an idler gear of 2-3 degree. The crankshaft gear and pump gear are of 22 teeths each. The pump is provided with a relief valve that opens at 4 kgf forces. In case there is over loading or some thing injected in main oil gallery then pressure is released from this valve. 2.REAR COVER AND FRONT CAVER MOUNTING: -The rear cover and front cover are cleaned properly with air and then fitted to engine with seals in between.

3.4.4 STAGE: -4
1.CAM SHAFT FITTING: -The camshaft is inserted into the camshaft hole with bebaring and bolt ends are locked by circlip. The crankshaft is forged from alloy steel or cast from hardened cast iron and is case hardened. The one end of camshaft is provided with gear, which is linked with idler gear Z-50. for exact-ct timing the camshaft gear mark is matched with mark on ideal gear. 2.PUMP AND FLYWHEEL MOUNTING: -The flywheel is mounted the crankshaft and bolts are tightened with 11-12 kgm force. The F.I. pump is connected to the F.I.P. gear through the F.I.P. drive shaft. The F.I.P. drive shaft is special designed to advance the timing of injection. The both ends of F.I.P. drive shaft is provided with spline on one side a key is provide which is locked to timing gear and recess on other side is pushed into the the F.I.pump slots. The angle between the key and recess is of 18 degree. Thus the fuel injection is advanced by 18 degree

3.4.5 STAGE: -5
1.CYLINDER HEAD MOUNTING: -The cylinder head assembly is placed on the piston and studs are passed through it. If the height of piston at T.D.C. from the surface is more than 0.1mm than the gaskets of given thickness are used. If it is 0.1mm to 0.5mm than 14

1.2mm thick gasket is used. If it is 0.5mm to 0.8mm than 1.5mm thick gasket is used. Cylinder head nuts are tightened by 17-18 kg forces.

3.4.6 STAGE: -6
1.WATER BODY AND PULLEY MOUNTING: -The water body is mounted with thermostat control valve. The valves open at 70 Celsius. Thus engine is kept at correct temperature. The pulley is mounted on crankshaft. 2.WATER RETURN LINE EXHAUST FLANGE AND INLET MANIFOLD MOUNTING.

3.4.7 STAGE: -7
1.To complete the engine removes it from the trolley. Before removing the engine from trolley the base plate, filters and other accessories are properly tightened. Then the engine is removed to roller stand.

3.4.8 STAGE: -8
1.KEEP THE ENGINE ON STATIONARY FRAME. 2.ROCKER ARM FITTING: -The rocker arms with spherical followers are inserted into galleries and connected to the rockers arm. To compensate for thermal expansion the gap between inlet rocker arm and valve is adjusted to 0.2mm. The gap between exhaust valve and exhaust rocker arm is 0.25mm. 3.SELF-STARTED AND DYNAMO MOUNTING. 4.FUEL INJECTION PUMP MOUNTING AND SET FUEL INJECTION PUMP. The gear of F.I.P. is first of all meshed with the F.I.P. drive shaft (with recess) and is loosely tightened. To set the timing of gear first of all pointer is tighten on the crankcase and flywheel is rotated which is mashed for (6, 18, 20 & 24) angles. The pointer is set at 18 degree of flywheel and then the pump is rotated clockwise till the oil from first nozzles stop out flowing. At this position a cut mark is made on both the pump and crankcase for future settings. The pump is tightened properly and pipes are tightened over nozzles and injectors. The head of engine is covered with the covers and the complete engine is send to the engine testing shop.




DIRECT INJECTION 100 mm 110 mm 3456 cc 17:1 1-3-4-2 205 5 kgf/cm 25 + 1 B.T.D.C Inline Type With Mechanical 26 B.T.D.C 10 A.T.D.C 236 236 2-5 kgf/cm (2200 RPM AT 80 Two Stage With Oil Filling Water Cooled With Thermostat 73 LIT 12 LIT 0.6 LIT (MICO SYSTEM) Dry, Double Clutch Plate, Actuation, Through Heavy Duty Spring Ensuring. Longer Clutch Life At Constant Operating Pressure.


12 V/44 amp 12 V/4 H.P.


Engine testing is done for checking the performance of newly assembled engine to found out any assemble fault, their H.P., leakage and other faults. Engine testing shop of the I.T.L. is equipped with latest digital control equipments. The engine testing is done with help of turbine (water) or hydro dynamometer. The hydro 16

dynamometer are four in number so that four engine is tested at a time. The shop is equipped with heavy-duty oil filter, which is used to clean the oil from dust or other large particle. The shop has bush pump tester, which is used to test the pump if there are any fault. The engine power is measured on the bases of S.A.E. ratings. The society of automobile engineers U.S.A has specified the method of measuring the power output of the engine for standardized purpose. The engine is run without generator, air cleaner, cooling fan etc. However standard circulating pump, fuel pump is fitted to the engine. The horsepower of the engine is measured with dynamometer and measured values are then corrected for the standard pressure, ampere and humidity condition prescribed. 3.6.1 TESTING: Before starting the engine the, lubricating oil is filled into the engine and then engine is mounted on the fixture. The flywheel is directly attached to turbine through connecting shaft and engine is started. The engine is made to run for three hours to check the engines leakage and if there is any leakage then that fault is found out and again put into the testing and if again there is any fault then that engine is rejected. After minute running the tappet clearance is checked. Tappet clearance is to be kept .25.005. The clearance is necessary otherwise the thermal expansion of valve will alter the opening or closing of valve angles. After that engine is run at 2400 r p.m. m. for 2.30 hours and then the engine is run at various r.p.m. and loads to calculate the power, b.h.p. and s.f.c. . If the engine is seen to emitting too much smoke than smoke level is also checked. 3.6.2 POWER OUTPUT: The engine shop is having latest technology and all the information is available digitally. The load can be increased or decreased r.p.m. or s.f.c. can be changed from within the electronic cabin. Power test is done on 2200 r.p.m. (Maximum r.p.m. of engine is 2400) where torque is rated and is indicated on digital meter. The alteration in r.p.m. is made by varying the load and fuel supply is kept constant. The power is calculated as follows POWER = (R.P.MTORQUE)/(7023.746) H.P. If the power calculated from above formula comes lower than prescribed limit than usually fuel timing is altered. The fuel timing is altered with the help of F.I. pump. Usually the engine is tested on 18 Celsius advancement .By revolving the pump away from engine the timing is reduced and by revolving F.I.P. toward the engine the


time is advanced. The advancement usually lower down the power, so timing is reduced into possible limit to increase the power. 3.6.3 S.F.C: It is one of the most important parameter for engine comparing. It is defined as the ratio of amount of kg of fuel used per hour by the engine to power produced by the engine. S.F.C. = Constant = = = 297000 (297000) / (POWERTIME) Gm/B.H.P/Hr. fuel gravity volume of oil (100 cc) time 0.825 100 3600

3.6.4 TORQUE BACKUP TEST: It is capacity of engine for maximum load that after the engine r.p.m will decrease to zero. TORQUE (backup) = {T (max) T (rated)} / {T (rated)} 100 T (rated) is displayed by meter on 2200 50 r.p.m. and T (max) is displayed by meter at 1500 + 100 r.p.m. T (max) is found by loss of r.p.m and increased of torque. The engine is loaded till torque is max and after which the loaded cause drop in torque.

Research & Development Department

Research & Development department is playing most important role in growing of the company. Research & development centre is further divided into following three main parts: 18

R&D (Design) R & D (Protoshop) R & D (Testing) R&D (Design): This department deals with designing and modification of the
components, which will be subjected to testing. The designed components are developed and forwarded to Protoshop for fitment of components on tractor.

R&D (Protoshop): This department deals with the fitment of the components, which
are designed by R&D (Design). Tractors with new fitted components are given to testing department for testing purpose.

R&D (Testing): This department deals with the testing of the newly developed
components, simulation of field failures in the test labs and in the field. This department has huge circle of different activities, which lead to customer satisfaction by providing them best product quality. Following type of testing is done in this department: 1.) Static component testing 2.) Dynamic component testing

Both of testing fields consist of three types of testing: Performance testing Endurance testing Reliability testing

The testing department is equipped with latest instruments & test set-ups. Brief introduction to these set-ups is given below: -

Lab Test Set ups:

Transmission Test Bench 1 Transmission Test Bench 2 19

Marry Go Round setup P.T.O. Test setup Shock Test setup Hydraulic break valve test setup Hydraulic Lift Performance test setup Fender & operator seat test setup

Field Testing:
Field performance for Bench marking Comparative field trials Fuel consumption trials Haulage trials Puddling test Rotavation test Endurance test