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4719 - 1 - Page 1 Name: ____________________________________________ ___ 1) ___ 2) Water containing a dissolved electrolyte conducts electricity because the solution

contains mobile A) electrons A) C2 H5 OH ___ 3) A) NH4 Cl and C6 H12 O6 B) C6 H12 O6 and CH3 OH ___ 4) Which of the following is a characteristic of a solution of HNO3 ? A) It turns phenolphthalein pink B) It conducts electricity. ___ 5) Which of the following is the best conductor of electricity? A) NaCl(s) ___ 6) B) NaCl(aq) C) C6 H12 O6 (s) C) KCl D) C6 H12 O6 (aq) D) C6 H12 O6 D) C6 H12 O6 C) It turns litmus blue. D) It forms OH- ions. B) molecules B) C6 H12 O6 C) atoms C) CH3 COOH C) KCl and CH3 OH D) NH4 Cl and KCl D) ions D) C12 H22 O11 Which compound is an electrolyte?

Which compounds are both classified as electrolytes?

The water solution of which substance is the best conductor of electricity? A) CO B) CO2 B) N2

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Which substance dissolves in pure water and produces a solution that is a good conductor of electricity? A) CaCl2 C) O2

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A material will be used to fill an empty beaker to level A, as shown in the diagram below.

Which material, when used to fill the beaker to level A, would cause the bulb to glow brightly? A) C6 H12 O6 (s) B) KCl(s) C) C6 H12 O6 (aq) D) KCl(aq)

4719 - 1 - Page 2 ___ 9) Beakers A, B, C, and D shown below each contain a different solution.

The bulb will glow when the conductivity apparatus is placed into which beakers? A) A and B ___ 10) B) A and D C) C and D D) B and C According to the Arrhenius theory, when an acid substance is dissolved in water it will produce a solution containing only one kind of positive ion. To which ion does the theory refer? A) hydrogen ___ 11) B) chloride C) sodium D) acetate According to the Arrhenius theory, a substance that yields hydrogen ions as the only positive ion in an aqueous solution is A) a nonelectrolyte B) a base ___ 12) When an Arrhenius acid is dissolved in water, it produces A) HCO3 - as the only negative ion in solution B) OH- as the only negative ion in solution ___ 13) C) H+ as the only positive ion in solution D) NH4 + as the only positive ion in solution C) KOH D) CH3 COOH D) NaOH C) an acid D) a salt

In an aqueous solution, which substance yields hydrogen ions as the only positive ions? A) KH B) C2 H5 OH B) H2 S B) LiH

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When substance X is dissolved in water, the only positive ions in the solution are hydrogen ions. Substance X could be A) NaH C) NH3 C) NH3 C) Li+

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Which substance can act as an Arrhenius acid in aqueous solution? A) HI D) NaI

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Which species can act as an Arrhenius acid in aqueous solution? A) ClB) HCl D) KH

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According to the Arrhenius theory, when a base is dissolved in water it will produce a solution containing only one kind of negative ion. To which ion does the theory refer? A) hydride B) hydronium C) hydroxide D) hydrogen According to the Arrhenius theory, when a base dissolves in water it produces A) H+ as the only positive ion in solution B) NH4 + as the only positive ion in solution C) CO3 2- as the only negative ion in solution D) OH- as the only negative ion in solution

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Unlike an acid, an aqueous solution of a base A) contains more OH- ions than H+ ions B) conducts electricity C) contains more H+ ions than OH- ions D) causes some indicators to change color

4719 - 1 - Page 3 ___ 20) According to the Arrhenius theory, which list of compounds includes only bases? A) LiOH, Ca(OH)2 , and C2 H4 (OH)2 B) NaOH, Ca(OH)2 , and CH3 COOH ___ 21) Which substance is classified as an Arrhenius base? A) KHCO3 ___ 22) B) NaOH C) LiNO3 D) HCl C) KOH, Ca(OH)2 , and CH3 OH D) KOH, NaOH, and LiOH

An aqueous solution of an ionic compound turns red litmus blue, conducts electricity, and reacts with an acid to form a salt and water. This compound could be A) LiOH B) HCl C) NaI D) KNO3

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According to the Bronsted-Lowry theory, an acid is A) neither a proton donor nor a proton acceptor B) a proton acceptor, only C) a proton donor and a proton acceptor D) a proton donor, only C) CH3 OH D) NaCl

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Which species is classified as a Bronsted acid? A) LiOH B) H2 SO4

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Given the reaction: HX + H2 O ‡‡ˆ H3 O+(aq) + X-(aq) Based on the equation, HX would be classified as A) an acid, because it accepts a proton B) a base, because it accepts a proton C) an acid, because it donates a proton D) a base, because it donates a proton

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Given the reaction: HCl(g) + H2 O(l) ‡‡ˆ H3 O+(aq) + Cl-(aq) Which reactant acted as a Bronsted-Lowry acid? A) HCl(g), because it donated protons B) H2 O(l), because it accepted protons C) HCl(g), because it reacted with chloride ions D) H2 O(l), because it produced hydronium ions

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As HF dissolves in water, the following ionization reaction occurs: HF + H2 O ‰Š‹ H3 O+ + FIn this reaction, a proton is donated to A) H3 O+ by H2 O B) H3 O+ by FC) H2 O by HF D) HF by F-

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Given the reaction at equilibrium: NH4 + + OH- ‰Š‹ H2 O + NH3 What species is the Bronsted-Lowry acid in the forward reaction? A) NH4 + B) NH3 C) H2 O D) OH-

4719 - 1 - Page 4 ___ 29) Given the reaction: HF + H2 O ‰Š‹ F- + H3 O+ What species is the Bronsted acid in the reverse reaction? A) HF ___ 30) Given reactions A and B: (A) HCl + H2 O ‡‡ˆ Cl- + H3 O+ (B) HCl + HS- ‡‡ˆ Cl- + H2 S In which of the reactions can HCl be classified as a Bronsted-Lowry acid? A) B, only B) A, only ___ 31) C) neither A nor B D) both A and B B) H3 O+ C) FD) H2 O

In the reaction NO2 -(aq) + H2 O(l) ‡‡ˆ HNO2 (aq) + OH-(aq), the NO2 -(aq) acts as A) an Arrhenius base B) an Arrhenius acid C) a Bronsted acid D) a Bronsted base

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In the reaction H2 O + H2 O ‡‡ˆ H3 O+ + OH-, the water is acting as A) a proton donor, only B) both a proton acceptor and donor C) a proton acceptor, only D) neither a proton acceptor nor donor

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Given the reaction: HSO4 -(aq) + NH3 (g) ‰Š‹ NH4 +(aq) + SO4 2-(aq) Which of the following statements best describes the action of NH3 (g) in the reaction? A) B) C) D) It acts as It acts as It acts as It acts as an acid, because it is a proton donor. an acid, because it is a proton acceptor. a base, because it is a proton acceptor. a base, because it is a proton donor.

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Given the reactions X and Y below: X: H2 O + NH3 ‡‡ˆ NH4 + + OHY: H2 O + HSO4 - ‡‡ˆ H3 O+ + SO4 2Which of the following statements best describes the behavior of the H2 O in these reactions? A) B) C) D) Water acts Water acts Water acts Water acts as an acid in both reactions. as a base in reaction X and as an acid in reaction Y. as an acid in reaction X and as a base in reaction Y. as a base in both reactions. C) H3 PO4 and PO4 3D) H2 SO4 and SO4 2-

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Which formula represents a conjugate acid-base pair? A) CH3 COOH and CH3 COOB) H3 O+ and OH-

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What is a conjugate acid-base pair in the reaction H2 O + HI ‰Š‹ H3 O+ + I-? A) H2 O and IB) H2 O and HI C) HI and ID) HI and H3 O+

4719 - 1 - Page 5 ___ 37) In the reaction HCl + H2 O ‰Š‹ H3 O+ + Cl-, a conjugate acid-base pair is A) HCl and H2 O B) HCl and H3 O+ ___ 38) C) H2 O and ClD) HCl and Cl-

In the reaction HBr + H2 O ‰Š‹ H3 O+ + Br-, which is a conjugate acid-base pair? A) HBr and H2 O B) HBr and BrC) H3 O+ and BrD) H3 O+ and HBr

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In the reaction H2 PO4 - + H2 O ‰Š‹ H3 PO4 + OH-, which pair represents an acid and its conjugate base? A) H3 PO4 and H2 PO4 B) H2 O and H2 PO4 C) H3 PO4 and OHD) H2 O and H3 PO4

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In the reaction CH3 COOH + H2 O ‰Š‹ CH3 COO- + H3 O+ a conjugate acid-base pair is A) CH3 COO- and H2 O B) CH3 COO- and H3 O+ C) CH3 COOH and H3 O+ D) CH3 COOH and CH3 COO-

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Given the reaction: HSO4 - + H2 O ‰Š‹ H3 O+ + SO4 2Which is a Bronsted-Lowry conjugate acid-base pair? A) H2 O and SO4 2B) HSO4 - and SO4 2C) HSO4 and H3 O+ D) H2 O and HSO4 -

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In the reaction H2 SO4 + H2 O ‰Š‹ H3 O+ + HSO4 -, which two are proton donors? A) H2 O and H3 O+ B) H2 O and HSO4 C) H2 SO4 and H3 O+ D) H2 SO4 and HSO4 -

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Given the equation: H2 O + HF ‰Š‹ H3 O+ + FWhich pair represents Bronsted-Lowry acids? A) HF and H3 O+ B) HF and FC) H2 O and H3 O+ D) H2 O and F-

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In the reaction H2 O + CO3 2- ‰Š‹ OH- + HCO3 -, the two Bronsted-Lowry acids are A) CO3 2- and HCO3 B) H2 O and HCO3 C) CO3 2- and OHD) H2 O and OH-

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In the reaction HS- + NH2 - ‰Š‹ NH3 + S2-, the two Bronsted bases are A) HS- and NH2 B) S2- and NH3 C) HS- and NH3 D) S2- and NH2 -

4719 - 1 - Page 6 ___ 46) Given the reaction at equilibrium: HSO4 - + H2 O ‰Š‹ H3 O+ + SO4 2The two Bronsted bases are A) H2 O and SO4 2B) H3 O+ and SO4 2___ 47) C) H2 O and H3 O+ D) H3 O+ and HSO4 -

In the reaction H2 S + NH3 ‰Š‹ NH4 + + HS-, the two Bronsted bases are A) H2 S and HSB) NH3 and HSC) H2 S and NH3 D) NH3 and NH4 +

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What is the conjugate base of NH3 ? A) NH2 B) NO2 C) NH4 + D) NO3 -

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What is the conjugate base of OH-? A) O2B) H+ C) H3 O+ D) H2 O

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What is the conjugate acid of the HCO3 - ion? A) H3 CO3 + B) H+ C) H2 CO3 D) CO3 2-

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What is the conjugate acid of the HSO4 - ion? A) H2 SO4 B) SO3 C) H+ D) SO4 2-

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Given the reactions: (A) NH3 (g) + H2 O(l) ‡‡ˆ NH4 +(aq) + OH-(aq) (B) HCl(aq) + H2 O(l) ‡‡ˆ H3 O+(aq) + Cl-(aq) As shown in equations (A) and (B) and based on the Bronsted theory, water is an amphoteric substance because it can A) accept protons, only B) neither donate nor accept protons C) donate protons, only D) either donate or accept protons C) H2 O(l) + H2 O(l) ‡‡ˆ H3 O+(aq) + OH-(aq) D) 2H2 (g) + O2 (g) ‡‡ˆ 2H2 O(l)

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Which equation illustrates the amphiprotic properties of a reactant species? A) HCl(aq) + H2 O(l) ‡‡ˆ H3 O+(aq) + Cl-(aq) B) NH3 (aq) + H2 O(l) ‡‡ˆ NH4 +(aq) + OH-(aq)

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An aqueous solution that has a hydrogen ion concentration of 1.0 x 10-8 mole per liter has a pH of A) 6, which is basic B) 8, which is acidic C) 8, which is basic D) 6, which is acidic

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A water solution that has an H+ ion concentration of 1 x 10-8 mole per liter is classified as A) basic, with a pH less than 7 B) basic, with a pH greater than 7 C) acidic, with a pH greater than 7 D) acidic, with a pH less than 7

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If a solution has a hydronium ion concentration of 1 x 10-9 M, the solution is A) basic and has a pH of 9 B) basic and has a pH of 5 C) acidic and has a pH of 5 D) acidic and has a pH of 9

4719 - 1 - Page 7 ___ 57) The H3 O+ ion concentration of a solution is 1 x 10-5 mole per liter. This solution is A) basic and has a pH of 5 B) acidic and has a pH of 5 ___ 58) C) basic and has a pH of 9 D) acidic and has a pH of 9

The H3 O+ ion concentration of a solution is 1 x 10-4 mole per liter. This solution is A) acidic and has a pH of 10 B) basic and has a pH of 10 C) basic and has a pH of 4 D) acidic and has a pH of 4

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What is the H+ ion concentration of an aqueous solution that has a pH of 11? A) 11 x 10-1 mol/L B) 3.0 x 10-1 mol/L C) 1.0 x 10-3 mol/L D) 1.0 x 10-11 mol/L

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What is the pH of a solution that has a hydronium ion concentration of 1 x 10-8 mole per liter? A) 1 B) 8 C) 7 D) 4 What is the pH of a solution whose H3 O+ ion concentration is 0.0001 mole per liter? A) 1 B) 10 B) 5 B) 7 C) 14 C) 9 C) 3 D) 4 D) 4 D) 11 What is the pH of a 0.00001 molar HCl solution? A) 1 What is the pH of a 0.001 M solution of HCl? A) 1 What is the H3 O+ ion concentration of a solution whose OH- ion concentration is 1 x 10-3 M? A) 1 x 10-14 M B) 1 x 10-11 M B) 1 x 10-7 B) NH3 (aq) B) NaCl(aq) C) 1 x 10-7 M C) 1 x 10-10 C) CO2 (aq) C) CH3 OH(aq) C) CH3 COOH(aq) D) CH3 OO-(aq) C) phenophthalein is red D) litmus is red B) 2 C) 3 D) 4 D) 1 x 10-4 M D) 1 x 10-4 D) H2 S(aq) D) NaOH(aq)

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What is the hydroxide ion concentration of a solution with a pH of 4? A) 1 x 10-14

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Which solution will turn litmus from red to blue? A) SO2 (aq)

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Which solution will change red litmus to blue? A) HCl(aq)

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Which solution will change litmus paper red? A) NH4 OH(aq) B) NaOH(aq)

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In a solution with a pH of 3, the color of A) phenophthalein is blue B) litmus is blue

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In the solution, litmus is blue. The pH of the solution could be A) 10 One sample of a solution with a pH of 10 is tested with phenolphthalein and another sample of this solution is tested with litmus. In this solution the color of the litmus is A) blue and the phenolphthalein is pink B) red and the phenolphthalein is pink C) red and the phenolphthalein is colorless D) blue and the phenolphthalein is colorless C) red and phenolphthalein will be pink D) blue and phenolphthalein will be pink C) colorless D) white

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In a 0.01 M solution of HCl, litmus will be A) blue and phenolphthalein will be colorless B) red and phenolphthalein will be colorless

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What color is phenolphthalein in a solution that has a pH of 9? A) pink B) blue

4719 - 1 - Page 8 ___ 74) Which solution can turn phenolphthalein pink? A) CH3 OH(aq) B) HCl(aq) ___ 75) C) CH3 COOH(aq) D) NaOH(aq)

The results of testing a colorless solution with three indicators are shown in the table below.

Which formula could represent the solution tested? A) HCl(aq) B) C12 H22 O11 (aq) ___ 76) C) NaOH(aq) D) C6 H12 O6 (aq)

The table below shows the color of an indicator in specific pH ranges.

If this indicator is used when titrating an unknown strong base by adding a strong acid, the color of the indicator will change from A) blue to green B) green to orange ___ 77) C) orange to green D) green to blue

Methyl orange indicator is added to a beaker containing a solution of HCl with a pH of 2.0. What color change occurs as NaOH(aq) is added to the beaker? A) blue to red B) red to yellow C) yellow to red D) red to blue Which indicators would cause a sodium hydroxide solution with a pH of 10.0 to turn blue? A) litmus and methyl orange B) litmus and phenolphthalein C) thymol blue and litmus D) thymol blue and methyl orange C) litmus D) phenolphthalein C) CH3 COOH(aq) D) HCl(aq) C) KOH(aq) D) NaOH(aq)

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Household vinegar has a pH of approximately 3.0. Which would appear yellow when added to a vinegar solution? A) bromcresol green B) methyl orange

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Which solution will change bromthymol blue indicator from yellow to blue? A) CH3 OH(aq) B) KOH(aq)

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Which solution will change thymol blue indicator from blue to yellow? A) CH3 COOH(aq) B) CH3 OH(aq)

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What is the pH of a solution that changes both methyl orange and litmus indicators red? A) 6 A) 6.0 B) 2 B) 3.2 C) 8 C) 7.8 D) 4 D) 9.6 What is the pH of a solution that changes thymol blue indicator yellow and bromthymol blue indicator blue?

4719 - 1 - Page 9 ___ 84) Which equation represents a neutralization reaction? A) AgNO3 + NaCl ‡‡ˆ AgCl + NaNO3 B) 2Na + 2H2 O ‡‡ˆ 2NaOH + H2 ___ 85) Which equation represents a neutralization reaction? A) NaCl(aq) + AgNO3 (aq) ‡‡ˆ NaNO3 (aq) + AgCl(s) B) Ag +(aq) + I-(aq) ‡‡ˆ AgI(s) C) Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) ‡‡ˆ ZnCl2 (aq) + H2 (g) D) H+(aq) + OH-(aq) ‡‡ˆ H2 O(l) ___ 86) Which of the following is a net ionic equation for a neutralization reaction? A) Ag + + Cl- ‡‡ˆ AgCl B) H+ + HCO3 - ‡‡ˆ H2 CO3 ___ 87) What products are formed when an acid reacts with a base? A) a salt and water B) a soap and glycerine ___ 88) Given the neutralization reaction: H2 SO4 + 2KOH ‡‡ˆ K2 SO4 + 2HOH Which compound is a salt? A) KOH ___ 89) Which compound is a salt? A) Na3 PO4 ___ 90) Which compound is a salt? A) H2 C2 O4 ___ 91) Which formula represents a salt? A) CH3 OH ___ 92) A) Ca(OH)2 ___ 93) B) KOH C) CH3 COOH C) CaCl2 D) KCl B) C6 H12 O6 C) KC2 H3 O2 D) CH3 OH B) H3 PO4 C) CH3 COOH D) Ca(OH)2 B) H2 SO4 C) HOH D) K2 SO4 C) an alcohol and carbon dioxide D) an ester and water C) NH4 + + OH- ‡‡ˆ NH4 OH D) H+ + OH- ‡‡ˆ H2 O C) NaOH + HCl ‡‡ˆ NaCl + H2 O D) Zn + CuSO4 ‡‡ˆ ZnSO4 + Cu

Which substance is classified as a salt? B) CCl4 D) C2 H4 (OH)2

If 50. milliliters of a 1.0 M NaOH solution is needed to exactly neutralize 10. milliliters of an HCl solution, the molarity of the HCl solution is A) 0.20 M B) 5.0 M C) 1.0 M D) 10. M If 50 milliliters (ml) of a 0.01 M HCl solution is required to neutralize exactly 25 milliliters (ml) of NaOH, what is the concentration of the base? A) 0.02 M B) 0.0005 M C) 0.04 M D) 0.01 M If 50. milliliters of 0.50 M HCl is used to completely neutralize 25 milliliters of KOH solution, what is the molarity of the base? A) 2.5 M B) 0.25 M C) 1.0 M D) 0.50 M In a titration, the endpoint of a neutralization reaction was reached when 37.6 milliliters of an HCl solution was added to 17.3 milliliters of a 0.250 M NaOH solution. What was the molarity of the HCl solution? A) 0.250 M B) 0.115 M C) 0.543 M D) 0.203 M What is the molarity of a KOH solution if it requires 20. milliliters of 2.0 M HCl to exactly neutralize 20. milliliters of the KOH solution? A) 1.0 M B) 2.0 M C) 10. M D) 20. M

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4719 - 1 - Page 10 ___ 98) A 3.0-milliliter sample of HNO3 solution is exactly neutralized by 6.0 milliliters of 0.50 M KOH. What is the molarity of the HNO3 sample? A) 1.0 M ___ 99) ___ 100) A) 1.0 M B) 0.50 M B) 2.0 M C) 3.0 M C) 5.0 M D) 1.5 M D) 4.0 M If 20. milliliters of 4.0 M NaOH is exactly neutralized by 20. milliliters of HCl, the molarity of the HCl is In a titration experiment, 20. milliliters of 1.0 M HCl neutralized 10. milliliters of an NaOH solution of unknown concentration. What was the concentration of the NaOH solution? A) 1.5 M ___ 101) ___ 102) ___ 103) ___ 104) ___ 105) A) 16 mL A) 30 mL A) 40. mL A) 20.0 mL B) 2.5 M B) 8.0 mL B) 500 mL B) 30. mL B) 40.0 mL C) 2.0 M C) 10. mL C) 200 mL C) 10. mL C) 80.0 mL D) 0.50 M D) 40. mL D) 80 mL D) 20. mL D) 10.0 mL How many milliliters of 5.0 M NaOH are needed to exactly neutralize 40. milliliters of 2.0 M HCl? How many milliliters of 0.4 M HCl are required to completely neutralize 200 milliliters of 0.16 M potassium hydroxide? How many milliliters of 2.5 M HCl are required to exactly neutralize 15 milliliters of 5.0 M NaOH? What volume of a 0.200 M NaOH solution is needed to exactly neutralize 40.0 milliliters of a 0.100 M HCl solution? In the laboratory, a student neutralized 0.20 M HCl with 0.40 M KOH. (a) Write the balanced equation for the reaction between HCl and KOH. (b) How many milliliters of 0.20 M HCl are needed to exactly neutralize 40. milliliters of 0.40 M KOH? [Write the correct formula. Show all work. Indicate the correct answer with an appropriate unit.]

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In the laboratory, a student neutralized 1.5 M HNO3 with 0.50 M KOH. (a) Write the balanced equation for the reaction between HNO3 and KOH. (b) How many milliliters of 0.50 M KOH are needed to exactly neutralize 10. milliliters of 1.5 M HNO3 ? [Write the correct formula. Show all work. Indicate the correct answer with an appropriate unit.]

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In the laboratory, a student titrated HNO3 with 0.50 M LiOH until the indicator changed from colorless to pink. (a) Write the balanced equation for the reaction between HNO3 and LiOH. (b) If 50. milliliters of 0.50 M LiOH is required to exactly neutralize 100. milliliters of an HNO3 solution, what is the molarity of the HNO3 solution? [Write the correct formula. Show all work. Indicate the correct answer with an appropriate unit.] (c) What indicator was used in the titration?

4719 - 1 - Page 11 ___ 108) In the laboratory, a student titrated NaOH with 3.0 M HNO3 . (a) Write the balanced equation for the reaction between HNO3 and NaOH. (b) If 50. milliliters of 3.0 M HNO3 completely neutralized 150 milliliters of NaOH, what was the molarity of the NaOH solution? [Write the correct formula. Show all work. Indicate the correct answer with an appropriate unit.]

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In the laboratory, a student titrated NaOH with 1.0 M HCl. (a) Write the balanced equation for the reaction between HCl and NaOH. (b) If 20. milliliters of a 1.0 M solution of HCl is exactly neutralized by 40. milliliters of NaOH, what is the molarity of the NaOH solution? [Write the correct formula. Show all work. Indicate the correct answer with an appropriate unit.]

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In the laboratory, a student titrated HCl with 1.0 M NaOH. (a) Write the balanced equation for the reaction between HCl and NaOH. (b) If 50. milliliters of a 1.0 M NaOH solution is needed to exactly neutralize 10. milliliters of an HCl solution, what is the molarity of the HCl solution? [Write the correct formula. Show all work. Indicate the correct answer with an appropriate unit.]

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In the laboratory, a student neutralized 0.10 M LiOH with 0.20 M HCl. (a) Write the balanced equation for the reaction between HCl and LiOH. (b) What is the maximum volume of 0.10 M LiOH that can be completely neutralized by 25 milliliters of 0.20 M HCl? [Write the correct formula. Show all work. Indicate the correct answer with an appropriate unit.]

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In the laboratory, a student neutralized 1.0 M H2 SO4 with 1.0 M NaOH. (a) Write the balanced equation for the reaction between H2 SO4 and NaOH. (b) How many milliliters of 1 M NaOH are needed to exactly neutralize 100 milliliters of 1 M H2 SO4 ? [Write the correct formula. Show all work. Indicate the correct answer with an appropriate unit.]

4719 - 1 - Page 12 ___ 113) In the laboratory, a student performed an acid-base titration. The diagram below shows NaOH(aq) being added to HCl(aq).

The following data was collected: Volume of the acid, HCl = 20.0 mL Molarity of the acid = 0.50 M Volume of the base, NaOH = 40.0 mL (a) Write the balanced equation for the reaction between HCl and NaOH. (b) Based on the data above, calculate the molarity of the NaOH. [Write the correct formula. Show all work. Indicate the correct answer with an appropriate unit.] (c) What color does the indicator appear at the endpoint of the titration? (d) What name is given to the reaction between equivalent quantities of an acid and a base?

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The compound HNO3 can be described as an A) Arrhenius acid and a nonelectrolyte B) Arrhenius base and an electrolyte C) Arrhenius acid and an electrolyte D) Arrhenius base and a nonelectrolyte C) CH3 CHO D) LiF(aq)

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Which substance is an Arrhenius acid? A) Mg(OH)2 (aq) B) HBr(aq)

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How are HNO3 (aq) and CH3 COOH(aq) similar? A) B) C) D) They are Arrhenius They are Arrhenius They are Arrhenius They are Arrhenius acids and they turn red litmus blue. bases and they turn red litmus blue. bases and they turn blue litmus red. acids and they turn blue litmus red.

4719 - 1 - Page 13 ___ 117) Given the following solutions: Solution A: Solution B: Solution C: pH of 10 pH of 7 pH of 5

Which list has the solutions placed in order of increasing H+ concentration? A) C, B, A ___ 118) A) 100 times the original content B) 10 times the original content ___ 119) B) A, B, C C) C, A, B C) 0.1 of the original content D) 0.01 of the original content D) B, A, C When the pH of a solution changes from a pH of 5 to a pH of 3, the hydronium ion concentration is

A student was given four unknown solutions. Each solution was checked for conductivity and tested with phenolphthalein. The results are shown in the data table below.

Based on the data table, which unknown solution could be 0.1 M NaOH? A) A ___ 120) B) B C) C D) D A student tested a 0.1 M aqueous solution and made the following observations: d conducts electricity d turns blue litmus to red d reacts with Zn(s) to produce gas bubbles Which compound could be the solute in this solution? A) LiBr ___ 121) B) CH3 OH C) HBr D) LiOH

Which equation represents a neutralization reaction? A) NaCl + AgNO3 ‚ AgCl + NaNO3 B) H2 SO4 + Mg(OH)2 ‚ MgSO4 + 2H2 O C) Ni(NO3 )2 + H2 S ‚ NiS + 2HNO3 D) Na2 CO3 + CaCl2 ‚ 2NaCl + CaCO3

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Which chemical equation represents the reaction of an Arrhenius acid and an Arrhenius base? A) Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) ‚ ZnCl2 (aq) + H2 (g) B) C3 H8 (g) + 5O2 (g) ‚ 3CO2 (g) + 4H2 O(l) C) BaCl2 (aq) + Na2 SO4 (aq) ‚ BaSO4 (s) + 2NaCl(aq) D) HC2 H3 O2 (aq) + NaOH(aq) ‚ NaC2 H3 O2 (aq) + H2 O(l)

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Which compound could serve as a reactant in a neutralization reaction? A) CH3 OH B) KOH C) NaCl D) CH3 CHO

___ 124)

If 5.0 milliliters of a 0.20 M HCl solution is required to neutralize exactly 10. milliliters of NaOH, what is the concentration of the base? A) 0.20 M B) 0.30 M C) 0.10 M D) 0.40 M What volume of 0.500 M HNO3 (aq) must completely react to neutralize 100.0 milliliters of 0.100 M KOH(aq)? A) 50.0 mL B) 500. mL C) 10.0 mL D) 20.0 mL

___ 125)

4719 - 1 - Page 14 ___ 126) A truck carrying concentrated nitric acid overturns and spills its contents. The acid drains into a nearby pond. The pH of the pond water was 8.0 before the spill. After the spill, the pond water is 1,000 times more acidic. (a) What is the new pH of the pond water after the spill? (b) What color would bromthymol blue be at this new pH?

___ 127)

Calcium hydroxide is commonly known as agricultural lime and is used to adjust the soil pH. Before the lime was added to a field, the soil pH was 5. After the lime was added, the soil underwent a 100-fold decrease in hydronium ion concentration. What is the new pH of the soil in the field described?

___ 128)

A student is given two beakers, each containing an equal amount of clear, odorless liquid. One solution is acidic and the other is basic. (a) State two safe methods of distinguishing the acid solution from the base solution. (b) For each method, state the results of both the testing of the acid solution and the testing of the base solution.

___ 129)

Four flasks each contain 100 milliliters of aqueous solutions of equal concentrations at 25DC and 1 atm.

(a) Which solutions contain electrolytes? (b) Which solution has the lowest pH? (c) What causes some aqueous solutions to have a low pH? (d) Which solution is most likely to react with an Arrhenius acid to form a salt and water? (e) Which solution has the lowest freezing point? [Explain your answer.]

4719 - 1 - Page 15 Questions 130 through 132 refer to the following: The graph below shows the relationship between pH value and hydronium ion concentration for common aqueous solutions and mixtures.

___ 130)

According to the graph, what is the hydronium ion concentration of tomato juice?

___ 131)

Based on the graph shown, what color is thymol blue when added to milk of magnesia?

___ 132)

According to the graph, which mixture is approximately 100 times more acidic than milk of magnesia?

Questions 133 and 134 refer to the following: In a titration experiment, a student uses a 1.4 M HBr(aq) solution and the indicator phenolphthalein to determine the concentration of a KOH(aq) solution. The data for trial 1 is recorded in the table below.

___ 133)

Show a correct numerical setup for calculating the molarity of the KOH(aq) solution shown in the data table.

4719 - 1 - Page 16 ___ 134) Why is it better to use several trials of a titration rather than one trial to determine the molarity of a solution of an unknown concentration?

Answer Key 4719 - 1 - Page 1 1) D 6) C 11) C 16) B 21) B 26) A 31) D 36) C 41) B 46) A 51) A 56) A 61) D 66) B 71) A 76) A 81) A 86) D 91) D 96) B 101) A 105) 2) C 7) A 12) C 17) C 22) A 27) C 32) B 37) D 42) C 47) B 52) D 57) B 62) B 67) D 72) B 77) B 82) B 87) A 92) C 97) B 102) D 3) D 8) D 13) D 18) D 23) D 28) A 33) C 38) B 43) A 48) A 53) C 58) D 63) C 68) C 73) A 78) C 83) C 88) D 93) B 98) A 103) B 4) B 9) B 14) B 19) A 24) B 29) B 34) C 39) A 44) B 49) A 54) C 59) D 64) B 69) D 74) D 79) A 84) C 89) A 94) A 99) D 104) A 5) B 10) A 15) A 20) D 25) C 30) D 35) A 40) D 45) D 50) C 55) B 60) B 65) C 70) A 75) C 80) B 85) D 90) C 95) C 100) C

(a) HCl + KOH ‡‡ˆ KCl + H2 O; (b) 80. mL WORK SHOWN: MAVA = MBVB, (0.20 M)VA = (0.40 M)(40. mL), VA = 80. mL

106)

(a) HNO3 + KOH ‡‡ˆ KNO3 + H2 O; (b) 30. mL WORK SHOWN: MAVA = MBVB, (1.5 M)(10. mL) = (0.50 M)(VB), VB = 30. mL

107)

(a) HNO3 + LiOH ‡‡ˆ LiNO3 + H2 O; (b) 0.25 M WORK SHOWN: MAVA = MBVB, (MA)(100. mL) = (0.50 M)(50. mL), MA = 0.25 M; (c) phenolphthalein

108)

(a) HNO3 + NaOH ‡‡ˆ NaNO3 + H2 O;

Answer Key 4719 - 1 - Page 2 (b) 1.0 M WORK SHOWN: MAVA = MBVB, (3.0 M)(50. mL) = MB(150 mL), MB = 1.0 M 109) (a) HCl + NaOH ‡‡ˆ NaCl + H2 O; (b) 0.50 M WORK SHOWN: MAVA = MBVB, (1.0 M)(20. mL) = (MB)(40. mL), MB = 0.50 M 110) (a) HCl + NaOH ‡‡ˆ NaCl + H2 O; (b) 5.0 M WORK SHOWN: MAVA = MBVB, (MA)(10. mL) = (1.0 M)(50. mL), MA = 5.0 M 111) (a) HCl + LiOH ‡‡ˆ LiCl + H2 O; (b) 50. mL WORK SHOWN: MAVA = MBVB, (0.20 M)(25 mL) = (0.10 M)(VB), VA = 50. mL 112) (a) H2 SO4 + 2NaOH ‡‡ˆ Na2 SO4 + 2H2 O; (b) 200. mL WORK SHOWN: 2MAVA = MBVB, 2(1.00 M)(100. mL) = (1.00 M)(VB), VA = 200. mL 113) (a) HCl + NaOH ‡‡ˆ NaCl + H2 O; (b) 0.25 M WORK SHOWN: MAVA = MBVB, (0.50 M)(20.0 mL) = (MB)(40.0 mL), MB = 0.25 M; (c) pink; (d) neutralization 114) C 119) C 124) C 126) 127) 128) 115) B 120) C 125) D (a) 5; (b) yellow OR allow credit for a response consistent with student's answer to part (a) 7 SAMPLE ANSWERS: (a) Test with an indicator OR use pH paper OR check for reactivity; (b) The base will turn phenolphthalein pink and the acid will not. OR The acid will turn blue litmus paper red and the base will turn red litmus paper blue. OR Bromthymol blue will turn yellow in the acid and blue in the base. OR The acid will react with an active metal like magnesium and the base will not. OR The acid will have a pH less than 7 and the base will have a pH greater than 7. (a) KCl, Ba(OH)2 , and CH3 COOH; (b) CH3 COOH; (c) SAMPLE ANSWERS: They yield H+ (H3 O+) in solution. OR They are acids. OR [H+] > [OH-]; (d) Ba(OH)2 ; (e) Ba(OH)2 SAMPLE ANSWERS: It has the greatest number of particles dissolved. OR It dissociates into the greatest number of particles. OR It has the highest van't Hoff factor (i). 130) 10-4 M OR 0.0001 M 116) D 121) B 117) B 122) D 118) A 123) B

129)

Answer Key 4719 - 1 - Page 3 131) 132) 133) 134) blue seawater SAMPLE ANSWERS: OR (1.4 M)(15.40 mL) = MB(22.10 mL) OR (1.4)(15.40) = X(22.10)

SAMPLE ANSWERS: Multiple trials improve precision of results. OR to see if results are repeatable OR more trials, less error