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Integrated Finite Element Analysis and Design of Structures

STEEL DESIGN MANUAL

Computers and Structures, Inc. Berkeley, California, USA

Version 7.4 Revision May 2000

COPYRIGHT

The computer program SAP2000 and all associated documentation are proprietary and copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers and Structures, Inc. Unlicensed use of the program or reproduction of the documentation in any form, without prior written authorization from Computers and Structures, Inc., is explicitly prohibited. Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained from:

Computers and Structures, Inc. 1995 University Avenue Berkeley, California 94704 USA Tel: (510) 845-2177 Fax: (510) 845-4096 E-mail: info@csiberkeley.com Web: www.csiberkeley.com

© Copyright Computers and Structures, Inc., 1978–2000. The CSI Logo is a registered trademark of Computers and Structures, Inc. SAP2000 is a registered trademark of Computers and Structures, Inc.

DISCLAIMER

CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE DEVELOPMENT AND DOCUMENTATION OF SAP2000. THE PROGRAM HAS BEEN THOROUGHLY TESTED AND USED. IN USING THE PROGRAM, HOWEVER, THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THE PROGRAM. THIS PROGRAM IS A VERY PRACTICAL TOOL FOR THE DESIGN/ CHECK OF STEEL STRUCTURES. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST THOROUGHLY READ THE MANUAL AND CLEARLY RECOGNIZE THE ASPECTS OF STEEL DESIGN THAT THE PROGRAM ALGORITHMS DO NOT ADDRESS. THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE ASSUMPTIONS OF THE PROGRAM AND MUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS.

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9 Effective Length Factor (K) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Design and Check Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 P. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel sections . . . . . . 10 Choice of Input Units . 13 CHAPTER III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 Design Loading Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Element Unsupported Lengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table of Contents CHAPTER I Introduction 1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Allowable Stress in Bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Allowable Stress in Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Round Bars . . . . . . . . 1 Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . T-sections and Double angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flexural Buckling . . .Effects . . . . . . . . . 3 CHAPTER II Design Algorithms 5 Design Load Combinations . . . . . . . . . Allowable Stress in Compression. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Classification of Sections . . . 15 18 18 22 23 23 23 23 25 30 30 33 34 35 36 36 i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-sections . . . Box Sections and Rectangular Tubes Pipe Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Recommended Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculation of Allowable Stresses . . Flexural-Torsional Buckling . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculation of Stresses . . . . .

. . . . . Flexure Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flexural-Torsional Buckling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculation of Nominal Strengths . . .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Rectangular and Square Bars Single-Angle Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . Shear Stresses . . . . . . . . Calculation of Capacity Ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flange Local Buckling . Web Local Buckling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Classification of Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 48 48 52 54 54 54 58 58 60 61 61 61 65 69 72 73 73 74 CHAPTER V Check/Design for AASHTO 1997 Design Loading Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Axial and Bending Stresses . . . . 96 Classification of Sections . . . . Classification of Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 78 79 79 82 83 84 84 90 91 92 92 CHAPTER VI Check/Design for CISC94 93 Design Loading Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flexural Buckling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shear Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Axial and Bending Stresses . . Calculation of Factored Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shear Stresses . . . . . . . . . 36 37 39 39 40 41 43 CHAPTER IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 Design Loading Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shear Capacities . 97 ii . . . Calculation of Factored Forces . . . . . Nominal Strength in Bending. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Axial and Bending Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Torsional and Flexural-Torsional Buckling Tension Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculation of Capacity Ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tension Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculation of Nominal Strengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lateral-Torsional Buckling . . . . Yielding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compression Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compression Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculation of Stress Ratios . . . . Allowable Stress in Shear . . . . . Shear Capacities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Table of Contents

Calculation of Factored Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Calculation of Factored Strengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Compression Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Tension Strength. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Bending Strengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 I-shapes and Boxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Rectangular Bar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Pipes and Circular Rods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Channel Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 T-shapes and double angles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Single Angle and General Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Shear Strengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Calculation of Capacity Ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Axial and Bending Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Shear Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

**CHAPTER VII Check/Design for BS 5950
**

Design Loading Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . Classification of Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculation of Factored Forces. . . . . . . . . . . Calculation of Section Capacities . . . . . . . . . Compression Resistance. . . . . . . . . . . . Tension Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Moment Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plastic and Compact Sections . . . . . . Semi-compact Sections . . . . . . . . . . Lateral-Torsional Buckling Moment Capacity Shear Capacities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculation of Capacity Ratios . . . . . . . . . . . Local Capacity Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under Axial Tension . . . . . . . . . . . Under Axial Compression . . . . . . . . Overall Buckling Check . . . . . . . . . . . . Shear Capacity Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

111

114 115 117 117 119 119 121 121 121 122 122 125 125 127 127 127 127 128

**CHAPTER VIII Check/Design for EUROCODE 3
**

Design Loading Combinations . . . Classification of Sections . . . . . Calculation of Factored Forces. . . Calculation of Section Resistances. Tension Capacity . . . . . . . Compression Resistance. . . . Shear Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

129

132 133 137 138 139 139 141

iii

**SAP2000 Steel Design Manual
**

Moment Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lateral-torsional Buckling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculation of Capacity Ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bending, Axial Compression, and Low Shear . . . . . . Bending, Axial Compression, and High Shear . . . . . . Bending, Compression, and Flexural Buckling . . . . . . Bending, Compression, and Lateral-Torsional Buckling . Bending, Axial Tension, and Low Shear . . . . . . . . . Bending, Axial Tension, and High Shear . . . . . . . . . Bending, Axial Tension, and Lateral-Torsional Buckling Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 143 145 145 146 146 147 148 148 149 149

**CHAPTER IX Design Output
**

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Graphical Display of Design Output Tabular Display of Design Output . . Member Specific Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

151

151 152 153 154

References Index

157 159

iv

Chapter I

Introduction

Overview

SAP2000 features powerful and completely integrated modules for design of both steel and reinforced concrete structures. The program provides the user with options to create, modify, analyze and design structural models, all from within the same user interface. The program is capable of performing initial member sizing and optimization from within the same interface. The program provides an interactive environment in which the user can study the stress conditions, make appropriate changes, such as revising member properties, and re-examine the results without the need to re-run the analysis. A single mouse click on an element brings up detailed design information. Members can be grouped together for design purposes. The output in both graphical and tabulated formats can be readily printed. The program is structured to support a wide variety of the latest national and international design codes for the automated design and check of concrete and steel frame members. The program currently supports the following steel design codes: • U.S. AISC/ASD (1989), • U.S. AISC/LRFD (1994), • U.S. AASHTO LRFD (1997), Overview

1

All allowable stress values or design capacity values for axial. The checks are made for each user specified (or program defaulted) load combination and at several user controlled stations along the length of the element. Different sets of available sections can be specified for different groups of elements.1-94 (1994). In the check process the program produces demand/capacity ratios for axial load and biaxial moment interactions and shear. from a set of user specified sections. 2 Overview . bending and shear actions are calculated by the program. the program provides a set of default load combinations for each design code supported in SAP2000. Maximum demand/capacity ratios are then reported and/or used for design optimization. The presentation of the output is clear and concise. • British BS 5950 (1990). The demand/capacity ratios are based on element stress and allowable stress for allowable stress design. However. In the design process the program picks the least weight section required for strength for each element to be designed. and on factored loads (actions) and factored capacities (resistances) for limit state design. no definition of additional load combination is required. The design is based upon a set of user-specified loading combinations. and • Eurocode 3 (ENV 1993-1-1). Also several elements can be grouped to be designed to have the same section. If the default load combinations are acceptable. Backup design information produced by the program is also provided for convenient verification of the results. Special requirements for seismic design are not implemented in the current version of SAP2000. Tedious calculations associated with evaluating effective length factors for columns in moment frame type structures are automated in the algorithms.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual • Canadian CAN/CSA-S16. The information is in a form that allows the designer to take appropriate remedial measures if there is member overstress. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used to define the model geometry and to specify design parameters.

• Chapter IV gives a detailed description of the AISC LRFD code (AISC 1994) as implemented in SAP2000. Each of six subsequent chapters gives a detailed description of a specific code of practice as interpreted by and implemented in SAP2000. • Chapter VII gives a detailed description of the British code BS 5950 (BSI 1990) as implemented in SAP2000. Organization 3 . and other special considerations required by the code. Each chapter describes the design loading combinations to be considered. calculations of demand/capacity ratios. It is recommended that first time users follow through the steps of this tutorial before reading this manual. and shear. compression. • Chapter VIII gives a detailed description of the Eurocode 3 (CEN 1992) as implemented in SAP2000. allowable stress or capacity calculations for tension. • Chapter III gives a detailed description of the AISC ASD code (AISC 1989) as implemented in SAP2000. bending. • Chapter VI gives a detailed description of the Canadian code (CISC 1994) as implemented in SAP2000. Chapter IX outlines various aspects of the tabular and graphical output from SAP2000 related to steel design.Chapter I Introduction Organization This manual is organized in the following way: Chapter II outlines various aspects of the steel design procedures of the SAP2000 program. • Chapter V gives a detailed description of the AASHTO LRFD steel code (AASHTO 1997) as implemented in SAP2000. This chapter describes the common terminology of steel design as implemented in SAP2000. Recommended Reading It is recommended that the user read Chapter II “Design Algorithms” and one of six subsequent chapters corresponding to the code of interest to the user. A steel design tutorial is presented in the chapter “Steel Design Tutorial” in the SAP2000 Quick Tutorial manual. Finally the user should read “Design Output” in Chapter IX for understanding and interpreting SAP2000 output related to steel design.

.

• American Institute of Steel Construction’s “Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings”. • American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials’ “AASHTO-LRFD Bridge Design Specifications”.C h a p t e r II Design Algorithms This chapter outlines various aspects of the steel check and design procedures that are used by the SAP2000 program. • American Institute of Steel Construction’s “Allowable Stress Design and Plastic Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings”. • European Committee for Standardization’s “Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures Part 1. • Canadian Institute of Steel Construction’s “Limit States Design of Steel Structures”. ENV 1993-1-1 (CEN 1992). AISC-ASD (AISC 1989). 5 . CAN/CSA-S16. The steel design and check may be performed according to one of the following codes of practice.1: General Rules and Rules for Buildings”. BS 5950 (BSI 1990). AASHTO-LRFD (AASHTO 1997). AISC-LRFD (AISC 1994). • British Standards Institution’s “Structural Use of Steelwork in Building”.1-94 (CISC 1995).

Separate combinations with negative factors for response spectrum cases are not required because the program automatically takes the minima to be the negative of the maxima for response spectrum cases and the above described permutations generate the required sub combinations. The program has an option to request that time history combinations produce sub combinations for each time step of the time history. The load combination factors to be used vary with the selected design code. When a design combination involves only a single multi-valued case of time history or moving load. For multi-valued load combinations involving response spectrum. Also an option is available to request that moving load combina- 6 Design Load Combinations . square-root of the sum of the squares or absolute) where any correspondence between interacting quantities is lost. this chapter provides a background which is common to all the design codes. the program automatically produces multiple sub combinations using maxima/minima permutations of interacting quantities.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Details of the algorithms associated with each of these codes as implemented and interpreted in SAP2000 are described in subsequent chapters. further options are available. moving loads and multi-valued combinations (of type enveloping. all references to the AASHTO-LRFD code carry the prefix of “AASHTO”. – References to the AISC-ASD89 code carry the prefix of “ASD” – References to the AISC-LRFD93 code carry the prefix of “LRFD” – References to the Canadian code carry the prefix of “CISC” – References to the British code carry the prefix of “BS” – References to the Eurocode carry the prefix of “EC3” Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are used for determining the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed/checked. The load combination factors are applied to the forces and moments obtained from the associated load cases and the results are then summed to obtain the factored design forces and moments for the load combination. time history. However. For example. It is assumed that the user has an engineering background in the general area of structural steel design and familiarity with at least one of the above mentioned design codes. For referring to pertinent sections of the corresponding code. a unique prefix is assigned for each code. Similarly.

the user must provide the appropriate design combinations. each element is designed or checked at a number of locations along the length of the element. the program has built-in default loading combinations for each design code.Chapter II Design Algorithms tions produce sub combinations using maxima and minima of each design quantity but with corresponding values of interacting quantities. then the effects of these loads will be assumed to be zero in any combination that includes them. For other loading conditions involving moving load. The user is cautioned that if moving load or time history results are not requested to be recovered in the analysis for some or all the frame members. The default load combinations are included in design if the user requests them to be included or if no other user defined combination is available for concrete design. The number of segments in an element is requested by the user before the analysis is made. Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading. For normal loading conditions involving static dead load. Design and Check Stations For each load combination. or response spectrum cases. The locations are based on equally spaced segments along the clear length of the element. However. the user must define design loading combinations either in lieu of or in addition to the default design loading combinations. The user can refine the design along the length of an element by requesting more segments. Design and Check Stations 7 . pattern live loads. If any default combination is included in design. Similarly. snow load. all cases declared as live load are assumed additive. time history. separate consideration of roof live load. and/or dynamic response spectrum earthquake load. These are based on the code recommendations and are documented for each code in the corresponding chapters. etc. each static load case declared as wind or earthquake. live load. Also wind and static earthquake cases produce separate loading combinations with the sense (positive or negative) reversed. then all default combinations will automatically be updated by the program any time the user changes to a different design code or if static or response spectrum load cases are modified. wind load.. and earthquake load. is assumed to be non additive with each other and produces multiple lateral load combinations. If these conditions are not correct. The default load combinations assume all static load cases declared as dead load to be additive.

Forces in other types of elements do not contribute to this effect. the moments are magnified with moment magnification factors as in the AISC-LRFD and AASHTO-LRFD codes or are considered directly in the design equations as in the Canadian. If significant forces are present in other types of elements.effects are considered differently for “braced” or “nonsway” and “unbraced” or “sway” components of moments in frames. Whereas. No P. SAP2000 assumes that the amplification is already included in the results because P.Effects . large axial loads in shear walls modeled as shell elements. For further reference. The actual member stress components and corresponding allowable stresses are calculated. The users of SAP2000 should be aware that the default analysis option in SAP2000 is turned OFF for P.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual The axial-flexure interaction ratios as well as shear stress ratios are calculated for each station along the length of the member for each load combination. then the additional forces computed for P. The default number of iterations for P. and code-equation. For lateral drift effects of unbraced or sway frames. the user is referred to SAP2000 Analysis Reference Manual (CSI 1997).0 indicates an overstress or exceeding a limit state. the stress ratios are evaluated according to the code.effects. The controlling compression and/or tension stress ratio is then obtained.effect. Then. For the braced moments in frames. and European codes.will be inaccurate.is limited to “individual member stability”. load combination. P. For the individual member stability effects.analysis is 1. “unbraced” or “sway” moments are contributed from all other types of loads. For unbraced components. along with the corresponding identification of the station. 8 P. for example. The user should turn the P.analysis is required for the AISC-ASD code.analysis ON and set the maximum number of iterations for the analysis. The P. the effect of P.effects due to axial loads in frame members only.effects are considered for all but AISC-ASD code. In SAP2000. British. No moment magnification is applied to the AISC-ASD code. it is assumed that “braced” or “nonsway” moments are contributed from the “dead” or “live” loads.Effects The SAP2000 design algorithms require that the analysis results include the P. “lateral drift effects” should be considered in addition to individual member stability effect. The user is also cautioned that SAP2000 currently considers P. A stress ratio greater than 1.

the distance between END-I and END-J of the element. and l 22 corresponds to instability about the 2-2 axis (minor axis). See Figure II-1. The length l 22 is also used for lateral-torsional buckling caused by major direction bending (i. however. the unsupported element length is equal to the length of the element. The program..e. i.e.. Normally. about the 3-3 axis). allows users to assign several elements to be treated as a single member for design. These are the lengths between support points of the element in the corresponding directions. as shown in Figure II-3. Therefore. Figure II-1 Major and Minor Axes of Bending Element Unsupported Lengths 9 . See Figure II-1.Chapter II Design Algorithms Element Unsupported Lengths To account for column slenderness effects. The length l 33 corresponds to instability about the 3-3 axis (major axis). that affect the unsupported length of an element are automatically taken into consideration. This can be done differently for major and minor bending. The two unsupported lengths are l 33 and l 22 . See Figure II-2 for correspondence between the SAP2000 axes and the axes in the design codes. extraneous joints. the column unsupported lengths are required.

The rest are braces. 10 Effective Length Factor (K) . All elements parallel to the X-Y plane are classified as beams.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual In determining the values for l 22 and l 33 of the elements. where the columns are vertical and the beams are horizontal. Therefore. the unsupported length of a column may actually be evaluated as being greater than the corresponding element length. For the purpose of calculating K -factors. the beam is assumed to give lateral support only in that direction. Figure II-2 Correspondence between SAP2000 Axes and Code Axes Effective Length Factor (K) The column K -factor algorithm has been developed for building-type structures. such as member connectivity. the program recognizes various aspects of the structure that have an effect on these lengths. The user has options to specify the unsupported lengths of the elements on an element-by-element basis. and the behavior is basically that of a moment-resisting nature for which the K -factor calculation is relatively complex. All elements parallel to the Z-axis are classified as columns. diaphragm constraints and support points. If the beam frames into only one direction of the column. The program automatically locates the element support points and evaluates the corresponding unsupported element length. the elements are identified as columns. beams and braces.

the program first makes the following four stiffness summations for each joint in the structural model: S cx = S cy = Ec I c Lc Ec I c Lc S bx = x Eb I b Lb Eb I b Lb x S by = y y where the x and y subscripts correspond to the global X and Y directions and the c and b subscripts refer to column and beam.Chapter II Design Algorithms Figure II-3 Unsupported Lengths are Affected by Intermediate Nodal Points The beams and braces are assigned K -factors of unity. The local 2-2 and 3-3 terms EI 22 l 22 and EI 33 l 33 are rotated to give components along the global X and Y directions to form the ( EI / l ) x and ( EI / l ) y values. Then for each column. In the calculation of the K -factors for a column element. the joint summations at END-I and the END-J of the member are transformed back to the column local 1-2-3 coordinate system and the G-values for END-I and the END-J of the member are calculated about the 2-2 and 3-3 directions as follows: Effective Length Factor (K) 11 .

If all degrees of freedom for a particular joint are deleted. the G-values for all members connecting to that joint will be set to 1. the associated G-value will be infinity. If the G-value at any one end of a column for a particular direction is infinity. space frames.. The following are some important aspects associated with the column K-factor algorithm: • An element that has a pin at the joint under consideration will not enter the stiffness summations calculated above. the corresponding K-factor is set to unity. the corresponding value is set to 10. beam elements that have no column member at the far end from the joint under consideration. • If rotational releases exist at both ends of an element for a particular direction.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual S I c 22 S I b 22 S I c 33 = I S b 33 S J c 22 S J b 22 S J c 33 = J S b 33 G I 22 = G I 33 G J 22 = G J 33 If a rotational release exists at a particular end (and direction) of an element. the K-factor corresponding to that direction is set equal to unity. Finally. Also. specifically under circumstances involving skewed beams. 12 Effective Length Factor (K) . if G I and G J are known for a particular direction. such as cantilevers. the K-factors for all members are usually unity and should be set so by the user. the column K -factor for the corresponding direction is calculated by solving the following relationship for α: 2 G G G I I J G J from which K . and under other conditions where the program may have difficulty recognizing that the members are laterally supported and K-factors of unity are to be used. For other structures.0 for the end of the member connecting to that joint. This relationship is the mathematical formulation for the evaluation of K factors for moment-resisting frames assuming sidesway to be uninhibited. fixed support conditions. etc. • The automated K-factor calculation procedure can occasionally generate artificially high K-factors. • If there are no beams framing into a particular direction of a column element. such as braced frame structures. transmission towers. An element that has a pin at the far end from the joint under consideration will contribute only 50% of the calculated EI value. trusses. will not enter the stiffness summation.0.

Chapter II Design Algorithms • All K-factors produced by the program can be overwritten by the user. any system of units can be used to define and design the structure in SAP2000. All equations and descriptions presented in the subsequent chapters correspond to that specific system of units unless otherwise noted. For example. By default. Choice of Input Units 13 . But the codes are based on a specific system of units. However. AISC-ASD code is published in kip-inch-second units. all equations and descriptions presented in the chapter “Check/Design for AISC-ASD89” correspond to kip-inch-second units. Choice of Input Units English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. These values should be reviewed and any unacceptable values should be replaced.

.

A capacity ratio greater than 1. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. a unique prefix “ASD” is assigned. Various notations used in this chapter are described in Table III-1.0 indicates overstress. However. In the evaluation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios at a station along the length of the member. The controlling capacity ratio is then obtained. first the actual member force/moment components and the corresponding capacities are calculated for each load combination. Similarly. For referring to pertinent sections and equations of the original ASD code. But the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures.C h a p t e r III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 This chapter describes the details of the structural steel design and stress check algorithms that are used by SAP2000 when the user selects the AISC-ASD89 design code (AISC 1989). Then the capacity ratios are evaluated at each station under the influence of all load combinations using the corresponding equations that are defined in this chapter. 15 . all references to the “Specifications for Allowable Stress Design of Single-Angle Members” carry the prefix of “ASD SAM”. a shear capacity ratio is also calculated separately.

Fb 22 Fcr Fe 33 Fe 22 Fv Fy K K 33 . in6 Outside diameter of pipes. in2 Gross cross-sectional area. K 22 M 33 . M 22 M ob P Pe Q Qa Qs S S 33 . in Bending Coefficient Moment Coefficient Warping constant. ksi Allowable bending stress.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual A Ae Af Ag Av 2 . in 2 Web shear area. in3 Table III-1 AISC-ASD Notations 16 . in Modulus of elasticity. ksi Allowable axial stress. kips Euler buckling load. in2 Area of flange . in3 Major and minor section moduli. kips Reduction factor for slender section. = Qa Qs Reduction factor for stiffened slender elements Reduction factor for unstiffened slender elements Section modulus. ksi Allowable major and minor bending stresses. in Effective cross-sectional area for slender sections. S 22 ¢ ¢ = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Cross-sectional area. ksi Critical compressive stress. ksi Effective length factor Effective length K-factors in the major and minor directions Major and minor bending moments in member. dt w . Av 3 Aw Cb Cm Cw D E Fa Fb Fb 33 . ksi Yield stress of material. kip-in Axial force in member. kip-in Lateral-torsional moment for angle sections. ksi 12 2 E 23 K 33 l33 r33 12 2 2 2 E 2 23 K 22 l22 r22 Allowable shear stress. in2 2 Major and minor shear areas.

in Web thickness. l22 lc r r33 . Effective width of flange. angle.33 . S eff .) 17 . ksi Shear stress in major and minor direction bending. r22 rz t tf tw w = = = = = = = = = Effective major and minor section moduli for slender sections. Major and minor direction unbraced member lengths. box. in Minimum Radius of gyration for angles. in Flange thickness. in Radii of gyration in the major and minor directions.46 Table III-1 AISC-ASD Notations (cont. and T sections. in3 Shear forces in major and minor directions.22 Sc V2 .Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 S eff . in Radius of gyration. channel. b f 2t w for welded and b f 3t w for rolled box sections. in 0. in Overall depth of member. in Axial stress either in compression or in tension. in Critical length. ksi Shear stress. if h t w 70 . in longer leg of angle sections. in Distance from outer face of flange to web toe of fillet .V3 b be bf d fa fb f b 33 . in Effective distance between flanges less fillets. ksi Normal stress in major and minor direction bending. f b 22 fv fv 2 . in Flange width. h tw 1 if h t w 70 . in Thickness of a plate in I. kips Nominal dimension of plate in a section. in3 Section modulus for compression in an angle section. in Special section property for angles. ksi Clear distance between flanges for I shaped sections ( d 2t f ). etc. in Parameter used for classification of sections. fv 3 h he k kc = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = l33 . ksi Normal stress in bending.

1) (ASD A4. Slender. For simplicity. When designing for combinations involving earthquake and wind loads.1) (ASD A4. allowable stresses are increased by a factor of 4/3 of the regular allowable value (ASD A5.1) (ASD A4.1) These are also the default design load combinations in SAP2000 whenever the AISC-ASD89 code is used. SAP2000 classifies the individual members according to the limiting width/thickness ratios given in Table III-2 (ASD B5.1. and earthquake induced load (EL). all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Kip-Inch-Second units unless otherwise noted. 18 Design Loading Combinations . Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading. A-B5-2). G1. or if pattern live loads are to be considered. Noncompact.1) (ASD A4.1. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible. For the AISC-ASD89 code. Classification of Sections The allowable stresses for axial compression and flexure are dependent upon the classification of sections as either Compact. F5. The user should use other appropriate loading combinations if roof live load is separately treated. then the following load combinations may have to be defined (ASD A4): DL DL + LL DL WL DL + LL DL EL DL + LL WL EL (ASD A4. The definition of the section properties required in this table is given in Figure III-1 and Table III-1. live load (LL). if other types of loads are present. if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL).2). or Too Slender.1) (ASD A4.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. F3. But the code is based on Kip-Inch-Second units. wind load (WL). Design Loading Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be checked.

Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 Figure III-1 AISC-ASD Definition of Geometric Properties Classification of Sections 19 .

Table III-2 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections Based on AISC-ASD 20 Classification of Sections . Fy No limit No limit For fa / Fy 257 / Fy . 253 Fy h tw No limit otherwise 760 b d BOX h tf tw tw tw 190 Fy 238 No limit As for I-shapes bf None As for I-shapes No limit As for I-shapes Fb Fy No limit No limit As for I-shapes None No limit No limit As for I-shapes If welded bf dw t f tw If rolled bf dw t f tw Fy Fy As for I-shapes No limit t f 2 . If compression only.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Section Description Ratio Checked bf 2t f ( rolled) bf 2t f (welded) For fa Compact Section 65 Fy Noncompact Section 95 Fy Slender Section No limit 65 Fy 640 (1 Fy Fy Fy / k c No limit I-SHAPE d tw fa ). dw As for I-shapes As for I-shapes No limit Other b d h CHANNEL tf tw tw . Other No limit No limit .

If the section satisfies the criteria for Compact sections.300 Fy 3. If the section does not satisfy the criteria for Compact and Noncompact sections but satisfies Classification of Sections 21 . the section is classified as either Compact. Other No limit No limit .Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 Section Description Ratio Checked Compact Section Noncompact Section Slender Section bf d T-SHAPE 2t f tw 65 Fy 95 127 Fy Fy No limit No limit If welded bf dw t f tw If rolled bf dw t f tw No limit No limit Fy (Compression only) No limit for flexure Not applicable .300 Fy ROUND BAR RECTANGLE GENERAL Assumed Compact Assumed Noncompact Assumed Noncompact Table III-2 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections Based on AISC-ASD (Cont.) If the section dimensions satisfy the limits shown in the table. DOUBLE ANGLES ANGLE b b t t Not applicable Not applicable 76 76 Fy Fy PIPE D t 3. the section is classified as Noncompact section. Noncompact. then the section is classified as Compact section. or Slender. If the section does not satisfy the criteria for Compact sections but satisfies the criteria for Noncompact sections.

For Single-angle sections. the shear stresses are calculated for directions along the geometric axes.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual the criteria for Slender sections. If the limits for Slender sections are not met. 22 f v 2 = V 2 /Av 2 f v 3 = V 3 /Av 3 (ASD A-B5. Channel. the principal axes coincide with the geometric axes. Stress check of Too Slender sections is beyond the scope of SAP2000. Calculation of Stresses The stresses are calculated at each of the previously defined stations.2d) The flexural stresses are calculated based on the properties about the principal axes. the section is classified as Slender section. and Channel sections. Channel. 33 f b 22 = M 22 /S eff . Double angles are conservatively assumed to be separated. and Box sections or slender flanges in Box. For I. Pipe. like slender web in I. based on the gross cross-sectional properties. 22 Calculation of Stresses . G1). For general sections it is assumed that all section properties are given in terms of the principal directions. For Single-angle sections. Box. The member stresses for non-slender sections that are calculated for each load combination are. f a = P/A f b 33 = M 33 /S eff . Box. In classifying web slenderness of I-shapes. Circular and Rectangular sections. effective section moduli based on reduced web and reduced flange dimensions are used in calculating stresses. the design considers the principal properties. Double-angle. the section is classified as Too Slender. it is assumed that there are no intermediate stiffeners (ASD F5. T.2d) (ASD A-B5.2d) (ASD A-B5.: f a = P/A f b 33 = M 33 /S 33 f b 22 = M 22 /S 22 f v 2 = V 2 /Av 2 f v 3 = V 3 /Av 3 If the section is slender with slender stiffened elements.2d) (ASD A-B5.2d) (ASD A-B5. in general. For all other sections the shear stresses are calculated along the geometric and principle axes.

For members in tension. Double-angle and Rectangular sections. Fa . Circular. these values will override the above mentioned calculated values for those elements as defined in the following subsections. where Calculation of Allowable Stresses 23 . ASD SAM 2). the minimum radius of gyration. is used instead of r22 and r33 in computing l r . ASD SAM 2) It should be noted that net section checks are not made. The allowable compressive stresses are determined according to the following subsections. For single angles. T. the minimum radius of gyration. C c . Channel. the principal axes are determined and all computations related to flexural stresses are based on that. Allowable Stress in Compression The allowable axial compressive stress is the minimum value obtained from flexural buckling and flexural-torsional buckling. If the user specifies nonzero allowable stresses for one or more elements in the SAP2000 “Redefine Element Design Data” form. depends on the slenderness ratio Kl r based on gross section properties and a corresponding critical value. the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. bending. (ASD D1. For single angles. a message to that effect is printed (ASD B7. For members in compression. if l r is greater than 300. r z . For the Angle sections. Flexural Buckling The allowable axial compressive stress value. Allowable Stress in Tension The allowable axial tensile stress value Fa is assumed to be Fa = Fy Fy . The allowable flexural stresses for all shapes of sections are calculated based on their principal axes of bending. Box. For the I. tension. The specified allowable stresses should be based on the principal axes of bending. and Slender sections according to the following subsections. and shear are computed for Compact. Noncompact. is used instead of r22 and r33 in computing Kl r . if Kl r is greater than 200.Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 Calculation of Allowable Stresses The allowable stresses in compression. Pipe. ASD SAM 4). r z . a warning message is printed (ASD B7.

r33 r22 2 max .2c. is used instead of r22 and r33 in computing Kl r . (ASD E2-2. if Kl r C c¢ . Fa is evaluated as follows: ( Kl/r ) 2 Fa = Q 2C c¢ 3 Kl/r 5 + 3 8 C c¢ 2 Fy Kl/r 8 C c¢ 3 3 . then the calculated value of Fa is taken not to exceed the value of Fa calculated by using the equation ASD E2-2 for Compact and Noncompact sections (ASD E1. (ASD E2-1. For Slender sections. 23 ( Kl r ) 2 If Kl r is greater than 200.(ASD A-B5-12. B7). SAM 4-2) 3 Fa = . For Compact or Noncompact sections Fa is evaluated as follows: ( Kl/r ) 2 Fy 2C c2 5 + 3 Fa = 3 Kl/r 8 Cc Kl/r 8 C c3 if Kl r Cc. and 2 c E Fy . (ASD A-B5-11. 23 ( Kl r ) 2 if Kl r C c¢ . SAM 4-1) 12 2 E . Q Fy (ASD A-B5. r z . if Kl r Cc. C c¢ 12 2 E . SAM 4-2) 2 2E . SAM 4-1) Fa = where. (ASD E2.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Kl r K 33 l 33 K 22 l 22 . ASD SAM 4) For single angles. ASD SAM 4) 24 Calculation of Allowable Stresses . the minimum radius of gyration. except slender Pipe sections.

box. A-B5-11) ¢3 Calculation of Allowable Stresses 25 . and b e for stiffened elements is taken equal to or less than b as given in Table III-4 (ASD A-B5. and Channel sections. For webs in I. Fa .2a. (ASD A-B5. and (ASD A-B5. Q. SAM 4) Q s = reduction factor for unstiffened slender elements.c.2. h e is used as b e and h is used as b in the above equation. ASD SAM 4). E1).a) Q a = reduction factor for stiffened slender elements. where (ASD A-B5. C-E3): Kl/r Fa = Q 2C c¢ 3 Kl/r 5 + 3 8 C c¢ e 2 2 e Fy Kl/r 8C c 3 e . then the calculated value of Fa is taken not to exceed its value calculated by using the equation ASD A-B5-12 (ASD B7. if Kl r is greater than 200. The Q a factors for slender sections are calculated as the ratio of effective cross-sectional area and the gross cross-sectional area. For slender Pipe sections Fa is evaluated as follows: Fa = D t Fy (ASD A-B5-9) The reduction factor. (E2-1.2b). for all compact and noncompact sections is taken as 1. For slender sections.2.Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 For slender sections. if Kl/r e C c¢ . Q is computed as follows: Q Q s Q a . Qa Ae Ag (ASD A-B5-10) The effective cross-sectional area is computed based on effective width as follows: Ae Ag b be t b e for unstiffened elements is taken equal to b.2. determined by the limit states of torsional and flexural-torsional buckling is determined as follows (ASD E3.c) The Q s factors for slender sections are calculated as described in Table III-3 (ASD A-B5. Flexural-Torsional Buckling The allowable axial compressive stress value.

ASD A-B5-2. ASD A-B5-6 As for I-shapes with bf 2t f replaced by bf t f . Fy k c . if if b t Fy . Fy . For flanges. Fy . SAM 4-3 if b t Fy b t b t ANGLE Qs b t 2 Fy . ASD A-B5-4 BOX CHANNEL Qs 1 ASD A-B5.2c Table III-3 Reduction Factor for Unstiffened Slender Elements. if DOUBLEANGLE Qs b t 2 Fy . Fy . Qs d tw 2 Fy .2c PIPE ROUND BAR RECTANGULAR GENERAL Qs Qs Qs Qs 1 1 1 1 ASD A-B5. Qs kc b f 2t f b f 2t f 2 Equation Reference I-SHAPE Fy k c Fy if if ASD A-B5-3. as for flanges in I-shapes. Fy . SAM 4-3 ASD A-B5. ASD A-B5-1. ASD A-B5-1. Fy .2c ASD A-B5. ASD A-B5-5.2c ASD A-B5-3. Fy .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Section Type Reduction Factor for Unstiffened Slender Elements (Q s ) if b f 2t f Fy k c b f 2t f b f 2t f Fy k c . For web see below. ASD A-B5-2. if if d t w Fy .2c ASD A-B5. ASD A-B5-4 ASD A-B5-3. Fy k c . if if b t Fy . Fy . ASD A-B5-4. Q s 26 Calculation of Allowable Stresses . if T-SHAPE d tw Fy d tw d tw b t Fy b t b t Fy . Fy .

if tw 1 . if if f f . if CHANNEL he f f f . if I-SHAPE he f h.2c ASD A-B5-9 ASD A-B5.2c ASD A-B5.2c b b ASD A-B5. if f f . Fy ) ASD A-B5-7 (h t f ) f h. (compression only.Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 Section Type Effective Width for Stiffened Sections Equation Reference h. be f tf 1 ..2b). (compression only. (compr. f . (However. Table III-4 Effective Width for Stiffened Sections Calculation of Allowable Stresses 27 . f . special expression for allowable axial stress is given. (compression only. he f h tw h tw h tw h tw b tf b t h tw h tw f f .) Not applicable be b Not applicable Note: A reduction factor of 3/4 is applied on f for axial-compression-only cases and if the load combination includes any wind load or seismic load (ASD A-B5. f . P ) Ag ASD A-B5-8 (h tw ) f T-SHAPE DOUBLEANGLE ANGLE PIPE ROUND BAR RECTANGULAR GENERAL Qa be be be b ASD A-B5.2c 1. P ) Ag ASD A-B5-8 (h tw ) f BOX b. if tw 1 . f . P ) Ag ASD A-B5-8 (h tw ) f if tw 1 . flexure.

Fe is calculated as the minimum real root of the following cubic equation (ASD SAM C-C4-2.2c. Fe is calculated in SAP2000 as follows: • For Rectangular. LRFD A-E3-7): 28 Calculation of Allowable Stresses . A-B5.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual 12 2 Fa = where. A-B5-12) 2 2E . C c¢ E 2 e . Box. The 1993 version of the AISC-LRFD code is the same as the 1986 version in this respect. SAM 4) Kl/r E e Fe . (E2-2. if Kl/r 23 Kl/r e C c¢ . and Pipe sections: 2 Fe EC w 2 GJ 1 I 22 I 33 (LRFD A-E3-5) K z lz • For T-sections and Double-angles: Fe = Fe 22 Fez 2H 1 1 4 Fe 22 Fez H Fe 22 Fez 2 (LRFD A-E3-6) • For Channels: Fe = Fe 33 Fez 2H 1 1 4 Fe 33 Fez H Fe 33 Fez 2 (LRFD A-E3-6) • For Single-angle sections with equal legs: Fe = Fe 33 Fez 2H 1 1 4 Fe 33 Fez H Fe 33 Fez 2 (ASD SAM C-C4-1) • For Single-angle sections with unequal legs. SAM 4-4) ASD Commentary (ASD C-E3) refers to the 1986 version of the AISC-LRFD code for the calculation of Fe . and Q Fy 2 (ASD E2. (ASD C-E2-2. I.

Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 2 x0 2 y0 ( Fe Fe 33 )( Fe Fe 22 )( Fe Fez ) Fe2 ( Fe Fe 22 ) where. H 1 2 x0 r02 2 . x 0 0 for double-angle and T-shaped members ( y -axis of symmetry). (LRFD A-E3-9) Fe 33 E 2 . r0 2 x0 2 y0 I 22 Ag 2 y0 I 33 = polar radius of gyration about the shear center. x 0 . i. is used in place of K 22 l 22 or K 33 l 33 in calculating Fe 22 and Fe 33 in this case. l 22 . Ar02 (LRFD A-E3-12) K 22 . the maximum value of Kl. and it is taken equal to l 22 . Calculation of Allowable Stresses 29 . y 0 are the coordinates of the shear center with respect to the centroid. and it is taken equal to K 22 in SAP2000. (LRFD A-E3-11) K 22 l 22 r22 2 Fez EC w 2 GJ K z lz 1 .e. l z is the effective length for torsional buckling. (LRFD A-E3-10) K 33 l 33 r33 2 Fe 22 E 2 . For angle sections. K 33 l 33 ). the principal moment of inertia and radii of gyration are used for computing Fe (ASD SAM 4). K z is the effective length factor for torsional buckling. max( K 22 l 22 . l 33 are effective lengths in the minor and major directions. r02 Fe2 ( Fe Fe 33 ) r02 0. K 33 are effective length factors in minor and major directions. Also.

For Compact sections: Fb 33 = Fb 33 = Fy Fy if f y if f y . Major Axis of Bending If l 22 is less than l c . l c . then for both Compact and Noncompact I-sections the allowable bending stress depends on the l 22 rT ratio. which is compared to a critical length.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Allowable Stress in Bending The allowable bending stress depends on the following criteria: the geometric shape of the cross-section. I-sections For I-sections the length parameter is taken as the laterally unbraced length. if welded and f y if f y . if rolled and f y . 30 Calculation of Allowable Stresses . (ASD F1-1) (ASD F1-5) For Noncompact sections: Fb 33 = bf 2t f bf 2t f Fy Fy Fy kc F y . the compactness of the section. . and a length parameter. the axis of bending. where (ASD F1-2) A f is the area of compression flange. the major allowable bending stress for Compact and Noncompact sections is taken depending on whether the section is welded or rolled and whether f y is greater than 65 ksi or not. l 22 .. The critical length is defined as lc min 76 b f 20. . (ASD F1-3) Fb 33 = Fb 33 = F y .000 A f . d Fy Fy . (ASDF1-4) (ASD F1-5) If the unbraced length l 22 is greater than l c .

Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 l 22 rT Fb 33 102,000 C b , Fy Fy , (ASD F1-6)

For

for

102,000 C b Fy Fb 33 l 22 rT Fb 33 2 3

l 22 rT

510,000 C b , Fy Fy F y , and (ASD F1-6)

F y ( l 22 / rT ) 2 1530,000 C b

for

510,000 C b , Fy 170,000 C b ( l 22 / rT ) 2 0 Fy , (ASD F1-7)

and Fb 33 is taken not to be less than that given by the following formula: Fb 33 where, rT is the radius of gyration of a section comprising the compression flange and 1 3 the compression web taken about an axis in the plane of the web, Cb = + Ma Mb + Ma Mb

2

12,000 C b l 22 d / A f

Fy

(ASD F1-8)

, where

(ASD F1.3)

M a and M b are the end moments of any unbraced segment of the member and M a is numerically less than M b ; M a M b being positive for double curvature bending and negative for single curvature bending. Also, if any moment within the segment is greater than M b , C b is taken as 1.0. Also, C b is taken as 1.0 for cantilevers and frames braced against joint translation (ASD F1.3). SAP2000 defaults C b to 1.0 if the unbraced length, l 22 , of the member is redefined by the user (i.e. it is not equal to the length of the member). The user can overwrite the value of C b for any member by specifying it. Calculation of Allowable Stresses

31

SAP2000 Steel Design Manual The allowable bending stress for Slender sections bent about their major axis is determined in the same way as for a Noncompact section. Then the following additional considerations are taken into account. If the web is slender, then the previously computed allowable bending stress is reduced as follows: Fb¢33 R PG R PG R e Fb 33 , where Aw h Af t 3 Re

3

(ASD G2-1) 760 Fb 33 , (ASD G2)

Aw Af

Aw Af ,

, (hybrid girders)

(ASD G2)

Re

(non-hybrid girders)

(ASD G2)

Aw = Area of web, in 2 , A f = Area of compression flange, in 2 , Fy Fb 33 (ASD G2)

Fb 33 = Allowable bending stress assuming the section is non-compact, and Fb¢33 = Allowable bending stress after considering web slenderness. In the above expressions, R e is taken as 1, because currently SAP2000 deals with only non-hybrid girders. If the flange is slender, then the previously computed allowable bending stress is taken to be limited as follows. Fb¢33 Qs F y , where (ASD A-B5.2a, A-B5.2d)

Q s is defined earlier.

32

Calculation of Allowable Stresses

Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 Minor Axis of Bending The minor direction allowable bending stress Fb 22 is taken as follows: For Compact sections: Fb 22 = Fb 22 = Fy Fy if f y if f y , , (ASD F2-1) (ASD F2-2)

For Noncompact and Slender sections: Fb 22 = Fb 22 = Fy bf 2t f Fy Fy , if f y if f y , .. (ASD F2-3) (ASD F2-2)

Channel sections

For Channel sections the length parameter is taken as the laterally unbraced length, l 22 , which is compared to a critical length, l c . The critical length is defined as lc min 76 b f 20,000 A f , d Fy Fy , where (ASD F1-2)

A f is the area of compression flange, Major Axis of Bending If l 22 is less than l c , the major allowable bending stress for Compact and Noncompact sections is taken depending on whether the section is welded or rolled and whether f y is greater than 65 ksi or not. For Compact sections: Fb 33 = Fb 33 = Fy Fy if f y if f y , , (ASD F1-1) (ASD F1-5)

For Noncompact sections: Fb 33 = bf tf Fy F y , if rolled and f y , (ASD F1-3)

Calculation of Allowable Stresses

33

then the previously computed allowable bending stress is reduced as follows: Fb¢33 R e R PG Fb 33 (ASD G2-1) If the flange is slender. R PG . if welded and f y if f y . C b . A-B5.2a.(ASD F1-4) (ASD F1-5) If the unbraced length l 22 is greater than l c . A f . and Fb¢33 are given earlier. Fb = Fy .. Minor Axis of Bending The minor direction allowable bending stress Fb 22 is taken as follows: Fb 22 = Fy (ASD F2-2) T-sections and Double angles For T sections and Double angles. the allowable bending stress for both major and minor axes bending is taken as. . then for both Compact and Noncompact Channel sections the allowable bending stress is taken as follows: Fb 33 12. R e .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual bf tf Fy Fy kc Fb 33 = Fb 33 = F y . If the web is slender. Fb 33 . Q s . the previously computed allowable bending stress is taken to be limited as follows: Fb¢33 Qs Fy (ASD A-B5. Then the following additional considerations are taken into account. 34 Calculation of Allowable Stresses .000 C b l 22 d / A f Fy (ASD F1-8) The allowable bending stress for Slender sections bent about their major axis is determined in the same way as for a Noncompact section. Aw .2d) The definition for rT .

Minor Axis of Bending If l 22 is less than l c . The critical length is defined as lc max (1950 1200 M a /M b ) b 1200 b . C b . If the flange is slender. the allowable bending stress in the minor direction of bending is taken as: Calculation of Allowable Stresses 35 . However. l 22 . Then the following additional consideration is taken into account.Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 Box Sections and Rectangular Tubes For all Box sections and Rectangular tubes. the length parameter is taken as the laterally unbraced length. Fy Fy (ASD F3-2) where M a and M b have the same definition as noted earlier in the formula for 1200 b in SAP2000. R PG . Fb 33 . If the web is slender. the allowable bending stress in the major direction of bending is taken as: Fb 33 = Fb 33 = Fy Fy (for Compact sections) (for Noncompact sections) (ASD F3-1) (ASD F3-3) If l 22 exceeds l c . and Fb¢33 are given earlier. l c . If l 22 is specified by the user. l c is taken as Fy Major Axis of Bending If l 22 is less than l c . then the previously computed allowable bending stress is reduced as follows: Fb¢33 R e R PG Fb 33 (ASD G2-1) The definition for R e . effective section dimensions are calculated and the section modulus is modified according to its slenderness. the allowable bending stress in the major direction of bending for both Compact and Noncompact sections is taken as: Fb 33 = Fy (ASD F3-3) The major direction allowable bending stress for Slender sections is determined in the same way as for a Noncompact section. measured compared to a critical length. no additional consideration is needed in computing allowable bending stress.

irrespective of compactness. Fb = Fy . the allowable bending stress in the minor direction of bending is taken. the allowable bending stress for both major and minor axes of bending is taken as Fb = Fb = Fy Fy (for Compact sections). Fb = Fy . (ASD F2-1) For solid rectangular bars bent about their major axes. the allowable stress is given by Fb = F y . and (for Noncompact and Slender sections). Fb = Fy . as: Fb 22 = Fy (ASD F3-3) Pipe Sections For Pipe sections. (ASD F3-1) (ASD F3-3) Round Bars The allowable stress for both the major and minor axis of bending of round bars is taken as. And the allowable stress for minor axis bending of rectangular bars is taken as. (ASD F2-1) Rectangular and Square Bars The allowable stress for both the major and minor axis of bending of solid square bars is taken as.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Fb 22 = Fb 22 = Fy Fy (for Compact sections) (for Noncompact and Slender sections) (ASD F3-1) (ASD F3-3) If l 22 exceeds l c . (ASD F2-1) 36 Calculation of Allowable Stresses .

major = Fob Fob . Fy Fy Fob Fy if Fob F y (ASD SAM 5-3a) Fb . max l 22 . (ASD SAM 5-6) min t w . (ASD SAM 5-5) and for unequal-leg angles Fob is calculated as Fob where. Fob is the elastic lateral-torsional buckling stress as calculated below. t l I I min Cb I min S major l 2 2 w ( lt r min )2 w . r min = radius of gyration for minor principal axis. major = F y .3): Fb . max S major = major section modulus for compression at the tip of one leg. t f .1). if Fob F y (ASD SAM 5-3b) where.3). for equal-leg angles is taken as Fob Cb l t . = minor principal moment of inertia. The elastic lateral-torsional buckling stress. Major Axis of Bending The allowable stress for major axis bending is the minimum considering the limit state of lateral-torsional buckling and local buckling (ASD SAM 5.Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 Single-Angle Sections The allowable flexural stresses for Single-angles are calculated based on their principal axes of bending (ASD SAM 5.1. = major principal moment of inertia. Calculation of Allowable Stresses 37 . l 33 . Fob . The allowable major bending stress for Single-angles for the limit state of lateraltorsional buckling is given as follows (ASD SAM 5.

w = coordinate along the minor principal axis.3.2) The allowable major bending stress for Single-angles for the limit state of local buckling is given as follows (ASD SAM 5. major = Q where. it is always taken as negative for unequal-leg angles.2.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual 1 w I A max z( w 2 z 2 )dA 2z 0 . w is a special section property for angles. the allowable stresses are calculated considering the fact that either of 38 Calculation of Allowable Stresses . (ASD A-B5-2. Fy . and z 0 = coordinate of the shear center along the major principal axis with respect to the centroid.1. Cb = + Ma Mb + Ma Mb 2 (ASD F1. In the above expressions C b is calculated in the same way as is done for I sections with the exception that the upper limit of C b is taken here as 1. SAM 5. Fy .1): Fb . It is positive for short leg in compression. and Q = slenderness reduction factor for local buckling. However. and zero for equal-leg angles (ASD SAM 5. SAM 4) In calculating the allowable bending stress for Single-angles for the limit state of local buckling.5 instead of 2. Fy .3. major = Fy . major = Fy . (ASD SAM 5.2). for conservative design in SAP2000. b = length of the leg under consideration.3. if b t b t b t . Fy (ASD SAM 5-1c) (ASD SAM 5-1b) (ASD SAM 5-1a) Fb .3. if Fy if Fb . negative for long leg in compression. t = thickness of the leg under consideration.2) z = coordinate along the major principal axis.

minor = Fy .2b): F b. Pipe. (ASD SAM 5-1c) In calculating the allowable bending stress for Single-angles it is assumed that the sign of the moment is such that both the tips are under compression. SAM 3-1) Calculation of Allowable Stresses 39 . T. the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. Fy . Box. Fb = Fy . 5. Major Axis of Bending The allowable shear stress for all sections except I. Box and Channel sections is taken in SAP2000 as: Fv Fy (ASD F4-1.1. Fy (ASD SAM 5-1a) F b. principal axes do not coincide with the geometric axes. Channel. Allowable Stress in Shear The shear stress is calculated along the geometric axes for all sections. For I. Circular and Rectangular sections.1b.Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 the two tips can be under compression.1.3. General Sections For General sections the allowable bending stress for both major and minor axes bending is taken as. 5.minor = Q Fy . Minor Axis of Bending The allowable minor bending stress for Single-angles is given as follows (ASD SAM 5. if b t b t b t .3. Double angle. if Fy if (ASD SAM 5-1b) F b.minor = Fy . The minimum allowable stress is considered. The minimum allowable stress is considered. Fy . For Single-angle sections.

l 22 . h (ASD F4) tw = a h = = Thickness of the web. Fy . Fy kv . SAM 3-1) Calculation of Stress Ratios In the calculation of the axial and bending stress capacity ratios. Fy kv . first. Clear distance between transverse stiffeners. (ASD F4) kv ah ah 2 if if 2 a 1. if Fy 45. if h tw 380 Fy h tw . Then the corresponding allowable stresses are calculated. the capacity ratios are calculated at each station for each member under the influence of 40 Calculation of Stress Ratios . for each station along the length of the member. Currently it is taken conservatively as the length. . Fy Fy . and (ASD F4-1) Fv where. kv . Clear distance between flanges at the section. Minor Axis of Bending The allowable shear stress for minor direction shears is taken as: Fv Fy (ASD F4-1.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual The allowable shear stress for major direction shears in I-shapes. in. the actual stresses are calculated for each load combination.000 k v Cv Fy h tw h tw 2 . boxes and channels is evaluated as follows: Fv Cv Fy . if if h tw h tw a h 1. of the member in SAP2000. in. Then. (ASD F4-2) .

1) f a . for nonsway frame with transverse load and end re. SAM 6): • If f a is compressive and f a Fa the larger of fa + Fa C m 33 f b 33 1 fa Fy fa F' e 33 Fb 33 f b 33 Fb 33 + 1 . C m 33 and C m 22 are coefficients representing distribution of moment along the member length. the joints are not designed.Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 each of the design load combinations. SAM 6. Also. where Fb 22 (ASD H1-2. A capacity ratio greater than 1.0 indicates an overstress. H2. and Fb 22 are defined earlier in this chapter. for nonsway frame without transverse load Cm M a M b . The controlling capacity ratio is then obtained. Fb 33 . an interaction stress ratio is produced for each of the load combinations as follows (ASD H1. f b 22 .1) f b 22 . f b 33 . During the design. where M a M b is the ratio of the smaller to the larger moment at the ends of the Calculation of Stress Ratios 41 . the combined stress ratio is given by C m 22 f b 22 fa F' e 22 Fb 22 . the effect of the presence of bolts or welds is not considered. Fa . SAM 6. and for nonsway frame with transstrained compression member C m verse load and end unrestrained compression member C m (ASD H1). along with the associated station and load combination. Cm M a . and (ASD H1-1. Axial and Bending Stresses With the computed allowable axial and bending stress values and the factored axial and bending member stresses at each station. M b (ASD H1) For sway frame C m .

For Single-angle sections. and Fb 22 are defined earlier in this chapter. C m 22 and C m 33 . and Fb 22 (ASD H2-1.e. (ASD H1) A factor of 4/3 is applied on Fe¢ and F y if the load combination includes any wind load or seismic load (ASD H1.0. of the member is redefined by either the user or the program.3.5). The second equation considers flexural buckling without any beneficial effect from axial compression. the combined stress ratio is calculated based on the properties about the principal axis (ASD SAM 5. either Fb 33 or Fb 22 need not be less than F y in the first equation (ASD H2-1). The program defaults C m to 1. For circular and pipe sections.0 if the unbraced length factor. • If f a is compressive and f a Fa used for the combined stress ratio. M a M b being positive for double curvature bending and negative for single curvature bending. SAM 6. Box. The user can overwrite the value of C m for any member. Fb 33 . a relatively simplified formula is (ASD H1-3..1. C m is taken as 1. f b 33 . Circular and Rectangular sections. For Single-angle sections. if the unbraced length is not equal to the length of the member. l. C m assumes two values. T. where Fb 22 f a . f f fa + b 33 + b 22 Fb 22 Fb 33 Fa . SAM 6.2) f b 22 . an SRSS combination is first made of the two bending components before adding the axial load component. 6.1) • If f a is tensile or zero. Channel. the combined stress ratio is given by the larger of fa Fa f b 33 Fb 33 f b 33 Fb 33 f b 22 . For I. When M b is zero. However. associated with the major and minor directions.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual member. the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. f b 22 . instead of the simple addition implied by the above formulae. Double-angle. ASD A5. principal axes are determined in 42 Calculation of Stress Ratios . Fa .2). Fe¢ is given by Fe¢ 12 2 E 23 ( Kl / r ) 2 . Pipe. i.

2). shear stress ratios for major and minor directions are computed for each of the load combinations as follows: f v2 . allowable stresses are increased by a factor of 4/3 of the regular allowable value (ASD A5. For all other sections the shear stress is calculated along the principle axes which coincide with the geometric axes. When designing for combinations involving earthquake and wind loads.Chapter III Check/Design for AISC-ASD89 SAP2000. Fv For Single-angle sections. the shear stress ratio is calculated for directions along the geometric axis. Fv f v3 . allowable shear stresses are increased by a factor of 4/3 of the regular allowable value (ASD A5. When designing for combinations involving earthquake and wind loads. and Calculation of Stress Ratios 43 . For general sections no effort is made to determine the principal directions.2). Shear Stresses From the allowable shear stress values and the factored shear stress values at each station.

.

C h a p t e r IV

**Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93
**

This chapter describes the details of the structural steel design and stress check algorithms that are used by SAP2000 when the user selects the AISC-LRFD93 design code (AISC 1994). Various notations used in this chapter are described in Table IV-1. For referring to pertinent sections and equations of the original LRFD code, a unique prefix “LRFD” is assigned. However, all references to the “Specifications for Load and Resistance Factored Design of Single-Angle Members” carry the prefix of “LRFD SAM”. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. But the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. In the evaluation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios at a station along the length of the member, first the actual member force/moment components and the corresponding capacities are calculated for each load combination. Then the capacity ratios are evaluated at each station under the influence of all load combinations using the corresponding equations that are defined in this chapter. The controlling capacity ratio is then obtained. A capacity ratio greater than 1.0 indicates exceeding a limit state. Similarly, a shear capacity ratio is also calculated separately.

45

**SAP2000 Steel Design Manual
**

A Ae Ag Av 2 , Av 3 Aw B1 B2 Cb Cm Cw D E Fcr Fr Fy G I 22 I 33 J K K 33 , K 22 Lb Lp Lr M cr M lt M nt M n33 , M n22 M ob M r 33 , M r 22 Mu M u 33 , M u 22 Pe Pn Pu Py Q = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Cross-sectional area, in2 Effective cross-sectional area for slender sections, in2 Gross cross-sectional area, in2 2 Major and minor shear areas, in Shear area, equal dt w per web, in2 Moment magnification factor for moments not causing sidesway Moment magnification factor for moments causing sidesway Bending coefficient Moment coefficient Warping constant, in6 Outside diameter of pipes, in Modulus of elasticity, ksi Critical compressive stress, ksi Compressive residual stress in flange assumed 10.0 for rolled sections and 16.5 for welded sections, ksi Yield stress of material, ksi Shear modulus, ksi Minor moment of inertia, in4 Major moment of inertia, in4 4 Torsional constant for the section, in Effective length factor Effective length K-factors in the major and minor directions Laterally unbraced length of member, in Limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic capacity, in Limiting laterally unbraced length for inelastic lateral-torsional buckling, in Elastic buckling moment, kip-in Factored moments causing sidesway, kip-in Factored moments not causing sidesway, kip-in Nominal bending strength in major and minor directions, kip-in Elastic lateral-torsional buckling moment for angle sections, kip-in Major and minor limiting buckling moments, kip-in Factored moment in member, kip-in Factored major and minor moments in member, kip-in Euler buckling load, kips Nominal axial load strength, kip Factored axial force in member, kips A g F y , kips Reduction factor for slender section, = Qa Qs

46

Table IV-1 AISC-LRFD Notations

**Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93
**

Qa Qs S S 33 , S 22 S eff ,33 , S eff ,22 Sc Vn2 ,Vn3 Vu 2 ,Vu 3 Z Z 33 , Z 22 b be bf d de hc k kc l33 , l22 r r33 , r22 t tf tw

w

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

Reduction factor for stiffened slender elements Reduction factor for unstiffened slender elements Section modulus, in3 3 Major and minor section moduli, in Effective major and minor section moduli for slender sections, in3 3 Section modulus for compression in an angle section, in Nominal major and minor shear strengths, kips Factored major and minor shear loads, kips 3 Plastic modulus, in 3 Major and minor plastic moduli, in Nominal dimension of plate in a section, in longer leg of angle sections, b f 2t w for welded and b f 3t w for rolled box sections, etc. Effective width of flange, in Flange width, in Overall depth of member, in Effective depth of web, in Clear distance between flanges less fillets, in assumed d 2k for rolled sections, and d 2t f for welded sections Distance from outer face of flange to web toe of fillet, in Parameter used for section classification, 4 h tw , kc Major and minor direction unbraced member lengths, in Radius of gyration, in Radii of gyration in the major and minor directions, in Thickness, in Flange thickness, in Thickness of web, in Special section property for angles, in Slenderness parameter Column slenderness parameters Limiting slenderness parameter for compact element Limiting slenderness parameter for non-compact element Limiting slenderness parameter for seismic element Limiting slenderness parameter for slender element Resistance factor for bending, 0.9 Resistance factor for compression, 0.85 Resistance factor for tension, 0.9 Resistance factor for shear, 0.9

c p r s

,

e

slender b c t v

Table IV-1 AISC-LRFD Notations (cont.)

47

if other types of loads are present. and earthquake induced load (EL).0 EL 1. 48 Design Loading Combinations . or if pattern live loads are to be considered.1): 1. Classification of Sections The nominal strengths for axial compression and flexure are dependent on the classification of the section as Compact.2 DL 1.4 DL 1.9 DL 1. Design Loading Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be checked.0 EL 1.5 LL (LRFD A4-1) (LRFD A4-2) (LRFD A4-6) (LRFD A4-4) (LRFD A4-4) (LRFD A4-6) (LRFD A4-4) (LRFD A4-4) 1. SAP2000 design assumes that a P. The user should use other appropriate loading combinations if roof live load is separately treated. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Kip-Inch-Second units unless otherwise noted.analysis be done at the factored load level of 1.5 LL (White and Hajjar 1991). For the AISC-LRFD93 code.analysis has been performed so that moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway can be taken as unity. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.3 WL 1. But the code is based on Kip-Inch-Second units.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. wind load (WL).2 DL + 0. Slender or Too Slender.2 DL plus 0. Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading. It is recommended that the P. For simplicity. When using the AISC-LRFD93 code.5 LL 0.9 DL 1. then the following load combinations may have to be defined (LRFD A4.2 DL 1.3 WL 1. Noncompact.6 LL 0.2 DL + 1.3 WL 1. live load (LL). if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL).2 DL + 0.0 EL These are also the default design load combinations in SAP2000 whenever the AISC-LRFD93 code is used.

Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 Figure IV-1 AISC-LRFD Definition of Geometric Properties Classification of Sections 49 .

SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Description of Section Check bf 2t f (rolled) bf 2t f (welded) For Pu 640 Fy hc tw For Pu 191 Fy 253 Fy BOX b hc bf hc bf d b b tf tw tf tw 2t f tw t t 190 Fy 238 Fy No limit Fy No limit As for I-shapes No limit No limit No limit No limit Fy (Compression only) No limit for flexure COMPACT ( p) 65 Fy Fy .10. Pu bP y NONCOMPACT r SLENDER ( slender ) No limit 141 Fy .0 Fy kc 65 P 162 No limit b y 1P I-SHAPE b y - Pu bP y 970 Fy Pu b P y Fy Fy As for I-shapes As for I-shapes As for I-shapes As for I-Shapes Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable As for I-shapes As for I-shapes As for I-shapes As for I-Shapes 127 Fy 76 76 Fy Fy CHANNEL T-SHAPE ANGLE DOUBLEANGLE (Separated) PIPE ROUND BAR RECTANGULAR GENERAL D t Fy Fy Assumed Compact Assumed Noncompact Assumed Noncompact Table IV-2 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections in Flexure based on AISC-LRFD 50 Classification of Sections .

Pu bP y NONCOMPACT (Uniform Compression) ( M 22 M 33 0) ( r) 95 95 Fy Fy P I-SHAPE hc tw 1b y P 253 Pu bP y 253 Fy Fy - BOX b hc bf hc bf d b b D tf tw tf tw 2t f tw t t t Not applicable Not applicable As for I-shapes As for I-shapes Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Assumed Compact Assumed Noncompact Assumed Noncompact 238 253 Fy Fy CHANNEL T-SHAPE ANGLE DOUBLE-ANGLE (Separated) PIPE ROUND BAR RECTANGULAR GENERAL As for I-shapes As for I-shapes As for I-shapes 127 Fy 76 76 3300 Fy Fy Fy Table IV-3 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections (Special Cases) based on AISC-LRFD Classification of Sections 51 .Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 Description of Section WidthThickness Ratio bf 2t f (rolled) bf 2t f (welded) For Pu 520 Fy For Pu 191 Fy COMPACT (SEISMIC ZONE) ( 52 52 b y s ) Fy Fy .

special considerations are required regarding the limits of width-thickness ratios for Compact sections in Seismic zones and Noncompact sections with compressive force as given in Table IV-3.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual SAP2000 classifies individual members according to the limiting width/thickness ratios given in Table IV-2 and Table IV-3 (LRFD B5. M u 33 . Double angles are conservatively assumed to be separated. where B1 = B2 = M nt = M lt = (LRFD C1-1. In classifying web slenderness of I-shapes. Calculation of Factored Forces The factored member loads that are calculated for each load combination are Pu .1). The magnified moment in a particular direction is given by: M u = B1 M nt + B 2 M lt .1. Kl r ). A-G1. the major direction shear force and the minor direction shear force. and Channel sections. the major moment. Moment magnification factor for sidesway moments. the factored moment M u ( M u 33 and M u 22 in the corresponding directions) is magnified to consider second order effects. and 52 Calculation of Factored Forces . For loading combinations that cause compression in the member. and Factored moments causing sidesway. V u 2 and V u 3 corresponding to factored values of the axial load. These factored loads are calculated at each of the previously defined stations. The moment magnification factor B1 for moments not causing sidesway is given by B1 = 1 Cm Pu Pe . If the limits for Slender sections are not met. where Ag F y 2 (LRFD C1-2. M u 22 . SAM 6-2) Fy E Pe is the Euler buckling load (Pe . The definition of the section properties required in these tables is given in Figure IV-1 and Table IV-1. Box. Moreover. Table A-F1. respectively. The moment magnification factors are associated with corresponding directions. Factored moments not causing sidesway. the minor moment. the section is classified as Too Slender. SAM 6) Moment magnification factor for non-sidesway moments. Stress check of Too Slender sections is beyond the scope of SAP2000. it is assumed that there are no intermediate stiffeners.

2 DL plus 0.e. The program defaults C m to 1. C m 22 and C m 33 .Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 C m 33 and C m 22 are coefficients representing distribution of moment along the member length. the user has a choice of explicitly specifying the values of B1 and B 2 for any member.. l.0 for members with any unrestrained end and as 0. C m assumes two values.2). When M b is zero. M a M b being positive for double curvature bending and negative for single curvature bending.0. i. Calculation of Factored Forces 53 . SAP2000 design assumes the analysis includes P. C m is taken as 1. If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular structural model or member. The user can overwrite the value of C m for any member. of the member is redefined by either the user or the program. C m is assumed as 1.0. therefore B 2 is taken as unity for bending in both directions. It is suggested that the P.0 if the unbraced length factor. For compression members with transverse load on the member. Cm Ma . Mb (LRFD C1-3) M a M b is the ratio of the smaller to the larger moment at the ends of the member. the program conservatively uses the maximum of K 22 l 22 and K 33 l 33 for determining the major and minor direction Euler buckling capacity.effects. If Pu is found to be greater than or equal to Pe . must be a positive number. Therefore Pu must be less than Pe . For tension members C m is assumed as 1.5 LL (LRFD C2. See also White and Hajjar (1991). For single angles.analysis be done at the factored load level of 1. if the unbraced length is not equal to the length of the member. The magnification factor B1 .85 for members with two unrestrained ends. a failure condition is declared. associated with the major and minor directions. where the principal axes of bending are not coincident with the geometric axes (2-2 and 3-3).

c . the minimum radius of gyration. For members in compression. and shear are computed for Compact. torsional buckling and flexural-torsional buckling. and Slender sections according to the following subsections. A-F1. the shear stresses are calculated for directions along the geometric axes. I. 0. depends on the slenderness ratio. For single angles. is taken as follows (LRFD A5. H1. bending. tension. E3. 0. a message to that effect is printed (LRFD B7.90 (LRFD SAM 4. H1) = Resistance factor for compression in angles. A-F2.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Calculation of Nominal Strengths The nominal strengths in compression. 0. the principal axes are determined and all computations except shear are based on that. 6) = Resistance factor for bending. 0. Noncompact.9 (LRFD F1. and its critical value. For Single-angle sections. .9 (LRFD D1. SAM 2. T. For the Rectangular. these values will override the above mentioned calculated values for those elements as defined in the following subsections. H1. A-G3. For the Angle sections. is used instead of r22 and r33 in computing Kl r . The strength reduction factor. The strengths are determined according to the following subsections. SAM 3) If the user specifies nominal strengths for one or more elements in the “Redefine Element Design Data” form. if Kl r is greater than 200. Channel. and Double-angle sections. Pipe. Flexural Buckling The nominal axial compressive strength. A-G2.3): t c c b v = Resistance factor for tension. SAM 5) = Resistance factor for shear.9 (LRFD F2. The specified nominal strengths should be based on the principal axes of bending. the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. Kl r. where 54 Calculation of Nominal Strengths .85 (LRFD E2. SAM 4). 0. For all other sections the shear stresses are calculated along their geometric and principle axes. Pn . Circular. r z . The nominal flexural strengths for all shapes of sections are calculated based on their principal axes of bending. Compression Capacity The nominal compression strength is the minimum value obtained from flexural buckling. 6) = Resistance factor for compression. Box.

SAM 4-2) Fy . Fy . where (LRFD A-B5-17. SAM 4) For single angles. SAM 4) c l2 c F y . max . where Fcr = Q Fcr = 2 c Q (LRFD A-B3d.Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 Kl r K 33 l 33 K 22 l 22 . (LRFD A-B5-16. Qa Ae Ag (LRFD A-B5-14) Calculation of Nominal Strengths 55 . (LRFD E2-2) (LRFD E2-3) c Pn for Slender sections is evaluated for flexural buckling as follows: Pn = Ag Fcr . SAM 4) Q s = reduction factor for unstiffened slender elements. is used instead of r22 and r33 in computing Kl r .3a) Q a = reduction factor for stiffened slender elements. for all compact and noncompact sections is taken as 1. and (LRFD A-B5. and c Kl r (LRFD E2-4. and (LRFD A-B5-15. Q. For slender sections. r z . where Fcr = Fcr = 2 c (LRFD E2-1) for for c l2 c Fy . SAM 4-1) . the minimum radius of gyration. (LRFD A-B5. for for Q Q . Pn for Compact or Noncompact sections is evaluated for flexural buckling as follows: Pn = Ag Fcr . The Q a factors for slender sections are calculated as the ratio of effective cross-sectional area and the gross cross-sectional area (LRFD A-B5.3c). r33 r22 Fy E . and . Q is computed as follows: Q Q s Q a . c The reduction factor.3a).3c) The Q s factors for slender sections are calculated as described in Table IV-4 (LRFD A-B5. .

LRFD A-B5-6 I-SHAPE Qs kc b f 2t f b f 2t f 2 (rolled) if Fy k c Fy if if (welded) Fy k c b f 2t f bf 2t f b f 2t f Fy k c . LRFD A-B5-8. ANGLE Qs bt b t 2 Fy E . LRFD A-B5-7. if if if d t w Fy .3d LRFD A-B5. For flanges. as for flanges in I-shapes. Fy k c . if LRFD SAM4-3 Fy E PIPE ROUND BAR RECTANGULAR GENERAL Qs Qs Qs Qs 1 1 1 1 LRFD A-B5. Fy . if . LRFD A-B5-6. Fy .3d Table IV-4 Reduction Factor for Unstiffened Slender Elements. DOUBLEANGLE (Separated) Qs b t 2 Fy . Fy . LRFD A-B5-7. Fy . LRFD A-B5-9. Fy E .3d LRFD A-B5. Fy . Fy E . LRFD A-B5-4 CHANNEL As for I-shapes with bf 2t f replaced by bf t f . LRFD A-B5-5. Fy k c .3d LRFD A-B5-5. Fy . LRFDA-B5-10 LRFD A-B5-3. T-SHAPE if Qs d tw 2 d tw Fy d tw d tw b t Fy b t b t b t Fy E b t b t Fy . Fy . Fy .3d LRFD A-B5. Fy . Fy E . LRFD A-B5-6. Q s 56 Calculation of Nominal Strengths .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Section Type Reduction Factor for Unstiffened Slender Elements (Q s ) if Qs b f 2t f b f 2t f 2 Equation Reference b f 2t f Fy b f 2t f b f 2t f Fy . if if if b t Fy . LRFD A-B5-7. LRFD A-B5-8 BOX Qs 1 LRFD A-B5. LRFD A-B5-8 LRFD A-B5-5. if if Fy . For web see below.

if CHANNEL he f f f . Effective Width for Stiffened Sections Equation Reference if tw 1 .3b LRFD A-B5. LRFD A-B5-13 ROUND BAR RECTANGULAR GENERAL Not applicable be b LRFD A-B5. b b b LRFD A-B5. if . be f h. f .3b Not applicable Table IV-5 Effective Width for Stiffened Sections Calculation of Nominal Strengths 57 .Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 Section Type h. P ) Ag LRFD A-B5-12 (h tw ) f if tw 1 . f . (compression only. if if f f . (compression only. if D t D t Fy Fy be be be . P ) Ag LRFD A-B5-12 (h tw ) f T-SHAPE DOUBLEANGLE (Separated) ANGLE 1. tf 1 .3b LRFD A-B5. he f h tw h tw h tw h tw b tf b tf h tw h tw f f . if f f . f . P ) Ag LRFD A-B5-12 (h tw ) f BOX b.3b PIPE Qa D t Fy (compression only) . Fy ) LRFD A-B5-11 (b t f ) f if tw 1 . (compr. or flexure. f . (compression only. if I-SHAPE he f h.

x 0 0 for double-angle and T-shaped members ( y -axis of symmetry).3b). where (LRFD A-E3-1) 58 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . x 0 . determined by the limit states of torsional and flexural-torsional buckling is determined as follows: Pn = Ag Fcr . Ar02 2 x0 2 y0 (LRFD E3-1) 1 1 4 Fcr 2 Fcrz H Fcr 2 Fcrz 2 . and Channel sections. y 0 are the coordinates of the shear center with respect to the centroid. h e is used as b e and h is used as b in the above equation. and b e for stiffened elements is taken equal to or less than b as given in Table IV-5 (LRFD A-B5. For webs in I. r0 = Polar radius of gyration about the shear center. buckling about the minor axis of symmetry for c r22 E Torsional and Flexural-Torsional Buckling The strength of a compression member. Pn .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual The effective cross-sectional area is computed based on effective width as follows: Ae Ag b be t b e for unstiffened elements is taken equal to b. where Fcrft = Fcrz Fcr 2 Fcrz 2H GJ . where (LRFD E3-1) H 1 r02 . Fcr 2 is determined according to the equation LRFD E2-1 for flexural Kl F y . box. Flexural-Torsional Buckling Pn for flexural-torsional buckling of Double-angle and T-shaped compression members whose elements have width-thickness ratios less than r is given by Pn = Ag Fcrft .

where Fe is calculated as follows: • For Rectangular.Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 Fcr = Q Fcr = 2 e Q l2 e F y . 2 x0 r02 Fe2 ( Fe Fe 33 ) 2 y0 r02 0. I. Box. and Pipe sections: 2 Fe EC w 2 GJ 1 I 22 I 33 (LRFD A-E3-5) K z lz • For T-sections and Double-angles: Fe = Fe 22 Fez 2H 1 1 4 Fe 22 Fez H Fe 22 Fez 2 (LRFD A-E3-6) • For Channels: Fe = Fe 33 Fez 2H 1 1 4 Fe 33 Fez H Fe 33 Fez 2 (LRFD A-E3-6) • For Single-angles sections with equal legs: Fe = Fe 33 Fez 2H 1 1 4 Fe 33 Fez H Fe 33 Fez 2 (LRFD A-E3-6) • For Single-angle sections with unequal legs. e In the above equations. (LRFD A-E3-2) (LRFD A-E3-3) is calculated as (LRFD A-E3-4) Fy . the slenderness parameter Fy e e Fe . for for e Q Q . Calculation of Nominal Strengths 59 . Fe is calculated as the minimum real root of the following cubic equation (LRFD A-E3-7): ( Fe Fe 33 )( Fe Fe 22 )( Fe Fez ) Fe2 ( Fe Fe 22 ) where. and .

(LRFD A-E3-9) Fe 33 E 2 . the principal moment of inertia and radii of gyration are used for computing Fe . l 22 . Pn Ag F y (LRFD D1-1) It should be noted that no net section checks are made. K z is the effective length factor for torsional buckling. a message to that effect is printed (LRFD B7. (LRFD A-E3-10) K 33 l 33 r33 2 Fe 22 E 2 . K 33 are effective length factors in minor and major directions. Ar02 (LRFD A-E3-12) K 22 . For 60 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . the maximum value of Kl. is used in place of K 22 l 22 or K 33 l 33 in calculating Fe 22 and Fe 33 in this case. x 0 0 for double-angle and T-shaped members ( y -axis of symmetry). l z is the effective length for torsional buckling. SAM 2). max( K 22 l 22 . Also. (LRFD A-E3-11) K 22 l 22 r22 2 Fez EC w 2 GJ K z lz 1 . Tension Capacity The nominal axial tensile strength value Pn is based on the gross cross-sectional area and the yield stress. i. and it is taken equal to K 22 in SAP2000. if l r is greater than 300.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual x 0 . r0 2 x0 2 y0 I 22 Ag 2 y0 I 33 = polar radius of gyration about the shear center. For angle sections. l 33 are effective lengths in the minor and major directions.e. H 1 2 x0 r02 2 . and it is taken equal to l 22 . K 33 l 33 ). For members in tension. y 0 are the coordinates of the shear center with respect to the centroid.

the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes.M p 33 . The nominal bending strength is the minimum value obtained according to the limit states of yielding. M cr 33 M p 33 . if Lb Lr . the minimum radius of gyration. Box. F1-2. and Double-angle sections. flange local buckling. the principal axes are determined and all computations related to flexural strengths are based on that. M n 33 = C b M p 33 . T. as follows: Yielding The flexural design strength of beams. the compactness of the section. (LRFD F1. I. Z 33 F y S 33 F y . determined by the limit state of yielding is: Mp Z Fy S Fy (LRFD F1-1) Lateral-Torsional Buckling Doubly Symmetric Shapes and Channels For I. Box.L p Lr . the moment capacity is given by the following equation (LRFD F1): M p 33 . lateral-torsional buckling.Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 single angles. F1-12) where. r z . is used instead of r22 and r33 in computing Kl r . if Lp Lb Lr . Pipe. Channel. Circular. and a slenderness parameter for lateral-torsional buckling. The nominal strengths for all shapes of sections are calculated based on their principal axes of bending. Channel. (LRFD F1-1.M r 33 M p 33 . Nominal Strength in Bending The nominal bending strength depends on the following criteria: the geometric shape of the cross-section. For the Single Angle sections. For the Rectangular. M n 33 M p 33 = = Nominal major bending strength. the axis of bending.L p if Lb Lp . Major plastic moment. and web local buckling. Lb .1) Calculation of Nominal Strengths 61 . and Rectangular shaped members bent about the major axis.

Limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic capacity.and M C are absolute values of maximum moment. However. 300 r22 for I-shapes and channels. (LRFD F1-5) Lr = Limiting laterally unbraced length for inelastic lateral-torsional buckling.Fr F y Fr 2 for I-shapes and channels. l 22 . 1/4 point.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual M r 33 = Major limiting buckling moment. max max M . and 57 000 r22 JA for boxes and rectangular bars. M A . and (LRFD F1-4) Fy 3 750 r22 M p 33 JA for boxes and rectangular bars. The user should overwrite C b for cantilevers. and + 3 M A + 4 M B + 3 MC (LRFD F1-3) M . Cb Lb EI 22 GJ + E Lb 2 (LRFD F1-7) (LRFD F1-11) M cr 33 = I 22 C w (LRFD F1-13) (LRFD F1-14) for I-shapes and channels. Critical elastic moment. M r 33 X1 X2 Cb = = = S 33 C 4 w I 22 M EGJA . ( F y Fr )S 33 for I-shapes and channels.0 if the minor unbraced length. M B . center of span and 3/4 point major moments respectively. and F y S eff . C b should be taken as 1. r22 X 1 1 + X 2 F y . Lb r22 Lb Lp = = Laterally unbraced length.0 for cantilevers. and 57 000 C b JA for boxes and rectangular bars. l 22 . 2 S 33 GJ 2 (LRFD F1-6) (LRFD F1-10) (LRFD F1-8) (LRFD F1-9) . in the member. 33 for rectangular bars and boxes. the program is unable to detect whether the member is a cantilever. The program also defaults C b to 1. of the member is remax 62 Calculation of Nominal Strengths .

M n 33 = M n 33 M n 33 B EI 22 GJ Lb B + 1 + B 2 . and Rectangular shaped members bent about the minor axis.3): Calculation of Nominal Strengths 63 . it is not equal to the length of the member). J (LRFD F1-16) The positive sign for B applies for tension in the stem of T-sections or the outstanding legs of double angles (positive moments) and the negative sign applies for compression in stem or legs (negative moments). stem in compression (LRFD F1. (LRFD F1) T-sections and Double Angles For T-shapes and Double-angles the nominal major bending strength is given as.2c) F y S 33 . The nominal major bending strength for Single-angles for the limit state of lateral-torsional buckling is given as follows (LRFD SAM 5. stem in tension F y S 33 . Box.1. for positive moment. M n = M p = Z Fy S Fy . The user can overwrite the value of C b for any member.Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 defined by the user (i.e. For T-shapes and double angles the nominal minor bending strength is assumed as.2c) I 22 . M n 22 = S 22 F y . where (LRFD F1-15) (LRFD F1. d Lb for negative moment. the moment capacity is given by the following equation: M n 22 = M p 22 = Z 22 F y S 22 F y (LRFD F1) For pipes and circular bars bent about any axis. Single Angles The nominal strengths for Single-angles are calculated based on their principal axes of bending. Channel. For I.

major = M n . major = where. M ob = The elastic lateral-torsional buckling moment. major = M ob M y . if M ob M y . major M y . 64 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . (LRFD SAM 5-6) min t w . max l 22 . yield moment about the major principal axis of bending. = radius of gyration for minor principal axis. M y . for equal-leg angles is taken as M ob Cb E b2t2 . major .3. t f .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual M ob M y . t l I I r min EC b I min l2 2 w ( lt r min )2 w . considering the possibility of yielding at the heel and both of the leg tips. elastic lateral-torsional buckling moment as calculated below. = major principal axis moment of inertia. major . major M ob M n . major . = minor principal axis moment of inertia. major . w = coordinate along the minor principal axis. major M y . M y . 1 w max min I A max z( w 2 z 2 )dA 2z 0 . if M ob M y . l 33 . l (LRFD SAM 5-5) and for unequal-leg angles the M ob is calculated as M ob where. (LRFD SAM 5.2) z = coordinate along the major principal axis. M ob . and z 0 = coordinate of the shear center along the major principal axis with respect to the centroid.

Flange Local Buckling The flexural design strength. negative for long leg in compression. M n 22 = M p 22 M p 22 M r 22 . M n = S Fy . Minor plastic moment. Calculation of Nominal Strengths 65 . if p r . w General Sections For General sections the nominal major and minor direction bending strengths are assumed as. M n 33 = M p 33 M p 33 M r 33 . Z 22 F y S 22 F y . However. Nominal major bending strength.2). (A-F1-3) M cr 22 where.Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 is a special section property for angles. It is positive for short leg in compression. p r p if p . M p 33 . and zero for equal-leg angles (LRFD SAM 5. if r . M n 33 M n 22 M p 33 M p 22 = = = = M p 22 . of Noncompact and Slender beams for the limit state of Flange Local Buckling is calculated as follows (LRFD A-F1): For major direction bending. if r . Z 33 F y S 33 F y . (A-F1-3) M cr 33 M p 33 . M p 22 . Nominal minor bending strength.3. Major plastic moment. for conservative design in SAP2000. it is always taken as negative for unequal-leg angles. if p r . and for minor direction bending. p r p if p . M n .

66 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . M cr 33 . kc 2 M cr 33 (LRFD Table A-F1. Largest value of for which M n M p . Controlling slenderness parameter.1) (LRFD Table A-F1. Minor buckling moment. p .1) S 22 . (for I sections) (LRFD B5. Table A-F1.1) S 33 . Major buckling moment. Channels bf 2t f bf tf .1. M r 22 .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual M r 33 M r 22 M cr 33 M cr 22 p r = = = = = = = Major limiting buckling moment. Minor limiting buckling moment. and Largest value of for which buckling is inelastic.1) . 2 S 33 . and M cr 22 for flange local buckling for different types of shapes are given below: I Shapes. Table A-F1. The parameters .1) F y S 22 .1. M r 33 . Fy Fr .1) p . r . kc 2 (LRFD Table A-F1. Fy Fr kc (LRFD B5.1) r (LRFD Table A-F1. M cr 22 2 S 22 .1. Table A-F1. Fy . (for Channel sections) (LRFD B5. (LRFD Table A-F1.1) M r 33 M r 22 (Fy Fr )S 33 .

22 . T-sections and Double Angles No local buckling is considered for T sections and Double angles in SAP2000. Fy (Fy (Fy Fr )S eff . The nominal major and minor bending strengths for Single-angles for the limit state of flange local buckling are given as follows (LRFD SAM 5.Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 Fr (LRFD A-F1) Boxes bf tf bf tf p 3 tw 2 tw . 33 S 33 . (LRFD B5.1. and S eff .1. Fy .1) (LRFD Table A-F1. (LRFD B5.1): Calculation of Nominal Strengths 67 .1) .1) (LRFD Table A-F1. S eff .1) (LRFD A-F1) M r 33 M r 22 M cr 33 M cr 22 Fr F y S eff . Table A-F1. 22 = effective minor section modulus considering slenderness. r (LRFD B5.1. Single Angles The nominal strengths for Single-angles are calculated based on their principal axes of bending. Table A-F1. 22 .1) (LRFD Table A-F1. 33 S eff . Fr )S eff .1. If special consideration is required.1) . the user is expected to analyze this separately. 33 = effective major section modulus considering slenderness.1) (LRFD Table A-F1. Table A-F1. 33 . F y S eff .

b = length of the leg under consideration. if Fy . if Fy . M n= F y S c Fy Fy S c .1) 68 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . if Fy b t b t Fy . (LRFD Table A-F1. In calculating the bending strengths for Single-angles for the limit state of flange local buckling. t = thickness of the leg under consideration.1) (LRFD Table A-F1. The minimum capacities are considered. (LRFD Table A-F1. (LRFD Table A-F1. 1 . the capacities are calculated for both the principal axes considering the fact that either of the two tips can be under compression. where. and Q = strength reduction factor due to local buckling. S c = section modulus for compression at the tip of one leg.1) (LRFD Table A-F1.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual b t Fy S c .1) r Fy D t + Fy S .1) M r 33 = M r 22 = M cr 33 = M cr 22 = D t S. Pipe Sections t p . Fy .

1).A-G1) S 33 R PG R e Fcr . rectangular.(LRFD TableA-F1. Largest value of for which M n M p .R e S 33 F y . I Shapes. M n . ksi. the user is expected to analyze this separately. where. Major limiting buckling moment. Channels. of Noncompact and Slender beams for the limit state of Web Local Buckling is calculated as follows (LRFD A-F1-1. Hybrid girder factor. and Critical compression flange stress. M n 33 = M p 33 M p 33 M r 33 .1) Web slenderness parameter.1) S 33 F y . p r p if p . Z 33 F y (LRFD F1. tw Calculation of Nominal Strengths 69 . and General Sections No consideration of local buckling is required for solid circular shapes. and general shapes. A-G2-2): M p 33 . and Boxes The flexural design strength for the major axis bending. M n 33 M p 33 M r 33 p r if r . Web Local Buckling The flexural design strengths are considered in SAP2000 for only the major axis bending (LRFD Table A-F1.1). Major plastic moment. R PG Re Fcr = = = = = = = = = Nominal major bending strength.Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 Circular.(A-F1. If special consideration is required. Rectangular. rectangular plates (LRFD Table A-F1. where the value of Pu is taken as positive for compression and zero for tension: hc . No local buckling is considered in SAP2000 for circular. A-F1-3. if p r . Plate girder bending strength reduction factor. The web slenderness parameters are computed as follows. Largest value of for which buckling is inelastic.

0. P b y Fy 1Fy Pu P b y Pu . (for hybrid sections). (LRFD A-G2) In the above expressions. Pu P b y Pu P b y 1Fy p r The parameters R PG . Fcr (LRFD A-G2-3) Re Re ar (for non-hybrid section). The critical compression flange stress. and Fy (LRFD A-G2) m min( Fcr . R e . taken as 1. (LRFD A-G2) hc tw . Fcr . for slender web sections is calculated for limit states of lateral-torsional buckling and flange local buckling for the corresponding slenderness parameter in SAP2000 as follows: 70 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . and Fcr for slender web sections are calculated in SAP2000 as follows: R PG ar ar ar m m3 ar . P b y 253 Fy . where (LRFD A-G2) .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Pu . F y ) . because currently SAP2000 deals with only non-hybrid girders. R e is taken as 1.

6) . C b = a factor which depends on span moment. Calculation of Nominal Strengths 71 . p . and it is taken as b f 12 in SAP2000.Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 Fy . Fcr = C b Fy 1 C PG 2 F y . Fy . and C PG for flange local buckling for slender web I. t p (LRFD A-G2-11) . The parameters . Channel and Box sections are given below: Lb . (LRFD A-G2-8) Fy . (LRFD A-G2-4. It is calculated using the equation given in page 62. Fy C b . and (LRFD A-G2-10) (LRFD A-G2-9) r C PG rT = radius of gyration of the compression flange plus one-third of the compression portion of the web. The parameters . Fy kc k c . rT p (LRFD A-G2-7) . and C PG for lateral-torsional buckling for slender web I. p . r . if p r . Channel and Box sections are given below: b . 1 2 p r p if p . if r . r . and (LRFD A-G2-14) (LRFD A-G2-15) (LRFD A-G2-13) (LRFD A-G2-12) r C PG Cb 1. 5.

and General Sections No web local buckling is required for solid circular shapes and rectangular plates (LRFD Table A-F1. principal axes do not coincide with their geometric axes.1). Fy F y Aw . No additional check is considered in SAP2000.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual T-sections and Double Angles No local buckling is considered for T-sections and Double-angles in SAP2000. Box. Channel. V n 2 . Major Axis of Bending The nominal shear strength. rectangular. for major direction shears in I-shapes. Double angle. No web local buckling is considered in SAP2000 for circular. the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. Fy (LRFD F2-1) 72 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . h tw . the user is expected to analyze this separately. For I.1). Rectangular. Pipe Sections The nominal major and minor bending strengths for Pipe sections for the limit state of web local buckling are the same as those given for flange local buckling (LRFD Table A-F1.1). Single Angles The nominal major and minor bending strengths for Single-angles for the limit state of web local buckling are the same as those given for flange local buckling (LRFD SAM 5. Circular. the user is expected to analyze them separately. No additional check is considered in SAP2000.1. Pipe. Shear Capacities The nominal shear strengths are calculated for shears along the geometric axes for all sections. boxes and channels is evaluated as follows: For h tw V n2 = for Fy < . Circular and Rectangular sections. If special consideration is required. and general shapes. T. For Single-angle sections. If special consideration is required.

Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 V n2 = F y Aw h tw h . In addition. first. for each station along the length of the member. Aw for Fy V n2 = < h tw 2 . and tw (LRFD F2-2) Fy . Axial and Bending Stresses Pu . along with the associated station and load combination. The interaction ratio is determined based on the ratio Calculation of Capacity Ratios 73 . the actual member force/moment components are calculated for each load combination. and if Pu is compressive. Also. The controlling compression and/or tension capacity ratio is then obtained. the resistance factor for bendc ing. the joints are not designed. b . During the design. Pn is the Pn nominal axial tensile strength and . Minor Axis of Bending The nominal shear strength for minor direction shears is assumed as: V n3 = F y Av 3 Calculation of Capacity Ratios In the calculation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios. If Pu is tensile. A capacity ratio greater than 1. the effect of the presence of bolts or welds is not considered. except for angle secc tions (LRFD SAM 6). Pn is t the nominal axial compressive strength and . the capacity ratios are calculated at each station for each member under the influence of each of the design load combinations. (LRFD F2-3 and A-F2-3) The nominal shear strength for all other sections is taken as: V n2 = F y Av 2 . Then.0 indicates exceeding a limit state. Then the corresponding capacities are calculated.

For I. the shear stress ratio is calculated for directions along the geometric axis. the combined stress ratio is calculated based on the properties about the principal axis (LRFD SAM 5. principal axes are determined in SAP2000. SAM 6-1a) . Channel. and vV n 2 V u3 . SAM 6-1a) For circular sections an SRSS (Square Root of Sum of Squares) combination is first made of the two bending components before adding the axial load component instead of the simple algebraic addition implied by the above formulas. the capacity ratio is given as M u 33 + M n 33 b M u 22 .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Pu Pn Pu 8 + 9 Pn For Pu < Pn Pu + 2 Pn For . Double angle. the capacity ratio is given as M u 33 + M n 33 b M u 22 . For Single-angle sections. Box. from the factored shear force values and the nominal shear strength values at each station for each of the load combinations. 74 Calculation of Capacity Ratios . For Single-angle sections. shear capacity ratios for major and minor directions are calculated as follows: V u2 . 6). vV n 3 where v . For general sections it is assumed that the section properties are given in terms of the principal directions.3. For Single-angle sections. M n 22 b (LRFD H1-1a. Circular and Rectangular sections. Pipe. For all other sections the shear stress is calculated along the principle axes which coincide with the geometric axes. M n 22 b (LRFD H1-1b. T. the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. Shear Stresses Similarly to the normal stresses.

a shear capacity ratio is also calculated separately. nonhybrid and unstiffened sections. first the actual member force/moment components and the corresponding capacities are calculated for each load combination.Chapter V Check/Design for AASHTO 1997 This chapter describes the details of the structural steel design and stress check algorithms that are used by SAP2000 when the user selects the AASHTO design code (AASHTO 1997). hybrid and stiffened sections should be investigated by the users independently of SAP2000. Various notations used in this chapter are described in Table V-1. 75 . But the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most structures. Then the capacity ratios are evaluated at each station under the influence of all load combinations using the corresponding equations that are defined in this section.0 indicates exceeding a limit state. The design and check are limited to noncomposite. In the evaluation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios at a station along the length of the member. The controlling capacity ratio is then obtained. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. A capacity ratio greater than 1. Composite. Similarly.

kip-in Factored moment in member.0 for rolled sections and 16. kips Nominal axial load strength. in2 2 Major and minor shear areas. kips Table V-1 AASHTO-LRFD Notations 76 . in Limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic capacity. kip-in Factored major and minor moments in member. kip-in Factored moments not causing sidesway. ksi Compressive residual stress in flange assumed 10. in2 Bending coefficient Moment coefficient Warping constant. in Elastic buckling moment. in4 4 Torsional constant for the section. ksi Shear modulus. kip-in Euler buckling load. M n22 M p 33 . in Shear area. kip-in Factored moments causing sidesway. K 22 Lb Lp Lr M cr Mb Ms M n33 . in2 Gross cross-sectional area. kip-in Major and minor limiting buckling moments. in Effective length factor Effective length K-factors in the major and minor directions Laterally unbraced length of member. kip-in Major and minor plastic moments. ksi Minor moment of inertia. in Depth of web in compression under plastic moment. ksi Yield stress of material. kip Factored axial force in member. ksi Critical compressive stress. M p 22 M r 33 . M r 22 Mu M u 33 .5 for welded sections. in Modulus of elasticity. Av 3 Aw Cb Cm Cw D Dc Dcp E Fcr Fr Fy G I 22 I 33 J K K 33 . M u 22 Pe Pn Pu = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Cross-sectional area. in6 Outside diameter of pipes.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual A Ag Av 2 . equal dt w per web. in Depth of web in compression. kip-in Nominal bending strength in major and minor directions. in Limiting laterally unbraced length for inelastic lateral-torsional buckling. in4 Major moment of inertia.

0. in 3 Major and minor plastic moduli. in assumed d 2k for rolled sections and d 2t f for welded sections Distance from outer face of flange to web toe of fillet. in Overall depth of member. kips Factored major and minor shear loads. 4 . in Clear distance between flanges less fillets. in Flange thickness. r22 rz t tf tw b s c p r f c y v = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Table V-1 AASHTO-LRFD Notations (continued) 77 . in Thickness.9 Resistance factor for compression. 0. in b f 2t w for welded and b f 3t w for rolled BOX (TS) sections Flange width. in Radius of gyration. in3 3 Major and minor section moduli. l22 r r33 .9 Resistance factor for shear. in Radii of gyration in the major and minor directions. in Thickness of web.85 Resistance factor for tension.Vu 3 Z Z 33 . in Nominal dimension of longer leg of angles.Chapter V Check/Design for AASHTO 1997 S S 33 .Vn3 Vu 2 . in Parameter used for section classification. 0. kc h tw Major and minor direction unbraced member lengths. in Moment magnification factor for moments not causing sidesway Moment magnification factor for moments causing sidesway Slenderness parameter Column slenderness parameter Limiting slenderness parameter for compact element Limiting slenderness parameter for non-compact element Resistance factor Resistance factor for bending. kips 3 Plastic modulus. Z 22 b bf d hc k kc = = = = = = = = = = = = Section modulus. 0. S 22 Vn2 . in Nominal major and minor shear strengths.9 l33 . in Minimum Radius of gyration for angles.

vehicular dynamic load allowance (IM). All these live load cases require the same factor and do not need to be treated separately (AASHTO 3.75 LL 0.0 EL These are also the default design load combinations in SAP2000 whenever the AASHTO LRFD 1997 code is used. live load (LL).40 WL 1.90 DL 1.25 DL 1. The user is expected to define the other load combinations as necessary.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. vertical earth pressure load (EV).25 DL + 0. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.1). If the structure is subjected to structural dead load (DL). Each type of dead load case requires a separate load factor (AASHTO 3.4. There are six types of dead loads: dead load of structural components and nonstructural attachments (DC).1). For simplicity. pedestrian live load (PL). the user has full control of the definition of loads and load combinations.4. vehicular centrifugal force (CE). 1. wind load (WL).0 EL 1.4 WL 1.1). and live load surcharge (LS).25 DL + 1. downdrag (DD). However.25 DL + 1. 78 Design Loading Combinations .4 WL 1. and earthquake loads (EL). horizontal earth pressure load (EH). vehicular braking force (BR). There are six types of live loads: vehicular live load (LL). But the code is based on Kip-Inch-Second units.4. There are more different types of loads specified in the code than are considered in the current implementation of the default load combinations.35 LL 0.90 DL 1. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Kip-Inch-Second units unless otherwise noted.5 LL (Strength-IV) (Strength-I) (Strength-III) (Strength-III) (Strength-V) (Extreme-I) (Extreme-I) 0.50 DL 1. Design Loading Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the prescribed load cases for which the structure needs to be checked. the following default load combinations have been considered for Strength and Extreme Event limit states (AASHTO 3. dead load of wearing surface and utilities (DW). earth surcharge load (ES).

respectively. M u 33 . Factored moments not causing sidesway. These factored loads are calculated at each of the previously defined stations. When using the AASHTO code. or Slender.2. The magnified moment in a particular direction is given by: Mu = = s = Mb = Ms = b b Mb + s M s .1) of 1. and Factored moments causing sidesway.3. SAP2000 design assumes that a P. If the limits for non-compact criteria are not met. the minor moment.2.analysis has been performed so that moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway can be taken as unity.25 DL plus 1. where (AASHTO 4. Noncompact. the factored moment M u ( M u 33 and M u 22 in the corresponding directions) is magnified to consider second order effects. the major moment. V u 2 and V u 3 corresponding to factored values of the axial load. M u 22 . Currently SAP2000 does not check stresses for Slender sections. SAP2000 classifies individual members according to the width/thickness ratio quantities given in Table V-2 (AASHTO 6). Moment magnification factor for moments in sidesway mode. For loading combinations that cause compression in the member. Classification of Sections The nominal strengths for axial compression and flexure are dependent on the classification of the section as Compact. the major direction shear force and the minor direction shear force. the section is classified as Slender.2b) Moment magnification factor for moments in braced mode. It is recommended that the P. Classification of Sections 79 .5.35 LL (See White and Hajjar 1991).analysis be done at the factored load level (AASHTO C4.Chapter V Check/Design for AASHTO 1997 Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading.5. Calculation of Factored Forces The factored member loads that are calculated for each load combination are Pu .3. The definitions of the section properties required in these tables are given in Figure V-1.

Pu Py 141 Fy - Py f f 1Py Pu fP y CHANNEL hc tw - 253 Fy 970 Fy T-SHAPE ANGLE DOUBLEANGLE (Sep.) PIPE ROUND BAR RECTANGULAR GENERAL As for Channels Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable E Fy Assumed compact Assumed Compact Assumed Noncompact As for Channels 127 Fy 76 76 Fy Fy E Fy b b D t t t Table V-2 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratio for Flexure Classification of Sections According to AASHTO 80 Calculation of Factored Forces .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Description of Section Check Compact ( p) E Fy Noncompact r bf 2t f E 2Dc Fy tw E Fy r22 E Fy rt E Fy I-SHAPE 2Dcp tw E Fy Mu Mp Lb BOX bf tf For Pu 640 Fy For Pu 191 Fy bf 2t f M Assumed noncompact 65 f Fy .

Chapter V Check/Design for AASHTO 1997 Figure V-1 AASHTO Definition of Geometric Properties Calculation of Factored Forces 81 .

For compression members with transverse load on the member. When M b is zero. M a M b being positive for single curvature bending and negative for double curvature bending. tension.2): 82 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . is taken as follows (AASHTO 6.5.0 if the unbraced length. Calculation of Nominal Strengths The nominal strengths in compression. If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular structural model or member. See also White and Hajjar (1991). where (AASHTO 4.2. ( Kl u ) 2 Ma Mb .1).effects.25 DL plus 1. C m is assumed as 1.0. and shear are computed for Compact and Non-compact sections according to the following subsections. The magnification factor b . The user can overwrite the value of C m for any member. The moment magnification factor b for moments not causing sidesway is given by b = Cm Pu 1 c Pe . the user has a choice of explicitly specifying the values of b and s for any member.e. The strength reduction factor. where 2 (AASHTO 4. l. The program defaults C m to 1. a failure condition is declared. C m is taken as 1.2.2b) Cm (AASHTO 4.2. It is suggested that the P.0. therefore s is taken as unity for bending in both directions.3. .4. bending.5. it is not equal to the length of the member).analysis be done at the factored load level of 1.2b) Pe is the Euler buckling load.3.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual The moment magnification factors are associated with corresponding directions. of the member is redefined by the user (i.2.5.3.3. SAP2000 design assumes the analysis includes P.5. If Pu is found to be greater than or equal to c Pe . Pe EI .5. must be a positive number.35 LL (AASHTO C4.2b) M a M b is the ratio of the smaller to the larger nonsway moments at the ends of the member. Therefore Pu must be less than c Pe .

8. For members in compression. 0. Compression Capacity The nominal axial compressive strength.9. and .9.5.9. Pn .4.1) c For single angles r z is used in place of r22 and r33 .1) Fy E c .10.4.2) (AASHTO 6. and its critical value. F y Ag . 6.95 = Resistance factor for compression. flexural-torsional and torsional buckling. these values will override all the above mentioned calculated values for those elements as defined in the following subsections. or web buckling. for for c . Kl r 2 c Kl . 1. 1.0 = Resistance factor for shear. reduced nominal strengths may be applicable.9.2.2) f v y c For Slender sections and any singly symmetric and unsymmetric sections requiring consideration of local buckling.4. The user must separately investigate this reduction if such sections are used. r In computing the column compression capacity. r .9.0 = Resistance factor for tension.4.10. nonhybrid and unstiffened sections.2. 6.1) (AASHTO 6. and is the larger of r33 r22 r (AASHTO 6. Pn is evaluated for flexural buckling as follows: Pn = Pn = c lc F y Ag . (AASHTO 6. depends on the slenderness ratio. 0.5.9 (AASHTO 6.2.5.4.5.2) (AASHTO 6.2.4. If the user specifies nominal strengths for one or more elements in the “Redefine Element Design Data”. K 33 l 33 K l Kl and 22 22 . the sections are assumed to satisfy the slenderness requirements given below: Calculation of Nominal Strengths 83 . 6. The AASHTO design in SAP2000 is limited to noncomposite.2) (AASHTO 6. a message to that effect is printed (AASHTO 6.3). 6.Chapter V Check/Design for AASHTO 1997 = Resistance factor for bending. The user must separately investigate this reduction if such elements are used.4. if Kl is greater than 120.

and a slenderness parameter for lateral-torsional buckling.9. 84 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . The users are specifically expected to consult AISCLRFD for this situation.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual b t E . M n 22 = M p 22 = Z 22 F y . Fy k (AASHTO 6. If this slenderness criteria is not satisfied.4.8. the moment capacity about the major axis is determined depending on the shapes as follows. For members in tension. if l r is greater than 140. the axis of bending.4. Flexure Capacity The nominal bending strength depends on the following criteria: the geometric shape of the cross-section.2) where the constant k ranges between 0. lateral-torsional buckling.9.1) It should be noted that no net section checks are made.4. the compactness of the section. and web local buckling. General Section General Sections are considered to be noncompact and their nominal moment capacity about the major axis is given by Mn S Fy .56 and 1. Tension Capacity The nominal axial tensile strength value Pn is based on the gross cross-sectional area and the yield stress. The nominal moment capacity about the minor axis is always taken to be the plastic moment capacity about the minor axis unless as specified below. because the current version of SAP2000 does not consider this slenderness criteria. However.86 depending on the supports of the outstanding elements of the sections (AASHTO Table 6.1).9. Pn Ag F y (AASHTO 6.8.4).2. a message to that effect is printed (AASHTO 6.2-1). The nominal bending strength is the minimum value obtained from yielding. it is suggested that AISC-LRFD (1986) code should be used (AASHTO C6. flange local buckling.

1.5. for nonhybrid sections.10.3. and for nonhybrid sections.5.1.1): Calculation of Nominal Strengths 85 .3.10.2a) (AASHTO 6.4.1) where R h is the hybrid factor.3c).1a) R b is the load shedding factor.5.2a) b For slender unstiffened I sections.2a. 1.3) For noncompact I sections the moment capacity about the major axis is given as: Mn Rh Rb S Fy .10. Rb 1 2D c ar 1200 300 a r t w b 2D c tw E fc .5.10.10.6.76 rt E / F y (AASHTO 6.10. 6. and the web slenderness and the compression flange slenderness criteria for noncompact sections are satisfied (AASHTO 6.10. Fy (6.4. Fy E .10.6.4.2a) b where ar 2D c t w .2.5.10.3. and (AASHTO 6.5. 6.3. exceeds the criteria for noncompactness Lb 1.5. (AASHTO 6. (AASHTO 6.6.3a. 6. 6.0 .10.10. Lb . the moment capacity about the major axis is given as follows (AASHTO 6.4.3. and bf tf . when the unbraced length of the compression flange.10.10.10. 2D c tw b E .5. 6.2.3d). Rh .Chapter V Check/Design for AASHTO 1997 I-Section For compact I sections the moment capacity about the major axis is given as: Mn Z Fy (AASHTO 6.4.5.5.3.5.2b.

10. The program also defaults C b to 1.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual 2D c tw E .6.10.4. (AASHTO 6.0.6. Fy .1) (AASHTO 6.0 0. C b is taken as 1.10.1) Lr I yd E .6. J 3 d tw 3 EC b R h E Fy R h M y . (6.5. then Lb Lr Lp Lp d Lb 2 If b Mn 2D c tw Mn 2D c tw Mn where.1) if b and Lb My 2 Lr .4.10.10.4.5 E Fy R b R h M y . and (Ma Mb) ( M a M b )2 (AASHTO 6.10. (AASHTO 6.6.1) .4.6.4.0 if the unbraced 86 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . S 33 F y .5.2) b Cb C b is the moment gradient correction factor. M a M b is the ratio of the smaller to the larger moments at the ends of the member.4.1) if b and L p C b R b R h M y 1. M a M b being positive for single curvature bending and negative for double curvature bending.6. then Fy I 22 Lb Lb J I 22 Lr .10.4.76 rt (AASHTO 6.1) Lp 1.6.10. then 2 C b Rb Rh Lr Lb Rb Rh M y . and (6. (AASHTO 6. When M b is zero.1) b f t3 f 3 E .

10. Fy bf 2t f 0. and 30.10.3.10.5. Qp 3.382 E .2) .2. (AAS HT O and the compression flange f c 2D cp t w bracing and the web slenderness requirements are satisfied for noncompact sections (AASHTO 6. i . Fy (AASHTO 6.12. it is not equal to the length of the member).2) 2D cp tw E . Fy Calculation of Nominal Strengths 87 . the moment capacity about the major axis is given as follows (AASHTO 6.2) (AASHTO 6.10.3c).10.3.2) 2 Qp Mp My Qp Q fl Mp Mp .6.5. l.3d).10.5 2D cp tw Q fl 4.Chapter V Check/Design for AASHTO 1997 length.3.6. rt is the minimum radius of gyration taken about the vertical axis of the compression flange plus one-third of the web in compression (AASHTO 6. The user can overwrite the value of C b for any member.45 bf 2t f Box Section Noncomposite Box Sections are considered to be noncompact and their nominal moment capacity about the major axis is given as follows: Mn 1 0. (6. 6.6.382 E .5.3d.0 . e.5.2.5.5.064 F y S l 22 AE 2 d w tw I 22 bf tf SF y Mp (6.2): Mn where. when the compression flange exceeds the criteria for nonc ompa ctne s s . bf 2t f 0.10.3.5.2b). For slender unstiffened I sections. but b f 2t f E E f c 2D c t w .e.6. of the member is redefined by the user (i.10. b f 2t f 6.5.

(LRFD F1-12) Nominal major bending strength. if Lb M n 33 = M p 33 . M n 33 = M cr 33 where M n 33 M p 33 M r 33 = = = C b M r 33 M p 33 .3) Circular Bar Solid Circular Bars are not subjected to lateral-torsional buckling.2.4a): For channels and rectangular bars bent about the major axis.M p 33 .2.12. Rectangular and Channel Sections The nominal moment capacity of Rectangular and Channel Sections about the major axis is computed according to AISC-LRFD 1986 based on yielding and Lateral-Torsional-Buckling limit states as follows (AASHTO 6. Z 33 F y S 33 F y . (LRFD F1-3) Lp M n 33 = C b M p 33 .L p Lr .2.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Pipe Section For compact Pipe sections (D t 2 E F y ) the moment capacity about the major axis is given as: Mn Z Fy D t (AASHTO 6.12.M r 33 and if Lb > Lr . ( F y Fr )S 33 for channels.3) E F y ) the moment capacity For noncompact Pipe sections (2 E F y about the major axis is given as: Mn S Fy (AASHTO 6.2. They are considered to be compact and their nominal moment capacity about the major axis is given by Mn Z Fy . Major plastic moment.2.12. (LRFD F1-7) 88 Calculation of Nominal Strengths .2.L p M p 33 . Major limiting buckling moment. if L p Lb Lr Lb .

(LRFD F1-10) (LRFD F1-8) (LRFD F1-9) ( M a M b )2 . (LRFD F1) Lb r22 Laterally unbraced length. Cb Lb EI 22 GJ + E Lb 2 (LRFD F1-11) M cr 33 = I 22 C w for channels.5.5. the nominal bending strengths are not taken greater than that given by the formulas below for the various local buckling modes possible for these sections. (LRFD F1-6) 1 + X 2 F y .M r 33 r p p . Limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic capacity.2) .Chapter V Check/Design for AASHTO 1997 and F y S 33 for rectangular bars. 300 r22 for channels. and (LRFD F1-4) Fy 3 750 r22 M p 33 JA for rectangular bars. Critical elastic moment. r22 X 1 for channels. (LRFD F1-5) Lr = Limiting laterally unbraced length for inelastic lateral-torsional buckling. ( LRFD A-F1-3) and for minor direction bending Calculation of Nominal Strengths 89 . and (LRFD F1-13) Lb Lp = = 57 000 C b JA for rectangular bars. (Ma Mb) For non-compact channels.10. (AASHTO 6. 2 S 33 GJ 2 for rectangular sections. The nominal flexural strength M n for the limit state of flange and web local buckling is: For major direction bending M n 33 = M p 33 M p 33 . l 22 .Fr F y Fr 2 57 000 r22 JA M r 33 X1 X2 Cb = = S 33 C 4 w I 22 EGJA .

and F y S 33 for web buckling of channels. (LRFD Table A-F1.M r 22 r p p . V n 2 .7): 90 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . M n 33 = C b EI 22 GJ Lb d Lb I 22 . M r 33 M r 22 = M p 22 . M n = S Fy . for major direction shears in I-shapes. boxes and channels is evaluated assuming unstiffened girders as follows (AASHTO 6. T-Sections and Double Angles For T-shapes and double angles the nominal major bending strength is given as. Shear Capacities Major Axis of Bending The nominal shear strength.1) ( F y Fr )S 33 for flange buckling of channels.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual M n 22 = M p 22 where. where (LRFD F1-15) B (LRFD F1-16) The positive sign for B applies for tension in the stem of T-sections or the outstanding legs of double angles (positive moments) and the negative sign applies for compression in stem or legs (negative moments). and Largest value of for which buckling is inelastic. Minor limiting buckling moment. J B + 1+ B2 F y S 33 . (LRFD A-F1-3) = = = = p r Major limiting buckling moment. Largest value of for which M n M p . Controlling slenderness parameter.1) F y S 22 or flange buckling of channels. Single Angles For single angles the nominal major and minor direction bending strengths are assumed as. (LRFD Table A-F1.10.

Minor Axis of Bending The nominal shear strength for minor direction shears is assumed as: V n3 = F y Av 3 Calculation of Capacity Ratios In the calculation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios. The controlling compression and/or tension capacity ratio is then obtained. and For (AASHTO 6. Fy (AASHTO 6.10.2) E .0 indicates exceeding a limit state. the effect of the presence of bolts or welds is not considered.7.10. along with the associated station and load combination. for each station along the length of the member. Fy 3 tw E .10. first. Then the corresponding capacities are calculated. Calculation of Capacity Ratios 91 . A capacity ratio greater than 1.7. the actual member force/moment components are calculated for each load combination.2) The nominal shear strength for all other sections is taken as: V n2 = F y Av 2 . E d < Fy tw 2 tw EF y .7. d (AASHTO 6. the capacity ratios are calculated at each station for each member under the influence of each of the design load combinations.Chapter V Check/Design for AASHTO 1997 d tw V n2 = for V n2 = for d tw V n2 = E . During the design. the joints are not designed. Then. Fy F y Aw . Also.2) E .

M n 22 f (AASHTO 6.8. Pu .2) For circular sections an SRSS (Square Root of Sum of Squares) combination is first made of the two bending components before adding the axial load component instead of the simple algebraic addition implied by the above formulas. Shear Stresses Similarly to the normal stresses.9.2.3.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Axial and Bending Stresses The interaction ratio is determined based on the ratio nominal axial tensile strength and t the nominal axial compressive strength and tance factor for bending. the resisc For Pu < Pn Pu + 2 Pn . the capacity ratio is given as M u 33 + M n 33 f M u 22 .2.2. vV n 3 92 Calculation of Capacity Ratios . M n 22 f (AASHTO 6.2) For Pu Pn Pu 8 + 9 Pn .2. In addition. Pn is the Pn .9.3. Pn is .8. shear capacity ratios for major and minor directions are produced as follows: V u2 . and vV n 2 V u3 . If Pu is tensile. the capacity ratio is given as M u 33 + M n 33 f M u 22 . and if Pu is compressive. from the factored shear force values and the nominal shear strength values at each station for each of the load combinations. f . 6. 6.

A capacity ratio greater than 1.0 indicates exceeding a limit state. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. The controlling capacity ratio is then obtained. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-Millimeter-Second units unless otherwise noted. In the evaluation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios at a station along the length of the member. Various notations used in this chapter are described in Table VI-1. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. Similarly. But the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures.1-94 design code (CISC 1995).C h a p t e r VI Check/Design for CISC94 This chapter describes the details of the structural steel design and stress check algorithms that are used by SAP2000 when the user selects the CAN/CSA-S16. For simplicity. first the actual member force/moment components and the corresponding capacities are calculated for each load combination. Then the capacity ratios are evaluated at each station under the influence of all load combinations using the corresponding equations that are defined in this section. 93 . a shear capacity ratio is also calculated separately. But the code is based on Newton-Millimeter-Second units.

N Outside diameter of pipes. M r 22 Mu M y 33 . mm3 Table VI-1 CISC 94 Notations 94 . M f 22 M p 33 . M y 22 S 33 . mm2 2 Major and minor shear areas. mm Euler buckling strength.Vr 3 Z 33 . A g F y . mm Factored major and minor bending loads. N Major and minor plastic moduli. MPa 4 Major and minor moment of inertia. N-mm Factored major and minor bending strengths. mm Modulus of elasticity. N Factored compressive axial strength. mm2 Gross cross-sectional area. N Warping constant. K 22 L M f 33 . N Factored tensile axial strength. I 22 J K K 33 . MPa Shear modulus. N Moment magnification factor to account for deformation of member between ends Moment magnification factor ( on sidesway moments) to account for PFactored major and minor shear loads. N Factored compressive axial load. Av 3 Aw Ce Cf Cr Cw Cy D E Fy G I 33 . mm6 Compressive axial load at yield stress. Z 22 = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Cross-sectional area.0 unless overwritten by user) Laterally unbraced length of member. mm 4 Torsional constant for the section. N Factored major and minor shear strengths. N-mm Major and minor plastic moments. N-mm Critical elastic moment. M p 22 M r 33 . mm3 Factored tensile axial load. N-mm Major and minor yield moments. N-mm Major and minor section moduli. mm Effective length factor Effective length K-factors in the major and minor directions (assumed as 1. S 22 Tf Tr U1 U2 V f 2 . MPa Specified minimum yield stress.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual A Ag Av 2 . mm 2 Shear area.V f 3 Vr 2 .

12 = = Table VI-1 CISC 94 Notations (cont. mm Clear distance between flanges . mm Flange thickness. mm Web plate buckling coefficient. r22 rz t tf tw = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Nominal dimension of longer leg of angles ( b f 2t w ) for welded ( b f 3t f ) for rolled box sections. mm Slenderness parameter Resistance factor. mm Radius of gyration. mm Thickness. mm Web thickness. mm Overall depth of member. taken as 0.) 95 .9 Moment Coefficient Major and minor direction moment coefficients Bending coefficient 1 13 2 . mm Flange width. mm Radii of gyration in the major and minor directions.Chapter VI Check/Design for CISC94 b = bf d h k k l l33 . mm Minimum Radius of gyration for angles. mm Unbraced length of member. taken as ( d 2t f ). mm Major and minor direction unbraced member lengths. assumed as 5.34 (no stiffeners) Distance from outer face of flange to web toe of fillet . l22 r r33 .

SAP2000 Steel Design Manual

**Design Loading Combinations
**

The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be checked. For the CAN/CSA-S16.1-94 code, if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL), live load (LL), wind load (WL), and earthquake induced load (EL), and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible, then the following load combinations may have to be defined (CISC 7.2): 1.25 DL 1.25 DL + 1.50 LL 1.25 DL 1.50 WL 0.85 DL 1.50 WL 1.25 DL + 0.7 (1.50 LL 1.00 DL 1.00 EL 1.00 DL + 0.50 LL (CISC 7.2.2)

1.50 WL)

(CISC 7.2.2) (CISC 7.2.6)

1.00 EL

These are also the default design load combinations whenever the CISC Code is used. In generating the above default loading combinations, the importance factor is taken as 1. The user should use other appropriate loading combinations if roof live load is separately treated, other types of loads are present, or if pattern live loads are to be considered. Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading. When using the CISC code, SAP2000 design assumes that a P- analysis has been performed so that moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway can be taken as unity. It is suggested that the P- analysis be done at the factored load level of 1.25 DL plus 1.05 LL. See also White and Hajjar (1991). For the gravity load case only, the code (CISC 8.6.2) requires that notional lateral loads be applied at each story, equal to 0.005 times the factored gravity loads acting at each story. If extra load cases are used for such analysis, they should be included in the loading combinations with due consideration to the fact that the notional lateral forces can be positive or negative.

96

Design Loading Combinations

Chapter VI Check/Design for CISC94

Classification of Sections

For the determination of the nominal strengths for axial compression and flexure, the sections are classified as either Class 1 (Plastic), Class 2 (Compact), Class 3 (Noncompact), or Class 4 (Slender). The program classifies the individual sections according to Table VI-2 (CISC 11.2). According to this table, a section is classified as either Class 1, Class 2, or Class 3 as applicable. If a section fails to satisfy the limits for Class 3 sections, the section is classified as Class 4. Currently SAP2000 does not check stresses for Class 4 sections.

**Calculation of Factored Forces
**

The factored member forces for each load combination are calculated at each of the previously defined stations. These member forces are T f or C f , M f 33 , M f 22 , V f 2 and V f 3 corresponding to factored values of the tensile or compressive axial load, the major moment, the minor moment, the major direction shear, and the minor direction shear, respectively. Because SAP2000 design assumes that the analysis includes P- effects, any magnification of sidesway moments due to the second order effects are already included, therefore U 2 for both directions of bending is taken as unity. It is suggested that the P- analysis be done at the factored load level of 1.25 DL plus 1.05 LL. See also White and Hajjar (1991). However, the user can overwrite the values of U 2 for both major and minor direction bending. In this case M f in a particular direction is taken as: M

f

M = = =

fg

U 2 M ft , where

(CISC 8.6.1)

U2 M fg M ft

Moment magnification factor for sidesway moments, Factored moments not causing translation, and Factored moments causing sidesway.

Classification of Sections

97

SAP2000 Steel Design Manual

Description of Section

Ratio Checked

bf 2t f

Class 1 (Plastic)

145 Fy

Class 2 (Compact)

170 Fy

Class 3 (Noncompact)

200 Fy

I-SHAPE h tw

Cf 1100 1 - 0.39 Cy Fy 420 525 Fy (rolled) Fy (welded)

Cf 1700 1 - 0.61 Cy Fy

Cf 1900 1 - 0.65 Cy Fy

b BOX h bf h

tf

525

Fy

670

Fy

tw tf tw

As for I-shapes Not applicable Not applicable

As for I-shapes Not applicable Not applicable

As for I-shapes 200 Fy

CHANNEL

As for I-shapes 200 340 Fy Fy

T-SHAPE

bf d

2t f tw

Not applicable Not applicable

Not applicable Not applicable

DOUBLE ANGLE ANGLE PIPE (Flexure) PIPE (Axial) ROUND BAR RECTANGULAR GENERAL

b

t

Not applicable

Not applicable

200

Fy

b

t

Not applicable

Not applicable

200

Fy

D

t

13000

Fy

18000

Fy

66000

Fy

D

t

Assumed Class 2

23000

Fy

Assumed Class 2

Assumed Class 3

Table VI-2 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections based on CISC 94

98

Calculation of Factored Forces

Chapter VI Check/Design for CISC94 Figure VI-1 CISC 94 Definition of Geometric Properties Calculation of Factored Forces 99 .

The strength reduction factor. and 3 sections in SAP2000.1. a smaller value of n (n ) is considered appropriate (CISC C13. where (CISC 13. or 3 sections depends on a factor. C r . CISC C13. The WWF sections produced in Canada from plate with flame-cut edges and hot-formed or cold-relieved (Class H) HSS are assigned to a favorable value of n (CISC 13.2. If the user specifies nominal strengths for one or more elements in the “Redefine Element Design Data". Manual Table 6-2).3). Manual Page 4-12). flexural-torsional and torsional buckling. is taken as 0.9 (CISC 13. tension. a message is printed (CISC 10.1). which eventually depends on the slenderness ratio. or web buckling. Manual Page 4-12. and shear are computed for Class 1. which is the larger of K 33 l 33 r33 and K 22 l 22 r22 . For Class 4 (Slender) sections and any singly symmetric and unsymmetric sections requiring consideration of local buckling.3.3.3. bending. The default n is 1.1).SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Calculation of Factored Strengths The factored strengths in compression. CISC C13.1): Cr AF y 1 2n - 1 n .3. if Kl r is greater than 200. Compression Strength The factored axial compressive strength value. fabricated boxes and I shapes.34 which is assigned to W-shapes rolled in Canada. For members in compression. Kl r.1) n is an exponent and it takes three possible values to match the strengths related to three SSRC curves.1. 2. The user must separately investigate this reduction if such elements are used. and cold-formed non-stress relieved (Class C) hollow structural sections (HSS) (CISC 13. these values will override all the above mentioned calculated values for those elements as defined in the following subsections. 2. For heavy sections. . for Class 1.3. SAP2000 assumes the value of n as follows: 100 Calculation of Factored Strengths . and is defined as = Kl r Fy E . .3. Then the factored axial strength is evaluated as follows (CISC 13. For single angles rZ is used in place of r33 and r22 . reduced nominal strengths may be applicable.

they are used in the interaction ratio calculation when strengths are required for actual unbraced lengths. the moment capacities are considered to be as follows: For Class 1 and 2. and the unbraced length of the member. Tr Ag F y (CISC 13. Also. for W. Mr Mr ZF y . the section classification for compactness. Tension Strength The factored axial tensile strength value.5) Special considerations are required for laterally unsupported members. is taken as Ag F y (CISC 13.2. None of these overwritten capacities are used for strengths in laterally supported case.2.4 mm. L. it is expected that the user would put a suffix to the HS or HSS section names. HS (Class H) and HSS (Class H) sections. The procedure for the determination of moment capacities for laterally unsupported members (CISC 13. (CISC 13. For members in tension.6): For laterally supported members.5 and 13.(i)). For Class 3. for other sections with thickness larger than or equal to 25.4 mm. for other sections with thickness less than 25. If the capacities ( M r 22 and M r 33 ) are overwritten by the user. and SF y .2). n The HSS sections in the current Canadian Section Database of SAP2000 are prefixed as HS instead of HSS. Tr . a message is printed accordingly (CISC 10.(a). to consider any HSS section as Class H. if l r is greater than 300. The bending strengths are evaluated according to CISC as follows (CISC 13.2) Bending Strengths The factored bending strength in the major and minor directions is based on the geometric shape of the section. and 2L sections and normal HS and HSS sections.6) is described in the following subsections. Calculation of Factored Strengths 101 .Chapter VI Check/Design for CISC94 for WWF.5) (CISC 13.

when M u > M r3 = when M u M r 33 = M r 33 M p 33 Mu = = = M p 33 . Mb gle curvature bending. (CISC 13. the program is unable to detect whether the member is a cantilever. M p 33 1M p 33 . L L Laterally unbraced length. 102 Calculation of Factored Strengths . and 2 M p 33 Mu M p 33 . l of the 2 member is overwritten by the user (i. For Class 3 sections of I-shapes.0. Z 33 F y . If any moment within the segment is greater than M b .0 for cantilevers. channels. Major plastic moment.0 for boxes. pipes.6) 2 EI 22 GJ + (CISC 13. The user can overwrite the value of 2 for any member by specifying it.6) L Cw = = 2 = + Ma Mb + Ma Mb 2 . The program defaults 2 to 1.e. Warping constant assumed as 0. M u . and (CISC 13. rectangular and circular bars. 2 should be taken as 1. E I 22 C w .6) (CISC 13.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual I-shapes and Boxes Major Axis of Bending For Class 1 and 2 sections of I-shapes and boxes bent about the major axis. when M u M y 33 . boxes bent about the major axis. Critical elastic moment.6) M a and M b are end moments of the unbraced segment and M a is less than Ma being positive for double curvature bending and negative for sinM b. l 22 .0 if the unbraced length. However. where Factored major bending strength. it is not equal to the length of the member). is taken as 1.

M p 33 . M r 22 = M p 22 = Z 22 F y . M r 22 = M p 22 = Z 22 F y .6) Minor Axis of Bending For Class 2 sections of rectangular bars bent about their minor axis.6) M p 33 Mu M p 33 . M p 33 1M p 33 . Minor Axis of Bending For Class 1 and 2 sections of I-shapes and boxes bent about their minor axis. where M y 33 . and (CISC 13. S 33 F y . Rectangular Bar Major Axis of Bending For Class 2 rectangular bars bent about their major axis. For Class 3 sections of I-shapes and boxes bent about their minor axis. and (CISC 13.6) M r 33 and M u are as defined earlier for Class 1 and 2 sections and M y 33 is the major yield moment. M u .Chapter VI Check/Design for CISC94 M y 33 Mu M r 33 = when M u M r 33 M y 33 1 M y 33 . when M u > M r 33 = when M u M r 33 = Mu .6) (CISC 13. Pipes and Circular Rods For pipes and circular rods bent about any axis Calculation of Factored Strengths 103 . (CISC 13. M r 22 = M y 22 = S 22 F y .

M p 33 1M p 33 . M y 33 1 M y 33 . and (CISC 13. M r 33 = B= 2 EI 22 GJ L B + 1+ B2 J .6d). (CISC 13.6) Channel Sections Major Axis of Bending For Class 3 channel sections bent about their major axis. M p 33 .6) M p 33 Mu M p 33 . T-shapes and double angles Major Axis of Bending For Class 3 sections of T-shapes and double angles the factored major bending strength is assumed to be (CISC 13. when M u M r 33 = when M u M r 33 = Mu .6) Minor Axis of Bending For Class 3 channel sections bent about their minor axis. where d L I 22 104 Calculation of Factored Strengths . M y 33 . M y 33 Mu M y 33 . M r 22 = M y 22 = S 22 F y . and (CISC 13.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual When M u > M r 33 = when M u M r 33 = Mu . F y S 33 .

Minor Axis of Bending For Class 3 sections of T-shapes and double angles the factored minor bending strength is assumed as. boxes and channels is evaluated as follows (CISC 13. the factored major and minor direction bending strengths are assumed as. • For 502 Vr 2 = kv h < Fy tw Aw Fcri 621 kv .1): • For h tw Aw kv .1. Fy (CISC 13. V r 2 .4. 502 kv . for major direction shears in I-shapes.1.1) Ft .1) (CISC 13. M r 22 = F y S 22 .4. Fy (CISC 13.4.1) Vr 2 = • For kv h < Fy tw Aw 290 kv Fy h tw Vr 2 = . M r 33 = M r 22 = F y S 33 . where Calculation of Factored Strengths 105 . Single Angle and General Sections For Class 3 single angles and for General sections. and F y S 22 .4. Fy Fy .1. Shear Strengths The factored shear strength.1.Chapter VI Check/Design for CISC94 The positive sign for B applies for tension in the stem of T-sections or the outstanding legs of double angles (positive moments) and the negative sign applies for compression in stem or legs (negative moments).

2) 106 Calculation of Factored Strengths . where .4. tw Fy Aw Fcre Ft .4.1) Vr 2 = Fcre = 180000 k v ( h/t w ) 2 In the above equations.4. (CISC 13. Assuming no stiffener is used.2) The factored shear strength for major and minor direction shears for all other sections is assumed as (CISC 13. boxes and channels is assumed as Vr 2 F y Av 3 . ( a / h) 2 a/h 1 and the aspect ratio a h is the ratio of the distance between the stiffeners to web depth. • For k h > 621 v .2): Vr 2 Vr 3 F y Av 2 .1.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual kv Fy h tw Fcri = 290 .4. and Ft = Fy Fcri 1 1 a/h 2 . the value of k v is taken as 5.2) (CISC 13.4. k v is the shear buckling coefficient. The factored shear strength for minor direction shears in I-shapes. (CISC 13. and it is defined as: kv kv 4 ( a / h) 2 . a/h 1 4 .34. (CISC 13. Assuming no stiffener is used. and F y Av 3 . the value of Ft is taken as zero.

for each station along the length of the member. Then the corresponding capacities are calculated. However. Axial and Bending Stresses From the factored axial loads and bending moments at each station and the factored strengths for axial tension and compression and major and minor bending. The controlling compression and/or tension capacity ratio is then obtained. During the design. for Class 1 I-shaped sections (13. the capacity ratio is given by: Cf Cr Cf Cr + U 13 M f 33 M r 33 U 13 M + U 12 M f 22 M r 22 + .0 indicates exceeding a limit state. and shear strengths of a section are overwritten by the user. the joints are not designed. None of these overwritten capacities are used for strengths in laterally supported case. they are used in the interaction ratio calculation when strengths are required for actual unbraced lengths.Chapter VI Check/Design for CISC94 Calculation of Capacity Ratios In the calculation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios. first. an interaction capacity ratio is produced for each of the load combinations as follows: Compressive Axial Load If the axial load is compressive. certain strengths can not be overwritten. Also. for each load combination.8. the capacity ratios are calculated at each station for each member under the influence of each of the design load combinations. the effect of the presence of bolts or welds is not considered. flexural. If the axial and bending capacities are overwritten by the user.8.2) The above ratios are calculated for each of the following conditions and the largest ratio is reported: Calculation of Capacity Ratios 107 . the actual member force/moment components are calculated. along with the associated station and load combination.1) + f 33 U 12 M f 22 M r 33 M r 22 . If the axial. the overwritten values are used in calculating the stress ratios. Then. More specific information is given in the following subsections as needed. for all but Class 1 I-shaped sections (13. A capacity ratio greater than 1.

• Lateral-Torsional Buckling Strength: – The axial compression capacity is based on weak-axis buckling only based K 22 l 22 (CISC 13. In this equation specific values for major and minor directions are to be used to calculate values of U 12 and U 13 (CISC 13. U 13 U 12 .3.1) . • Overall Member Strength: – The axial compression capacity is based on both major and minor direction K l K l buckling using both 22 22 and 33 33 as described in an earlier section r22 r33 (CISC 13. and 108 Calculation of Capacity Ratios . If the capacities (C r . and – U 12 and U 13 are taken as 1. (CISC 13.3. on r22 – M r 33 and M r 22 are calculated based on actual unbraced length (CISC 13.3).1) – The M r 33 and M r 22 are calculated assuming that the member is laterally fully supported ( l 22 0 and l 33 0) irrespective of its actual lateral bracing length (CISC 13. and – U 12 and U 13 are calculated using the expression given below for U 1 .1.8.6). and M r 33 ) are overwritten by the user. the only overwritten capacity used in this case is C r . (CISC 13.5).2) If the capacities (C r .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual • Cross-sectional Strength: – The axial compression capacity is based on Cr A Fy 0. – M r 33 and M r 22 are calculated assuming that the member is laterally fully supported ( l 22 0 and l 33 0) irrespective of its actual lateral bracing length (CISC 13.3.8. 13.1).5). M r 22 and M r 33 ) are overwritten by the user. they are assumed not to apply to this case and are ignored. M r 22 .8.

M r 22 . Therefore C f must be less than C e . a failure condition is declared.2) If the capacities ( M r 22 and M r 33 ) are overwritten by the user.2) If the capacities (C r .3. U1 = 1 1 . all these overwritten capacities are used in this case. In this equation specific values for major and minor directions are to be used to calculate values of U 12 and U 13 (CISC 13.0 for beams with transverse load and when M b is zero.8.8. M a M b being positive for double curvature bending and negative for single curvature bending. U 13 1 is enforced.8.1. Moreover. (CISC 13. If this is not true. 13.0 if the unbraced length. (CISC 13. the ratio is calculated as Calculation of Capacity Ratios 109 . The factor U 1 must be a positive the value of number. the following ratio is also checked: M f 33 M f 22 M r 33 M r 22 . and 1 - M a M b is the ratio of the smaller to the larger moment at the ends of the member. For Class 1 I-shapes. (CISC 13. The user can overwrite for any member by specifying it. In the first case.3). 1 is assumed as 1.e. l. all three overwritten capacities are used in this case.Chapter VI Check/Design for CISC94 – U 12 and U 13 are calculated using the expression given below for U 1 . and M r 33 ) are overwritten by the user. In addition. L2 Ma Mb 0. In the above expressions.4 . The program defaults to 1.C f /C e 2 . 1 1 Tensile Axial Load If the axial load is tensile the capacity ratio is given by the larger of two ratios. of the member is redefined by the user (i.3) Ce EI . it is not equal to the length of the member).8.

and 110 Calculation of Capacity Ratios . Shear Stresses From the factored shear force values and the factored shear strength values at each station. (CISC 13. for each of the load combinations. the only overwritten capacity used in this case is Tr . or (CISC 13. M r 22 and M r 33 overwrites are assumed not to apply to this case and are ignored. For circular sections an SRSS combination is first made of the two bending components before adding the axial load component instead of the simple algebraic addition implied by the above interaction formulas. M r 22 and M r 33 ) are overwritten by the user. shear capacity ratios for major and minor directions are produced as follows: Vf2 Vr 2 Vf3 Vr 3 . If the capacities (Tr .9) assuming M r 33 M r 22 are calculated based on fully supported member ( l 22 0 and l 33 0). In the second case the ratio is calculated as M f 33 M r 33 M f 33 + M f 22 T f Z 33 M r 33 A T f S 33 M r 33 A M r 22 M f 22 (for Class 1 and 2).9) If the capacities ( M r 22 and M r 33 ) are overwritten by the user. both of these overwritten capacities are used in this case. (CISC 13.9) M r 33 + M r 22 (for Class 3).SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Tf Tr M M + f 33 M r 33 + f 22 M r 22 .

The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. Various notations used in this chapter are described in Table VII-1. For simplicity.0 indicates exceeding a limit state. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. A capacity ratio greater than 1. The controlling capacity ratio is then obtained. a shear capacity ratio is also calculated separately. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-Millimeter-Second units unless otherwise noted. Then the capacity ratios are evaluated at each station under the influence of all load combinations using the corresponding equations that are defined in this section. first the actual member force/moment components and the corresponding capacities are calculated for each load combination. In the evaluation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios at a station along the length of the member. But the code is based on Newton-Millimeter-Second units. But the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. Similarly. 111 .C h a p t e r VII Check/Design for BS 5950 This chapter describes the details of the structural steel design and stress check algorithms that are used by SAP2000 when the user selects the BS 5950 design code (BSI 1990).

mm or outside diameter of pipes. Z 22 = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Cross-sectional area. MPa Axial compression. N-mm Applied moment about major axis. mm 4 Major moment of inertia. mm Modulus of elasticity. N-mm Compression resistance. N Major and minor shear capacities. mm2 2 Major and minor shear areas. MPa 6 Warping constant. N Tension capacity. N-mm Applied moment about minor axis. Pv 3 S 33 . N Major and minor compression resistance. mm3 Thickness of flange or leg. mm Breadth.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual A Ag Av 2 . K 22 M M 33 M 22 M a 33 M a 22 Mb Mc M c 33 M c 22 ME Pc Pc 33 . mm Effective length factor Major and minor effective length factors Applied moment. MPa Major and minor elastic section moduli. Pc 22 Pt Pv 2 . Fv 3 G H I 33 I 22 J K K 33 . N-mm Buckling resistance moment. N-mm Major moment capacity. mm Minor moment of inertia. N Major and minor shear loads. N-mm Elastic critical moment. N-mm Major maximum bending moment. mm4 4 Torsional constant for the section. N-mm Minor maximum bending moment. mm2 Gross cross-sectional area. mm Depth of section. N Axial tension. N-mm Minor moment capacity. Av 3 B D E Fc Ft Fv 2 . N-mm Moment capacity. mm3 Table VII-1 BS 5950 Notations 112 . S 22 T Ys Z 33 . N Major and minor plastic section moduli. N Shear modulus. mm Specified yield strength.

mm Major and minor direction unbraced member lengths. MPa Yield strength.) 113 . le 22 m n qe q cr r33 . mm Distance from outer face of flange to web toe of fillet . mm Depth of web. mm Story height. l22 le 33 . MPa Euler strength. K 22 l22 ) Equivalent uniform moment factor Slenderness correction factor Elastic critical shear strength of web panel. mm ( K 33 l33 . mm Unbraced length of member. MPa Major and minor radii of gyration. mm Flange thickness.Chapter VII Check/Design for BS 5950 a b d h k l l33 . MPa Monosymmetry index Table VII-1 BS 5950 Notations (cont. MPa Critical shear strength of web panel. r22 rz t tf tw u v = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Robertson constant Outstand width. mm Thickness. mm Major and minor effective lengths. mm Buckling parameter Slenderness factor Ratio of smaller to larger end moments 1 Constant 275 y 2 o LT Lo LT c E y Slenderness parameter Limiting slenderness Equivalent slenderness Limiting equivalent slenderness Perry factor Perry coefficient Compressive strength. mm Thickness of web. mm Minimum radius of gyration for angles.

6 LL 1. According to the BS 5950 code.1) 1. When using the BS 5950 code.4 DL 1. then the following load combinations may have to be considered (BS 2. The notional forces should be assumed to act in any one direction at a time and should be taken as acting simultaneously with the factored dead plus vertical imposed live loads.3).1.4 DL 1.2.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Design Loading Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be checked. In addition to the above load combinations.0 DL 1.2 LL 1.4 WL 1.4 EL 1.0 DL 1. The user should use other appropriate loading combinations if roof live load is separately treated.2 DL + 1.4.4 DL 1.2 EL These are also the default design load combinations whenever BS 5950 Code is used.1.1.4 DL + 1. and earthquake load (EL). The notional load should be equal to the maximum of 0.2 DL + 1. if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL).4.4): 1.4 EL 1.01 times the factored dead load and 0. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.2 WL 1.analysis has already been performed. live load (LL). the code requires that all buildings should be capable of resisting a notional design horizontal load applied at each floor or roof level.2 LL (BS 2. so that moment magnification factors for the moments causing side-sway can be taken as unity.3). SAP2000 design assumes that a P. wind load (WL). Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading. other types of loads are present.2. They should not be combined with any other horizontal load cases (BS 5. It is recommended that the user should define additional load cases for considering the notional load in SAP2000 and define the appropriate design combinations.4.analysis be 114 Design Loading Combinations . It is suggested that the P.1) (BS 2.005 times the factored dead plus live loads (BS 2.4 WL 1. or if pattern live loads are to be considered.

Class 2 (Compact). or Slender. and along with the slenderness ratios are the major factors in classification of section. This implies that for a section in pure bending R is zero. c c c d2 D 2 D 2 c T T P 2 4 y t t . Compact. the section is classified as Class 4 (Slender). If a section fails to satisfy the limits for Class 3 (Semi-compact) sections. Currently SAP2000 does not check stresses for Slender sections. • . For .5. compression is taken as positive and tension is taken as negative. compression is taken as negative and tension is taken as posi- is defined as follows: 1/ 2 275 y The section is classified as either Class 1 (Plastic). The parameters R. the section is treated as having compression throughout. R is calculated as follows: R • P Ag y is given as d . Classification of Sections The nominal strengths for axial compression and flexure are dependent on the classification of the section as Plastic.2 live load.2 dead load plus 1. SAP2000 checks the sections according to Table VII-2 (BS 3. See also White and Hajjar (1991). or Class 3 (Semi-compact) as applicable. Classification of Sections 115 .Chapter VII Check/Design for BS 5950 done at the factored load level corresponding to 1. Semi-compact.2). for Box and Double Channel section c P y In calculating tive. for I and Channel section . where is the distance from the plastic neutral axis to the edge of the web connected to the compression flange. c • R is the ratio of mean longitudinal stress in the web to y in a section. In calculating R.

d t webs ( ) (rolled) d t webs ( ) (welded) b T (Rolled) BOX b T (welded) d t As for I-shapes As for I-shapes As for I-shapes As for I-shapes As for I-shapes As for I-shapes CHANNEL b T d t b T d t d t T-SHAPE DOUBLE ANGLE (separated) (b + d ) t Table VII-2 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections based on BS 5950 116 Classification of Sections . and and (welded) (rolled) d t webs ( I-SHAPE ) 1+ R For R 0 : For R 0: 1+ R .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Description of Section Ratio Checked b T (Rolled) b T (welded) Class 1 (Plastic) Class 2 (Compact) Class 3 (Semi-compact) For R 0: R and and 41 R 41 R .

Factored moments not causing translation.max 1 (BS 5.6. where s. 117 . The moment magnification for non-sidesway moments is included in the overall buckling interaction equations.3) s. Fv 2 .max Mg Ms Maximum story-drift divided by the story-height. respectively. and Factored moments causing sidesway.) Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections based on BS 5950 Calculation of Factored Forces The factored member loads that are calculated for each load combination are Ft or Fc . M = Mg + = = = 1 200 M s . the major direction shear load. These factored loads are calculated at each of the previously defined stations.Chapter VII Check/Design for BS 5950 Description of Section Ratio Checked b t Class 1 (Plastic) Class 2 (Compact) Class 3 (Semi-compact) ANGLE (b + d ) t PIPE SOLID CIRCLE SOLID RECTANGLE GENERAL D t Assumed Compact Assumed Compact Assumed Semi-compact Table VII-2 (cont. and Fv 3 corresponding to factored values of the tensile or compressive axial load. M 33 . the major moment. and the minor direction shear load. M 22 . the minor moment.

SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Figure VII-1 BS 5950 Definition of Geometric Properties 118 Calculation of Factored Forces .

and 3 sections according to the following subsections.1) Calculation of Section Capacities 119 . such as the consideration of local buckling.4) is the compressive strength given by E 2 y 1 2 . (BS C. s . where (BS C.1. compact. Calculation of Section Capacities The nominal strengths in compression. SAP2000 design assumes a P. flexuraltorsional and torsional buckling.analysis is carried out. It is suggested that the P. as specified by the user.Chapter VII Check/Design for BS 5950 The moment magnification factor for moments causing sidesway can be taken as unity if a P. By default. (BS 4.7. The user must separately investigate this reduction if such elements are used.1) E y y E . bending.analysis be done at the factored load level of 1. to be 1.analysis has been done and. or semi-compact sections is evaluated as follows: Pc = Ag where c c c .1). the user should ensure that the thickness and the ultimate strength limitations given in the code are satisfied (BS 3. y . therefore.2 LL. tension. these values will override all above the mentioned calculated values for those elements as defined in the following subsections. reduced section capacities may be applicable.0 times the minimum yield strength of steel. and shear are computed for Class 1.1. or web buckling. Y s . Compression Resistance The compression resistance for plastic. SAP2000 takes the design strength. max for both major and minor direction bending is taken as 0. y Ys (BS 3.2 DL plus 1.1) For Class 4 (Slender) sections and any singly symmetric and unsymmetric sections requiring special treatment. 2. See also White and Hajjar (1991). If the user specifies nominal strengths for one or more elements in the “Redefine Element Design Data”. In inputting values of the yield strength.

or in the minor. E y .0 3.5 3. l e 33 r33 . l e 22 r22 direction (BS 4.2) (BS C2.5 5.5 5.5 5. 2 E 2 .5 Table VII-3 Robertson Constant in BS 5950 = = = 0 E Euler strength.3.5 2.5 5.7.5 8.2) = Limiting slenderness.5 8.5 3. and = the slenderness ratio in either the major.5 5. The larger of the two values is used in the above equations to calculate Pc .5 5.5 5.5 5. BS Table 25) (BS C. Robertson constant from Table VII-3. a ) 0.5 3. 2 (BS C.5 5.1). 33 22 120 Calculation of Section Capacities . T-SHAPE. 0 a Perry factor.0 3.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Description of Section I-SHAPE (rolled) H-SHAPE (rolled) I-SHAPE (welded) BOX or Pipe (Rolled) BOX (welded) CHANNEL.5 3. ANGLE RECTANGULAR or CIRCLE GENERAL Axis of Bending Thickness (mm) Major any 40 40 40 40 any 40 40 any 40 40 any 2.5 Minor 3.5 5.0 2.0 5.0 3.

6) y 1 Calculation of Section Capacities 121 . The moment capacities are calculated as follows: Plastic and Compact Sections For plastic and compact sections. Fv Pv . Moment Capacity The moment capacities in the major and minor directions. the moment capacities about the major and the minor axes of bending depend on the shear force. Elastic modulus of the gross section about the relevant axis. Local buckling is avoided by applying a limitation to the width/thickness ratios of elements of the cross-section. If is greater than 250. (BS 4. Pv . and the shear capacity. a message to that effect is printed (BS 4. The user may have to separately investigate the members which are connected eccentrically to the axis of the member. (BS 4.2.1) It should be noted that no net section checks are made. Fv .6. the slenderness. For members in compression. Box.3. y S (S Sv y Z.2).5) (BS 4.2.3. For main members in tension. M c 33 and M c 22 are based on the design strength and the section modulus. for example angle sections. and Double-Channel sections bending about the 3-3 axis the moment capacities considering the effects of shear force are computed as Mc = Mc = where S Z = = Plastic modulus of the gross section about the relevant axis. Tension Capacity The tension capacity of a member is given by Pt = Ag y . ) y Fv Z. Channel. .7. a message is displayed accordingly. should not be greater than 250 (BS 4.Chapter VII Check/Design for BS 5950 For single angles r z is used instead of r33 and r22 . if is greater than 180. Pv . the co-existent shear and the possibility of local buckling of the cross-section.2). For I.7.

2.e. For I. (BS 4.5) Semi-compact Sections Reduction of moment capacity due to coexistent shear does not apply for semicompact sections. where (BS B2. Box. In rare cases. Channel. T. for rolled I-shapes S v 2 is taken to be tD 2 4 and for welded I-shapes it is taken as td 2 4 . Furthermore members are assumed to be symmetrical about at least one axis.5) Lateral-Torsional Buckling Moment Capacity The lateral torsional buckling resistance moment. For example. of a member is calculated from the following equations. Mc y Z (BS 4.2. and Double-Channel sections M b is obtained from Mb = B B y 2 S 33 M E y S 33 M E )1 / 2 . plastic modulus of shear area. Pv = 1 The shear capacity described later in this chapter. The moment capacity for these cases is computed in SAP2000 as Mc = y S y Z.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Sv = Plastic modulus of the gross section about the relevant axis less the plastic modulus of that part of the section remaining after deduction of shear area i. The program assumes the members to be uniform (of constant properties) throughout their lengths. M b . For all other cases. = The combined effect of shear and axial forces is not being considered because practical situations do not warrant this. overwrite values of the section moduli. Fv Pv . and if necessary.1) 122 Calculation of Section Capacities . the reduction of moment capacities for the presence of shear force is not considered. the user may have to investigate this independently. The user should investigate the reduced moment capacity separately. however.

For flanged members in general.007 (BS 2. and (BS B2. L 0 is defined as follows: 2 L0 y E . b is taken as 0. and b is a constant. S 33 LT 2 ME= LT The elastic critical moment. where (BS B2. the value of n is conservatively taken as given by the following formula.5) and for Box sections LT 2. • n is the slenderness correction factor. can be overwritten by the user for any member by specifying it (BS Table 13). LT E 2 .0 . and for cantilevers without intermediate lateral restraints. This. L 0 and LT are the limiting equivalent slenderness and the equivalent slenderness. n 1 Cb Calculation of Section Capacities 1. The Perry coefficient. and (BS B2. where 123 .5) is defined as . For members with equal flanges loaded between adjacent lateral restraints.25 n 1 2 b • is the slenderness and is equivalent to l e 22 r22 .3) = The Perry coefficient. however.Chapter VII Check/Design for BS 5950 S 33 ME y B LT . Double-Channel.0.(BS B2.3) for welded sections LT 2 b L0 . For flanged members symmetrical about at least one axis and uniform throughout their length.3). not loaded between adjacent lateral restraints.4) For I. and T sections LT LT nuv . Channel. n is taken as 1. with b ( LT L0 ) LT 2 b ( LT L0 ). For rolled sections LT b LT . for rolled and welded sections is taken as follows: L0 . respectively. LT (BS B2.2) In the above definition of LT . is defined as (BS B2.

SAP2000 Steel Design Manual M .9 for rolled I-shapes and channels. Channel. of the member is redefined by the user (i.Channel sections. The user can overwrite the value of C b for any member. the program is unable to detect whether the member is a cantilever. (BS B2. M A . Channel. v 4 N ( N 1) + 1 20 x 2 2 . Channel. 1.5d) N 0. For any other section. and Double-Channel sections. M B . It is conservatively taken as 0. it is given by the following formula.Channel sections.e. For I. The program also defaults C b to 1. where (BS B2. for T sections with flange in compression. center of span and 3/4 point major moments respectively.0 . and M C are absolute values of maximum moment. for I. and + 3 M A + 4 M B + 3 MC max Cb = M max M .5 .5b) (BS B2. For I. and T sections.3. l. and Double-Channel. 1/4 point. where (BS B2.0 . max • u is the buckling parameter. u 2 4S 33 1 4 A2 (D T )2 2 I 22 S 33 1 4 .0 (BS 4. for I. for T sections with flange in tension. and 0. it is not equal to the length of the member). (BS B2. and -1.5d) 124 Calculation of Section Capacities . 0. in the member. for I. for T sections with flange in compression.5b) u A2 H 1 I 22 .7.0 if the unbraced length.0 .5).5d) (BS B2. u is taken as 1. Channel. I 33 .8 . Double-Channel. for T section. Double . for T sections with flange in tension. 0. Double .5b) • v is the slenderness factor. However. C b should be taken as 1.0 for cantilevers.0 . Channel.

for each load combination. the shear capacity computed above is valid only if d t 63 . Calculation of Capacity Ratios In the calculation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios. The controlling compression and/or tension capacity ratio is then obtained. where J .0 indicates exceeding a limit state.3) (BS 4. Then. the effect of the presence of bolts or welds is not considered. A capacity ratio greater than 1.6.5). Shear Capacities The shear capacities for both the major and minor direction shears in I-shapes. along with the associated station and load combination. first.2. b 2 S 33 b 1 2 A2 J 1 I 22 I 33 1 . (BS 4. During the design.6 I 33 (BS B2.6. the shear buckling of the thin members should be checked independently by the user in accordance with the code (BS 4. the joints are not designed. (BS B2. for each station along the length of the member.4. the capacity ratios are calculated at each station for each member under the influence of each of the design load combinations. boxes or channels are evaluated as follows: Pv 2 = Pv 3 = y Av 2 .1).2.1) For all other sections. For d t 63 . Also. Calculation of Capacity Ratios 125 .Chapter VII Check/Design for BS 5950 • is the buckling index for box section factor.6. and Av 3 . the actual member force/moment components are calculated. It is given by the following formula. lateral torsional buckling is not considered.1) (BS B2. The user should investigate moment capacity considering lateral-torsional buckling separately. Then the corresponding capacities are calculated. Moreover. strictly speaking.3) y The shear areas Av 3 and Av 2 are given in Table VII-4. 2.

6 A 0.0 * 0.9 2bT B D B A I-SHAPE CHANNEL DOUBLE CHANNEL BOX T-SHAPE DOUBLE ANGLE ANGLE RECTANGULAR CIRCLE PIPE GENERAL td t d T 2 td td 0.9 2bT 2 bt bt 0.9 4 bT 0.0 * 0.9 A 0.9 A 0.9 4 bT 0.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Description of Section Axis of Bending Condition Major Rolled Welded Rolled Welded Rolled Welded Rolled Welded tD td tD td 2.0 tD 2.9 A Table VII-4 Shear Area in BS 5950 126 Calculation of Capacity Ratios .9 2bT 0.0 td D D B A Minor 0.9 2bT 2.6 A 0.9 2bT 2.9 A 0.9 A 0.9 A 0.9 2bT 0.

3. of the member is overwritten by the user (i. being positive for single curvature bending and negative for double curvature bending. for members of uniform section and with flanges.3. the value of m is taken as 1. m.8.Chapter VII Check/Design for BS 5950 Local Capacity Check For members under axial load and moments. a compression member with bending moments is also checked for overall buckling in accordance with the following interaction ratio: Fc Ag c m M m33 M 33 + 22 22 Mb y Z 22 (BS 4. the same simplified approach is used for axial compression. is the ratio of the smaller end moment to the larger end moment on a span equal to the unrestrained length.2) Under Axial Compression Similarly. Ft Ag + y M 22 M 33 + M c 22 M c 33 (BS 4. if it is not equal to the length of the member).8. l.e. local capacity ratios are calculated as follows: Under Axial Tension A simplified approach allowed by the code is used to check the local capacity for plastic and compact sections. is defined as m= + 2 . not loaded between adjacent lateral restraints.0 if the unbraced length.1) The equivalent uniform moment factor.2) Overall Buckling Check In addition to local capacity checks.8. The program defaults m to 1. (BS Table 18) For other members.3. Calculation of Capacity Ratios 127 .0. Fc Ag + y M 22 M 33 + M c 22 M c 33 (BS 4. which are carried out at section level. The user can overwrite the value of m for any member by specifying it.

Pv 3 128 Calculation of Capacity Ratios . shear capacity ratios for major and minor directions are produced for each of the load combinations as follows: Fv 2 .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Shear Capacity Check From the factored shear force values and the shear capacity values at each station. and Pv 2 Fv 3 .

A capacity ratio greater than 1. But the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. The controlling capacity ratio is then obtained. The program investigates the limiting states of strength and stability but does not address the serviceability limit states. In the evaluation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios at a station along the length of the member. Then the capacity ratios are evaluated at each station under the influence of all load combinations using the corresponding equations that are defined in this section. Similarly. a shear capacity ratio is calculated separately.C h a p t e r VIII Check/Design for EUROCODE 3 This chapter describes the details of the structural steel design and stress check algorithms that are used by SAP2000 when the user selects the Eurocode 3 design code (CEN 1992). all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Newton-Millimeter-Second units unless otherwise noted. But the code is based on Newton-Millimeter-Second units. Various notations used in this chapter are described in Table VIII-1. English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. For simplicity. 129 . first the actual member force/moment components and the corresponding capacities are calculated for each load combination.0 indicates exceeding a limit state.

Rd N b 33. MPa Shear modulus. mm4 Minor moment of inertia. N-mm Design value of moment about the major axis. Sd M s. Sd M V. N Design compression resistance. Rd M cr M g. mm4 Effective length factor Length. N Design value of shear force in the minor direction. N-mm Design moments not causing sidesway . Rd V2. N-mm Design moment resistance about the minor axis.and 3-directions. N-mm Design value of moment about the minor axis. mm6 Major moment of inertia. Sd M 33. Sd N c. MPa Torsion constant. Rd N b. N-mm Elastic critical moment for lateral-torsional buckling. span. Sd V2. Rd N c. N Design value of shear force in the major direction. N Design plastic shear resistance. N Design value of tensile force. N-mm Design moments causing sidesway. Rd N t. N Design value of compressive force. N-mm Design moment resistance about the major axis. N-mm Design buckling resistance of a compression member. Sd N t. Sd V3. N Design buckling resistance of a compression member about the major axis. Rd N b 22. mm4 Warping constant. K 22 M b.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual A Av 2 . N Design tension resistance. Rd N pl. Rd = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Gross cross-sectional area. Rd M 22. Av 3 C1 E G It Iw I 33 I 22 K L K 33 . mm2 2 Areas for shear in the 2. N Design shear resistance in the major direction. Sd M 33. Sd M 22. mm Major and minor effective length factors Design buckling resistance moment. N-mm Design moment resistance after considering shear. N Design buckling resistance of a compression member about the minor axis. N Table VIII-1 Eurocode 3 Notations 130 . mm Bending coefficient Modulus of elasticity.

mm Minimum radius of gyration for angles. Wpl. mm Web thickness. mm Ratio used in classification of sections Material partial safety factors 1 235 fy 2 ( f y in MPa) ba 33. mm Flange thickness. Rd Wel.Chapter VIII Check/Design for EUROCODE 3 V3. MPa Overall depth. M1 Design shear resistance in the minor direction. mm3 Major and minor plastic section moduli. mm3 Width. MPa Reduction factors for buckling about the 3-3 and 2-2 axes Reduction factor for lateral-torsional buckling Ratio of smaller to larger end moment of unbraced segment Amplification factor for sway moments Table VIII-1 Eurocode 3 Notations (cont. k 22 k LT t tf tw M0 = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = . l22 i 33 . i 22 iz k 33 . LT 22 s Reduction factor Post-critical shear strength. 22 Wpl. N Major and minor elastic section moduli. mm Major and minor radii of gyration. Wel. mm Depth of web. mm Distance. mm Major and minor direction unbraced member lengths.) 131 . mm Factors applied to the major and minor design moments in the interaction equations Factor applied to the major design moments in the interaction equation checking for failure due to lateral-torsional buckling Thickness. 22 b c d fy h l33 . 33 . 33 . mm Nominal yield strength of steel.

or if pattern live loads are to be considered.3. The design loading combinations are obtained by multiplying the characteristic loads with appropriate partial factors of safety. live.35 DL + 1. This equivalent load is similar to the notional load of the British code.50 WL 1. if the structure is subjected to wind (WL) or earthquake induced forces (EL).35 DL 1. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are subject to reversals.3.3.2) by combining forces due to dead. 3.00 EL 1.0 EL (EC3 2. equivalent lateral load cases for geometric imperfection should be considered by the user.3): 1.35 DL 1. and depends on the number of stories and number of columns in any floor (EC3 5. Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading. other types of loads are present. 132 Design Loading Combinations .4.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Design Loading Combinations The design loading combinations define the various factored combinations of the load cases for which the structure is to be checked.50 LL 1.50 WL 1. the design will need only one loading combination.4 of Eurocode 1 (CEN 1994) and Table 1.2. Additional load combinations are also needed for these load cases. these are the default load combinations which can be used or overwritten by the user to produce other critical design conditions. wind.35 LL 1.3) (EC3 2.35 DL + 1. If a structure is subjected to dead load (DL) and live load (LL) only.00 DL + 1.00 DL 1. The user should use other appropriate loading combinations if roof live load is separately treated.3).5 LL. These default loading combinations are produced for persistent and transient design situations (EC3 2.00 DL 1. the following load combinations may have to be considered (EC3 2.35 WL 1.3. namely 1.3) (EC3 2. See also section 9. However.3.3) In fact.2. In addition to the loads described earlier. The default load combinations will usually suffice for most building design.3 LL 1. in addition to the dead load and live load. and 4 and section 4 of United Kingdom National Application Document (NAD). and earthquake loads for ultimate limit states.5*0.35 DL + 1.

Table VIII-3 is used when the section is in pure bending or under the influence of combined axial tensile force and bending.analysis has been performed so that moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway can be taken as unity.35 live load. See also White and Hajjar (1991).3. Class 3 (Semi-compact). and T sections.analysis should be done at the factored load level corresponding to 1. If a section fails to satisfy the limits for Class 3 sections. Box. the section is classified as Class 4. Double-Channel. or under the influence of combined axial force and bending (EC3 5. The classification also depends on whether the compression elements are in pure compression. SAP2000 design assumes that a P. the section is classified as Class 1.2) In classifying I. The section dimensions used in the tables are given in Figure VIII-1. Classification of Sections 133 . SAP2000 conservatively classifies the compression elements according to Table VIII-2 and Table VIII-3. Channel.35 dead load plus 1. Currently SAP2000 does not check stresses for Class 4 sections. pure bending. This parameter is used to reflect the influence of yield stress on the section classification. It is suggested that the P. A cross-section is classified by reporting the highest (least favorable) class of its compression elements. 235 fy (EC3 5. One of the major factors in determining the limiting width-thickness ratio is . Table VIII-2 is used when the section is under the influence of axial compression force only or combined axial compression force and bending.Chapter VIII Check/Design for EUROCODE 3 When using Eurocode 3. Class 2 (Compact). the classification of sections depends on the classification of flange and web elements. two other factors are defined as follows: . or Class 3 as applicable.3. If the section dimensions satisfy the limits shown in the tables. Class 2. or Class 4 (Slender).2). According to Eurocode 3. Classification of Sections The design strength of a cross-section subject to compression due to moment and/or axial load depends on its classification as Class 1 (Plastic).

456 . 13 1 0.5. 0. Class 3 1. 42 .5 .5.5.33 else if 1.67 0. 62 1 If else if 36 else if 41.5ε 90ε2 (b Not applicable Not applicable ANGLE (b ht h) 2 max(t . . b) b tf d tw b 2t f (rolled) d tw 10 9 Same as I-Shape 42 42 Same as I-Shape 10 33 10 9 11 10 Same as I-Shape 42 42 Same as I-Shape 11 38 11 10 15 14 Same as I-Shape 42 42 Same as I-Shape 15 42 15 14 15ε 11. If Class 2 0. . b) Not applicable Not applicable PIPE ROUND BAR RECTANGLE d t None None 50ε2 70ε2 Assumed Class 1 Assumed Class 2 134 Table VIII-2 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections based on Eurocode 3 (Compression and Bending) Classification of Sections .5 c t f (rolled) flange c t f (welded) web BOX flange d tw (b 3t f ) t f (rolled) b t f (welded) web CHANNEL flange web T-SHAPE flange b 2t f (welded) DOUBLE ANGLES ht h) 2 max(t . 396 .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Section Element Ratio Checked If web I-SHAPE d tw Class 1 0. 13 1 0.5ε 15ε 11.

b d t None None None d tw (Minor axis) b tf d tw b 2t f (rolled) d tw (b 3t f ) t f (rolled) (b ANGLE (b PIPE ROUND BAR RECTANGLE GENERAL Table VIII-3 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections based on Eurocode 3 (Bending Only) Classification of Sections 135 .5 ε 15.0 ε 11.Chapter VIII Check/Design for EUROCODE 3 Section Element web Ratio Checked d tw c t f (rolled) Class 1 72 10 9 72 33 33 72 33 10 33 10 9 Not applicable Not applicable 50ε 2 Class 2 83 11 10 83 38 38 83 38 11 38 11 10 Not applicable Not applicable 70ε2 Assumed Class 1 Assumed Class 2 Assumed Class 3 Class 3 124 15 14 124 42 42 124 42 15 42 15 14 15.0ε 11. b ht h) 2 max t .5ε 90ε2 I-SHAPE flange c t f (welded) web BOX flange b t f (welded) d tw (Major axis) web CHANNEL flange web T-SHAPE flange b 2t f (welded) DOUBLE ANGLES ht h) 2 max t .

SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Figure VIII-1 Eurocode 3 Definition of Geometric Properties 136 Classification of Sections .

the major direction shear and the minor direction shear respectively. This correction is different for the so called “sway” and “nonsway” components of the moments. The code requires that the additional sway moments introduced by the horizontal deflection of the top of a story relative to the bottom must be taken into account in the elastic analysis of the frame in one of the following ways (EC3 5. Sd and V 3. equals 0. These design loads are calculated at each of the previously defined stations of each frame element.Chapter VIII Check/Design for EUROCODE 3 1 1 N c . Sd . 2 2 ht w f f 1 1 N c .0 for full tension. Sd is taken as positive for tension and negative for compression. Member design can be carried out using in-plane buckling lengths for nonsway mode.0 . for Box and Double . Channel. equals -3.0 . M 22.2. Sd . the minor moment.6. N c .5 for pure bending and 1. Sd or N c. V 2. and T sections.2): • Directly by carrying out the global frame analysis using P. for I. Sd . 1. 0.0 for full compression.0 for full tension. N c . and In the above expression.0 for pure bending and 1. Calculation of Factored Forces The internal design loads which are calculated for each load combination are N t . Sd corresponding to design values of the tensile or compressive axial load.0 for full compression. Sd . Calculation of Factored Forces 137 . The design moments and forces need to be corrected for second order effects. M 33.0 1. • Indirectly by modifying the results of a linear elastic analysis using an approximate method which makes allowance for the second order effects.analysis. Sd . Sd Af y .Channel sections. 2 2 2ht w f f 1 2 0 -3. the major moment. There are two alternative ways to do this “amplified sway moment method” or “sway mode in-plane buckling method”. -1.

Therefore any magnification of sidesway moments due to second order effects is already accounted for. or web buckling. The horizontal loads can be expected always to produce sway moments.2.effects are included in the analysis. It is suggested that the P. Sd M s. (EC3 5. See also White and Hajjar (1991). e. s in the following equation is taken as 1. Calculation of Section Resistances The nominal strengths in compression. The user must separately investigate this reduction if such elements are used.6.6. However.2.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual The advantage of the direct second order elastic analysis is that this method avoids uncertainty in approximating the buckling length and also avoids splitting up moments into their “sway” and “nonsway” components. Moment magnification for non-sidesway moments is included in the overall buckling interaction equations. such as the consideration of local buckling.1) (EC3 5. the sway moments are simply the internal moments in the frames due to the horizontal loads (EC3 5. and 3 sections according to the following subsections. The material partial safety factors used by the program are: M0 M1 . Sway moments are produced in a frame by the action of any load which results in sway displacements. and .1) For Class 4 (Slender) sections and any singly symmetric and unsymmetric sections requiring special treatment. and shear are computed for Class 1. the user can overwrite the values of s for both major and minor direction bending in which case M Sd in a particular direction is taken as: M Sd = M g. However.1.2) Design moments not causing translation. they are also produced by vertical loads if either the load or the frame are unsymmetrical. 2.2). 138 Calculation of Section Resistances .Sd .Sd + M g . reduced section capacities may be applicable. Sd = = s M s. and Design moments causing sidesway. where (EC3 5. tension. bending. SAP2000 design assumes that P.35 DL plus 1. i.0. In the case of a symmetrical frame with symmetrical vertical loads.35 LL.1.analysis be done at the factored load level of 1. flexuraltorsional and torsional buckling.

Rd .2) .1.Rd = A f y M0 .4. for Class 1. This factor is calculated below based on the assumption that all members are of uniform crosssection. these values are will override all the above mentioned calculated values for those elements as defined in the following subsections.4) The design buckling resistance of a compression member is taken as N b.Chapter VIII Check/Design for EUROCODE 3 If the user specifies nominal capabilities for one or more elements in the “Redefine Element Design Data”. in which 2 (EC3 5. Tension Capacity The design tension resistance for all classes of sections is evaluated in SAP2000 as follows: N t.Rd = A min A Afy M1 . N c. 2 2 . N b. Rd ). Rd ) and the design local buckling resistance of the gross cross-section ( N b. χ is the reduction factor for the relevant buckling mode. Compression Resistance The design compressive resistance of the cross-section is taken as the smaller of the design plastic resistance of the gross cross-section ( N pl .4) The plastic resistance of Class 1. where (EC3 5. Calculation of Section Resistances 139 .5.5.1) = 1.4.Rd = A f y M0 (EC3 5. The user is expected to investigate this independently. (EC3 5. Rd ) (EC3 5. and Class 3 sections is given by N pl. Rd min ( N pl .3) It should be noted that the design ultimate resistance of the net cross-section at the holes for fasteners is not computed and checked. 2 or 3 cross-sections.4. Class 2.

49 0.34 0.49 0.49 0.34 0.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual α (major axis) 0.49 any any any any any 0.49 0.49 0.34 0.49 0. 2 I-SHAPE (rolled) h b 1.76 0.49 0.34 0.76 0.21 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.2 I-SHAPE (welded) tf BOX welded CHANNEL T-SHAPE DOUBLE ANGLES ANGLE PIPE ROUND BAR RECTANGLE GENERAL any any any 0.34 0.49 0.49 0.49 Section tf tf tf tf tf Limits 40 mm 40 mm 100 mm 100 mm 40 mm 40 mm Rolled α (minor axis) 0.21 0.49 I-SHAPE (rolled) h b 1.49 The Table VIII-4 factor for different sections and different axes of buckling 140 Calculation of Section Resistances .34 0.49 0.76 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.49 0.

5. K is conservatively taken as 1 in SAP2000 design (EC3 L 5.5. min is l 1 .Chapter VIII Check/Design for EUROCODE 3 0. 1 E fy . the plastic shear resistance is computed as V Rd = V pl. SAP2000 does not currently considers this eccentricity.1 and 5.2(2).5 A 1 . l is the buckling length. however.4). and T-sections in compression are subjected to an additional moment due to the shift of the centroidal axis of the effective cross-section (EC3 5.5.Rd = Av f y 3 M0 .6. Angle. An accurate estimate of K can be obtained from the Annex E of the code.4. and thickness of materials are obtained from Tables 5. and is determined using the properties of the gross cross-section. override this default option if it is deemed necessary.3 of the code. Shear Capacity The design shear resistance of a section is the minimum of the plastic shear capacity and the buckling shear capacity. For all types of sections. axes of buckling.5).2. See also EC3 5. K give 3 and 2 .6) Calculation of Section Resistances 141 . The user can. Values of this factor for different types of sections. L is the length of the column. The user is expected to investigate this issue separately. Channel. (EC3 5.4. The two values of i33 i22 the lesser of the two.1. K 33 l 33 K 22 l 22 . and is an imperfection factor and is obtained from Table VIII-4. i is the radius of gyration about the neutral axis.

5. the moment capacity is almost unaffected by the presence of shear force.3) Moment Resistance The moment resistance in the major and minor directions is based on the section classification.3) ba is the simple post-critical shear strength which is determined as follows: f yw 3 f yw w . If V Sd V pl. If the shear force is less than half of the shear capacity. (EC3 5. . Rd = W pl f y M0 .6. For webs with transverse stiffeners at the supports but no intermediate transverse stiffeners.4. and Channel sections if the width-thickness ratio is large (d t w 69 ). for for for w .3) ba 3 .6.3) kt is the buckling factor for shear. and (EC3 5.3) . The buckling shear capacities are only computed for the I.3) (EC3 5. Box.Rd • For Class 1 and Class 2 Sections M c. The capacities are computed as V Rd = V ba. ba ba M1 . (for d tw 69 ) (EC3 5. If the shear force is greater than half of the shear capacity.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual where Av is the effective shear area for the section and the appropriate axis of bending.6. d tw kt . 3 in which w w is the web slenderness ratio.Rd = d t w where.6. Rd M pl .6. and (EC3 5. kt .2) 142 Calculation of Section Resistances . (EC3 5. w (EC3 5. Moment capacity is also influenced by the presence of shear force and axial force at the cross section. w f yw ba w .6. additional factors need to be considered.

Rd = W el f y If V Sd > V pl. for rolled sections. for Class 3 sections. doubly symmetric.2) • For I. Box.5.Chapter VIII Check/Design for EUROCODE 3 • For Class 3 Sections M c. V pl.4. where (EC3 5. W el.33 f y M1 . Lateral-torsional Buckling For the determination of lateral-torsional buckling resistance. M b.4.5. where LT .33 .Rd M0 . for welded sections. (EC3 5. W pl.7) 2 V Sd -1 . . it is assumed that the section is uniform. w LT LT 2 LT 2 LT . the reduction of moment capacities for the presence of shear force is not considered.33 LT w W pl. Rd = W pl 2 Av2 4t w fy M0 M c.Rd = = = . and LT Calculation of Section Resistances 143 . The user should investigate the reduced moment capacity separately. in which 2 LT LT LT LT . and loaded through its shear center. The lateral-torsional buckling resistance of I. and Channel sections bending about the 3-3 axis the moment capacities considering the effects of shear force are computed as M V . where (EC3 5. Rd = M el . Rd . and Double Channel sections is evaluated as.2) w for Class 1 and Class 2 sections.Rd • For all other cases. Box.

no special consideration for lateral torsional buckling is made in the design. The program defaults C 1 to 1.e. If LT . it is not equal to the length of the member). and Ma . M b. M b. single curvature bending. C1 = 2 .33 f y M cr 2 0 . If any moment within the segment is greater than M b . where 0 . T. 33 f y M1 . I w = The warping constant. the program is unable to detect whether the member is a cantilever. Double-Angle and General sections is evaluated as. A negative value implies double curvature. 144 Calculation of Section Resistances . Circle and Pipe sections is evaluated as. Angle. The user can overwrite the value of C 1 for any member by specifying it. C 1 is taken as 1.5 w LT . and the lateral-torsional buckling resistance of Rectangle.0 for cantilevers. l 22 of the member is overwritten by the user (i. It is taken as l 22 . However. Mb = The ratio of smaller to larger end moment of unbraced segment.Rd =W el .0.Rd =W pl .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual W pl. Mb varies between -1 and 1 ( 1 1). L = Laterally unbraced length for buckling about the minor axis. The lateral-torsional buckling resistance of a Channel.5 M cr = C 1 E I 22 I w L2 G I t + 2 I 22 L2 E I 22 .0 if the unbraced length. C 1 should be taken as 1. M a and M b are end moments of the unbraced segment and M a is less Ma being negative for double curvature bending and positive for than M b .1) I t = The torsion constant. 33 f y M1 . (EC3 F1.

Rd .22. Calculation of Capacity Ratios In the calculation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios.8.Sd N c. the capacity ratio is conservatively taken as M 22 . and V ba .e. the capacity ratios are calculated at each station for each member under the influence of each of the design load combinations.4.4. Also.9) the capacity ratios are computed for different types of sections as follows: For Class 1 and Class 2 sections. Channel. Rd . the joints are not designed.4. the capacity ratio is conservatively taken as M 22 . Bending. The controlling compression and/or tension capacity ratio is then obtained.33 f yd Af yd f yd fy M0 (EC3 5.Sd N c. Rd M pl. V Sd . is less than half of the corresponding capacities for plastic resistance. where + + W el. Circle. T. for each load combination. and Low Shear When the design value of the coexisting shear. i. Calculation of Capacity Ratios 145 .1) (EC3 5.22 f yd W el. Then the corresponding capacities are calculated.Sd M 33 .Sd M 33 .Sd .Chapter VIII Check/Design for EUROCODE 3 Currently SAP2000 does not consider other special considerations for computing buckling resistance of Rectangle.9) (EC3 5. the effect of the presence of bolts or welds is not considered.4. V ba . V Sd V Sd V pl . Rd . Axial Compression. V pl . Pipe. Angle. (EC3 5.8. along with the associated station and load combination. first. Rd and buckling resistance. Then.33. the actual member force/moment components are calculated.1) . for each station along the length of the member. During the design.Sd . Double Angle and General sections. A capacity ratio greater than 1. Rd N pl. + + M pl.Rd For Class 3 sections.0 indicates exceeding a limit state.

. or V ba . Rd or buckling resistance. Sd .e.Sd .5.Rd N b. the capacity ratios are computed for different types of sections as follows (EC3 5. and Flexural Buckling For all members of Class 1.4.Sd M 33 .22 .Sd N + k M k 33 M 33 .Sd + 22 22 . the shear is considered to be high. Rd . k 22 =1 - 22 . Compression.min. Rd M0 M1 k 33 =1 - 33 .33 .Rd M c. M 22.33 .4. 33. V Sd . Bending. N b. where + + M V. and High Shear When the design value of the coexisting shear. is more than half the corresponding capacities for plastic resistance. Rd .9) (EC3 5. 2. M 33. Axial Compression. major axis bending.9): For Class 1.1) M V. the capacity ratio is conservatively taken as M 22 .Sd Afy 33 N c. (EC3 5. N Sd .Sd N c.22 . the capacity ratio is given by N c. 146 Calculation of Capacity Ratios .Sd .Rd are the design moment resistances about the major and the minor axes. the shear is high if V Sd V Sd V pl . N c. i. Rd .Rd N pl.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Bending. 2. V pl . and minor axis bending. and 3 sections. V ba . min.Rd M V. considering the effect of high shear (see page 142).4.9) Under these conditions.Rd and M V.33 .Rd min N b. Sd .Sd Afy 22 (EC3 5. respectively.Rd (EC3 5.8. Rd . 22. Rd . where M c.4.4) b. and 3 sections subject to axial compression.22 .

22 22 (2 M.33 = Equivalent uniform moment factor for flexural buckling about the 3-3 (major) axis between points braced in 2-2 direction. are determined from = + MQ M . M 33. (Class 1 and Class 2).22. Sd . A negative value implies double curvature. (for Class 3 sections). 2.4) Calculation of Capacity Ratios 147 .22 . M 22. where M c.22 . and M= Sum of absolute maximum and absolute minimum value of moments for moment diagram with change of sign.33 M. M. (for Class 3 sections).22 .4) + .Chapter VIII Check/Design for EUROCODE 3 W pl. Compression. Sd .33 .33 . N Sd .4) .5.Sd . major axis bending. M = Absolute maximum value of moment for moment diagram without change of sign. and Lateral-Torsional Buckling For all members of Class 1.4) .Sd + LT 33 .W el.33 W el. and minor axis bending.Sd + 22 22 . and 3 sections subject to axial compression. varies between -1 and 1 ( 1 1). and M Q = Absolute maximum moment due to lateral load only assuming simple support at the ends. 33 33 M.33 W pl.22 .22 W el.33 22 22 M. the capacity ratio is given by k M k M N c.Rd M b.22 The equivalent uniform moment factors. (Class 1 and Class 2). and = Equivalent uniform moment factor for flexural buckling about the 2-2 (minor) axis between points braced in 3-3 direction.4) + .22 . Rd N b. . ψ = Absolute value of the ratio of smaller to larger end moment.W el. 33 33 (2 M.22 M. Rd (EC3 5. M and M. Bending.

Bending. Axial Tension.33 f yd Af yd (EC3 5.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual k 22 and are as defined in the previous subsection “Bending.4. the capacity ratio is conservatively taken as M 22 .Sd Afy 22 M. V pl .Sd M 33 . Rd . Rd N t. V Sd .4.9) the capacity ratios are computed for different types of sections as follows: For Class 1 and Class 2 sections. + + W el. where . is less than half of the corresponding capacities for plastic resistance. i.4. and Flexural Buckling”. the shear is high if V Sd V Sd V pl . (EC3 5. It is determined for bending about the y-y axis and between two points braced in the y-y direction. or V ba . and High Shear When the design values of the coexisting shear. Axial Tension. V Sd .1) Bending. V pl . Rd .4.Sd N t.Rd For Class 3 sections. Rd .Sd M 33 .4.8. k LT = 1 = LT 22 N c.33.9) (EC3 5. and LT M. Compression. Rd . the capacity ratio is conservatively taken as M 22 .4. and V ba . Rd . Rd .e.LT = Equivalent uniform moment factor for lateral-torsional buckling.22. + + M pl. Rd and buckling resistance. the shear is considered to be high. V ba .LT 1 .8.9) (EC3 5. V Sd V Sd V pl . V ba .Sd .22 f yd W el. and Low Shear When the design value of the coexisting shear.Sd . Rd M pl. is more than half the corresponding capacities for plastic resistance.Sd N t.1) (EC3 5. (EC3 5.e.9) 148 Calculation of Capacity Ratios . Rd or buckling resistance. i.

For all members of Class 1. Axial Tension.Chapter VIII Check/Design for EUROCODE 3 Under these conditions. 33 is the elastic section modulus for the extreme compression fiber.Rd Calculation of Capacity Ratios 149 .Sd + 22 22 .4) where k LT . N t .1) Bending.Rd N t.Rd (EC3 5. and 3 sections. M 22. the capacity ratio is taken as k M k M N t.4.Sd N t. k 22 and are as defined in the previous subsections. Sd W com. Sd vec M 33. Rd (EC3 5. the capacity ratio is conservatively taken as M 22 . Sd . + + M V.Sd + LT 33 . V 3 . major axis bending.5. Sd W com. Sd vec N t .33 . for each of the load combinations and the shear resistance values. 2.Rd N t. 2. 33.Rd M V. where A (EC3 5. and minor axis bending.Rd M b.Sd M 33 .22 . In order to check whether the member fails under lateral-torsional buckling.Rd vec k LT N t . A M b. the capacity ratios are computed for different types of sections as follows (EC3 5.3) (according to the EC3 box value).5.22 . 33 .4.Sd V 2 . and Lateral-Torsional Buckling The axial tensile force has a beneficial effect for lateral-torsional buckling. M 33.9): For Class 1. Sd . the effective internal moment about the 3-3 axis is calculated as follows: M eff . 33 .Sd . Shear From the design values of shear force at each station. and 3 sections subject to axial tension. shear capacity ratios for major and minor directions are produced as follows: V 2 . Sd . and W com.Sd M c.Rd and V 3 .8.Sd .

.

K -factors. Overview 151 . and member specific detailed design information. Input design information includes design section labels. The tabular output can be saved in a file or printed. design and allowable stresses or factored and nominal strengths. and some intermediate results for all the load combinations at all the design sections of a specific frame member. The tabular output includes most of the information which can be displayed. live load reduction factors.C h a p t e r IX Design Output Overview SAP2000 creates design output in three different major formats: graphical display. The graphical display of steel design output includes input and output design information. material properties. tabular output. All graphical output can be printed. The output design information includes axial and bending interaction ratios and shear stress ratios. This is generated for added convenience to the designer. The member-specific detailed design information shows details of the calculation from the designer’s point of view. It shows the design section dimensions. and other design parameters.

The graphical display of design output includes input and output design information. The AISC-ASD89 design code is described in the latter part of this chapter. The graphical displays can be accessed from the Design menu. • Unbraced Length Ratios. Then the user should switch on the Design Output option button (default) and select P-M Ratios Colors & Values in the drop-down box. Input design information. -factors. • Live Load Reduction Factors.. Then clicking the OK button will show the interaction ratios in the active window. • design type. and • Color coded shear stress ratios. some of the typical graphical display. tabular output. includes • Design section labels.. and shear. For all other codes. Moreover. the design outputs are similar. the color coded P-M interaction ratios with values can be displayed by selecting the Display Design Info. 152 Graphical Display of Design Output . • C b -factors. bending. from the Design menu. The output design information which can be displayed is • Color coded P-M interaction ratios with or without values. • • s b -factors. • C m -factors.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual In the following sections. For example. This will pop up a dialog box called Display Design Results. for the AISC-ASD89 code. the active screen display can be sent directly to the printer. and member-specific detailed design information are described. • allowable stresses in axial. • K -factors for major and minor direction of buckling. Graphical Display of Design Output The graphical output can be produced either as color screen display or in grayscaled printed form. Some of the design information is specific to the chosen steel design codes which are available in the program and is only described where required.

– Unbraced Length Ratios. The SAP2000 standard view transformations are available for all steel design input and output displays. – K -factors for major and minor direction of buckling. For switching between 3D or 2D view of graphical displays. the tabular output includes the following. – Load types. A screen capture of the active window can also be made by following the standard procedure provided by the Windows operating system. the view can be set by choosing Set 3D View. Tabular Display of Design Output The tabular design output can be sent directly either to a printer or to a file. – C m -factors. so further description of these tables is not given. Tabular Display of Design Output 153 . and – Live Load Reduction Factors... there are several buttons on the main toolbar. All tables have formal headings and are self-explanatory. The tabular design output includes input and output design information which depends on the design code of choice. – C b -factors. • Steel Stress Check Element Information (code dependent) – Frame ID. The printed form of tabular output is the same as that produced for the file output with the exception that for the printed output font size is adjusted. and – Load factors. Alternatively. Input design information includes the following: • Load Combination Multipliers – Combination name. To send the graphical output directly to the printer. click on the Print Graphics button in the File menu. from the View menu.Chapter IX Design Output The graphics can be displayed in either 3D or 2D mode. The graphical display in an active window can be printed in gray scaled black and white from the SAP2000 program. For the AISC-ASD89 code. – Design Section ID.

SAP2000 Steel Design Manual • Steel Moment Magnification Factors (code dependent) – Frame ID. The tabular output can be accessed by selecting Print Design Tables. The output design information includes the following: • Steel Stress Check Output (code dependent) – Frame ID. and -factors. – Tension or compression indication. By default. Then clicking the OK button will direct the tabular output to the requested stream the file or the printer. The design detail information can be displayed for a specific load combination and for a specific station of a frame member.. The default filename can be edited. – Controlling load combination ID for major and minor shear forces. from the File menu.. If the user wants the output stream to be redirected to a file. It provides an access to the geometry and material data. design section dimensions. Alternatively. Member Specific Information The member specific design information shows the details of the calculation from the designer’s point of view. – Controlling load combination ID for P-M interaction. a file list can be obtained by clicking the File Name button to chose a file from. This will provide a default filename. – Section location. – Axial and bending interaction ratio. – – b s -factors. – Section ID. 154 Member Specific Information . reinforcement details. he/she can check the Print to File box. and some of the intermediate results for a member. Then the user can specify the design quantities for which the results are to be tabulated. the output will be sent to the printer. design and allowable stresses. This will pop up a dialog box. and – Shear stress ratios. other input data. – Framing Type.

– Frame ID. and Load Combination IDs. Section. for major and minor direction of buckling. Member Specific Information 155 . Additional information can be accessed by clicking on the ReDesign and Details buttons in the dialog box. • Element Section ID • Element Framing Type • Overwriting allowable stresses Additional information that is available by clicking on the Details button is given below. • Material properties of steel. • Design and allowable stresses for axial force and biaxial moments. and -factors. – Axial and bending interaction ratio. • Frame. – C m -factors. Station. – Live Load Reduction Factors. Additional information that is available by clicking on the ReDesign button is as follows: • Design Factors (code dependent) – Effective length factors. – Section ID. – Station location. • Moment factors. • Section geometric information and graphical representation. This will pop up a dialog box called Steel Stress Check Information which includes the following tabulated information for the specific member. – – s b -factors. K . – Unbraced Length Ratios. and • Design and allowable stresses for shear. – Load combination ID.Chapter IX Design Output The detailed design information can be accessed by right clicking on the desired frame member. and – Shear stress ratio along two axes. – C b -factors.

.

1990. 1994 Manual of Steel Construction. Ill. 1997. Ill. London. British Standards Institution. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Part 1. BS 5950 : Part 1 : 1990. 1989.S. Belgium. CEN.1 : General Rules and Rules for Buildings. ENV 1993-1-1 : 1992. Part 1. European Committee for Standardization. Brussels.References AASHTO. 157 . 1997 AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications — U. American Institute of Steel Construction. 2nd Edition. 1990 Structural Use of Steelwork in Building. 9th Edition. BSI. American Institute of Steel Construction. 1992 Design of Steel Structures. Load & Resistance Factor Design. UK. 1994. Code of Practice for Design in Simple and Continuous Construction: Hot Rolled Sections. 1992. AISC. 1989 Manual of Steel Construction. AISC. Chicago. Allowable Stress Design. Chicago. 1997 Interim Edition. Units.

1991. Hajjar. 1997..” Engineering Journal. California. Canada. California. Inc. CSI. CSI. 1998a SAP2000 Getting Started. 158 . White and J. American Institute of Steel Construction. W. Berkeley. Inc. 1997 SAP2000 Analysis Reference. Berkeley. ICBO.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual CISC. D. 4. 1997. Canadian Institute of Steel Construction. Computers and Structures. Berkeley. 1991 “Application of Second-Order Elastic Analysis in LRFD: Research to Practice. 1998. 28. Whittier. Vol. Inc.. 1997 Uniform Building Code. California. Ontario. CSI. F. Inc. International Conference of Building Officials..1-94. 1995. I and II. Vols.. California. Willowdale. CAN/CSA-S16. 1997. 1998b SAP2000 Quick Tutorial. 1995 Handbook of Steel Construction. 6th Edition. No. Computers and Structures. Computers and Structures. 1998.

45. 100 Eurocode. 84 ASD (allowable). 48 Compact section See Classification of sections Compressive strength AASHTO. 6 Design output. 1 See Also "Supported design codes" Design load combinations. 101 Eurocode. 154 tabular.Index Bending strength AASHTO. 93. 119 CISC. 73 Check stations. 125 CISC. 111. 8 AASHTO. 23 ASD (allowable). 2. 145 LRFD. 79 ASD. 107 Eurocode. 79 BS. 97 Eurocode. 142 LRFD. 119 CISC. 75. 18 BS. 15. 7 Classification of sections AASHTO. 133 LRFD. 151 graphical. 10 Euler buckling load AASHTO. 97 Eurocode. 137 LRFD. 83 ASD. 91 ASD. 153 Design stations. 61 Braced frames. 52 Capacity ratio. 40 BS. 23 BS. 30 BS. 7 Effective length factor. 129. 8 AASHTO. 115 CISC. 54 Design codes. 152 member specific. 82 ASD. 139 LRFD. 24 159 . 121 CISC.

139 LRFD. 8 See Also P-Delta analysis Lateral-torsional buckling AASHTO. 69 Live load reduction factor. 61. 117 CISC. 52 Notional load BS. 8 AASHTO. 97 Eurocode. 30 BS. 119 CISC. 117 CISC. 155 graphical. 114. 96. 79. 100 Eurocode. 79. 48. 52 Flexural buckling AASHTO. 18 BS. 8 Perry factor. 82 BS. 132 Output. 2 AASHTO. 54 Graphical output. 2 details. 52 Noncompact section See Classification of sections Nonsway. 8 AASHTO.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual BS. 96 Eurocode. 137 LRFD. 119 Plastic section See Classification of sections 160 . 151 tabular. 97 Eurocode. 96 . 137 LRFD. 119 CISC. 154 Member stability effect. 18. 152 Interaction equations See Capacity ratio Interactive environment. 48. 7. 139 LRFD. 83 ASD. 122 CISC. 79 BS. 114 CISC. 23. 48 Member specific output. 119 CISC. 79 BS. 119 CISC. 88 ASD. 138 LRFD. 143 LRFD. 151 P-Delta analysis. 97 Eurocode. 96 Eurocode. 138 LRFD. 100 Eurocode. 53 P-Delta effects. 114. 132 LRFD. 82 BS. 1 Lateral drift effect. 132 Loading combinations. 133. 101 Eurocode. 66. 78 ASD. 52 Factored forces and moments AASHTO. 114 CISC. 8 See Also P-Delta analysis Moment magnification AASHTO. 23 BS.97 Eurocode.

138 LRFD. 23 BS. 82 BS (partial factors). 111 CISC. 129 LRFD. 78 ASD. 5. 8 AASHTO. 5. 119 CISC. 101 Eurocode. 119 CISC. 75 ASD. 5. 137 LRFD. 54 Supported design codes. 97 Eurocode. 119 Second order effects See P-Delta effects Shear strength AASHTO. 121 CISC. 39 BS. 153 Tensile strength AASHTO. 52 Units. 141 LRFD. 8 AASHTO. 97 Eurocode. 2. 129 LRFD. 119 CISC. 105 Eurocode. 48 Unsupported length. 90 ASD (allowable). 93 Eurocode.Index Redesign. 137 LRFD. 139 LRFD. 60 Unbraced frames. 1 AASHTO. 93 Eurocode. 155 Robertson constant. 79 BS. 5. 15 BS. 84 ASD (allowable). 5. 79 BS. 9 161 . 18 BS. 13 AASHTO. 52 Tabular output. 5. 100 Euro (partial factors). 72 Slender section See Classification of sections Strength reduction factors AASHTO. 111 CISC. 45 Sway. 125 CISC.

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