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Training Methods for the Investigation of Explosive Incident for the Ministry of Interior, Qatar

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Abstract As a result of recent terrorist attacks in Qatar, where a Chechen leader was killed in a car explosion and where a theater in Doha, Qatar was attacked, it has become clear that the government needs to gain stronger capabilities in addressing such problems. One of several efforts being undertaken by the Ministry of Interior as well as other organizations and agencies is to enhance its crime fighting capabilities. Hence, the Forensic Laboratory Department, Ministry of Interior, Qatar developed and implemented a training program. The training program consisted of three main components, lecture and Power Point based knowledge training, skills training with simulated explosions, and a final test. The trainees were exposed to both practical as well as theoretical skills and knowledge on crime scenes, including training with advanced technology used with forensic analysis. Upon completion of the program, the trainees performed a simulated explosion investigation with the Minister of the Interior, Qatar, in attendance. The experiment reveals that despite many trainees succeeding with the program that there are concerns related to the training that must be further explored to improve future training efforts and initiatives.

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Table of Contents Acknowledgements Chapter One 1.1 Project Aim 1.2 Introduction 1.3 Brief Historical Overview of Explosives 1.4 Research Context 1.5 Review of Literature Chapter Two 2.1 The Training 2.2 Training Procedures Chapter Three 3.1 Experiment-Intensive Course 3.2 Equipment and Tools Training 3.3 Practical Scene 3.4 Examination Scene Chapter Four 4.1 Results and Discussion 4.2 Recommendations 4.3 Conclusions References Appendices 44-50 51-55 56-57 58 23-38 39-41 42 43 20 21-22 4 5 5-6 7 8-9 10-19

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Acknowledgements There were many individuals who played an important role in this project. In addition to the Forensic Laboratory of the Ministry of Interior, Qatar, whose members aided in the creation and implementation of the experiment, I also received a high level of assistance from Mr. Robert Hanson. I would like to take this chance to thank Mr. Hanson for his feedback, constructive criticism and support throughout the project process.

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Chapter One 1.1Project Aim The following project is based on the goal of improving the knowledge of key personnel members with regard to the investigation of explosive incidents within the Forensic Laboratory Department, Ministry of Interior, Qatar. Chapter 1,2 Introduction One of the most threatening problems found in the world today is terrorism as well as other acts of violence. The acts of violence often utilize the same tools regardless of the motivation behind the act; one of the most well known methods of committing violent acts is through the use of explosives. An explosive, according to Tenney L. Davis (1984), “..is a material, either a pure single substance or a mixture of substances, which is capable of producing an explosion by its own energy” (Davis 1). An explosion, as many are well aware can cause damage to both material objects and human beings. (1) The nation Qatar is a nation that, like many others, needs to gain knowledge of various aspects of explosions and explosives. In the effort to fight crime, the national organization, the Forensic Laboratory Department, Ministry of Qatar, has sought to learn more about explosives. Moreover, the organization has sought to use training with regard to explosives as a means of ensuring that its employees have the knowledge needed to be able to address explosives should they be used in any capacity that is illegal in the country. As explosives do have several legal uses such as in construction and demolition and road work, the focus in training is on the illegal uses of explosives such as those used to commit acts of terrorism or due to other motivations. Important to the effort to share knowledge with regard to explosives is the effort to provide training for the employees of the Forensic Laboratory

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Department, Ministry of Qatar. The research effort includes the goal of understanding the effectiveness of the training methods that were utilized in the training session. The following research examines the literature on training methods, provides a methodology of the actual training program that took place in Qatar, provides the results of the training program, a discussion of the findings and a conclusion and recommendation section.

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Chapter 1.3 Brief Historical Overview of Explosives The first chemical explosive was a mix of charcoal, potassium nitrate and sulfur that created a combination known as gunpowder. It is believed that the Chinese developed gunpowder over one thousand years ago. For many years, according to Science JRank gunpowder was originally used for fireworks. However, as technology developed, the gunpowder was used in other areas such as with the use of guns. It was not until after the Europeans started to use guns that the originators of the gunpowder, the Chinese used it as a weapon. As many are well aware, the use of guns has led to many negative impacts in terms of harm to others and have played a major role in historic events such as related to the exploitation of people without access to explosives. (2) As time passed, Science JRank reports, there were other discoveries related to explosives. For example, it was in 1628 that fulminating gold was discovered. This discovery was followed by several others such as those based on chemical compounds including nitrocompounds and nitrates. In the 1800’s, an Italian chemist created the first modern explosive made from nitroglycerin among other chemicals. The work of the Italian scientists was the basis for others to expand from such as Alfred Nobel who found ways to make nitroglycerin safer in terms of packaging. Science JRank also reports that Noble intended to have his inventions used for peaceful purposes. However, the source states that the emergence of the inventions led to a major increase in the destructive nature of warfare. Indeed, around the world for hundreds of years there have been various uses of explosives with warfare as well as terrorism. (2)

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Chapter 1.4 Research Context The issue of explosives and bombs is seen in the many acts of warfare in the world as well as terrorism. While Qatar has largely been free of conflict for many years, there have been several incidents of concern to the country. In Qatar there have been cases where explosives have been used to kill individuals and, to create fear, one of the major goals of terrorism. It was in 2004 that, according to the article, “Ex-Chechen president killed in car blast” states, the former Chechen president Zelmkhan Yandarbiyev was killed in a car bomb in Qatar. The leader was killed when a bomb exploded at an intersection, just moments after the leader left a mosque. Moreover, the bomb killed several of the leaders bodyguards. According to the article, the target of the bomb was tied not only to Al-Qaeda but the horrific Moscow theater hostage crisis of October 2002. In light of this incident it is vital that the government of Qatar, and specifically the Forensic Laboratory Department, Ministry of Qatar gain training in explosives. (3) Yet, it was not just a single incident that has led to the need for training in explosives for the Forensic Laboratory Department, Ministry of Qatar. In addition, a car bomb hit a theater in Qatar in 2005. According to BBC News a British man was killed and an estimated one dozen people were injured in a car bomb that targeted a theater in the capital of the country. The suspected bomber, the report states, was from Egypt and the attack came two years after US invasion of Iraq. The article also quotes workers in the area mentioning serious consideration about staying in the country in the future. Such violence in Qatar does not help the country in its efforts to attract investments, workers, and travelers. Hence, the nation does need to wok on ensuring that its Forensic Laboratory Department, Ministry of Qatar has workers who are able to address bomb related issues. (4) While efforts are being made to ensure that intelligence reduces or eliminates the threat of explosives, there is also a need to address the problem of explosions after they happen. Despite the efforts to prevent

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bombings in Qatar, they have occurred as the two examples given demonstrate. Hence, the government with the Forensic Laboratory Department, Ministry of Qatar is working to address the many aspects of bombs and explosives in the country. However, a problem with the efforts made by the government is that the nation lacks personnel with experience in the realm of bombs. As Qatar has relatively little violence, and no major history of car bombings with the exception of a few recent acts, the past incidents led to outsiders being sought to solve the cases. The government of Qatar had to bring in experts from France and the United States to address the cases. Hence, a plan was created to train the local workers of the Forensic Laboratory Department, Ministry of Qatar in bombs with a specific focus on car bombs.

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Chapter 1.5 Review of Literature Training is used by a wide variety of organizations as a means of achieving various organizational goals. Many businesses and organizations use training to aid in knowledge and skill development of its workers related to a variety of topics such as technology, cross-cultural communication, and customer service. Similarly, the Forensic Laboratory Department, Ministry of Qatar has goals related to its training programs. Training programs used by the organization include those that seek to improve worker knowledge and skill related to the area of forensics. The ultimate goal of the training is to aid in the effort to fight a variety of crimes in the country among other goals of the organization. While the literature fails to address the use of training in the realm of explosive specifically, the literature does offer a foundation in training and transfer of training that are applicable to the experiment. Training Based on Needs Training, according to Susan E. Jackson, Randall S. Schuler and Steve Werner (2009) is most often offered on the basis of needs. Specifically, Jackson, Randall and Werner (2009) state that needs often include the ability to overcome skill deficiencies as well as to provide workers with competencies that are job specific. Still, some workers gain training for reasons other than actual needs. With the effort to train workers with explosives in Qatar, there was a need to overcome skill and knowledge deficiencies related to the realm of explosives. (5) A review of the literature on training shows that other authors also believe that training needs to be based on needs. For example, Raymond A. Noe, John R. Hollenbeck, Barry Gerhart and Patrick M. Wright state that needs assessment should be conducted that focuses on the evaluation of the organization, its workers, and the task of the workers to determine what type of training is needed, if needed at all. Often, management uses a needs assessment due to some type of prompt. For example, “Management may observe that some employees lack basic skills or are performing poorly”

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(Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart and Wright 182). Organizations might also realize the need for training due to factors such as introducing new products, the application of new technology, or the design of new jobs. The outcome of the needs assessment, the authors state, leads to decisions about how to address the issue that led to the needs assessment. (6) Organizational Analysis In addition to the needs assessment, training also involves the use of an organizational analysis. Authors Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart and Wright state that the needs assessment actually starts with the organizational analysis, defined ass a process of determining the appropriateness of training through the evaluation of organizational characteristics. Moreover, “The organizational analysis looks at training needs in light of the organization’s strategy, resources available for training, and management’s support for training activities” (Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart, and Wright 183). Furthermore, those involved in the needs and organizational analysis must also consider in the process to consider the time, expertise and budget needed for a potential training program. (6) Person Analysis Organizations are also advised to conduct a person analysis as related to training. According to Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart and Wright a person analysis is a process that is used to determine the needs as well as readiness for training among the workers. The person analysis is also considered a critical consideration when training is being considered in response to a performance related problem. The goals of the analysis include the determination of if employees are ready to undergo training. Moreover, the analysis needs to consider the knowledge and skills of the workers as well as their ability and willingness to learn. (6) Task Analysis Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart and Wright also argue that organizations need to use a task analysis. The authors define the task analysis as, “…the process of identifying the tasks, knowledge, skills, and behaviors that training

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should emphasize” (Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart and Wright 185). The task analysis, the authors state, is usually conducted with the person analysis. To carry out the task analysis, the authors state, the human resource professional examines the conditions that the tasks are performed in. Moreover, questionnaires are often used to gain an understanding of what tasks should be focused on in the training. (6) Types of Training On-Site and Off-Site Research on employee training has also revealed that there are many different types of training programs available to train workers. The three main approaches to training, according to Jackson, Randall and Werner (2009) include the on-the-job approach, the on-site though not on-the-job method, and the off-site method. Of the off-site training, the type of training that was utilized with the training procedures under discussion, the authors Jackson, Randall and Werner (2009) assert that this type of training can be appropriate in cases where there are complex competencies that need to be mastered. There are several benefits of off-site training for employees. Such advantages, the authors state, include the ability to create lifelike situations, the ability to build teams, and providing realistic previews. (5) However, there are some disadvantages to the off-site method of training according to Jackson, Randall and Werner (2009). For example, the authors assert that with off-site training that a, “..cause for concern is that knowledge learned off the job may not transfer to the workplace” (Jackson, Randall & Werner 297). The issue of transfer, the authors add, refers to if the workers can apply the knowledge that they gained from the off-site training to the real world or workplace. Moreover, Jackson, Randall & Werner (2009) assert that when the training environment is not similar to the actual work environment that this makes it harder for the employees who have been trained to apply the knowledge gained to their positions. (5) With on-the-job training, according to Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart and Wright, state that this type of training is where a person with job experience

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as well as skills aid the trainee in practicing the skills in the workplace. Forms of on-the-job-training can include apprenticeships defined as, “A workstudy training method that teaches job skills through a combination of on-thejob training and classroom training” (Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart and Wright 193). Further, a type of on-the-job training is the internship, where students work at organizations as a part of an academic program. To be effective, the authors state that the on-the-job training program should create and issue a policy statement about the purposes of the training, specify the individual or individuals accountable for the training, review the practices of the training of other firms in the industry, and have managers and peers trained in the principles of this type of training. (6) Simulation Research finds that one method that is often used for training is the use of simulations. According to Jackson, Randall and Werner (2009), “Simulations present situations that are similar to actual job conditions and allow trainees to practice how to behave in those situations” (Jackson, Randall and Werner 298). Though the simulated environment is not real, it can also be less hectic as well as safer than the actual environment. With the training under discussion, explosives trainings for workers in Qatar, a real explosive situation occurred. However, the explosive situation was one that has similarities to simulations as the effort was made to create a realistic environment for the explosive demonstration and training. (5) Simulation training is known to have many positive aspects related to the transfer of knowledge and other goals of training programs yet research also suggests that there are other factors and forces that impact the quality of training. As Jackson, Schuler and Werner (2009) state, before launching a training program those who are in charge of the program need to consider the means by which information is presented. Moreover, those managing the training, “…must consider the beliefs of trainees regarding task-specific competencies” (Jackson, Schuler and Werner 299). Moreover, the trainers must work with the trainees in order to set the stage for leaning as well as

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increase learning during training. (5) Experiential Programs Some organizations use what are called experiential programs when the goal is to develop leadership skills and teamwork Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart and Wright state. In these programs the participants learn different kinds of concepts and then apply the concepts to behaviors through simulation of the behaviors. Additionally, the training method also involves analyzing the activity as well as connecting the concepts to realistic situations. These programs, as Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart and Wright also state should follow several guidelines such as the program being tied to a problem that is specific in the organization. Furthermore, the authors state that the participants of these programs should feel challenged as well as be pushed outside of their comfort zones. However, in pushing the trainees outside of their comfort zones, there must be limits with this to ensure that motivation remains strong. (6) Team Training Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart and Wright also reveal that some organizations use team training. Team training is where there is a coordination of the performance of individuals who work together in the effort to achieve a common goal. “An organization ay benefit from providing such training to groups when group members must share information and group performance depends on the performance of the individual group members” (Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart and Wright 196). Team training, the authors also state is often seen in organizations such as airlines and the military. In such work settings, a high level of work is performed by groups, teams or crews. Also, the success of these groups, the authors state, are based on the individual’s’ coordination of their activities to make decisions. Often, these decisions are made in terms of dangerous situations. Some teams also use cross training where members learn the skills of other members as well as their practice areas. Moreover, with coordination training, the team is taught how to share information as well as decisions as a means of enhancing team

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performance. (6) Setting the Stage for Learning To set the stage for learning, according to Jackson, Schuler and Werner, in order for the trainee to perform as intended, they must comprehend the training expectations. Moreover, the authors state that clear instruction create the correct expectations on the behavioral level. The authors advise that the training goals should be clearly stated and that the conditions under which the performance is expected should also be identified. Trainees should also be told, the authors state, the rewards, if any, for participating in the training. (5) Increasing Learning During Training Successful training programs, Jackson, Schuler and Werner state, include increasing learning during the training. There are several methods that can be utilized as a means of increasing learning during the training session. For example, active participation is needed in the training program for higher performance levels as, “Individuals perform better if they’re actively involved in the learning process” (Jackson, Schuler and Werner 300). Moreover, the encouragement of participation can occur in several ways such as in the realm of active participation in classroom discussions. (5) Another method that can be used to increase learning during training and aid in enhancing the learning effectiveness is through mastery. According to Jackson, Schuler and Werner, when the individuals being trained are focused on their personal deficiencies that are related to the task, these “..potential difficulties may seem more formidable than they really are” (Jackson, Schuler and Werner 300). Hence, trainers should seek to facilitate mastery, the authors state, through such means as presenting the information to be learned in a manner that leads to success. Segmenting the information is one method to make the data more manageable for the trainees. (5) Feedback is also an important tool to increase learning during training. According to Jackson, Schuler and Werner, for individuals to effectively

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master new concepts as well as gain competencies that are new, they have to gain accurate feedback of the diagnostic kind. The authors state that this feedback must be focused on the performance of the trainees. With feedback, the authors also state that, “It must be specific, timely, based on behavior and not personality, and practical” (Jackson, Schuler and Werner 301). Moreover, if there is a situation where a trainee demonstrates some kind of performance discrepancy the feedback should be diagnostic in nature and focus on how the trainee can improve performance. (5) Another method that can be used to enhance learning during the training period is through practice. As Jackson, Schuler and Werner state, “The goal of skill training is to ensure that desired behavior occurs not just once but consistently” (Jackson, Schuler and Werner 301). Consistency, the authors add, is more likely to occur when the trainees have had the opportunity to practice as well as internalize the standards of performance. Moreover, the authors report that because there is the risk of negative results of practicing behaviors that are wrong, that feedback is needed. (5) Measuring the Results of Training When the training program ends, according to Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart and Wright, the training can be measured. However, it is not only when the training ends that measurements of the training can occur as those who are in charge of the training can measure the results during intervals as well as periodically in cases where the training is ongoing. The time that the preparation for evaluation of the training should be undertaken is when the program is in its development phase, the authors also state. “Along with designing course objectives and content, the planner should identify how to measure achievement of objectives” (Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart and Wright 199). Moreover, depending on the objectives, the authors state, the evaluation can use several different types of measures for the results of the training. (6) The several types of measurements for training programs, according to Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart and Wright include satisfaction. For example,

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the organization can measure the satisfaction of the trainees with the program. Other measurement, meanwhile, include the knowledge gained as well as the abilities that have been gained as result of the training. The trainers can also measure the development of and/or use of new skills and behaviors on the job to determine the strength of transfer of training. Moreover, the measurement effort can also focus on improvements in both organizational and individual performance. “The usual way to measure whether participants have acquired information is to administer tests on paper or electronically” (Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart and Wright 200). Moreover, trainers and the supervisors of the training, the authors mention, can observe if the participants in the training program have demonstrated desired behaviors and/or skills. (6) In addition to the measurement of the training results organizations can also evaluate the methods that were used in the training. According to Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart and Wright. The evaluation of the training should place focus on the transfer of training. Moreover, the evaluation of the training can place focus on the on-the-job use of skills, behaviors and knowledge that were learned in the training program. “Transfer of training requires that employees actually learn the content of the training program and the necessary conditions are in place for employees to apply what they learned” (Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart and Wright 200). Moreover, the assessment can also examine if the workers have had a chance to put their new knowledge and/or skills to use. (6) The assessment of training, Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart and Wright also argue, should place focus on the outcomes. Specifically, those who are evaluating the training methods should look at what has changed, if anything, due toe the implementation of the training. “The relevant training outcomes are the ones related to the organization’s goals for the training and its overall performance” (Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart and Wright 200). The authors also identify several types of outcomes that might be measured in the assessment of training. These potential outcomes can include:

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-Data about facts, techniques, and procedures that the participants in the training will be able to recall post-training. -Skills that the participants can use in tests and/or in their jobs. -The satisfaction of both supervisors and trainees with the training program. -New attitudes that relate to the content of the actual training program such as a concern for safety as well as other possible themes. -Improvements in terms of company, group or individual performance such as increasing sales, reducing quality problems, etc. (6) There are several methods that can be utilized to measure the success of the training according to Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart and Wright. These efforts include the measurement of, “..performance, knowledge, or attitudes among all employees before the training and then train only part of the employees” (Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart and Wright 201). Once the training program has been completed, the authors state, the organization can measure the attitudes, knowledge or performance prior to as well as after the training. This method, the authors acknowledge, can be costly, Moreover, it seems impractical to have only some members of an organization subject to the training as the organization would surely want to train all of its workers. Hence, another method is recommended by Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart and Wright. The authors state that a simpler method to evaluate, “..the training is to conduct the pretest and posttest on all trainees, comparing their performance, knowledge, or attitudes before and after the training” (Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart and Wright 201). This measurement, however, does not rule out the fact that some of the change may have resulted from some other factor besides the training. (6) Application of the Training The overview of the literature also finds that the evaluation of the training should be evaluated, Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart and Wright state that the purpose of the evaluation of training is to aid in making future decisions about the training programs of the organization. “Using the evaluation, the organization may identify a need to modify the training and gain information

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about the kinds of changes needed” (Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart and Wright 201). Furthermore, the authors state that the organization might use the evaluation information to expand on the successful areas of training and potentially cut back on the aspect of training that has not yielded positive results for the organization. (6)

Chapter Two 2.1 The Training

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The training program occurred over a three-month period of time and involved one hundred and fifty five trainees. The program was divided into months with each month having a specific focus, the intensive course, the practical scene and the examiner scene. Month One The first month was the intensive course. The trainees met five days per week for approximately six hours per day. In the evening a tutorial session was offered. It was decided that the trainees needed a tutorial session, made optional, due to a lack of background on chemical compounds and their structures. Month Two The second month focused on the practical scene. Like the first month, the trainees worked five days per week for six hours per day. There was also a n evening session for trainees who were interested in gaining any kind of help related to the practical scene education. Month Three With the third month the examiner scene the trainees worked five days a week, six hours a day, with an evening session to analyze the fragments that had been recovered from morning sessions. The last day of the month was a program conducted in the presence of the Minister of the Ministry of Interior.

Chapter 2.2 Training Procedures

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Overall Experiment Goals The training program that was created was based on several goals, the main goal to bring knowledge as well as skills to the workers of Forensic Laboratory Department, Ministry of Qatar with regard to car bombs as a means of solving crimes in the future. The more specific goals of the training include: Knowledge One of the main goals was to provide the workers of Forensic Laboratory Department, Ministry of Qatar with knowledge related to explosives and car bombs in particular. While the government has invested heavily in many areas of crime fighting and while the forensics department of the nation is state-of the-art, there was a lack of knowledge among the workers related to car bombings and explosives. One of the reasons why the government did not have a strong focus on car bombs and explosives is because there are relatively few incidents involving the use of explosives in Qatar. Solve Crimes More Quickly The problem with the two previously mentioned cases is that it took the country some time to solve them. Because the Forensic Laboratory Department, Ministry of Qatar lacked knowledge, skills and training in the area of car bombs and explosives, the country had to bring in experts from both France and the United States to solve the crime. The main problem with this approach is that the longer it takes to conduct the investigation, the risk increases that a criminal or criminals can leave the country. As there is often much evidence to be collected at the scene of a crime, evidence that could potentially lead to the discovery of suspects, time wasted could lead criminals to get away with their crimes. Hence, it is important that the country be able to solve crimes more quickly to achieve one of the main goals of the Forensic Laboratory Department, Ministry of Qatar, the goal of justice. Equipment Knowledge and Skills In addition to crime scene investigators collecting evidence, the

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evidence also has to be analyzed. There are many machines and equipment that are utilized by forensic teams that require training. Hence, one of the major goals of the training was to ensure that the trainees were able to use the machines themselves to be able to detect various aspects and overall learn about the crime scene with reference to explosives being used at the scene. Transfer of Training In terms of the transfer of training, one of the most important aspects of the training was that it worked. There are many instances where employees of all kinds of organizations in various industries receive training that does not succeed. Training methods can and do differ and some methods are more effective than others. Hence, a transfer of training goal was that the training achieved results in both knowledge areas and skill areas. Specific Training Goals There were several areas of learning that the training focused on. In addition to the general goals mentioned, there were several aspects of explosive investigations that the organization believes must be learned as a means of enhancing the skill sets of the employees of the Forensic Laboratory Department, Ministry of Qatar. Moreover, areas of learning included factual information on explosives in such areas as the history of explosives, chemical aspects of explosives and explosives terminology among other learning areas.

Chapter Three

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Chapter 3.1 Experiment Intensive Course Experiment Scene Skills and Knowledge One of the most important aspects of explosive investigations is to know where to start the investigation. As explosions start with a central area (i.e. where the explosive or explosives were placed) it is important to identify where the explosive or explosives were placed to gain information. The training involved teaching employees proper protocols for the investigation of an explosion. The protocol includes the ensuring that the scene is safe, creating a perimeter around the scenes to ensure that the crime scene is not disturbed, and locating the center of the explosion. Moreover, the participants were taught how to collect the fragments, mark and number them. Participants were also taught how to identify if the explosion was a high or low explosion. Additionally, the trainees were taught how to determine if the explosion was a result of an accident or deliberate explosion, and with the explosion the participants were taught how to determine the type of explosive used through lab work. General Explosives Knowledge In addition to teaching the participants how to conduct an investigation of an explosion an effort was also made to teach the participants about explosives in general. Issues that were covered in the knowledge-based aspect of training were as follows: Explosives History Participants in the training program included were taught about the history of explosives. Issues covered include how first explosive mixtures were discovered by Asian Alchemists who sought to find a material that would lead to immortality, the movement of explosive knowledge to the Arabs and then Europe, the individuals who played a role in the development of explosives such as Roger Bacon and Brethold Shwarts, among others and the specific developments made with explosives chemistry. Other aspects of

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explosives history were provided to the participants to give them a background on explosives and their evolution. Explosion Types Participants were also taught about the different types of explosions. For example, mechanical explosions are those where pressure builds to the point that exceeds structural limits, chemical explosions that result from a change in chemicals, and nuclear explosions that are based on a large energy release from an unstable, nuclear element. Moreover, participants were given knowledge with regard to what explosive materials are and their elements including a compound or compounds and chemical change. Students were also provided with the formula for chemical reaction with reactants and products with focus on both making and breaking chemical bonds. Explosives Terminology Participants were also given definitions of various terms used related to explosives. Examples of the knowledge shared in this area included deflagration, which is a process of subsonic combustion that often propagates through the process of thermo conductivity. Students were also provided with such definitions as detonation, a process where a supersonic combustion event occurs that involves a shock wave followed by a reaction zone. Students also learned terms such as brisance, a measure of the rapidity with which an explosive develops its highest pressure and brisance explosive, an explosive where the maximum pressure is attained so quickly that a shock wave results, the net effect being the shattering of material in contact with the explosive and/or in close proximity to it. Students were taught definitions for many other terms commonly used in explosive study. The definitions also refer to aspects and areas of the explosion that have a direct relationship with the investigation into an explosion.

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Explosives Classification In the investigation of an explosion investigators need to know the different types of explosives. Previously mentioned is the need to understand, during an investigation, if an explosive that was high or low was used. Participants were informed that low explosives include flash, black and smokeless powders. Moreover, the participants were informed that high explosives include primary high explosives including lead azide, lead styphnate, mercury fulminate, DDNP and tetrazene. Moreover, the group was taught that with secondary high explosives that booster include petn and RDX while main charge explosives include ANFO, TNT, emulsions, water gels, binary explosives and dynamite. Additionally, with the various explosives, students were provided indepth information on the different types. For example, students were taught that low explosives are those that cannot support a detonation wave, that can burn to the point of deflagration, and that are initiated by either flame or heat. Similarly, with smokeless powder, the participants were taught that the reason why the powder is smokeless is because the combustion product is mostly gaseous as well as the properties of smokeless powder such as single-base and double-base powders. In contrast to the low explosives, the high explosives have several different properties and characteristics that were shared with the participants. For example, with the high explosives the material undergoes detonation. High explosives are also those that are initiated by either heat or shock and there is no need for confinement. Moreover, these explosives have a high level of brisance. The students were also educated on the many different kinds of high explosives. One main type of high explosives are the primary high explosives. Students were taught that the primary high explosives are those that require a very small amount of energy to be initiated. The primary high explosives are also ones, the students were taught, that can be initiated not only by shock and heat but also through friction, impact and flame. However,

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although the primary high explosives need little energy to detonate/initiate they actually have less power than secondary explosives. These explosives are used in initiation and detonator systems and include lead styphnate, fulminate, lead azide and mercury fulminate. The secondary high explosives are explosives that are relatively insensitive to shock, heat or flame, and friction compared to the primary high explosives just described. The secondary high explosives, the students were taught are cap or booster sensitive, Moreover, and perhaps most important is that the secondary high explosives is more powerful than primary explosives despite being less sensitive to initiation compared to primary explosives. Examples of secondary high explosives include PETN, Dynamite, ANFO and RDX. Break Down of Explosives The participants were also required to learn more about specific explosives in terms of the chemical compounds and other properties. Students were provided information on several chemicals including: Mercury Fulminate-White and Gray in Color with a VOD of 14,780 ft/sec=4533 m/s. Lead Azide (PHE)-An explosive that contains a toxic crystalline compound and is white in color. This material is considered highly sensitive, is stored under water in conductive rubber containers, and is capable of exploding based on a fall of about 150 mm or due to exposure of a 7 millijoules static discharge. This chemical is used to make detonators, has an excellent initiating agent for high explosives, is considered more efficient compared to mercury fulminate, and a good initiator for sensitive booster charges such as with PETN, Tetryl and RDX. The VOD is 16,745 ft/sec=5140 m/s. Lead Styphnate-Is an explosive that is used as a component in both primer and detonator mixtures for explosives that are less sensitive such as nitroglycerine.

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Lead Styphnate-Varies in its color from shades of yellow to brown this chemical is known to have particular sensitivity to fire as well as static electricity discharge. Also, it can be detonated by discharges from the human body, The chemical does not react with metals and is considered less sensitive to shock compared to lead azide and fulminate. VOD: 17,000 ft/sec=5215 m/s. Nitroglycerine-This chemical compound is known for being heavy, without color, oily, poisonous that is obtained by nitrating glycerol. The compound is known to be sensitive to shock and becomes more sensitive with temperature increases. The compound is also flammable and it can detonate due to fire while its vapors are known to cause both a severe and persistent headache. Nitroglycerine is considered one of the most frequently used components of explosive materials. VOD: 25,000 ft/sec or 7700 m/s. Amonium Nitrate and ANFO (SHE) –This is a chemical often used as a highnitrogen fertilizer, has a strong oxidizer, and us used mostly as an explosives component. It can also be mixed with a hydrocarbon such as diesel fuel to create ANFO which has been used with some terrorist bombings including the Oklahoma City Bombing and a Provisional IRA bombing. Pentaerythrite Tetranitrate PETN-This is one of the most powerful explosives with a power of 140% TNT. The compound is known to be insoluble in water but is soluble in solvents that are organic. VOD 27,200 ft/sec=8350 m/s. The compound is used with high-efficiency detonators, detonator cords and in the manufacture of boosters. Trinitrotoluene TNT-This compound is yellow or light gray, is one of the least sensitive explosives and is virtually bullet safe, and is not impacted by sea water or moisture. Additionally, with the flame from a match the TNT will

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burn. However, it will usually not detonate unless there are very large quantities that are burned at one time. VOD: 22,637 ft/sec=6950 m/s. Picric Acid-This is a toxic yellow substance crystalline solid that can melt at 11 0C and is soluble in water as well as most organic solvents. It also reacts with metals to create what are called metal picrates which are highly sensitive explosives that can be detonated through such means as shock, friction, heat, and flame. This compound is often utilized as a booster to detonate another often less sensitive explosive such as TNT. Cyclotrimethylene Trinitramine RDX-Royal Demolition Explosive-This compound is a white crystalline solid but is also red depending on the use. If the substance is used with a cord for detonation it will be red to pink in color. The compound is obtained via the reaction of concentrated nitric acid on hexamine. This compound is stable in its storage but is also considered the most powerful as well as brisant of the high explosives of the military. VOD 27,394 ft/sec=8400 m/s. Cyclotrimethylene Trinitramine-HMX-High Melting Explosive-This is the most powerful high explosive that is used by the military and has shock sensitivity. The substance will not dissolve in water but will dissolve in other chemicals, including acetone and is a white powder. VOD=29600 ft/sec=9100 m/sec. Tetryl-Tetryl is a yellow solid crystal like compound that has no odor. Tetryl also dissolved in water as well as other liquids and is considered a sensitive explosive compound that is used with detonation manufacture. The compound decomposes at 129 0C and it is created by an action involving a mix of concentrated nitric acid as well as sulfuric acid on dimethylaniline. Sheet Explosive-Sheet explosives are flexible high explosive applications and are made from a mix of a binder and PETN. The sheet explosive is also

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waterproof and comes in several shapes as well as in cord and sheet form. Two types of sheet explosives are the detasheet A which is a commercial form that is 85% PETN is red and also detonator sensitive. In contrast, the Detasheet B is a military variety with a 63% PETN. Explosive Mixtures Students were also taught about explosive mixtures including the following: Amatol – 20% TNT + 80% AN Comp. A3 – 91% RDX + 9% Wax Comp. B – 60% RDX + 39 % TNT + 1% Wax Comp. B4 – 60% RDX + 39.5% TNT + Calcium Silicate Comp. C4 – 91% RDX + 9% Non-explosive plasticizer VOD: 26,377 ft/sec (8,050 meters per second),. Tetrytol – 75% Tetryl + 25% TNT Pentolite – 50% PETN + 50% TNT How Explosives Work The participants in the training were also taught how explosives work. For example, they were taught that the flame and heat ignites the propellant charge, leading gases to be produced, and the bullet being driven through the bore of the weapon with low explosive trains. Moreover, with high explosive trainers, the students were taught that the first step involves the initiation of the detonator while the second step is where the detonator explodes and causes the dynamite to be initiated. Further the students learned of the exploding booster that causes an initiation. Explosive Initiating Systems The participants in the training were also taught about the explosive initiating systems. An initiator is a term that is used to describe any type of device that is used to start either a deflagration or detonation. These devices

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that are used to initiate high explosives are known as detonators. However, the devices that are utilized to start burning or deflagration are called igniters of squibs. Safety fuses, the participants were taught, are utilized to initiate non-electrical detonators and are made of black powder with properties including a rope like fuse, The safety fuse is designed to be initiated with a specially designed fuse math of lighter and burns its length at a rate that is predetermined usually between 25-45 ft/sec. As for detonators, they are used for the initiating of high explosives and also contain small amounts of sensitive primary explosive. Participants also learned about non-electrical detonators. These detonators are used to initiate other explosives and use a detonating cord as well as a shock tube. Moreover, the students were informed of the ingredients used with the non-electrical detonators such as lead azide, lead styphnate, PETN and RDX. Construction characteristics of the non-electrical detonators include shell material, explosive material such as .65 grams of high explosives, have a length of approximately 2 3/8 inches and a diameter of .292 inches. In contrast, the electrical detonators are used to initiate other explosives, detonating cords and shock tubes, contain RDX PETN. tetryl, lead azide, and lead styphnate. There are three types of electrical detonators such as the instantaneous, the short period delay, and the long period delay. The electrical detonators are similar to the non-electrical detonators with the exception of that they are initiated through the application of an electrical current through electrical wires. Explosions Participants not only learned about the make up of bombs and the detonators that make them explode, they also were instructed on the explosions themselves. For example, students were taught that an explosion is both the sudden and rapid production and escape of gases from a confined space and are accompanied by a shock, noise and hear. It is the high-pressure gases that change, move or shatter materials that are nearby.

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Moreover, an explosion can be defined as a large scale, loud, and rapid expansion of matter where the volume of the matter becomes larger than its original volume. This phenomena occurs due to bursting a vessel that contains a pressurized fluid, a fast burning reaction of the detonation of an explosive material. Participants also learned about the effects of explosions. There are several effects of explosions due to the fact that they produce a spherically expanding heat and pressure wave. The participants were taught that the effects of the explosion often hold the key to understanding the dynamics of the explosion as well as the sequence of evens that occurred as the explosion happened. Explosions occur in a shape that is spherical, meaning that it moves outward from the origin in all directions equally. Two important concepts are the rate of the pressure rise and the maximum pressure. The rate of pressure rise is more important than the maximum pressure. There are two types of pressure phases with explosions. With the positive pressure phase the blast pressure front moves away from the point of origin. The positive phase is where the positive pressure phase is stronger than the negative and causes the most damage called the primary effect. In contrast, with the negative pressure phase, because of the movement outward from the origin of the positive pressure phase, a low-pressure areas is created. The low-pressure area allows the movement back towards the origin of the surrounding air. The negative pressure phase causes secondary or additional damage and often the debris moves towards the origin point thought it can also move in the opposite direction of the positive pressure phase. With the secondary blast pressure effects there is reflection where the blast pressure contacts an object and the front moves in a different direct, thus the reflection which can cause damage in different locations and directions. Refraction is often a result of different temperature layers. Damage, with the reflection can be amplified as a result of the movement of blast pressure in one direction. With the secondary blast there is also the

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seismic aspect where as the blast pressure wave expands and damaged parts of buildings start to fall, there can be significant and localized seismic waves that can be transmitted to the ground. The affect of the wave is dependent on the conditions of the soil. The trainees were also taught about fragmentation that includes debris from the explosives container. Meanwhile, shrapnel is the debris that is placed in the area of the device, often placed there to inflict harm upon those in close proximity to the exposition. The fragments are very important to the investigation into the exposition as they often contain material that has not exploded or otherwise been damages. The fragments can also contain bomb parts that can be investigated such as timing devices and/or triggering devices. The program also addressed the thermal (incendiary) effect of the exposition. The trainees were informed that combustion explosions release quantities of energy that heat light solid combustibles or gases present to their ignition temperature. Moreover, high temperature gas is often enough to ignite diffuse fuels or lightweight fuels. Moreover, the high temperature gas can often ignite materials in the surrounding area of the explosion. There are, the trainees learned, several factors that can affect the impact of the explosion. One such factor is the nature of the fuel utilized. The type of fuel in terms of its mix with air by volume, the location of fuel in the explosive container, and the method of initiation can impact the condition of the scene and perhaps more importantly, the evidence found at the scene. Moreover, the quantity of the fuel used in the explosive can impact the effects of the explosive. The configuration of the fuel also impacts the explosion as homogeneous mixture explosives that are in a compartment or structure might produce more damage to a structure. The vessel that contains much of the explosive materials can also have a major impact on the explosion as well as the damage that it causes. For example, a more basic containment vessel that includes paper, wax, thin plastic coverings, and so on can cause a different type of damage than

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explosives made of other materials. The amount of damage that results depends on factors including the size, shape and construction in terms of materials and design. Meanwhile, venting where pressure is released as a result of the structural failure of the confining vessel can impact the explosion in terms of the location of vents as well as their size. Explosion Crime Scene Investigation With the explosion crime scene investigation the main task for the trainees was to identify the explosive material used. Two main situations that the trainees were educated about the first being an appreciable sample of explosive being recovered that can be subject to a straightforward chemical analysis and where there is no appreciable sample of explosive recovered. In the second situation, where no appreciable sample of explosive can be recovered from the scene, there are times when microscopic fragments of explosives and/or its residues can be located and identified. Locations of Evidence, Collection and Recovery There are several locations where the appreciable samples of an explosive can be recovered. In the case where there is a partial explosion, such as a security container attack a sample could be found inside the lock. Moreover, explosive materials can actually be left at the crime scene deliberately or accidentally by the perpetrator of the explosive crime. Further, with the perpetrator themselves, should they be apprehended, appreciable samples can be found on their person such as their clothes and through other transfer such as their home and/or their car. Yet, one of the most important aspects of the investigation is that the trainees must understand the need to recognize the evidence. Recognition is a vital part of the process. Care must be used in the evaluation of possible surfaces. Also, evidence if often hard to see as it cannot be recognized easily by color, might not be easily recognizable by form such as due to varied shapes, sizes and firms, and may not be recognizable by smell as some

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evidence is odorless. However, despite the many challenges faced in the collection of evidence there are some tools that can be used to recognize materials that should be collected and bagged. Experience, of course, is one of the best ways to recognize evidence. However, individuals who are new to the position of investigating an explosion can be aided by understanding the context of the explosion as this can influence the evidence collection. Additionally, the collection of fragments aids in the identification of the explosive as does the wrapping that can be found at the scene. Some investigations use explosive vapor detectors, however, these have limitations. Some investigators also use dogs to detect vapors due to their acute sense of smell. With the recovery of evidence, there are certain procedures that should be followed. For example, the trainees were instructed to use paper spatula for collection, to transfer the evidence into a capsule, pack in another container, protect with shock absorbent material, seal and label and transfer the evidence to the lab for analysis when testing for sensitivity. Where evidence is collected without concern for sensitivity, the process includes picking up the item with a spatula, transferring the item into a clear container, using a polyethylene bag with a self deal, the labeling of the item and final transfer to the lab for analysis. There are also cases where in addition to or instead of dry samples being taken, there are liquid samples collected at the explosion scene. Liquid materials can be on the ground and/or absorbed into inert materials such as clean sawdust, cotton or other items. The samples that are mixed with debris should be removed properly and taken to the lab for analysis. With the collection of evidence from a suspect or suspects, there are several areas that the sample or samples can be collected from. For example, the hands can have residues or other materials that are collected by a cotton swab. Moreover, some criminals may have evidence under their fingernails and this evidence is collected with a wooden stick. With clothing,

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that can have solvents or scrap attached to them they can be collected. Other belongings of all and any suspects should be collected such as the car and/or home of the suspect. All investigators need to carry with them the tools for such evidence collection. Students were instructed that investigators should have a sealed box with tools such as several pairs of plastic gloves, cotton wool swabs, a bottle of diethyl ether, a sheet of glazed paper, a pair of disposable tweezers, small wooden sticks, sealed ampoules of D. water, and new self seal plastic bags. In the case where the investigator cannot local and appreciable sample of explosive, there are alternatives such as a residue search. Such residue can include the gaseous decomposition of products such as CO and CO2 among others. These gaseous products will be dispersed in the atmosphere prior to the investigation. Also, the investigator can seek solid decomposition byproducts such as chlorides from chlorate explosives as well as KS04 that comes from black powder. The investigator also needs to focus the search for detectable residue near the center of the explosion where it will be dispersed at a high level. Moreover, the search for the detectable materials will be useless if it is made at a distance less than the fireball. There are several issues to consider in where to start the search near the explosive. First, the fireball must be understood. The fireball is considered the inner zone of the explosion that consists of hot gases. Any unrecompensed explosives in the fireball will decompose at this later stage. Factors that influence evidence collection also includes the charge weight. With the larger charge there is reduced chance that outside explosives have not initiated. The chance is high with charges up to 1.0 Kg and low with the charges that are over 10 kg. Also, the trainees were informed that the nature of the surface also impacts the evidence and that no surface should be neglected. With surfaces, the different types of surfaces will have different abilities in terms of retaining resides from explosives. Differences inherent in wood, metals, and fabrics do play a role in the ability to collect evidence. Moreover, the orientation of the surface also plays a role in evidence

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collection and testing as only surfaces that are facing the direction of the blast will have received deposition of detectable levels. With recovery, the trainees were informed, the recovery is largely dependent on the nature of the object that the sample is deposited on. There are surfaces that are movable that should be completely transferred to the lab for analysis that can include broken fragments, clothing, furniture, etc. . However, there are surfaces such as walls and other items that cannot be moved. Hence, to recover the sample the trainees were taught that they should swab the non-absorbent surfaces using water, ether or other solvents. In some cases the explosive evidence can be recovered through absorbent surfaces. Trainees were also instructed that control samples should always be collected to show that the explosives found in the samples did not exist at the scene prior to the explosive event. Additionally, control samples should be collected as a means of demonstrating that the concentration of explosive in the sample is higher than the control sample. Spot Tests and Explosives The trainees were also taught that there are several ways to identify explosives with the spot test method. The preliminary examination of an area can include a focus on looking for certain colors, identifying certain smells, and identifying the explosive related to consistency and contaminants. With color tests, each test is carried out on a fresh portion of the unmodified sample with a white spot plate. Two milligrams is sufficient for most of the tests. However, there are some cases where the explosive has been mixed with other compounds such as wood, metal, soil or debris. In such cases a larger sample is needed. The tests are observed with the naked eye, mostly, and some rely on the 10X magnification if necessary. With the testing of the Nitroglycerin and An group, the instructions shared with the trainees were as follows: One-Add one drop of 0.1% solution of diphenyl amine in nitrogen free conc. Sulphuric acid. If the result is a deep blue color this means that the nitrate is

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present. Two-Adding one drop of sulphanilic acid in 33% acetic acid as well as two drops of a-naphthyl amine acid. If the color is red a nitrate is present. Another test to use is to add one drop of absolute alcohol and one drop of Nessler’s Reagent (K2Hgl4). This test can yield the following results: Ammonium-Yellow or Orange and Brown Color Nitroglycerin-Black Color TNT-Red Color In the case that the sample with the spot test does turn to red and thus sows that TNT is present, it is advised that the test be repeated with water extract as a means of confirming the findings. With the Organic Nitro Aromatic and Nitra-Amines, the tests differ. The test involves the use of one drop of 1:1 acetone ethanol and one drop of tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide. With these tests the color codes and findings are as follows: DNT-Blue Color Nitroglycerin-Dark Green Color Nitroglycerin-Faint Yellow Color TNT-Red Color Transient Green Changed to Red-DNT, TNT and Nitroglycerin The testing can also use one drop of 1:1 acetone ethanol and one drop of piperdine. The following results may appear with this method: DNT-No Color Present TNT-Red Color Also, the test can involve adding a few milligrams of powdered thymol, five drops of nitrogen free conc, sulphuric acid and one drop of d. water. The following results may be present: Nitrate-Green Color RDX, HMX and Sugar-Red Color To conduct a blank test two hundred milligrams of thymol and 0.3 millimeters of conc sulphuric acid are prepared and warmed for five minutes

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at one hundred degree Celsius. And add between five and ten milliliters of ethanol. With this test, if a rich blue color appears, RDX is present but no sugar or HMX are present. The tests for inorganic cations were also presented to the trainees. With the test, the trainees were instructed to add one drop of 1:1 acetone, ethanol and two drops of saturated solution of zinc uranyl acetate. If there is a slowly developing yellow green color that can be seen under a ultra-violet light, then sodium is present. However, is the sample is black in color then one drop of 1:1 acetone ethanol and one drop of benzidine agent should be added. A resulting blue color means a positive test result for manganese. Meanwhile, with the inorganic anions the first step is to add one drop of five percent nitrate in dilute nitric acid. With a white color that changes to violent, chloride is present. The next step, the trainees were informed, is to use one drop of ammonium molybdenate in diluted nitric acid, one drop of benzidine reagent and three drops of ammonium acetate. If there is a rich blue color that appears, phosphate is present. Also, the trainees were taught that is a gas evolves when the acids are used in the reagents this might indicate the presence of metals or carbonates. With the last group, sulfur the trainees were taught to mix a few milligrams of the sample with about ten times its weight in benzoin. The mix occurs in a small ignition tube that is warmed to about one hundred and sixty degree Celsius. Basic lead acetate paper is placed at the mouth of the tube, as demonstrated to the participants. If the color is a black stain this means that sulfur is present. Chapter 3.2 Equipment and Tools Training The trainees were also taught how to use various tools used with explosives investigations along side various pieces of machinery. The equipment testing is considered a very important part of the explosive investigation. As there is much room for human error with the tools and equipment that are used to test various materials the equipment and tools training is vital. The trainees were all exposed to several tools and equipment

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and were given demonstrations that focused on the proper use of the equipment and tools as well as the reading of the results of the tools. E.L.I.T.E Explosives Detection With tools, the trainees were exposed to the E.L.I.T.E Explosives Detection brand. The trainees learned how to handle the testing tools such as methods used to avoid pre-test contamination, the proper way to remove the testing tool from its protective covering, how to place a sample on the tool surface, how to break the ampoules that are a part of the tool, placing the device into a heater, and the removal and application of agents. In addition to the procedures that the trainees were exposed to, they were also taught how to read the results of the E.L.I.T.E. Explosives Detection, such as related to the intensity of color and its meaning. Hazmat ID The Hazmat ID is another equipment that was used in the training. The Hazmat ID is a portable chemical identifier that is utilized as a means of identifying chemicals that are unknown. The identifier can be used for unknown liquids, solids and powders. Moreover, the user does not have to prepare the sample while the system can measure how the chemical samples interact with light. The system is typically used to identify chemicals and the trainees were taught how to use the system as well as interpret its results. Sabre 4000 Whereas the trainees used the Hazmat ID as a means of learning more about unknown liquids, they also were exposed to the Smith Detection SABRE 4000. This system is considered both a reliable though highly sensitive tool that is based on the Ion Mobility Spectrometry technology. The system allows the users to detect in an accurate manner as well as identify the trace residues of vapors. Moreover, the system allows for the

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identification and detection of specific substances that can include explosives as well as illicit drugs. The trainees were taught how to use the system such as with the collection method including the proper wiping down of surfaces and use of absorbing material, among other processes and procedures that are a part of the tool use. Telerob EOD/IEDD Equipment, EOD Robots and Vehicles The trainees were also given an overview of the highly sophisticated telerob-EOD/IEDD Equipment, EOD Robots and Vehicles. This highly innovative robot is used for bomb disposal and allows the individuals on scene to use a mechanical bomb disposal robot. The trainees were instructed on the mechanics of the robot as well as its proper use in terms of the settings used to command the robot to perform various bomb disposal tasks. Dog and Clothing In addition to the more mechanical tools and equipment that were shared with the trainees in the training, the participants also learned more about the proper clothing and use of dogs in the effort to address explosive crime scenes. For example, the individuals were taught through demonstration how to wear the explosive ordinance disposal clothing. The trainees were also taught about specific behaviors to avoid such as arriving on scene without the proper body protection. Meanwhile, the trainees were also taught about the use of dog explosions detection with a highly trained dog that was used to detect the explosives.

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Chapter 3.3 Practical Scene With the practical scene the trainees were exposed to various scenes that had been subject to explosives. There were numerous types of objects that were blown up and these items included a small building of three rooms, several cars, and other items. With the practical scene, the participants were required to check for safety, collect the fragments and conduct the analyses. There were several different types of explosives that were used in the experiment that the trainees were required to identify.

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The practical scene training included an effort to check the trainees for knowledge. The first activity that the trainees were involved in during the day was to take a multiple-choice quiz to test the training. Also, the individuals were tested in certain behaviors as they examined the scene such as if they used the bomb dog, how they approached the scene in terms of wearing the right protective clothing, how the scene was approached, and how the trainees collected the fragments and other forms of evidence, the use of the equipment, and other processes and procedures. This period also involved the ability for the trainees to correctly identify the explosives through the proper use of equipment.

Chapter 3.4 Examination Scene Whereas the practical scene allowed the supervisors of the organization to assist the trainees as they worked with the various scenes, the trainees were not allowed to gain any assistance during the examination scene. Each morning, the participants were given a quiz to test knowledge, followed by the scene. The first step with the scene was to have the supervisors blow something up with the use of explosives. Additionally, the expectation was that the trainees work as a team and choose groups based

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on the various tasks relate to the scene. Hence, some of the team members addressed safety issues while others collected fragments and performed the various analyses with the previously discussed equipment. The team members were graded by experts, those who had actually created the bombs that were used in the experiment. The final examination scenes were the most important scenes to pass the training, and as mentioned, the graduation was attended by the Minister of the Ministry of Interior.

Chapter Four 4Chapter 4.1 Results and Discussion The results of the experiment include not only the number of participants who passed the program but also the learning of the organization about the training methods. The following discussion addresses the immediate results of the experiment related to the rate of completion of the program and the learning of the organization in the assessment of the program.

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There were one hundred and twenty five trainees in the program. Eighty-nine of the participants did graduate. Hence, there were thirty-six individuals who did not graduate. Of these thirty-five individuals who did not graduate, twenty-five of the participants did not want to complete the program while eleven individuals failed the last month, which was the examination month. Hence, while over half the participants were able to finish the program, the results show a high drop our rate as well as a high level of failure. Final Results-Pass, Drop-Out and Failure Rates The supervisors of the training were well aware that several of the participants were struggling with the training program. As previously mentioned, there were tutorials offered to the participants during the first month of training as it became clear that there were several members of the training group that did not have knowledge of the chemistry behind the explosives and/or struggled in this aspect of learning. Moreover, we realized that many of the individuals were struggling as many made the supervisors aware that they did not want to complete the program at all. Training Challenges Problems did occur with the program that were made clear during the program, not just after the program when the final tally of the number of participants, drop outs, and failures of the examination were known. Examination of the failure rates as compared to the literature review that provides a solid foundation on various aspects of training suggests that the results can be explained, in part, due to problems related to the training program itself. Pre-Training The research suggests that there are many actions that can be undertaken prior to the training that can aid in positive training outcomes. For

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example, one of the most important aspects of the training is to ensure that the trainees understand the expectations of the training. While the participants obviously were aware that the training intended to result in gaining skills, knowledge and competencies as related to explosives, the organization might not have been clear in terms of what types of knowledge, skills and competencies were needed. Moreover, the supervisors and developers of the program did not consider the training goals specifically, According to Jackson, Schuler and Werner, the training goals should be clearly stated. Moreover, the conditions under which the performance is expected should also be made clear. While it can be assumed that the trainees were aware of the goals on an abstract or general level, the supervisors did not establish specific goals of the training. Perhaps the trainers could have been more specific about the expectations of the training in order to give the trainees a better idea of the requirements of the program. Person Analysis One of the most apparent problems discovered was that the organization had not conducted a proper personal analysis. As discusses in the literature review the person analysis examines the readiness of the potential trainees in terms of their needs and their condition in terms of being able to effectively trained. Moreover, and perhaps more importantly, this analysis examines the knowledge and skill of the workers prior to training, and their willingness as well as ability to learn. The fact that the final results revealed that several people did not want to complete the program suggested a lack of interest and raised the issue of if a similar program or other programs should be voluntary or mandatory in the future. Moreover, the results indicated that some individuals lacked the knowledge and skills to perform well on the exams as eleven people did fail the program, despite additional tutoring and ongoing trainee support.

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Increasing Learning During Training As mentioned in the literature review there are ways that learning can be increased during training. For example, where there are higher levels of active participation, Jackson, Schuler and Werner report, a higher level of performance may result. The authors also state that the trainees can be more actively involved in training when discussions are active in the classroom. The method of training, that was mostly lecture where few questions were asked of the participants, that led to a lack of active involvement, could across for the results of the program. (5) Additionally, the research reveals that individuals may learn better when they are taught in a manner that leads to success. Unfortunately, authors Jackson, Schuler and Werner seem to do little in terms of explaining just how the information should be presented. Still, based on other comments made by the authors, more active participation is one method that can be used in the teaching effort. Moreover, as Jackson, Schuler and Werner report, feedback can be used to increase learning during the training period. Few efforts were made in the first month to provide feedback. Instead, when trainees mentioned that they were struggling with some aspects of the training they were given tutoring sessions. Even with this effort, there were other efforts, Jackson, Schuler and Werner make clear, that could have been undertaken. (5) It appears that the training program was based on teaching the trainees the basic information in the first month followed by its application in the second. Hence, it could be argued that one of the training problems was that the program was developed in a way that was not conducive to the retention of some information. For example, the trainees might have remembered the information better with better examples. Instead of, for instance, informing the participants that a certain type of chemical is used in a certain type of bomb with a Power Point presentation, the trainers could have brought in dummy bombs, discussed their properties and components, and passed them around the class. Such efforts could have aided the

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students in making connections that would improve learning. Of course, with some aspects of the training, the use of props or examples might not help the trainees such as with the chemical compounds. Evaluation of the Program During Training It might be assumed that the evaluation of the training would occur at the end of the training as it most often is. However, as Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart and Wright state, as mentioned in the literature review. The results of the training can be measured both during and after the training period. In fact, the trainers can measure the results of the training in intervals as well as a on a period basis as the training is ongoing. There were several efforts to test the trainees as the program was underway. However, these efforts might have been inadequate. (6) One problem that may have occurred in the training was that the organization initially placed so much focus on the classroom education. As discussed with the actual training, a high level of focus was placed on the learning of different bomb types, the components of bombs and other information. However, a problem with this focus was that the material was presented in a way that stressed the concepts in way that did not directly link to the real world. While some examples were used to illustrate points in the lectures, much of the information that was shared was not applied to real life situations which could have hindered the ability of the trainees to remember the information. As Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart and Wright state, the transfer of training does require that the transfer of training requires that the trainees are aware of the trainees learning content as well as the conditions that have to be in place to learn the information. (6) Further, while there were some efforts to evaluate the program during the training, such as with the quizzes that the trainees were given frequently, there may have been more efforts undertaken to increase the chance of trainees success in terms of the satisfaction of the participants. For example, the trainers could have spoken to the trainees more about their satisfaction

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or lack thereof, instead of focusing on the use of tutoring sessions. Additionally, the trainers might have considered measuring the training in terms of methods. With methods it appears that when the participants of the training program were facing struggles with the chemical aspects of explosives that the immediate reaction was to use tutors and additional sessions to assist the trainees. However, even with these additional efforts, as the results demonstrate, there was a high rate of failure. Hence, the training itself has been called into question. And, as previously mentioned, issues of concern include the method in which the information was presented such as the fact that the technical information was not intermixed with more real life examples. Further, there is concern that more tools could have been used to aid in the retention of information such as bring in props and perhaps even using more images to enhance the learning. Measuring the Results of the Training In terms of the measurement of the results of the training, the organization focused on the drop our rate as well as the failure rate in the training. However, as the research shows, more should be done as a means of learning more about the success and/or failure of the training. For example, the research shows that with the design of the course objectives that there should also be a simultaneous effort to identify methods on the measurement of objectives. The organization, however, focused more on the goals of the training and worked based on the assumption that the training would work. There were no major concerns when the program was developed that students would not pass or drop out of the training program. In the measurement of the results of the training there are several different approaches that can be used. According to the research, aspects of measuring the results of the training can include the satisfaction of the trainees, measurement of the abilities gained by the trainees and the transfer of training, among other areas. Moreover, the research shows that the

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methods of training can also be evaluated. Perhaps the participants, for example, would have been able to learn better through films as opposed to the lecture and slide presentation. Other methods, meanwhile, might have used for the training could have included lecture only, role play, etc. The measurement of the training could also include measurements related to how the training outcomes have impacted the overall performance of the organization. Evaluation Post-Training One of the challenges with the post-training evaluation, an effort that is needed to aid in understanding the problems with the training more specifically as well as to serve as a guide for future improvements, is that the trainers did not create clear goals of the training. While the developers of the program clearly had goals of the program, they were more abstract. For example, a major goal of the training was to train the members of the organization in order to address the fact that Qatar has had to gain the assistance of outside experts with regard to recent terror events, specifically events related to the use of explosives. The results appear to indicate that there were problems with the training. Moreover, and perhaps more importantly, while the organization made many efforts to ensure that the trainees were able to complete the course, as evident by the tutoring that was made available to the trainees, it appears that more needed to be done to ensure that the participants in the program remained with the program as well as passed the training program. Hence, there are many areas of the training that can be improved in the fuiture. The Forensic Laboratory Department is not clear that it will be providing the same training in the future. After all, the training was an initial training that was created for the members of the department based on the goal of a single training session. As for individuals in the future, no plans were made on how to handle the training of new employees as they join the

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organization. Nonetheless, despite the lack of planning with regard to the specific training program on explosives, the organization can consider learning from the lessons of the experiment. The organization will likely use various training efforts in the future and though the same training program might not be replicated or even improved on, other training sessions could be improved based on learning from the explosives training.

Chapter 4.2 Recommendations The results are somewhat positive with many participants passing the training course. However, as previously mentioned there were several individuals who did not pass the training and several individuals who did not complete the training. Hence, in light of these problems with the training, a discussion of methods on improving training for the future is warranted. Organizational Analysis

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The first recommendation for the organization is related to the literature on the organizational analysis. As previously discussed a major component of training is the use of an organizational analysis. This analysis allows the organization to learn more about the strategy of the organization, the resources for the training and relates to the management support for the training activities. While the training program did understand the need for training as it was obvious that the country Qatar did not have the skills needed for its own explosion analysis and forensics work, there were areas that the organization did not focus on that are a part of the organizational analysis. Person Analysis Perhaps the most important recommendation for the training in the future is to conduct a person analysis. Once the strategy is in place for the organization and as the training is about to be developed, it is imperative that the organization understand the status of its workers. The Forensic Laboratory Department, Ministry of Qatar needs to be able to gain an understanding of the level of knowledge and skills of its workers to aid in the development of the training. Moreover, the organization, based on the understanding of its workers in terms of knowledge and skill levels needs to understand the readiness of the employees related to the training. Perhaps in learning more about the interest in the workers about the training could aid in finding an appropriate training time. However, the readiness for training also relates to the knowledge and skills and this suggests that the organization should seek to fill gaps in knowledge, such as the chemistry and chemical compound basics, before moving into the fill fledged training. Setting the Stage for Learning A second recommendation for the organization is to set the stage for learning. As the literature review mentions, for the trainees to perform as they are expected to perform, they must understand the training expectations. The

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organization did not articulate the training expectations, aside from the obvious mention of the training itself, how long it would last, and how the trainees would be tested. However, there was no mention of links between training and the safety of the people of Qatar. While all the employees were clearly aware of the fact that the Doha, Qatar has been subject to terrorist attacks in recent years, it seems that the trainers did not link the real life attacks with the training. Perhaps in discussing the need for the training within the context of the terrorism would create a sense of urgency that could lead to higher retention levels as there were several people who dropped out of the training program. Increasing Learning During Training The organization can also work to increase learning during training. Though we had used tutors to supplement the training, this was based on pervious errors such as the failure to address the lack of knowledge among some of the trainees. There are additional methods that can be used to enhance any future training. For example, as the literature suggests, one method is to facilitate mastery as opposed to having the trainees focus on areas where they have weaknesses. Hence, the information needs to be presented, the research finds, in a way that leads to success. Unfortunately, the research does not state just what method this is. Hence, the organization should consider working with professional trainers to learn more about teaching methods. Perhaps one of the reasons why there were several drop outs and individuals who failed the program was due to the teaching approach, an approach that was based on the assumption that the Power Point presentation, lecture, and demonstrations were the best methods. Feedback The research also finds that effective training includes feedback. While we did provide the participants with quizzes, these were brief quizzes and may not have revealed to the trainers how much several of the trainees

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were struggling. Though we had offered tutoring, there were larger problems than we anticipated. Hence, more feedback during the training is needed in the future but this feedback has to be offered based on more testing during the training. Additionally, feedback can also refer to simple feedback given to the trainees to motivate and encourage them, in addition to allowing the trainees to understand where they stand with the knowledge and skill development. Practice Practice may have been an issue despite the fact that we felt there were many opportunities to practice the knowledge and skills that the training program sought to develop. The Perhaps the time period was too short with the training as more practice may have been needed. Moreover, the organization needs to learn from the participants if they felt that practice, among other factors, played any role in the problems that some of the participants faced with the training program. Motivation The organization needs to better motivate the trainees. Several methods can be considered in this motivational effort such as creating a stronger sense of urgency about the need for the program. Additionally, incentives, feedback, praise, recognition and rewards could also be considered as motivators for the trainees. The organization should also consider examining the realm of tying the training to promotions and the ability to advance in the Forensic Laboratory Department, Ministry of Qatar. Evaluation of the Training: Focus on Trainees The organization should work to learn from the recent training through the use of various methods. First, the organization could create surveys that would be used to inquire about specific aspects of the training. Questions could be created that would focus on specific training aspects such as the

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lecture, the Power Point, the practical training and the final examination. Questions on these areas could aid in learning what worked with the training and what did not. Moreover, offering the participants the chance to answer these questions anonymously could lead to more honest replies from the employees that in turn could aid in improving this training, if it were to be offered in the future, as well as other training efforts. Additionally, to learn more about the reasons for trainee drop out rates and failed exam rates, the trainers could meet one on one with the participants to discuss their personal challenges and motivations for leaving the program. Perhaps a focus group could be created in order to address the challenges that many of the participants faced. Such methods could aid in creating a constructive dialogue that would help learn more about the training while the lessons learned could be applied to future training initiatives. Potential for Skills Transfer and Application of Training The type of training that was provided, explosives training, is the type of training that the organization hopes to never have to use in a real life situation. Of course, any explosive situation could be the result of a terrorist act and as previously reported there have been recent terror attacks in Qatar. Hence, we hope that the skills developed are actually not used in a real life situation. However, the reality of the world forces the organization to provide the explosives training to its law enforcement employees. And, as the terrorist attacks are rate in the country, though always a possibility, we must ensure that the skills are kept up to date. Hence, methods to determine if skills have been transferred and that the training can be applied might mean the creation of more simulated exercises in order to keep the information and skills fresh in the minds of the trainees. Of course, with the potential for future exercises and perhaps even refresher sessions that would aid in the trainees retaining the knowledge and skills, improvements based on the other recommendations made, such as

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learning more from those who struggled with the training, could be implemented. Hence, to further aid in achieving the goals of the training including solving crimes more quickly, providing equipment knowledge and skills, and other goals, special supplemental sessions could be offered that include improved methods.

Chapter 4.3 Conclusions The experiment was one based on a specific response to terrorism that has occurred in Qatar. The country, like many, is not immune to threats of terrorism as well as terrorism attacks as recent explosions/bombings have made clear. Hence, a training program was developed and implemented focusing on goals such as the country being able to use its own human resources to address these crimes, solve the crimes more quickly, and providing employees with the skills and knowledge for bombing situations,

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among other goals. The training, which involved one moth of lecture and Power Point, one month of practical training and a final examination was based on a program that the organization developed. The organization created the training based on information that was believed to be important to the investigation of and solving of, crimes related to explosions as well as explosions in general that the organization could be called on to investigate. The members of the Forensic Laboratory Department, Ministry of Qatar were trained and tutored, with the results showing many individuals who passed the training, some individuals failing the program and a relatively high drop out rate. It is in light of the two issues, the fact that some trainees failed the program and that several dropped out that has warranted an investigation into the examination. The findings reveal that the organization needs to make many improvements to its training efforts. The research reveals that the organization should have worked harder prior to training to asses the training situation. From the readiness of the trainees to the development of the actual program, there are several areas where the organization can make improvements prior to the implementation of the training effort. Moreover, in addition to better preparation, the research also shows that there are many ways that the training can be improved during the training. During the training program the organization can undertake several actions to improve the learning. From focusing on mastery, improving the techniques being used in the training to the provision of feedback, there are several methods that the organization can use for future training. Regardless of whether or not the organization decides to provide a similar training program on explosives in the future, the organization will provide training for its employees, and can apply lessons from the explosives training. The Forensic Laboratory Department, Ministry of Qatar needs to follow the recommendations that have been made as a means of overcoming what appear to be serious deficiencies with its training program. Through an evaluation method, that should include learning more from the trainees

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themselves, working with experts in training methods, and other data, more specific knowledge can be gained that can be considered with future training. As the organization has the goal of improving the skills of the trainees as well as enhancing their knowledge, changes must be made in the future training, regardless of the topic or topics that are covered. The Forensic Laboratory, Ministry of Qatar is an organization that is committed to the education of its department members. One of the main goals is to provide the employees with the skills and knowledge that are needed to perform a wide range of forensic tasks in the continuous effort to fight crime in the nation. The experiment is one that has aided the organization as many members have passed the rigorous and challenging training program. Yet, as discussed extensively, there are concerns that several members chose to drop out of the program and several did not pass the program.

References 1.Davis, T.L. (1984). The Chemistry of Powder & Explosives. Angriff Press, Las Vegas, Nevada. p. 1. 2. Science JRank (3. 1. 2010). Explosives-History. [WWW Document]. URL http://science.jrank.org/pages/2634/Explosives-History.html

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3.Guardian UK. (3. 1. 2010). Ex-Chechen president killed in car blast. [WWW Document}. URL http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2004/feb/13/chechnya.russia 4. BBC News. (3. 1. 2010). Car bomb targets theater in Qatar. [WWW Document]. URL http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4365039.stm 5.Jackson, S.E., Schuler, R.S. & Werner, S. (2009). Managing Human Resources (Tenth Edition). Mason, Ohio, South-Western Cengage Learning. pp. 281-301. 6. Noe, R.A., Hollenbeck, J.R., Gerhart, B. & Wright, P.M. (2009). Fundamentals of Human Resource Management (Third Edition). Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin. pp. 181-207.

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