Submitted to:M/s Ruchika Asst. Proff. NIFT, Jodhpur Submitted by:Ram Deo Bharti MFM 2nd Semester (2012-14)

National Institute of Fashion Technology Ministry of Textile Govt. of India


powered by a pioneering spirit unparalleled in the apparel industry. Headquartered in San Francisco. Despite ending the last two quarters of fiscal 2002 with strong sales. say reports. Despite its glowing heritage. Levi‘s sales this fiscal year will rise 2 to 5 per cent above last year‘s $4. revamping its executive force and cutting costs. Today. skirts and related accessories. speculate Levi‘s exec utives. women and children. jackets.‖ The turnaround is based on three parts: gaining control of the business. casual and dress slacks. to favorite fits and styles in our Red Tab™ and premium collections. 20 distribution or customer service centers. such as the famous Levi‘s® 501® Original jean. domestic production. Levi‘s execs attribute the downturn to being inattentive to consumer needs. the Levi‘s® portfolio offers a wide range of products with innovative fits. the Levi's trademark is one of the most recognised in the world and is registered in more than 160 countries. and numerous sales and marketing offices. Levi‘s® jeans are the original. shirts. the company brought in Philip Marineau in 1999. Since their invention by Levi Strauss & Co. the brand epitomizes classic American style and effortless cool. The company designs. manufactures and markets apparel for men. From quintessential classics. fabrics and finishes. Sold in more than 110 countries. a slide that began in 1996. including jeans and jeans-related pants. generation after generation. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY . the company‘s financial performance is less than stellar. ―The Great Levi Strauss & Co Turnaround. such as updating inventory systems. The Levi‘s® brand continues to evolve.000 people in more than 40 countries and owns and operates 21 production and finishing facilities. the company ended the year with its sixth straight annual sales decline and a steep slide in profits (down 83 per cent to $25 million).Introduction Founded in 1853 by Bavarian immigrant Levi Strauss. closing domestic factories in favour of overseas sourcing. according to experts. relying on its heritage. poor relationships with retailers and a decline in department store business – Levi‘s primary channel. LS&Co employs approximately 13. California.14 billion. he‘s instituted a number of major changes designed to improve relationships with retailers and increase margins. Levi‘s® jeans have captured the imagination and loyalty of millions of people.1 billion in 1996 when its revenues peaked. authentic jeans. Levi‘s has been battling to reverse its situation with a major 5-year business turnaround. inefficient logistics. Levi Strauss & Co (LS&Co) is one of the world's largest brand-name apparel marketers with sales in more than 100 countries and distribution from more than 500 contractors worldwide. allowing individuals around the world to express them. Since his hire. in 1873. To make this happen. down from $7. steadying sales and realising profitable growth and is aimed at stabilising revenues and expanding the business within the next few years.

Students choosing a university no longer rely on receiving prospectuses through the post. can visit. have yet to see the sales gains from innovation and are taking a wait-and-see attitude towards the Signature launch to see if Levi‘s is truly reconnecting with consumers. These products have all performed extremely well in the market. ―These products have led innovation in the category and after several years without any significant news in the khakis arena. instead.‖ Analysts. Introduction of Consumer Behaviour Consumer behaviour has changed dramatically in the past few decades. bringing relevant new interpretations of the brand‘s classic skinny and ―boyfriend‖ jeans to markets around the world. The result has been recent launches like Dockers stain-resistant extensions in chains. Its strategy must leverage brand equity and generate ―news‖ through relevant and innovative product offerings.‖ says Beckman. Marineau has stated that spring 2003 marks the first time the company will offer a women‘s jeans line that is equal to or better than the men‘s line. designer collaborations and the launch of a new premium business— Levi‘s® XX—featuring the new Levi‘s® Made & Crafted™ range and our Levi‘s® Vintage Clothing line. according to experts. In 2 000 the company segmented the marketplace better and designed and delivered relevant products and marketing programs to a broader range of consumers. which should propel the company in the right direction. Levi‘s Vintage Clothing and Levi‘s Red Tab in specialty stores. Levi‘s Premium and Special Edition at high-end department stores and trendy chains. they can sell these items via online auctions or their own personalised online NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY . and the Signature label through discounters. given men a compelling reason to get off the couch and go buy a new pair of pants. Reconnecting with consumers Key to reconnecting with consumers is that Levi‘s stops focusing entirely on its heritage and takes a multi-pronged approach to growing multiple brands globally. actual classes. Last year also ma rked the 75th anniversary of Levi‘s® invention of women‘s jeans. virtually. Many have replaced their daily newspapers with customised.In 2009. in some cases. online editions of these media and are increasingly receiving information from online sources. He also cites innovations from the Dockers brand in recent years like the Mobile Pants in 2001. Go! Khaki with Stain defender in 2002. however.and new Individual Fit Waistband technology in 2003. they have online access to all the pertinent information about a universi ty‘s courses and teaching staff and. ―New fits and innovative finishes in the Levi‘s brand have improved our brand relevance scores with consumers and helped us gain market share this year in the US men‘s jeans market. consumers can order online many customised products ranging from trainers to computers. instead. the Levi‘s® brand continued to delight customers with new products. Today. Type 1 and superlow-rise men‘s jeans. People wanting to sell their old computers or grandmother‘s antique table no longer need to advertise in the local newspaper or rely on a pricey auctioneer.

and those who wish to purchase a book published in another country no longer have to call foreign publishers or deal with the bureaucratic nightmare of overseas delivery. education. We use or consume on a regular basis food. above all. when they buy it. how often they use it. for production. government agencies (local and national). the impact of such evaluations on future purchases and how they dispose of it. purchasing. clothing. and institutions (e. marketers need to know everything they can about consumers – what they want. who purchases for his or her own personal use or for household use. they need not only to identify their target audiences. As consumers we play a vital role in the health of the economy – local. effort) on consumption related items. holidays. That includes what they buy. In each of these contexts. in the role of either buyer or user. The personal consumer buys goods and services for his or her own use. how often they buy it. The term consumer behaviour describes two different kinds of consuming entities: the personal consumer and the organisational consumer. hospitals and prisons). Consumers who want out-of-print books no longer have to visit out-of-the-way shops with hundreds of poorly organised dusty shelves. They need to understand the personal and group influences that affect consumer decisions and how these decisions are made. evaluating and disposing of products and services that they expect will satisfy their needs. but also to know where and how to reach them. Television viewers can now avoid the advertisement breaks by using the ‗skip‘ feature of their recorders and order on demand previously shown television programmes as well as films. what they think. schools. The second category of consumer – the organisational consumer – includes companies and charities. All of these new ways of selling products and services became available to consumers during the past 15 years and are the result of digital technologies. In order to succeed in any business. we are consumers. as individuals we are all unique. the success of some industries and the failure of others. all of which must buy products. However. how they evaluate it after the purchase. equipment and services in order to run their organisations. or as a gift for a friend. or both. And. Consumer behaviour focuses on how individuals make decisions to spend their available resources (time. The purchase decisions we make affect the demand for basic raw materials. equipment. End-use consumption is perhaps the most pervasive of all types of consumer behaviour. they affect the employment of workers and the deployment of resources. for it involves every individual. instead. Despite the importance of both categories of consumers – individuals and organisations – this book will focus on the individual consumer.advertisement. luxuries. national and international. who are referred to as end-users or ultimate consumers. And they also have another thing in common: they exist today because they reflect an understanding of consumer needs and consumer behaviour. the products are bought for final use by individuals. why they buy it. and especially in today‘s dynamic and rapidly evolving marketplace. necessities. shelter. in these days of ever-widening media choices. where they buy it. for transport. for banking. using.g. how they spend their leisure time. Clearly. The term consumer behaviour is defined as the behaviour that consumers display in searching for. for the use of the household. how they work. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY . they can visit online stores where they can easily locate and place orders for the books they seek. of every age and background. transport. one of the most important constants among all of us despite our differences is that. money. services and even ideas.

On the contrary a basic personality change is exceedingly difficult and. to describe individuals. we share certain characteristics with others because of our biological make-up. Thus. attitudes. characteristics. These two internal aspects are interdependent and cannot be isolated'. One of the most widely used is that by Allport according to which personality is defined as an `internal system' which includes all those aspects of a person that are inherited as well as those that are learned. personality is the result of a complex interaction of genetic and environmental inputs then every person is. beliefs and outlooks. Over the years many different definitions have been proposed. When we talk of personality. like some other persons 3.Personality Personality is defined as Individualistic. We may have described someone as having a `friendly personality'. you will find that some personality characteristics are dictated by heredity. our families and peers. it is necessary for you to note that. like no other persons In other words each person has some attribute in common with all other human beings and other. at some time or another. given that consumers differ on readily identifiable characteristics such as personality. The fundamental question of concern to marketers has been that. by how individuals acquire their behaviour patterns. along with the groups and institutions from which that culture is acquired. since learning contributes to personality formation. you may be `relaxed and easy going' because your parents were similarly so. This does not mean. as stated. someone else as having an `aggressive personality'. friends and associates.1 which highlights the origin of personality traits: Some theorists believe that personality differences can be explained primarily. Smart. AN OVERVIEW OF PERSONALITY: ITS NATURE AND THEIR APPLICATION TO CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR All of us. totally unique qualities. Trendy. the personality is not fixed because. Lavish. slows to occur. or a smiling face. also. Thus. and our early conditioning. has a positive attitude towards life. however. however. in other words. at personality is unstable or is subject to abrupt changes. Thus. Sometimes we go to the extent of saying that someone has a `personality problem'. If. we do not just mean that a person is charming. i. are important reference groups that influence our own personality characteristics. You will see this illustrated in Figure 8. if not completely. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY . The term personality is used. Furthermore. For instance. in certain respects: 1. A second important factor that impinges on our personality formation is the culture in which we were raised. have described friends or acquaintances in terms of their personalities.e. habits. Personality is a much more dynamic concept which describes the growth and development of an individual's whole psychological system. like all other persons 2. and Upper Crust. motives. how do these factors influence their consumption behaviour? As you know the personality is the composite sum of an individual's psychological traits. learning itself is a continuous process'.

1. Each of these theories has played a prominent role in studying the relationship between consumer personalities and their behaviour. 3) Personality is. there are at least four distinct approaches that are known to have implications for developing the marketing mix and for segmentation. Unique combinations of individual characteristics result in variations in thought and behaviour and these tend to differentiate one person from another. refer to Figure 8. aggressiveness. 2) Personality is a set of response tendencies that are consistent and endure over time. also. list four or more personality characteristics where you are like some of your friends. subject to change over time. As a concept applied to marketing. we cannot expect to predict the type of furniture a person will own. The difficulty inherent in trying to understand uniqueness has led to an emphasis on such measurable characteristics as intelligence.For your purpose you should think of personality as the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts. Here again. While there is no agreement on exactly how personality influences behaviour. Consistency is essential if marketers are to predict consumer behaviour in terms of personalities. merely by looking at specific personality. This enables us to categorize people into groups on the basis of a single or a few traits. list down six or more personality characteristics of your's which no person around you appears to possess. however. 2) Next. characteristics. of six or more personality characteristics that you would say are inherited from your parents. 3) Finally. These theories are: 1) The Psychoanalytic Theory of Freud NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY . and sociability. in response to situations and events in life and. it is not possible to predict an individual's purchase behaviour from single measures of personality. The stable nature of the underlying personality characteristics also suggests that it is unreasonable for marketing practitioners to attempt to change consumer‘s personalities. Consistency means that the characteristics contributing to an individual's personality tend to carry over to a variety of situations. as part of a gradual maturing process. 4) Finally. personality can be viewed as having following distinct characteristics: 1) Personality is used to account for differences between individuals rather than show how people are alike. Theories of Personality There are several theories that have been proposed on personality. At best they can attempt to appeal to the relevant personality traits inherent in target groups of consumers. Activity 1 1) Make a list below.

2) Social-Psychological Neo-Freudian Theory 3) Trait Theory 4) Self-Concept Theory NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY .


For instance. They manufacture their jeans and cuttings to fit each gender specifically. hence when consumers put on a pair of Levi‘s jeans. Income The target audiences of Levi‘s are from a middle to higher income range where they have a higher purchasing power. Levi‘s jeans are tailored to fit and suit each individual. they specially target the younger generation which age group falls between 15-30 years (Our Course Work 2011). In this case. feeling good in a pair of Levi‘s jeans.Segmentation Targeting and Positioning Target Audience Gender Levi‘s target both the male and females genders. and wear jeans as fashion. individualistic. The comprehension of their advertising message is correlated with intelligence where they use catchphrases and images to bring across their messages to individuals. hence. stylish and lasting the jeans is and the feel good factors of owning a pair of Levi‘s jeans. In Levi‘s. Age Levi‘s has a huge product line where they provide a wide range of products for children to adults. stylish and sophisticated. a pair of Levi‘s jeans ra nges between S$85. In order to reach out to their target audience. the need that Levi‘s focuses on is through self -esteem (Bay n. they target those individuals who are able to afford to purchase the brand.d. understand and appreciate the meanings and messages of the advertisements. rebellious. On the average. Levi‘s portrays their advert isements for their jeans as original. Their target audiences are younger. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY . However.50 to S$155. they would have a sense of belonging and this would boost their self-esteem and confidence. fresher. target audiences have to assess the cognitive capacity to understand and interpret the meaning of the advertisement Levi‘s has. and masculine sexy and freedom. As a result. Education The advertisements of Levi‘s are targeted at individuals who are middle to highly educated. Consumer Needs According to Maslow‘s Hierarchy of Needs. youthful. their advertisements are exclusively published in unisex magazines such as JUICE to attract both genders. advertisers aim to use the self-esteem needs of individuals to emphasise on how fashionable. they have Levi‘s Engineered specifically for male and Levi‘s Curve for females (Levi‘s 2009). The prices of Levi‘s products are relatively high. Hence. In such. Levi‘s target audience are of secondary level and above where they are able to interpret. Levi‘s advertisements tend to be creative and deliver messages that represent their target audiences.).50.

Levi‘s advertisers are appealing to the Experiencers. comfort and never goes out of fashion over the years. enthusiastic and impulsive consumers where they seek variety and excitement. They are young. With the characteristics of Experiencers. On to p of that. Consumer Personality The personality traits of Levi‘s consumers are individualistic. giving comfort to their consumers. advertisers portray that Levi‘s jeans are made with good quality that are lasting. It is vital that Levi‘s jeans are of good quality. Therefore. Hence. the consumer motivation that advertisers are appealing to their consumers woul d be the desire of having a pair of good quality jeans. hence it was often thought as unfashionable. Levi‘s advertisements also show that their jeans are so comfortable that consumers are reluctant to remove the jeans for laundry. easy to handle. Levi‘s consumers will be attracted to the design. To address such wants in consumers. style and how Levi‘s brings across their messages through their creative advertisements. As such. Levi‘s emphasizes on being a rugged. trendy and fashionable and at the same time. in Levi‘s advertisements. boring and dull. Levi‘s is often seen as a ‗mummy jeans‘ or work -wear by many consumers. entertainment and socialising (Strategic Business Insight 2011). Likewise. sophisticated and youthful. confident.Consumer Wants Levi‘s consumer wants a pair of jeans that is of good quality. advertisers are determined to change the attitude consumer has of Levi‘s. they use catchy phrases such as ‗Easier to handle than your boyfriend‘ in their advertisements indicating that it is easy to handle and it can ‗Last longer than your husband‘. In addition. with catchy and witty advertising. savouring the new. they are avid consumers who are willing to spend a high proportion of their income on fashion. originality. the offbeat and the risky. Now. Levi‘s would be able to pique the interest of their consumers. individualistic and laid back brand. Their advertisements constantly aim to reinforce the youthful perception of the brand by using messages containing humour and originality to create a positive attitude from consumers. Consumer Motivations In Levi‘s case. and the assurance that their designs are young and trendy. Levi‘s advertising personality has similar traits of their consumer‘s personality. According to the VALS system which uses a specific set of psychological traits and key demographics that drive consumer behaviour. In addition. fashionable and comfortable. Levi‘s is able to tap on their impulsiveness and their higher purchasing power to convince them to purchase their product through Levi‘s advertisements. Psychographics Psychographic influences lifestyle and psychological characteristics that have a bearing on how people make decisions. Consumer Attitudes Consumer attitudes can be changed and replaced. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY .

with reference to Levi‘s advertisements. positioning differs between countries and market segments. Levi‘s also emphasise on the comfort it gives to its consumers where it is comfortable enough to fit into consumers‘ everyday lives in physical and social sense. 248) Positioning strategies generally focuses on either the consumer or the competition. It positions itself as affordable with comparable quality against competitors such as Calvin Klein Jeans. Levi‘s is at the maturity stage where competition in the industry is intense (Jain and Haley 2009). it is essential for Levi‘s to emphasise on the usage of persuasive and reminder advertising. Levi‘s advertisements perceive itself as durable. in America and Europe. using catchphrase like ‗Last longer than your husband‘ shows that their jeans are durable. and both approaches involve the association of product benefits with consumer needs. Levi‘s is positioned as a better value and quality than its competitors. (Wells 2009. Many advertisers consider market positioning the most important factor in establishing a brand in the market place (Blech 2009). For example. in Russia. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY . wearing jeans indicates to society awareness and high status (Vrontis and Vronti 2004). It determines what place a product should occupy in a given marketplace. According to the Product Life Cycle. For instance. Generally. Hence. casual. jeans are seen as casual attire however. In addition. Perceptual Map In relation to the perceptual map above.Positioning Positioning is to establish a location in the consumer‘s mind based on what the product offers and how that compares with the competition. affordable. fashionable and youthful.

An emotional appeal is related to an individual‘s psychological and social needs for purchasing certain products and services. whereby they would particularly seek for opinions and ideas and keep up with the latest trend that is published in the magazine. Therefore. the power to influence the mind and shape destiny. In the facet of effects model. Mitchell and wells 2008. it consists of six components that are perception. Perception Perception is the process by which we receive information through our five senses and assign meaning to it such as exposure. As for 8 days. Exposure refers to whether a marketing communication message reaches the consumers. an effective ad is one that delivers the message the advertiser intended and consumers respond as the advertiser hoped they would (Moriarty. and usually this group of people happens to fall within Levi‘s target market range which is 18-30 years old. Hence. therefore it not only captures the attention of Levi‘s main target group but also the remaining mass. The message conveyed through advertising appeals influences the purchasing decisions of consumers. emotions. readers of this particular magazine are usually interested in new products and the latest happenings of movie stars and idols with readers ranging from 18-40. interest and relevance. it conveys a chain of message through the limited choice of words such as ―last longer than your husband‖ to convey the message long lasting instead of just directly and straight forwardly use the word.Motivation Advertising appeals aim to influence the way consumers view themselves and how buying certain products can prove to be beneficial for them. It has the power to change markets and improve profit margins (Thomas n. they can be found in either the Juice magazine or 8 Days magazine. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY . in the three advertisements. selection and attention. 156). The fundamental to the measurement of the effectiveness of interactive advertising is whether consumers are indeed responding and providing feedback.). cognitive and behaviour (Facet Model of Advertising n. 72). For the three Levi‘s advertisements. awareness and lastly recognition (Moriarty. Many consumers are emotionally motivated or driven to make certain purchases. the readers of this magazine are usually fashionista.). Therefore publication of ad in this magazine represents that the designs that Levi‘s produce are up and on par with the current fashion goings. Learning Advertising has the power to persuade.d. For Juice magazine. persuasion. In the series of advertisements that Levi‘s produces. Besides. therefore it would be able to achieve effective exposure due to the ability to send out its message in the ad to their main target market.d. the facet of effects model is used to determine and show the effectiveness of ads that shows how the market gets attracted and make general opinions about them. Advertisers aim to cash in on the emotional appeal and this works particularly well where there is not much difference between multiple product brands and its offerings (Different types of advertising appeals 2009). association. there are very little information shown about the product and they rely heavily on their soft selling strategy that appeal to the consumer emotions rather than hard selling that requires a lot of facts and information to persuade the consumer into buying the product. Mitchell and wells 2008.

They make use of pictures.The next factor that drives perception is selective attention in which it is a process by which a receiver of a message chooses to attend to a message (Moriarty. it is important that an ad stands out in order to capture the attention of the audience amid all the clutter in the media environment. so that it does not come off as too direct and boring. recognition is a measure of perception and is used to determine awareness (Moriarty. and besides. the ad would then tend to stick to the audience‘s mind for a longer period of time as well. therefore triggers the consumer to visit the stores to try and feel the cutting of the whole package of the pair of Levi‘s jeans. The Levi‘s advertisements are created in such a way that it brings out the key points and qualities of their pair of jeans. 157). but neither does it appear to be difficult for the consumers to figure out the meaning behind it. 156). creating a positive impression and feeling about their brand. The three different ads. thus when consumers look at the ad. creates liking and elicits feelings (Moriarty. Mitchell and wells 2008. Mitchell and wells 2008. 156). Affective/Emotions Affective responses mirror our feelings about something and it describes something that stimulates wants. This act of the ad would then be able to hold and capture the audience attention and interest for that particular moment as they decipher the whole ad. Achieving the audience attention are just the fundamentals. 156). Though being straight forward. With high competition level in the fashion industry. which means the receiver of the message has mentally engaged in some way with the ad and the product (Moriarty. though trying to send out different message. The third factor is interest and relevance which refers to a factor in crossing the selection barrier is interest. it is not difficult for the audience to achieve the ―recall‖ factor as the key points and features are distinctive. With the signature red tab logo and ―m‖ arch logo and for the fact that they have been in the market for a relatively long period of time. Thus Levi‘s ad often uses the key colors and logo to reinforce again and again that when a person wish to buy a pair of jeans. ultimately inducing the consumers to make the purchase. Awareness is when an advertisement makes an impression of where something registers (Moriarty. Mitchell and wells 2008. they are able to recall almost instantly the brand name and products. Lastly. but to capture and hold the audience interest long enough to register the ad is the challenge. Association NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY . signature logos. the ad often includes a twist in it. Levi‘s have been very straight forward and clear cut in the message that it wants to send across. Levi‘s signature red tab logo and the ―m‖ arch logo has been distinctive. thus minimizing the risk of getting their ad being filter out as junk and non-interesting when the consumer browses through the magazines. touches the motions. Mitchell and wells 2008. Mitchell and wells 2008. Advertisements therefore evokes feelings that could results in wants and liking from the consumers towards a particular product or brand. the first brand that they would think of is non-other than Levi‘s. they have been rather consistent with the key points advertised as it wish for these key points such as Levi‘s represents quality to sink into the consumers mindset permanently. and with such effort. 156). it all aims to reinforce the key qualities of a pair of Levi‘s jeans. denim backgrounds that are distinctive enough for the consumers to pick out the brand behind the ad almost instantly.

cognitive processing compliments feeling and thinking (Moriarty. Mitchell and Wells 2009. they focus on sophistication and quality of their jeans which enabled them to create a positive impression and feeling about their brand hence. Levi‘s is able to differentiate itself through its brand logo and the way they convey their message through their advertisements. computers and major appliances. In addition. thus it is the primary tool used in brand communication. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY . Their advertisements have achieved recognition through their copy points where consumers are able to recall the advertisement message. In Levi‘s advertisements. Mitchell and wells 2008. It is the process of learning to make symbolic connections between a brand and desirable characteristics and qualities (Moriarty. Levi‘s has been quite successful in this area. Adding on. 162). Persuasion Persuasion is the conscious intent on the part of the source to influence or motivate the receiver of a message to believe or do something. especially with their signature red tab logo that is sewn to the right butt pocket of the jeans and the ―m‖ arch threading on both the butt pockets. motivating consumers to purchase and creating conviction. The advertisements require a low-involvement from consumers since it has little process of responding to the message or decision making. and remember the good quality the pair of jeans provides for the owners. Persuasive communications create and change attitudes and create convictions which are important goals of most marketing communication (Moriarty. remember seeing the advertisement or the brand. 163). It is so successful that one look at it. Cognitive Cognition refers to how consumers search for and respond to information.Association is the technique of communicating through symbolism. consumers are able to associate Levi‘s jeans to it. as well as how they learn and understand the ads. 159). Levi‘s advertisements focus more on consumers‘ emotions rather than the rational aspect of providing facts. It applies to large purchases such as cars. Consumers can easily understand and interpret advertisements as they are direct and straightforward. information and explanations of their products. Mitchell and Wells 2009.

The goal of the advertisement is to get people to try or buy their product (Moriarty. hence motivating and influencing them to purchase the product.Behaviour The behavioural response involving action of some kind is the most important goal in advertising.just-style. Curtin Singapore Advertising Principle 211 Ad Book. 3. For 2. they use catchphrase like ‗Last longer than your husband‘ to pique consumers curiosity on the durability of their jeans. Levis Strauss and Company. References 1. Levi‘s uses ‗call to action‘ in their advertisements where they convince and motivate consumers to purchase through their advertising message. Annual Report 2009. www. Mitchell and Wells 2009. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY . 165).