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Fariha Ansari 05 Arooba Kazi Arshiya Khan Saima Khan Farzana Sayyed 18 22 25 50 (B)
Prof : Jaydeep Sir Topic: Waste Management
Year: 2012-2013

• Waste
Wastes are objects, which the owner or holder wishes to dispose of or where their collection and treatment as waste is required by the public interest. It shall be in the public interest to collect, store, and transport and treat waste if otherwise the results may be: a) Hazard to human health or intolerable nuisances. b) Hazards to the natural living conditions of animals and plants. c) More than inevitable pollution of the environment. d) Fire or explosion risks. e)Sound and noise in excessive amounts. f) Disturbances of public order and safety. g) Appearance and multiplication of harmful animals and plants as well as the encouragement of pathogenic substances.

• Types of Wastes:
• Wastes from Stone Quarrying Activities

In order to extract the stone from the deposit an appropriate method of quarrying must be applied. The main objective of the exploitation method under the current strict framework of laws and directives concerning the environmental impacts should be the minimization of waste generation. The product of quarrying operations is the commercial size block with dimensions about 1.5x1.4x2.8 m. During extraction huge quantities of waste material are produced due to breakage of the products for various reasons such as physical–mechanical characteristics of the material, the degree of discontinuities in the deposit etc. The types of wastes generated from extraction activities of natural stones can be classified in four main categories based on their characteristics that condition the possibility of recovery (OSNET vol. 7, 2004): a. Defective or “third choice” blocks with regular dimensions but either with poor technical-aesthetical properties or not the correct size for further processing.

b. Large shapeless blocks (=0.2 m3) which present excessive irregularity in geometry and cannot be sawed into slabs. c. Small shapeless blocks (=0.2 m3 or dimension < 0.5 m) that are extracted from fractured parts of the deposit or derive from block squaring. d. Small to fine size rocks (splints, chips), dust and slurry coming from drilling and cutting operations.

Fig: Typical scheme of waste production from quarrying operations In all extraction activities the operations are carried out with water as a cooling agent for the equipment. Thus, amounts of slurry are produced which is a mixture of water and fine particles of the quarried material. In most cases slurry is collected and recycled in order to retrieve the water in the extraction process. The cake that remains contains about 20 % of water and is usually disposed in dumps. Wastes from Stone Processing Activities Processing of natural stone aims to produce finished (e.g. tiles) or semi-finished (e.g. slabs) products in order to cover the market needs as described in the relative paragraph. During the production of the marketable elements considerable amounts of wastes are generated

according to OSNET vol. Large to medium size waste called scrap. flakes. Medium to small size waste consisting of splints. 2004: a. It is collected and recycled in appropriate instalments in order to recycle the water into the production process. Small size waste consisting of fine particles and has the form of dust or slurry. Using press filters the water recovery can reach up to 90% still leaving a material called sludge with a high humidity content (22-28%). 2004 the quantity of waste for both calcite and silicate materials exceeds 30% of the raw material and can reach 40% (Stone 2004).(Figure 12). 9. This kind of waste can have a size of several centimeters and comes from broken or defective slabs whose surface might be polished. During the production of the above elements considerable amounts of wastes are generated. The processing waste can be classified in three main categories depending on the size of the piece. 9. As reported in OSNET vol. . chips which are created during trimming of blocks or slabs. Slurry is created from all stone cutting operations when the cooling water mixes with the fine stone particles. b. c.

All processing operation like sawing and polishing are carried in wet conditions due to the equipment cooling and surface cleaning needs thus.000 tons while for the year 2000 it was estimated to 1. thus reducing the environmental impact of the natural stone industry.000 tons (Almeida et al. this slurry presents a great potential of being used as a by-product in mineral consuming industries. Due to its composition. The amount of stone slurry that was generated in Portugal in 1998 reached 600. 2005). .Typical scheme of waste production from processing operations The composition of waste generated from processing activities depends on the raw material and on the abrading agents that are used in the processing equipment which are required to process harder stones like granite. large amounts of slurry are produced which is recycled in order to recover the water. The waste is constituted by calcium carbonate or silica aluminates if the original material is marble or granite.000. respectively.

In the industry of the ornamental stone are generated wastes that are common to several operations (called non specific since they are result from “subsidiary” proceedings).• Other Wastes In the labouring of a processing plant or a quarry the inevitable production of wastes is always inherent to all the industrial process. The figure bellow represents the circuit of the main wastes (mud and stone waste) in the extraction and processing phases of the ornamental stone industrial process. essential to the development of the activity. used oils. metal wastes. the resultants directly from the activity (inert wastes without commercial value) and wastes resulting from the equipments and subsidiary materials. The table bellow synthesizes for each area the wastes originated in a processing plant. . The wastes produced can be divided in two great groups. used tires. etc.

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Figure 1 highlights the typical composition of municipal waste. paper and glass). secondary materials from separate collection (e.g.• Municipal Waste (including Household and Commercial) Municipal waste is generated by households. Manufacturers can achieve this by: . Municipal waste represents approximately 14% of all waste generated. food. The manufacturing industry has a central role to play in the prevention and reduction of waste as the products that they manufacture today become the wastes of tomorrow. wood and wood products and paper and paper products. • Industrial waste (including manufacturing) Manufacturing industry waste comprises many different waste streams arising from a wide range of industrial processes. Some of the largest waste generating industrial sectors in Western and Central Europe include the production of basic metals. organics (food and garden waste) and wood. metals. to introduce cleaner technologies and other waste minimisation initiatives and to work towards manufacturing practices that are sustainable in the long term. household hazardous waste. some countries have taken significant steps away from landfill. flies. followed by organic material at 25%. the largest fraction is paper and cardboard at 35% of the waste stream. It is made up of materials such as paper. plastics and other materials. textiles. There are numerous potential impacts associated with the landfilling of waste including the production of leachate and landfill gas. street sweepings and litter collections. As can be seen. Municipal waste is made up to residual waste. commercial activities and other sources whose activities are similar to those of households and commercial enterprises. bulky waste. metal. vermin and the use of land. despite national and international declarations to reduce waste from manufacturing industry. It has been estimated that over 33 million tonnes of industrial waste was generated in Europe in 1998. Waste from the manufacturing sector continues to rise. beverage and tobacco products. cardboard. Alternatives offered include incineration (increasingly with recovery of energy).g.. However. Municipal waste has traditionally been landfilled and this remains the predominant management option in most countries. from mining. composting and recycling of glass. industrial or construction and demolition processes. odours.. paper. It does not include other waste arising e.

use and end-of-life. On the recovery side. Although hazardous waste represents only approximately 1% of all waste generated in Europe. EU and government policy across Europe is increasingly driven by the need to influence manufacturing practices in an effort to decrease the environmental impact of produces during their manufacture. Hazardous waste is typically the subject of special legislation and requires special management arrangements to ensure that hazardous waste is kept separate from and treated differently to non-hazardous waste. road planning and maintenance. • Construction and Demolition Waste: Construction and demolition waste is made up of two individual components: construction waste and demolition waste. • Hazardous waste: Hazardous waste arises from a wide range of different sources including households. incineration and physical or chemical treatment. The main disposal route for hazardous waste is landfill. In some countries even materials from land levelling are . Wastes are classified as being hazardous depending on whether they exhibit particular characteristics. Quantity and content Hazardous waste represents approximately 1% of all waste generated in Europe. it can present a potential risk to both human health and the environment. commercial activities and industry. total or partial demolition of buildings and civil infrastructure. It arises from activities such as the construction of buildings and civil infrastructure. Further details can be found by clicking on the following link: Insert link to definitions section.• Considering the impacts of their products throughout its life at the design stage of the product • • Using manufacturing processes that minimise material and energy usage Eliminating or reducing where possible the use of substances or materials hazardous to health or the environment • Manufacturing products in such a way that they last longer and may be recycled or reused at the end-of-life stage. a significant proportion of hazardous waste is recycled or burned as a fuel.

it can use up valuable space in landfills. treatment and storage of minerals. solvents. extraction. In addition. It is made up of topsoil. if not separated at source it can contain small amounts of hazardous waste. This means that particular attention will be paid to policies and measures to ensure increased recycling of construction and demolition waste. wood. can become a resource to be recycled and reused within the construction industry. waste from the processing of the ore body (tailings) which may also include process water. However. Construction and demolition waste makes up approximately 25% of all waste generated in the EU with a large proportion arising from the demolition and renovation of old buildings. asbestos and excavated soil. it also has a high resource value and the technology for the separation and recovery of construction and demolition waste is well established. Most importantly.regarded as construction and demolition waste. process chemicals and portions of the remaining materials. • Mining Waste: Mining waste arises from prospecting. metals. construction and demolition waste instead of being a burden on society and the environment. Due to the very large volume of construction and demolition waste produced. bricks. readily accessible and in general inexpensive. drainage and other construction projects. waste rock. Large areas of land are used for depositing mining waste and this activity has the potential to cause environmental pollution if not properly controlled. Mining and quarrying activities give rise to the single biggest waste stream at 29% of the total quantity of waste generated in EEA countries. overburden. It is made up of numerous materials including concrete. Construction and demolition waste has been identified as a priority waste stream by the European Union. However. many of which can be recycled in one way or another. The main methods used to treat and dispose of construction and demolition waste include landfill. Construction activity is seen as a key indicator of growth and prosperity in Western countries. there is a reuse market for aggregates derived from construction and demolition waste in roads. plastic. The two major concerns in relation to mining waste are the large volumes that are produced as well as the potential for hazardous substances to be present in the waste stream. glass. incineration and recycling with some countries obtaining recycling rates as high as 80%. A number of recent cases of uncontrolled releases of mining waste to surface waters (rivers . It has been shown that approximately 50% of the material extracted during extraction and mining activities in Europe becomes waste.

This means that in five years time. Electrical and electronic tools.An estimate of the composition of WEEE arising is shown in Figure 4. In some countries and regions. etc. the European Commission has prepared legislation in the form of the following two Directives: . Televisions. At present. Plastics are the second largest component by weight representing approximately 21% of WEEE. As can be seen. 16-28% more WEEE will be generated and in 12 years the amount is expected to double. a large proportion of WEEE is disposed of in landfills or incineration plants. the consumption of resources in its manufacture and its expected growth rates. the EU has proposed initiatives that are designed to improve mining waste management. Automatic dispensers. sources are all users of electrical and electronic equipment from householders to all kinds of commercial and industrial activities. depending on local or national practices. In response. In response. iron and steel are the most common materials found in electrical and electronic equipment and account for almost half of the total weight of WEEE. WEEE is one of the fastest growing waste streams in the European Union and makes up approximately 4% of municipal waste. products such as fridges and freezers are separately collected and sent to recycling plants for dismantling and recycling. Freezers.and lakes) have highlighted the risks of poor mining waste management. WEEE has been identified as a priority waste stream by the European Commission due to its potentially hazardous nature. Monitoring and control instruments. • Waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): Waste electrical and electronic equipment (commonly referred to as WEEE) consists of end of life products and comprises of a range of electrical and electronic items such as: Refrigerators. Non-ferrous metals including precious metals represent approximately 13% of the total weight of WEEE and glass around 5%. Medical equipment Toasters. Expected growth rates are between 3 and 5% each year. especially in information technology (IT) which have resulted in the more frequent replacement of electrical and electronic equipment by industry. Thus. Hairdriers. IT and telecommunication equipment. Washing machines. This rapid growth rate is due to the fast pace of technological development.

odours. amongst other things. and A Directive on the Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment. Approximately 60% of municipal waste is biodegradable. Member States are obliged to set up national strategies to reduce the quantity of biodegradable waste going to landfill. taking waste management issues into consideration. The Netherlands. those countries and regions such as Denmark. In response to these concerns. • Packaging waste: .A Directive on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE). Flanders and Austria. In 1995. places targets for the reduction in the proportion of biodegradable municipal waste that may be consigned to landfill. As can be seen from the figure below. mechanical-biological pre-treatment recycling and incineration (with and without energy recovery). By 2006 Member States are restricted to landfilling a maximum of 75% of the total amount by weight of BMW produced in 1995. • Biodegradable municipal Waste: Biodegradable Municipal Waste (BMW) is waste from households and commercial activities that is capable of undergoing biological decomposition. approximately 107 million tonnes of biodegradable municipal waste was produced in EU plus Norway of which 66 percent is consigned to landfill. The European Commission is also preparing legislation in the form of the following draft Directive: A Directive on the Environmental Impact of Electrical and Electronic Equipment. This target increases to 50% in 2009 and 35% in 2016. Alternatives to landfill include composting. The directives propose that manufacturers will become responsible for taking back and recycling electrical and electronic equipment. which have a low reliance on landfill. This will in turn provide industry with incentives to design electrical and electronic equipment in an environmentally more efficient way. composting and recycling to treat BMW. Food waste and garden waste. paper and cardboard are all classified as biodegradable municipal waste. employ a mixture of incineration. flies and vermin. To meet these targets. A range of options are used to treat BMW. the Landfill Directive (Council Directive 1999/31/EC). Potential impacts associated with landfilling of biodegradable municipal waste include the production of leachate and landfill gas.

hotels. In 1998. and trucks and lorries that are used to carry goods up to a maximum mass of 3. waste to energy). In addition packaging may contain some critical substances e. The remainder is composed of plastic which is recycled. Thus their sources range from households to commercial and industrial uses. restaurants and transport companies. approximately 50 percent of packaging waste was recycled in 12 EU countries with an additional 9% reported as being recovered (i. if not properly managed. most of which is recycled. Other materials present include lead. Approximately 75% of the weight of a car is made up of steel and aluminium. .. Cars are composed of numerous different materials. manufacturing industries. PVC and heavy metals which may pose a risk to the environment. handle. aluminium cans. A number of different methods are used to manage packaging waste.e. impacts associated with the manufacturing processes. Packaging and packaging waste can have a number of impacts on the environment. cadmium and hexavalent chromium. Packaging waste can arise from a wide range of sources including supermarkets. it soon becomes a waste that must be treated or disposed off.g. may cause significant environmental pollution. food wrappers. hospitals. The Directive's main focus is on waste prevention. Some of these impacts can be associated with the extraction of the raw materials used for manufacturing the packaging itself. Items like glass bottles. protect. incinerated or landfilled. thermal treatment and landfill. reduced use of hazardous substances and increased use of recycled materials in vehicle manufacture. The EU introduced a directive on end of life vehicles (2000/53/EC) which had an implementation date of April 2002. chemical and feedstock). recycling (mechanical. The remaining 41 percent of packaging waste was landfilled.5 tonnes. households. • End-of-Life Vehicles (ELVs) and Tyres: End-of-life vehicles are defined as cars that hold up to a maximum of eight passengers in addition to the driver. This is projected to increase by 21% by 2015 to 17 million. the collection of packaging waste and its subsequent treatment or disposal. It also contains provisions on recycling ELVs. plastic containers.4 million cars were scrapped in the EU. 13. In the year 2000. As it has a relatively short life. brake fluid and oils that. These included reuse. mercury.Packaging is defined as any material which is used to contain. in addition to other dangerous substances including anti-freeze. retail outlets. Packaging waste represents up to 17% of the municipal waste stream. composting. producer responsibility. deliver and present goods. timber pallets and drums are all classified as packaging.

Prevention is the most desirable waste management option as it eliminates the need for handling. There are a number of methods used to treat agricultural waste. pesticides. recycling or disposal of waste. Leaking and improper storage of agricultural waste can also pose a serious threat to the environment should the waste reach surface waters. Prevention can also include the reuse of products. • Waste Prevention and Minimisation: Prevention means eliminating or reducing the quantity of waste which is produced in the first place. waste oils and veterinary medicines.Progressive targets are set out for ELV recycling. spent mushroom compost. transporting. soiled water and silage effluent) and waste such as plastic. In addition. thus reducing the quantity of waste which must be managed. Prevention can take the form of reducing the quantities of materials used in a process or reducing the quantity of harmful materials which may be contained in a product. anaerobic digestion and composting. These include spreading the waste on land under strict conditions. The Directive introduces provisions for the collection of all ELVs. scrap machinery. farming activities can give rise to emissions of ammonia and methane which can cause acidification and contribute to greenhouse gases emissions. • Agricultural waste: Agricultural waste is composed of organic wastes (animal excreta in the form of slurries and farmyard manures. . Ireland has estimated that in 1998 over 80% of national waste arising were from agricultural sources. No overall estimates are available on the quantity of agricultural waste produced in the EU. There are a number of potential environmental impacts associated with agricultural waste if it is not properly managed not least of which is the run-off of nutrients to surface waters which can cause over enrichment of the water body. with a requirement for ELVs to be transferred to authorised treatment facilities. fencing. It provides the highest level of environmental protection by optimising the use of resources and by removing a potential source of pollution.

consideration can be given to the types of materials to be used. It includes recycling of organic wastes but excludes energy recovery. Reuse is normally preferable to recycling as there isn't the same requirement for the material to have gone through a detailed treatment process thus helping to save on energy and material usage. reduces or eliminates waste at its source or results in re-use or recycling. Recycling benefits the environment by reducing the use of virgin materials. up to discarding the product at the end-of life stage. Waste materials can either be recycled for use in products similar to their original use (e. either for the same purpose or for a different purpose. During the design stage of a product. it may be possible that the quantities of waste produced at each stage can be reduced. paper recycling) or can be recycled into a product which is different that the .. • Recycling: Recycling involves the treatment or reprocessing of a discarded waste material to make it suitable for subsequent re-use either for its original form or for other purposes. returnable plastic pallets. It can be difficult to draw a clear distinction between the terms "Prevention" and "Minimisation". Waste prevention and minimisation measures can be applied at all stages in the life-cycle of a product including the production process. or utilisation stages. the quantity of materials and the recyclability of the product once it reaches its end of life. without the need for reprocessing.. Many different materials can by recycled. The use of efficient processes in terms of energy and material requirements during the manufacture of a product are other important considerations. using an empty glass jar for storing items and using second hand clothes. distribution. Re-use avoids discarding a material to a waste stream when its initial use has concluded. • Re-use: Re-use means the use of a product on more than one occasion. It is preferable that a product be re-used in the same state e.Minimisation includes any process or activity that avoids. the marketing.g. Consideration can also be given to minimising the packaging for the product. By examining each stage in the life cycle of a product.g.

including hazardous and toxic wastes. The conversion of waste as a potential source of energy has a value as a supplemental feedstock for the rapidly developing bio-fuels sector. processing. water.Biodegradable wastes are processed by composting. and monitoring of waste materials. for urban and rural areas. A variety of new technologies are being used and developed for the production of biofuels which are capable of converting wastes into heat.) Waste management is the collection of all thrown away materials in order to recycle them and as a result decrease their effects on our health.Waste management practices differ for developed and developing nations. fuels or chemical feedstock. processing. human health etc. Through these steps a company can effectively and responsibly manage waste output and their positive effect they have on the environment. making waste management a true profit center..g. pyrolysis. and consumerism throughout the world. Thermal Technologies like gasification.original use (e.Waste Management flows in a cycle: monitoring. and non–thermal technologies like anaerobic digestion. plasma arc gasification. recycling plastic bottles into fleece jackets or using construction and demolition waste as road aggregate. thermal depolymerization. In the EU up to 13% of municipal waste is reycled. disposal or recycle. There is a growing realization of the negative impacts that wastes have had on the local environment (air. our surroundings and the environment and enhance the quality of life. and for residential and industrial producers. transportation.  Waste Management Waste management is the collection. recycling or disposal. Concern over environment is being seen a massive increase in recycling globally which has grown to be an important part of modern civilization. Waste generation per capita has increased and is expected to continue to climb with growing population. Industrialization and economic growth has produced more amounts of waste. fermentation etc are a number of new and emerging technologies that are able to produce energy from waste and other fuels without direct combustion. Approaches to solving this waste problem in a scalable and sustainable manner would lead us to a model that uses waste as an input in the production of commodities and value monetized. land. transport. power. collection. . wealth. The consumption habitsof modern consumerist lifestyles are causing a huge global waste problem.

Recycling of materials like plastics. Older. poorly designed or poorly managed landfills can create a number of adverse environmental . and this remains a common practice in most countries. With respect to waste management. reuse and recycle. mining voids or borrow pits. The waste hierarchy remains the cornerstone of most waste minimization strategies.The waste hierarchy refers to the "3 Rs" reduce.driven at the community level. which classify waste management strategies according to their desirability in terms of waste minimization. • Polluter pays principle . A properly designed and well-managed landfill can be a hygienic and relatively inexpensive method of disposing of waste materials. to move more towards waste processing and waste recycling (that involves public-private partnerships.the Polluter Pays Principle is a principle where the polluting party pays for the impact caused to the environment. and using low energy/low technology resources. anaerobic digestion or any other appropriate biological processing for the stabilization of wastes. Landfills were often established in abandoned or unused quarries.  Methods of Dsiposal  Landfill Disposal of waste in a landfill involves burying the waste. The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the maximum practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum amount of waste see: resource recovery. There are a number of concepts about waste management which vary in their usage between countries or regions. Some of the most general. There is a clear need for the current approach of waste disposal in India that is focussed on municipalities and uses high energy/high technology. paper and metals should be done for future use. widely used concepts include: • Waste hierarchy . this generally refers to the requirement for a waste generator to pay for appropriate disposal of the unrecoverable material.vermi-composting. aiming for eventual waste minimization .

Another common product of landfills is gas (mostly composed of methane and carbon dioxide). Incineration is a controversial method of waste disposal. It is recognized as a practical method of disposing of certain hazardous waste materials (such as biological medical waste). It is used to dispose of solid. and is a greenhouse gas. Many landfills also have landfill gas extraction systems installed to extract the landfill gas. as these facilities generally do not require as much area as landfills. Incineration is carried out both on a small scale by individuals and on a large scale by industry. This gas can create odor problems. which is produced as organic waste breaks down anaerobically. gas. Design characteristics of a modern landfill include methods to contain leachate such as clay or plastic lining material. Particular concern has focused on some very persistent organics such as . steam and ash. Gas is pumped out of the landfill using perforated pipes and flared off or burnt in a gas engine to generate electricity. and covered to prevent attracting vermin (such as mice or rats). Incineration and other high temperature waste treatment systems are sometimes described as "thermal treatment". kill surface vegetation.impacts such as wind-blown litter. This method is useful for disposal of residue of both solid waste management and solid residue from waste water management. Incineration is common in countries such as Japan where land is more scarce. Combustion in an incinerator is not always perfect and there have been concerns about pollutants in gaseous emissions from incinerator stacks. Waste-to-energy (WtE) or energy-from-waste (EfW) are broad terms for facilities that burn waste in a furnace or boiler to generate heat. steam or electricity. due to issues such as emission of gaseous pollutants.  Incineration Incineration is a disposal method in which solid organic wastes are subjected to combustion so as to convert them into residue and gaseous products. Deposited waste is normally compacted to increase its density and stability. attraction of vermin. Incinerators convert waste materials into heat.This process reduces the volumes of solid waste to 20 to 30 percent of the original volume. liquid and gaseous waste. and generation of liquid leachate.

polyethylene and PET bottles. old steel furnishings or equipment. paperboard cartons. copper such as wire. steel food and aerosol cans. However. LDPE. and corrugated fiberboard boxes. Companies are encouraged to improve their environmental efficiencies each year by eliminating waste through resource recovery practices. PP. The type of material accepted for recycling varies by city and country. certain variation in acceptance is reflected in the resale value of the material once it is reprocessed. Each city and country have different recycling programs in place that can handle the various types of recyclable materials. it requires the owner of the waste to separate it into various different bins (typically wheelie bins) prior to its collection.  Recycling Recycling is a resource recovery practice that refers to the collection and reuse of waste materials such as empty beverage containers. newspapers. furans. which are sustainability-related activities. Material for recycling may be collected separately from general waste using dedicated bins and collection vehicles are sorted directly from mixed waste streams and are known as kerb-side recycling. making them relatively easy to recycle into new products. The materials from which the items are made can be reprocessed into new products. and PS (see resin identification code) are also recyclable.  Sustainability The management of waste is a key component in a business' ability to maintaining ISO14001 accreditation. PVC. PAHs which may be created which may have serious environmental consequences. glass bottles and jars. One way to do this is by shifting away from waste . The most common consumer products recycled include aluminium such as beverage cans.dioxins. These items are usually composed of a single type of material. due to the additional dismantling and separation required. The recycling of complex products (such as computers and electronic equipment) is more difficult. magazines and light paper.

The resulting organic material is then recycled as mulch or compost for agricultural or landscaping purposes. Pyrolysis of solid waste converts the material into solid. The intention of biological processing in waste management is to control and accelerate the natural process of decomposition of organic matter. to fuel for boilers to generate steam and electricity in a turbine. The solid residue (char) can be further refined into products such as activated carbon. food scraps. Gasification and advanced Plasma arc gasification are used to convert organic materials directly into a synthetic gas (syngas) composed of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. can be recovered through composting and digestion processes to decompose the organic matter. Pyrolysis and gasification are two related forms of thermal treatment where waste materials are heated to high temperatures with limited oxygen availability.  Resource recovery Resource recovery (as opposed to waste management) uses LCA (life cycle analysis) attempts to offer alternatives to waste management. The liquid and gas can be burnt to produce energy or refined into other chemical products (chemical refinery). For mixed MSW (Municipal Solid . such as plant material. or indirectly by processing them into another type of fuel. The gas is then burnt to produce electricity and steam. The process usually occurs in a sealed vessel under high pressure. An alternative to pyrolisis is high temperature and pressure supercritical water decomposition (hydrothermal monophasic oxidation). plastic bottles and metal. paper and cardboard. food scraps. liquid and gas products. Thermal treatment ranges from using waste as a fuel source for cooking or heating and the use of the gas fuel (see above).management to resource recovery practices like recycling materials such as glass.  Bilogical Reprocessing: Recoverable materials that are organic in nature.  Energy Recovery The energy content of waste products can be harnessed directly by using them as a direct combustion fuel. In addition. waste gas from the process (such as methane) can be captured and used for generating electricity and heat (CHP/cogeneration) maximizing efficiencies. (See resource recovery). and paper products.

especially those in less developed countries. packaging. In rural areas people often dispose of their waste by hauling it to a transfer station. whereby the city collects waste and/or recyclables and/or organics on a scheduled basis..[1] and designing products that use less material to achieve the same purpose (for example. removing any food/liquid remains from cans. . lightweighting of beverage cans).. encouraging consumers to avoid using disposable products (such as disposable cutlery). source separation and collection followed by reuse and recycling of the non-organic fraction and energy and compost/fertilizer production of the organic material via anaerobic digestion to be the favoured path. the city government charges its households and industries for the volume of rubbish they produce. Waste collected is then transported to a regional landfill. repairing broken items instead of buying new. a few communities use a proprietary collection system known as Envac. or by private companies in the industry. also known as waste reduction. • Avoidance And Reduction Methods An important method of waste management is the prevention of waste material being created. • In Canadian urban centres curbside collection is the most common method of disposal. Examples of waste handling systems include: • In Europe and a few other places around the world.Waste) a number of broad studies have indicated that administration. do not have a formal waste-collection system. Waste will only be collected by the city council if waste is disposed in government issued rubbish bags. designing products to be refillable or reusable (such as cotton instead of plastic shopping bags). Other vacuum-based solutions include the MetroTaifun single-line and ring-line systems. This policy has successfully reduced the amount of waste the city produces and increased the recycling rate. Methods of avoidance include reuse of secondhand products. . which conveys refuse via underground conduits using a vacuum system. Domestic waste collection services are often provided by local government authorities.[2] Waste collection methods vary widely among different countries and regions. • In Taipei. Some areas.

Greece.• In Israel. and hydro-mechanical shredding. deprecates movement of hazardous waste from developed to less developed countries. although considered hazardous. screening. Nuclear waste. The system is used in California. ratified by 172 countries. transboundary movement of waste is often subject to international treaties.  Technologies Traditionally the waste management industry has been slow to adopt new technologies such as RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags. The system is capable of sorting huge volumes of solid waste. The provisions of the Basel convention have been integrated into the EU waste shipment regulation. A major concern to many countries in the world has been hazardous waste. The Basel Convention. GPS and integrated software packages which enable better quality data to be collected without the use of estimation or manual data entry. • • Integrated software packages are useful in aggregating this data for use in optimisation of operations for waste collection operations. • Technologies like RFID tags are now being used to collect data on presentation rates for curb-side pick-ups. Mexico. Benefits of GPS tracking is particularly evident when considering the efficiency of ad hoc pick-ups (like skip bins or dumpsters) where the collection is done on a consumer request basis. the United Kingdom and in Israel. . which takes trash directly from collection trucks and separates organic and inorganic materials through gravitational settling. the Arrow Ecology company has developed the Arrow Bio system. While waste transport within a given country falls under national regulations. For example. does not fall under the jurisdiction of the Basel Convention. salvaging recyclables. and processes up to 150 tons of garbage a day. and turning the rest into biogas and rich agricultural compost. Australia. an Arrow Bio plant that has been operational at the Hiriya landfill site since December 2003 serves the Tel Aviv area.

animal and plant life. Regulatory Frame Work India is the first country that has made constitutional provisions for protection and improvement of the environment. Management of Hazardous Waste in India India is the second most populous country.• Rear vision cameras are commonly used for OH&S reasons and video recording devices are becoming more widely used. which has about 16% of the world population and 25% of the land area. which have further aggravated the environmental problems in the country by depleting and polluting natural resources. lakes. Further the rapid industrial developments have. rational and sustainable utilization of natural resources and its protection from toxic releases is vital for sustainable socio-economic development. which posed serious risks to human. led to the generation of huge quantities of hazardous wastes. Rapid industrialization last few decades have led to the depletion of pollution of precious natural resources in India depletes and pollutes resources continuously. treatment. also. one of the fundamental duties of every citizen of India is to protect and improve the natural environment including forests. In Article 51 A (g) of the Constitution. Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF). transport and disposal of waste in an environmentally sound manner. mainly solids. The lack of technical and financial resources and the regulatory control for the management of hazardous wastes in the past had led to the unscientific disposal of hazardous wastes in India. semi-solid and other Industrial wastes which are not covered by the Water & Air Acts. In the Directive Principles of State Policy of the Constitution. 1986 and was further amended in the . and also to enable the authorities to control handling. Article 48-A of Chapter IV enjoins the state to make endeavor for protection and improvement of the environment and for safeguarding the forest and wild life of the Country. particularly concerning residential services. rivers and wild life and to have compassion for living creatures. Government of India notified the Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling) Rules (HWM Rules) on July 28. In order to manage hazardous waste (HW). Hazardous waste management is a new concept for most of the Asian countries including India. 1989 under the provisions of the Environment (Protection) Act. Therefore.

Further. The basic objectives of the Basel Convention are for the control and reduction of transboundary movements of hazardous and other wastes subject to the Convention.  The Basel Convention on hazardous wastes India is a Party to the Basel Convention on transboundary movement of hazardous wastes. as a party.4 million tones (Table 1) while as per the estimates of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development(OECD) derived from correlating hazardous waste . These amendments enable to identify hazardous wastes by means of industrial processes and waste streams in Schedule I and also by way of concentrations of specified constituents of the hazardous waste in Schedule II. technological and economic aspects. India is obliged to regulate and minimise the import of hazardous waste or other wastes for disposal or re-cycling and also to prohibit export of waste to parties. • Present Hazardous Waste Generation Scenario The hazardous waste generated in the country per annum is estimated to be around 4. which have prohibited the import of such wastes. prevention and minimization of their generation. As a party to the Convention. Categories of wastes banned for export and import have also been defined (Schedule-8) The procedure for registration of the recyclers /reprocessors with environmentally sound facilities for processing waste categories such as used lead acid batteries. separate Rules have also been notified in continuation of the above Rules for biomedical wastes as well as used lead acid batteries.year 2000 & 2003. can prevent the import of hazardous waste or other waste if it has reason to believe that the waste in question will not be managed in an environmentally sound manner. As a partyIndia is also required to minimise generation of hazardous waste in the country taking into account social. India. Further. hazardous waste generated in the country is also required to be managed in an environmentally sound manner. environmentally sound management of such wastes and for active promotion of the transfer and use of cleaner technologies. non-ferrous metal and used oil as contained in schedule-4 and schedule-5 respectively has also been laid down.

The top four waste generating states are Maharashtra.. incinerable etc. West Bengal. the geographical distribution of waste generated and its distribution amongst the states is unlikely to undergo major changes. Tamil Nadu. nearly five million tones of hazardous waste are being produced in the country annually. Given the wide variations in quantity and nature of waste generated across states and union territories (UTs) and also considering the wide variations in climatic as well as hydro-geological conditions in different regions of the country. there are over 13. 38.3% is incinerable and the remaining 57. Consequent upon amendments made in the year 2000 and subsequently in 2003. . Jammu & Kashmir. Karnataka and Rajasthan) account for 97% of total hazardous waste generation.the State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs) and Pollution Control Committees (PCCs) are in the process of re-inventorising hazardous waste generated. out of which nearly all units have been granted authorization for multiple disposal practices encompassing incineration.generation and economic activities. storage. Gujarat. land disposal and other disposal (mostly recycle and reuse)options.000 MT per annum. On the other hand. The current exercise has brought to light the serious short-comings in the earlier inventorisation. This estimate of around 4. While field verification supplemented by stoichiometric assessments would be the ideal way forward. Andhra Pradesh. would undergo substantial changes.In India. Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu . Nevertheless. the total quantum of waste generated as well as its composition in terms of landfillable. Orissa. the approach to waste management has to be essentially state-specific.000 industrial units located in 340 districts. it is necessary to prepare a reliable inventory as this forms the basis for formulating a suitable hazardous waste management strategy & developing infrastructure (treatment/disposal facilities) for their management. states such as Himachal Pradesh. Uttar Pradesh.Out of this. all the North Eastern States excepting Assam generate less than 20.4% is disposable in secured landfills. reasonably reliable estimates can be made based on product wise waste streams generated and quantities thereof. Gujarat. Madhya Pradesh . While it is well recognised that inventorisation has to be reviewed and updated periodically to account for growing industrialisation. 4.Assam.3% is recyclable.4 million MTA is based on the 18 categories of wastes which appeared in the HWM Rules first published in 1989. Kerala. Twelve States of the country (Maharashtra. As a result.

Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh(where storage period should not exceed for more than 90 days). They also account for 60 to 65 percent of the total industrial pollution.Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). India's fragile ecosystem could be seen from the following: • • Air pollution in Indian cities is highest amongst the world. therefore. According to the National Productivity Council. Part I. National Overview. SMEs in India cannot afford to adopt and maintain adequate hazardous waste treatment and disposal technologies. The lack of common facilities has been a major factor in mushrooming of illegal dump sites since most of the units in the small and . water is not even fit for bathing • India has among the lowest per capita availability of forests in the world. 1999). New Delhi (India).4 million MTA) can cause considerable damage to natural resources if untreated before releases.8 ha in China • The security of Indian fragile ecosystem. most of these industries generate hazardous wastes. Over seventy percent of the country's surface water sources are polluted and. where as much as 275 million tones of hazardous waste was generated annually. are the major hazardous waste generators. the waste generators have been accorded temporary permission to store waste in their premises except in areas serviced by common facilities that have come up in the States of Gujarat. Centre for Science & Environment. considering the fragile ecosystem that India has (The State of India's Environment. warrants sustainable consumption of natural resources and protection from environmental degradation. in large stretches of major rivers. even this low quantum of hazardous wastes (around 4. However. Significance of SMEs in Industrial Output and Hazardous Waste Generation Nearly fifty percent of the total industrial output in India is contributed by the SMEs. there are more than 3 million small and medium scale industries. which find their way uncontrolled into the environment.50 ha in Thailand and 0. however.11 ha as compared to 0. which is 0. The amount of hazardous waste generated in this country is quite small in comparison to that of the USA. However. which are spread throughout the country in the form of clusters/industrial estates. The Citizens Fifth Report. In the absence of common disposal facilities.

both located in Calcutta. As the Nodal Ministry. its first and foremost responsibility is to ensure coordination with all other Ministries that come into the picture. There has been considerable delay in notifying sites for hazardous waste disposal. All matters relating to imports and exports are handled by the Ministry of Commerce under whom the Director General of Foreign Trade( DGFT) and Director General of Commercial Intelligence (DGCIS). • Ministry of Environment and Forests(MOEF) Inter-sectoral coordination The MOEF is the focal point in the Government of India for all matters relating to the environment. The State Governments should not only expedite notification of sites based on environmental impact assessment but play a catalytic role and persuade the industry associations to set up common facilities. Such common facilities would need to be planned based on reliable estimate of current waste generation and projections for the future. should be done forthwith and wherever it is required to be done by any other Ministry or Authority or Agency.. As this was not done. which comes under the Ministry of Finance. the Nodal Ministry/MOEF shall ensure that it be so implemented. The directions sought for by the petitioner to which MOEF has agreed shall be implemented in letter and spirit. For example: All imported goods have to pass through Customs. hazardous waste dumping was rampant in all the states which prompted in public interest litigations in High Courts and Supreme Court. . Therefore it is urgently required to make available common hazardous waste treatment and disposal facility in the areas in all the states where SMEs are operating. HPC discussions and studies show that there are major roles that have to be played by other Ministries as well. operate. Of the 93 sites identified.medium sector do not have adequate space within their premises to arrange for storage over several years. The implementation wherever it is to be done by the MOEF. only 30 have been notified.

The need for employment generation. Further. particularly. Toxicological aspects of hazardous wastes like heavy metals. groundwater). and to ensure coordination amongst the various Ministries and State Governments on issues as they come up. matters relating to labour and industrial policy. it would be the responsibility of MOEF to satisfy this Court. Such coordination can be at the level of meetings taken by the Minister/Secretary who chairs Secretary-level interDepartmental meetings. the Ministry of Water Resources is clearly involved. Defence and Surface Transport deal with matters relating to large scale use of battery systems and their disposal. If any Inter-Ministerial consultation is required. A significant part of environmental pollution relates to water (both surface water and. on the other hand. and extensively with the State Government in relation to implementation of laws. Consideration for zero import of hazardous waste The import of 29 items has been prohibited under Schedule-8 of the HW Rules as amended in May. comes under the Ministry of Science and Technology. It is implicit that if . In case of any doubt or dispute. and consequently. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and the Department of Biotechnology. hormone disrupting chemicals and such other issues have to be dealt with by the Ministry of Health. industrial safety. occupations health hazards. the Ministry shall also develop a mechanism to ensure that wherever its directions are not implemented. and guidelines at grassroots level. Ministry of Law is to be interacted on matters that relate to legislation. necessary action shall be taken against those who are responsible for it. rules and regulations. Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas is involved in respect of the oil sector while the Ministries of Railways. compensation for disability/death are all matters dealt with by the Ministry of Labour. The HPC believes that the principal role and responsibilities of the MOEF should be to inculcate the necessary concern and sense of urgency. Major research facility that comes under it is the Indian Council of Medical Research. the lead is to be taken by MOEF to see that such consultation takes place and effective measures are taken. 2003 while the Basel Convention has banned 76 items. The Ministry of Environment and Forests is required to examine the remaining items.

The Ministry shall also examine any other item which may have similar hazardous impact. the Ministry should also examine the question of banning used edible oil. the MOEF will take into consideration what has been stated under heading 'A' (Imported Hazardous Waste which need to be included in the HWM Rules and ban of other Wastes) in the directions sought for by the petitioner on the basis of the recommendation of HPC. these items also deserve to be banned. have hazardous impacts in terms of the HPC Report. By order dated 5th May. Another aspect that has been brought to the notice of the Court is the malpractice arising out of purported import of some permitted items. plastic scrap used PVC in any form. wherever needed. On direction of the Court. the corresponding Notification shall be issued by the Central Government under Section 11 of the Customs Act. Further. Section 11 of the Customs Act. a specific provision to that effect can be incorporated in Rules.more items are banned. 170-171) had noticed the presence of the consignment of this waste oil. The HPC in its report (pp. the Court directed that no import would be made or permitted by any authority or any person of any hazardous waste which is already banned under the Basel Convention or to be banned hereafter with effect from the date specified therein. The Court directs that. whose names and addresses are known. pet bottles etc. if necessary. in fact. They also Illegally import zinc wastes despite it being not permissible except in case where more than 65% of zinc can be recovered from the wastes. 1962 empowers the Central Government to prohibit either absolutely or subject to such conditions as may be specified in Notification the import and export of the goods if satisfied that it is necessary so to do for any of the purposes stated in sub-section (2). in addition to 29 items. The Court is of the opinion that an enquiry should be conducted and appropriate action taken against concerned officer/officers of department responsible therein and.  Disposal of illegally imported wastes It has been brought to the notice of the Court that 15 importers. import waste oil which is a banned item. the laboratory tests undertaken have shown the same as hazardous waste oil. which. It appears that unscrupulous traders in the garb of importing used oil or furnace oil. cow dung. According to the recommendations of HPC. though not covered by Basel Convention. illegally imported waste oil in 133 containers in the garb of lubricating oil. 1997. The importers are directed to show .

and to ensure educational training programs. officials etc.  Research and development initiatives The MOEF also has a responsibility to ensure that research and development is conducted on scientific and technological aspects relating to this area. the role of SMEs. The latter should certainly cover those directly concerned with implementation programs.6. The need for development programs to increase production. disposal facilities. issues relating to . CETPs. e. GDP growth. Industrial policy relating to what industries should be encouraged and permitted. There can also be a cess levied on those industries dealing with hazardous material. However. any significant financial support will come from State Governments for this. industrialization.cause why the consignment in question shall not be ordered to be re-exported or destroyed at their cost and why the amount spent on analysis in the laboratory (Rs. environmental scientist. productivity and to create employment is well recognized.g.g. By and large. It is unlikely that. The Ministry would be empowered to have assistance from Police/District Magistrate/Metropolitan Magistrate for affective service of notice on the importers. particularly related to their specific areas of activity e. The MOEF should also encourage industry and industrial associations to participate in research. clean and cleaner technologies. broad ranging and futuristic research has to be conducted with the support of the Central Government. this cannot be at the cost of present and the future in terms of quality of life for society as a whole. exports are all part of this.  Sustainable development initiatives The MOEF has to work closely with the Planning Commission in the area of sustainable development. ETPs.  Awareness Creation Another important role that the MOEF has to play is to create awareness in society and other stakeholders at large. energy production.35 Lacs) be not recovered from them and why they should not be directed to make payment of compensation of Polluter Pays Principles and other action taken against them. etc. in the present financial situation. which should be specifically earmarked for the promotion of research and development.

ICDs. urban development and zoning and such other matters are of a general nature which call for over all national policy. • Location of Industrial Sites and Secured Landfills The MoEF would consider the suggestion of HPC regarding development of National Policy for landfills sites. suitably strengthened and assigned necessary responsibilities. MOEF has the responsibility to put forward the environmental implications implicit in various policy options. facilities to be provided etc. In view of this. Customs areas) to make the first level measurements to aid decision-making. the selection of sites for disposal facilities lies with the Government.g. Increasingly. a national policy needs to be developed for locating such centralized/common TSDFs. Ports. The location of final disposal facilities should be based on the total quantity of hazardous waste generated in the individual State. land use patterns. it is important to locate a centralized facility within a distance of about 100 km. For effective monitoring and an economically viable facility.). as also laboratories coming under various scientific agencies in the country and in the private sector. In addition. Those States which generate less than 20. This may be with CPCB. exports will have to be environmentally compliant suitably labeled and certified. These cannot be dealt with by any individual Ministry Department with concerns only for its limited area of responsibility.industrial estates (including their governance. as also certified laboratories (whether these are in the public or the private sector) which can provide reports that are scientifically valid and credible. The MOEF must ensure that adequate facilities are available at the gateway points in the country (e. of the waste-generating units. The MOEF willbe the focal point in the Government of India with regard to the international issues that arise in this area. the State Pollution Control Boards must be equipped and staffed properly.  Testing Facility Creation The MOEF must be encouraged to make use of the vast technical capabilities that exist in the country. The suggestion is to the following effect: In industrialized countries.000 tones per year of hazardous waste may be permitted to have only temporary storage facilities and then transfer the waste to the final treatment and .

entrepreneur and other stakeholders like the community. • Implementation of Plastic Waste Recycling Rules. medical colleges and universities may also be created. MoEF and Health Ministry shall examine and respond to the recommendations of HPC which read MoEF and Ministry of Health are required are to compile an extensive data regarding exposure and epidemiological studies (with special reference to endocrine disruptors). preventing and reducing hazardous waste generation. . These studies should be made public so that people could know about toxicity and its impact. MoEF should encourage the industries and their associations to participate in research activities concerning environmental health. they should be made to pay a waste generation tax. the following recommendations of the HPC would be kept in view: The policy document should emphasize a commitment to the recycling of wastes and propose incentives for encouraging and supporting recycling. While examining this aspect. • National Policy Document on Hazardous Waste MoEF is directed to either itself or through the CPCB or any other agency draft a policy document on hazardous waste generation and its handling within the country. Directions may also be issued for centres of excellence for environmental health science and for existing institutes engaged in related activities. It is not necessary and also not advisable to develop a facility in each and every district and/or State as land is a valuable natural resources..disposal facilities in the nearby State. Draft Used Oil (Management and Handling) Rules. The policy document should enunciate a doctrine of partnership between SPCBs. which will be involved in monitoring. A network of R&D institutions. waste oil and used lead acid battery recycling in the SSI sector. Industries must be given a clear message that they must show concrete and tangible results as far as prevention and reduction of wastes are concerned. A cess can be levied on the industries dealing with H. Battery Waste Recycling Rules. The policy should review further growth of non-ferrous metallic waste. which should be specifically earmarked for promotion of R&D.W. If they do not.

b)Prohibition/restriction of hazardous wastes:Identification and listing of hazardous wastes of prohibition/restriction for exports/imports and handling of these wastes. 1999 and the "Batteries Management and Handling Rules. The Terms of Reference of the said Committee are as follows: a)Characterization of hazardous wastes: Identification of hazardous waste and characterization of the constituents that would render such wastes hazardous. The Ministry shall issue directions to all Public Sector Institutions not to openly auction their hazardous wastes but only to those who are registered units having Environmentally Sound Technologies (EST). 4 relating to impact of hazardous waste on worker's health and directed the Ministry of Labour and Ministry of Industry to constitute a special committee to examine the matter and enumerate medical benefits which may be provided to the workers having regard to the occupational hazard as also keeping in view the question of health of the workers and the compensation which may have to be paid to them. MOEF has constituted a Standing Committee on hazardous waste to advise the Ministry on issues pertaining to hazardous waste and other related areas. • Responsibilities of Ministries of Labour and Industry The Court considered the suggestion of HPC under term of reference no. and MOEF should consider making a provision for bank guarantee being given by importer while seeking permission to import used oil. treatment and disposal.MOEF is directed to ensure compliance of "Recycled Plastics. The Court directed the Ministry of Labour and Ministry of Industry to constitute a special committee to examine the matter and enumerate medical benefits which may be provided to the workers having regard to the occupational hazard as also keeping in view the question of health of the workers and the compensation . c)Environmentally sound technologies:Identification and list of environmentally sound technologies for reprocessing and recycling of wastes. Plastics Manufacture and Usage Rules. furnace oil and zinc wastes to be released only on the imported consignment being found to be in conformity with the declared item of import. 2001".

the criteria for Hazardous Waste Landfills published by CPCB in February. The transport of hazardous waste would be in accordance with Rule 7 and the Guidelines issued. sets out the goods. The Government is directed to examine the aspect and file a report. illegal traffic. Construction & Quality Control of Liners and Covers for Hazardous Waste Landfills published in December 2002 shall be followed and adhered to. 89 sites were identified out of which 30 were notified. 11 common landills are ready and operationl . it shall be reflected in the prevalent Exim Policy. under the Foreign Trade (Development and Regulations) Act. For design and setting up of disposal facility as provided in Rule 8-A of HW (M&H) Rules. i. • Responsibility of Central Pollution Control Board . SPCBs and PCCs All SPCBs/PCCs are required to implement the directions that may be issued by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF). steps should be taken towards shifting of hazardous waste from wherever it is permissible to these landfills. which means that if import of any item is prohibited under Hazardous Waste Rules. one in Andhra Pradesh and nine in Gujarat and that some of these landfills are in accordance with the Criteria and Manual aforesaid. the national/domestic legislation shall be enacted/amended appropriately to prevent and punish illegal traffic. Under Article 9 the HPC has recommended that in order to deter any transboundary movement of hazardous wastes or other wastes.which may have to be paid to them. The steps are being taken to expedite the completion of the remaining landfills.one in Maharashtra. 1992. The Committee while examining the recommendations. import whereof is prohibited. 2001 and the Manual for Design. shall also keep in view the judgment of this Court in Consumer Education and Research Centre Vs.e. With this development in view. . as amended from time to time. Union of India (1995 (3) SCC 42). Responsibilities of the Central Government The Export and Import Policy (Exim Policy) issued from time to time. Out of 30. inter alia. We direct the Central Government that the said policy shall also correspond with the Hazardous Waste Rules.

whether the dump site is passive or active and whether precautions have been taken to prevent damage to the environment. The SPCBs will and PCCs also take samples of the groundwater in the vicinity of the dump site at different point and prepare a report on contamination of the groundwater. Reports should be based on inspection. together with detailed estimate of costs. storage and disposal is the most practicable method currently available to them which minimizes the present and future threat to human health and environment. Particular care must be taken to prevent industries that use our Indian soil for processing of products and commodities of which production has been banned in other industrial countries. assessment of the size of the dump site. for effective implementation of the directions and to regulate the hazardous waste. it is necessary to strengthen the SPCBs and CPCB by providing them the requisite infrastructure and manpower so that they can issue the necessary guidelines to monitor the handling of hazardous wastes as suggested under Terms of Reference. if any. and if so. Further. The Rules should effectively prevent this. The authorization for any unit should not be issued or renewed until the occupier undertakes that they have a programme in place to reduce the volume or quantity and toxicity of hazardous wastes to the degree determined by them to be economically practicable and that the proposed method of treatment. A full scale rehabilitation should also be prepared. It is not . SPCBs and PCCs are directed to close forthwith those units which are functioning without valid authorization issued under the HWM Rules. age. Units which propose to engage in this activity should not be permitted or licensed under any circumstances. All these reports will be sent to the CPCB. to what extent. The SPCBs and PCCs are directed to draw up a plan with financial estimates for immediate measures that may be required to stop environmental damage.The SPCBs are directed to produce a comprehensive report on illegal hazardous waste dump sites in their jurisdiction. The CPCB shall issue guidelines to be followed by all concerned including SPCBs and PCCs and the operators of disposal sites for the proper functioning and upkeep of the said sites.

enough to protect the country form the import of hazardous wastes. residence time and turbulence should be considered.99% of toxic compounds with no generation of persistent organic pollutants (as products of incomplete combustion) should be prima criteria for design of such disposal systems. It has further observed that in addition. The import of industries or product must be carefully screened in order to avoid dirty technologies and products. most of the incinerators are mere combustion chambers or industrial boilers where the maximum temperature is around 500oC. relevant operating parameters for example temperature. . The inventorization is in progress and the information is provided in the Action Taken Reports (ATRs) submitted by the SPCBs and PCCs to the CPCB. On inspection it was bound by HPC that barring a few. After research. including non-chlorinated with chlorinated hydrocarbons. The HPC has observed that incineration is the most important treatment method for the destruction of all high calorific and highly toxic wastes. Often they are not equipped with adequate air pollution control devices and all types of wastes. • Inventory The Court directs that toxic inventory prepared by SPCBs regarding the generation of hazardous wastes. one should also look carefully at the import of those industries that will generate problematic hazardous wastes. Destruction efficiencies of effectively 99. High temperature incineration at 1200 degree Celsius mineralizes (breaks down into basis non-toxic components) all kinds of organic matter. and the CPCB should do research on this so that the relocation of these industries from industrialized countries to India is effectively thwarted and technology transfer does not turn into hazardous transfer. while designing the disposal system. There seems to be an urgent need to develop the design criteria for incinerators to safeguard the environments so as to have proper and efficient working of incinerators close to the place of generation of hazardous wastes. after its verification by CPCB shall be filed to this Court so that order for its conversion into National Toxic Inventory can be passed. The design criteria is required to be set by the CPCB which is now ready in the form of a draft report. CPCB shall take up the matter with the MOEF for requisite regulatory measure. being burnt. The research done in this regard should be communicated by the CPCB to the SPCBs to form part of their decision-making process regarding absence of consents and authorizations. if necessary. which is much too low.

shall be filed in this Court so that the orders can be passed on the same being treated as Authenticated National Inventory on hazardous waste dump site. involved in hazardous chemicals and the generating hazardous wastes display on-line date outside the factory gate. • Steps before clearance : Before clearance of any hazardous wastes imported to India the Port and Customs authorities would ensure that the consignment in question corresponds with the details of authenticated copy of Form 7 sent by the country of export. television and the Internet. would be empowered to monitor the import of hazardous waste. Relevant important information should be displayed on notice boards and newspapers and communicated through radio. for a period of two year. Access to public records with the environment protection authorities should be freely allowed to the public. as the right to a healthy environment has been defined as part of the Right to Life under Article 21 of the Constitution. CPCB. Suggestions given in these regards are as under: Selected local residents should be appointed as wardens for environmental surveillance. it would be empowered to undertake random check from time to time as a safeguard.• Dump sites The Toxic inventory with regard to hazardous waste dump sites in different States should be prepared by SPCBs and PCCs and after verification by CPCB. as well as water and air emissions and solids wastes generated within the . • Public Participation and Third Party Audit It has been recommended that public participation should be secured in the management of environment pollution and hazardous waste to maximum possible extent. on quantity and nature of hazardous chemicals being used in the plant. which means. particularly to take note of illegal dumping of hazardous wastes. The HPC would like to see all industries.

The profit margins in the ship breaking industry are huge and big-time contractors make unbelievable profits. the main centre lies on the West Coast at Alang. paint-chips.factory premises. The annual turnover of the industry stands at Rs 6. etc. where the audit team includes members of the community. when Govt. asbestos. Water pollutants. should be made a routine practice. The ship breaking industry is generating re-rollable steel scrap. becomes a potential source of air pollution. • Hazardous waste from ship breaking: Ship breaking activity grew into a full-fledged industry by 1979. thermocole. find their way to marine / terrestrial eco-system. the unit should be asked to show cause or even be asked to close down.000 crore. tin etc. ship-breaking industry is producing around 2 million tones of re-rollable steel per annum. also. By 1990. Now it has been recognized as a manufacturing process as per Central Excise and Sales Act. Informers and "whistle-blowers" within industry. The ship braking activities are carried out at various coasts of the county. of India recognized it as a manufacturing industry. the sea recedes by three km. who provide information. The open burning of solid wastes including hazardous wastes. During the process of ship breaking. The geography of Alang makes it ideal for ship breaking. generated during ship breaking. . debris. should be protected and strict confidentiality about them maintained. poly-chlorinated byphenyls (PCB). Third-party audit of hazardous wastes. On an average 200 ships per year are being cut at the Alang Ship Breaking Yard. Also some times the ships contain unidentified matters and toxic chemicals like paints / components. Gujarat. directly used by the re-rolling industries at the down stream. In 1996-97. however. During low tide. over 100 ships started landing in Alang each year. pollutants like oil. heavy metals. result in change in water quality and marine eco-system especially in inter-tidal zone. the industry scrapped a record 348 ships. rubber & plastics insulating materials. lead. The industry was set up in Alang in 1982. If such date is not made available. At present. asbestos. The beach is low and tides are as high as 10 meters. glass wool.

therefore. if needed.9 per cent. utilizing technologies that meet the criteria of an effective destruction efficiently of 99. glass wool. When the ship arrives at a port for breaking. stating that it does not contain any hazardous waste or radioactive substances. Ministry of Steel. thermocole pieces. liquid and solid residues for analysis and. broken tiles. cotton. inadequate safely measures during cutting. it should have proper consent from the concerned authority or the State Maritime Board. The major ship breaking activity in India is at Alang in State of Gujarat and. The Court did not suggest discontinuing of ship breaking activity but noted that it deserves to be strictly and properly regulated. breaking and other operations.The accidental death rate reported at ship breaking yard is high. explosions. The ship should be properly decontaminated by the ship owner prior to the breaking. Disposal of waste material. the Inter Ministerial Committee comprising Ministry of Surface Transport. in particular. According to the recommendation of HPC. reprocessing. This should be ensured by the SPCBs. with no generation of persistent organic pollutants. dead cargo of inorganic material like hydrated/solidified elements. The reasons of death are gas leakage. etc. viz. rubber. Ministry of Labour and Ministry of Environment should be constituted with the involvement of Labour and Environment organizations and representatives of the ship breaking Industries • The Court has accepted the following recommendations of HPC: Before a ship arrives at port. should be done in a proper manner. Gujarat Maritime Board and Gujarat SPCB have to be alive to the consequences of the appropriate steps to be taken before the breaking activities start. Maritime Board and the SPCB are not taken. and complete containment of all gaseous. Such disposed of material should be kept at a specified place . the concerned authorities have to be vigilant about the hazardous waste which may be generated if appropriate timely action by various agencies. oil.

The Gujarat SPCB will ensure compliance of the new Gujarat Maritime Board (Prevention of Fire & Accidents for Safety & Welfare of Workers and Protection of the Environment during Ship breaking Activities) Regulations. Rules.W. That the plots where no activities are being currently conducted should not be allowed to commence any fresh ship breaking activity unless they have necessary authorization. 2000.earmarked for this purpose. Special care must be taken in the handling of asbestos wastes. The concerned State Pollution Control Board(s) be directed to close all units which are not authorized under the HW Rules. The Notification issued by GMB in 2001 on Gas Free for Hot Work. Any explosion irrespective of the possession of certification should be dealt sternly . The Gujarat Pollution Control Board should authorize appropriate final disposal of asbestos waste. radio-active substances (wherever applicable). and should submit a compliance report to the Court. 2003. only if they have provisions for disposal of the waste in environmentally sound manner. The Gujarat PCBs be further directed to install proper equipment and infrastructure for analysis to enable it to conduct first level inspection of hazardous material. The Gujarat PCBs should ensure continuous monitoring of ambient air and noise level as per the standards fixed. All authorization should be renewed only if an industry has facilities for disposal of waste in environmentally sound manner. should be made mandatory and no ship should be given a beaching permission unless this certificates is shown. for safe disposal. The ship breaking industries should be given authorization under Rule 5 of the H. There should be immediate ban of burning of any material whether hazardous or nonhazardous on the beach. and total quantities of such waste should be made known to the concerned authorities. The State Maritime Board should insist that all quantities of waste oil. sludge and other similar mineral oils and paints chips are carefully removed from the ship and taken immediately to areas outside the beach.

Constitution of the Supreme Court Monitoring Committee It appears from the HPC Report that about 80% of country's hazardous waste is generated in the State of Maharashtra. The maximum time allowed should be one year. Ministry of Labour and Ministry of Environment should be constituted with the involvement of labour and environment organizations and representatives of the ship breaking industry. At the international level. it is necessary to appoint a Monitoring Committee to oversee the compliance of law. if practiced. India should participate in international meetings on ship breaking at the level of the International Maritime Organisation and the Basel Convention's Technical Working Group with a clear mandate for the decontamination of ships of their hazardous substances such as asbestos. gas and PCBs prior to exports to India for breaking. A complete inventory of hazardous waste on board of ship should be made mandatory for the ship owner. waste oil. directions of this Court and Rules and Regulations. In order to ensure that the generation of hazardous waste is minimum and it is properly handled in every State including the aforesaid States. Participation should include from Central and State level. This inventory should also be submitted by the GMB to concerned SPCBs to ensure safe disposal of hazardous and toxics wastes.and the license of the plot holder should be cancelled and Explosives inspector should be prosecuted accordingly for giving false certificate. Gujarat Maritime Board and Gujarat SPCB officers should visit sites at regular intervals so that the plot owners knows that these institutions are an Inter-Ministerial Committee comprising Ministry of Surface Transport. That the above conditions also apply to other ship breaking activities in other Coastal States. Gujarat. Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. This action should be taken in a time bound manner. The SPCBs along with the State Maritime Board should prepare land fill sites and incinerators as per the CPCB guidelines and only after prior approval of the CPCB. This may also show good industrial growth in those States. Breaking permission should not be granted without such an inventory. Ministry of Steel. . in particular.

which are difficult to manage in an environmentally friendly manner. made similar observation and conclude that the hazardous wastes situation in India is fairly grim. A High Power Committee (HPC) on hazardous waste management. It would be open to the Monitoring Committee to co-opt a representative of the State Government or State Pollution Control Boards or any other person or authority as the Committee may deem fit and proper. Boralkar. continuation of import of hazardous wastes despite the ban. The Monitoring Committee shall file quarterly reports in this Court.The Court. This Committee shall oversee that the direction of this Court are implemented timely. Conclusions The industry driven economy of India's has resulted in hazardous waste problems. there is an urgent need for formulating proper hazardous waste management strategies. Thus. therefore. centralized disposal facilities and lack of technical and financial resources have led to the unscientific disposal of hazardous wastes posing serious threat to human. The non-enforcement of 'Polluter Pays' principle. . NGO and Dr. now the Member Secretary of the Maharashtra Pollution Control Board. 2003 under the supervision of the Supreme Court Monitoring Committee. constituted by the Hon'ble Supreme Court of India in 1997. It would also oversee that the aspects to which the Ministry has agreed are implemented in letter and spirit and without any laxity or delay in the matter. To import of sludge oil under Marpol Convention the Court directed the Central Government to file an affidavit indicating in detail how the said oil is dealt with after import. D. animal and plant life. implementation of hazardous wastes management regulations and establishment of proper hazardous waste treatment and disposal facilities (HWTDF) for controlling the unscientific disposal of hazardous wastes This is now being done in accordance with the order of the Supreme Court which was issued on October 14. 2003. Claude Alvares. in the perception of the Central Government. be imported or it is only a technical import at the time of discharge of oil as suggested in the affidavit from MoEF dated 14th February. constituted a Monitoring Committee comprising of the following members as also Dr.B. It shall also be clarified in the affidavit whether such oil can. absence of proper infrastructure viz.

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