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PERCEPTION, ATTITUDE, DECISION MAKING AND GROUP INFLUENCE ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR
Pooja Chaurasia. M.F.M. 2nd Sem.
social class. Although the distinction between sensation and perception is not that easy as it was believed in former times. values. touching. age. sight and sound. tasting.PERCEPTION Introduction: Our modern world is very complex. and so is the business world. how consumers perceive and how this scheme can be used by marketers. events or relations. etc. Successful marketers use those senses to stimulate consumers to examine a product. a rough distinction can be made. etc. smelling and sensing. interpret and store the stimuli. But as there are so many different stimuli only a small portion of them are noticed and an even smaller amount can really reach our attention. colour. . Through these senses we can perceive things. But what is even more important than the different stimuli itself is how consumers perceive. What is perception? In general. These influences can be religion. with each one forming an individual opinion about the stimuli (agents. Individuals are continually receiving “messages” through the five senses: touch. which are seeing. action or conditions that elicit a response) being received. This work will describe what perception is. process. People’s perception of something can vary greatly from person to person. Perception is one of the key psychological factors that influence consumer behaviour. taste. perception is gathering information through our senses. Perception is the process by which these stimuli are selected. gender. And that’s why it is necessary to talk about the difference between Sensation and perception. ethnic group. smell. hearing. organized and interpreted. There are many things that influence the behaviour of the consumer. Sensation is the immediate response of our sensory receptors to such basic stimuli as light.
In other words. FEATURES There are several factors that can influence the role of perception in consumer behaviour: exposure to stimuli. television and radio advertisements or other advertising media. Depending on consumers’ perception. Marketers use perception to target people’s need to fit in and be part of a larger group of discerning consumers. interpretation of said stimuli and the ability to identify changes in the intensity of stimuli. People wish to be perceived as having the ability to make the “right” choices and pick the “right” products. thus creating distinct perceptions of each product. each product can be received quite differently: favourably. less favourably or not at all.FUNCTION In marketing. Marketers must distinguish their message from their competitors’ to grab consumers’ attention. a consumer's ability to identify changes in stimulus intensity is strongly related to the original intensity of the stimulus. People are often willing to pay for a more expensive product over its less-expensive but identical counterpart just because they perceive it to be a “better” product. Exposure involves the levels to which consumers encounter stimuli. like commercial messages in the form of billboards. Interpretation involves consumers making sense out of the messages received. According to Weber’s Law. the more dramatic the change in the intensity. A consumer's motivation for buying a particular product or service often comes down to image. the more noticeable it will be to consumers. . such as recognizing a brand name or logo. SIGNIFICANCE The significant role played by perception can be exemplified when two identical products are marketed in completely different ways. the role of perception in consumer behaviour is all about recognizing how consumers view a company’s product or service.
are based on extensive repetition rather than much conscious attention). . if we are shopping for a car. however.CONSIDERATIONS A number of aspects will influence how consumers perceive a product or service. bumper-stickers on cars. The relevance to consumers’ lives will definitely affect how much attention consumers give to a perception of a certain product or service. or commercial exposures such as the “Swoosh” logo. Exposure is not enough to significantly impact the individual—at least not based on a single trial (certain advertisements. and signs and banners placed at shopping malls that we pass. Surprising stimuli or stimuli with a noticeable contrast (to its surroundings) or prominence (larger or centre placement) will also gain greater consumer attention. For example. it may be instantly escalated—for example. Pleasant or very unpleasant stimuli (advertisements) can command consumers’ attention. we may deliberately seek out advertisements and “tune in” when dealer advertisements come on the radio. we are exposed to numerous commercial messages while driving on the freeway: bill boards. Most of this exposure is random— we don’t plan to seek it out. if an advertisement for a product in which we are interested comes on. that even when attention is low. but low when commercials come on during a television program. attention is needed. FACTORS IN PERCPETION Several sequential factors influence our perception. Note. In order for stimuli to be consciously processed. However. with irritating messages sometimes being an extremely effective marketing strategy. radio advertisements. Attention is actually a matter of degree—our attention may be quite high when we read directions for getting an income tax refund. Exposure involves the extent to which we encounter a stimulus.
. These components are viewed together since they are highly interdependent and together represent forces that influence how the consumer will react to the object.ATTITUDE Introduction: Consumer attitudes are a composite of a consumer’s (1) beliefs about. there product of experience but enter into subsequent experience as a directing factor. They are learned and relatively enduring. therefore. They are. (3) and behavioural intentions toward some object--within the context of marketing. usually a brand or retail store. (2) feelings about. Definition of Attitude Attitudes are predispositions to respond towards particular people of situations in a particular manner.
the more it will generally be liked. the more a product is advertised and seen in stores. Although Energizer Bunny ads try to get people to believe that their batteries last longer. tend to be better liked--that is. Finally. the main emphasis is on the likeable bunny. which may or may not involve getting consumers to change their beliefs. For example. however. Alternatively. this is often difficult to achieve because consumers tend to resist. fuzzy image.e. we can try to get people to like the advertisement and hope that this liking will “spill over” into the purchase of a product. to get the consumer to buy more or to switch brands). thus. A better way to get people to switch to our brand is to at least temporarily obtain better shelf space so that the product is more convenient. Changing beliefs: Although attempting to change beliefs is the obvious way to attempt attitude change.g. that this represents a case of shaping). the low price) and may then switch to other brands on deal later. once they use our products. Changing affect: One approach is to try to change affect. by the way. (Notice. One way to get people to switch to our brand is to use temporary price discounts and coupons. through the mere exposure effect. Consumers are less likely to use this availability as a rationale for their purchase and may continue to buy the product even when the product is less conveniently located.. For example. chances are that they will continue unless someone is able to get them to switch.Attitude Change Strategies: Changing attitudes is generally very difficult. the Pillsbury Doughboy does not really emphasize the conveyance of much information to the consumer. particularly when consumers suspect that the marketer has a self-serving agenda in bringing about this change (e. particularly when consumers hold unfavorable or inaccurate ones. it attempts to create a warm. when consumers buy a product on deal. Changing behaviour: People like to believe that their behavior is rational.. Several approaches to belief change exist: . we “pair” a car with a beautiful woman. even if consumers to do not develop any specific beliefs about the product. instead. One strategy uses the approach of classical conditioning try to “pair” the product with a liked stimulus. they may justify the purchase based on that deal (i. products which are better known.
1. 4. Add beliefs: Consumers are less likely to resist the addition of beliefs so long as they do not conflict with existing beliefs. Change ideal: It usually difficult. Most consumers already agree with this. For example. it is usually not feasible to make beliefs less important--consumers are likely to reason. and the strength of the feelings. They help to direct behaviour – e.it has knowledge of that something.g. Hard Candy may have attempted to change the ideal away from traditional beauty toward more unique self expression. Consumers were suspicious and rejected this information. feelings Cognitive component: beliefs. but the belief can be made stronger. which sounds quite plausible to most people. 3. and provided extensive factual evidence in its advertising to support this reality. 2. and very risky. They are lasting.. Thus. then. however. liking or disliking. it may be possible to strengthen beliefs that favour us--e. but changeable. the beef industry has added beliefs that beef (1) is convenient and (2) can be used to make a number of creative dishes. to attempt to change ideals. An attitude is a lasting general evaluation of something . Change currently held beliefs: It is generally very difficult to attempt to change beliefs that people hold. For example. Vitamin manufacturers attempt to add the belief that stress causes vitamin depletion. a vitamin supplement manufacturer may advertise that it is extremely important for women to replace iron lost through menstruation. particularly those that are strongly held.g. and only few firms succeed.even if they are inaccurate. Component Models of Attitudes Attitude consist of three models: Affective component: evaluations. why. the petroleum industry advertised for a long time that its profits were lower than were commonly believed. do you recycle cans? . opinions. would you bother bringing them up in the first place? However. ideas Conative component: our actions. Change the importance of beliefs: Although the sugar manufacturers would undoubtedly like to decrease the importance of healthy teeth. how we behave What is an Attitude? It represents what we like and dislike.
Essentially. is it appropriate. does it provide what we need? Value-expressive: clothing says that you are a professional Ego-expressive: clothing conveys self-image Knowledge: summarizes the image we are trying to give The Variety of Consumer Attitudes Attitudes toward product – Campbell Soup at hand Attitudes toward company . Consumers who like to “eat healthy” will be likely to eat things that are not high in calories. Rational or sound decision making is taken as primary function of management. What is Decision making? Decision-making is an integral part of modern management. Every manager takes hundreds and hundreds of decisions subconsciously or consciously making it as the key component in .What functions do attitudes provide? Utilitarian -does the clothing fit. Consumers who like rich ice cream are likely to eat it.Philip Morris Attitudes toward a retailer – Wal Mart Attitudes toward product attributes – salt content Attitudes toward various types of brand associations Logos – design – do you like the Nike swoosh? Symbols – meanings – do you like the Energizer bunny? Product endorsers – sports figures – do you like Michael Jordan? What can attitude tell us about Consumers? Consumers who like momos are likely to eat it.
Needs effective communication 9.the role of a manager. Responsible job . Characteristics of decision making: 1. Decisions play important roles as they determine both organizational and managerial activities. A decision can be defined as a course of action purposely chosen from a set of alternatives to achieve organizational or managerial objectives or goals. Further. Based on reliable information 5. Mental/intellectual activity 4.consuming activity 8. the decisions make up one of core functional values that every organization adopts and implements to ensure optimum growth and drivability in terms of services and or products offered. Related to specific problem 7. Decision making process is continuous and indispensable component of managing any organization or business activities. Goal oriented process 6. Decisions are made at every level of management to ensure organizational or business goals are achieved. Time. Continuous process/activity 3. Decision making implies choice 2. Decisions are made to sustain the activities of all business activities and organizational functioning.
The figure given below suggests the steps in the decision –making process: .
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