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Principle of Growth and Development Heredity (Biology) - is the transmission of genetics characters from parents to offspring.

Genetics – the branch of biology dealing with the scientific investigation of the mechanism of heredity. One’s genetic make-up for any characteristics comprise one’s genotype Traits observable from the outside, for instance, certain traits have greater biochemical activity than others; these are called DOMINANT TRAIT The trait that will not be produced when paired with the dominant gene is the RECESSIVE TRAIT

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT Growing  complex phenomenon of a structure or whole GROWTH  Increase in physical size of a structure or whole  Quantitative  2 parameters o Weight  Most sensitive measurement for growth Weight gain: 2x = 5 – 6 mos.

3x = 1 year
HEIGHT ESTROGEN  responsible for increase in height in female years for the increase in height in male TESTOSTERONE  responsible Stoppage of height coincide with the eruption of the wisdom teeth  - 1”/ mo – 1 – 6 mos  - 1.5”/ mo – 7 – 12 mos

DOMINANT TRAITS Brown Eye Curly Hair Normal Hair Normal sight Normal color vision Normal coloring Extra fingers or toes Dwarfed limbs

RECESSIVE TRAITS Blue Eye Straight Hair Baldness Night Blindness Color Blindness Albinism (lack of pigment) Normal number Normally-proportional limbs

4x = 2 – 2½

Basic Knowledge on Genetics and Obstetrics 1. DNA – carries genetic code 2. Chromosomes – threadlike strands composed of hereditary material – DNA 3. Normal amount of ejaculated sperm 3 – 5 cc., one tsp 4. Ovum is capable of being fertilized with in 24 – 36 hrs after ovulation 5. Sperm is viable within 48 – 72 hrs, 2-3 days 6. Reproductive cells divides by the process of meiosis (haploid) Spermatogenesis – maturation of sperm Oogenesis – process - maturation of ovum Gematogenesis – formation of 2 haploid into diploid 23 + 23 = 46 or diploid

 - 50 % - 1 Year

HEIGHT COMPARISON 9 y/o  male = female 12 y/o  Male < Female

13 y/o  Male > Female

Result of chromosomal anomalies  CONDITION Normal Male Normal Female Down syndrome Turner’s syndrome Kinefelter syndrome CHROMOSOMES 2x22 +xy 2X22+xx 2x22+1 +xx or xy 2x22+ x 2x22 +xxy TOTAL 46 46 47 45 47 

Mongoloid idiocy or Down’s syndrome – may be the result of nondisjunction. It is characterized by severe mental retardation and a peculiarity in the folds of the eyelids suggesting eyes of mongoloid peoples Turner’s syndrome or sexual infantilism – is characterized by retarded growth and sexual development. This results in individuals with 45 chromosomes. These are unable to bear offspring and are often mentally retarded. Incidence at birth among females is one for 2500. Klinefelter’s syndrome – occurs in apparent males and characterized by consistently small testes – hence sterility, sparse body hair, female-like breast development and mental retardation. It is present in individuals having 2 or more x chromosomes. Normal males with an extra Y chromosomes (XXY) have been found.

Increase in the skills or capacity to function Qualitatively How to measure development o By simply observing the child doing simple task o By noting parent’s description of the child’s progress o Measure by DENVER DEVELOPMENTAL SCREENING TEST (DDST) MMDST o Metro Manila Developmental Screening Test o Philippine Based exam Main Rated Categories o LANGUAGE  ability to communicate o PERSONAL/ SOCIAL  ability to interact o FINE MOTOR ADAPTIVE  ability to use hand movements o GROSS MOTOR SKILLS  ability to use large body movements

MATURATION  Synonymous with development  Readiness/ learning is effortless

COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT  Ability to learn and understand from experiences, to acquire and retain knowledge, to respond to a new situation and to solve problems

LEARNING  change of behavior

It occurs along bodies long axis in which control over head.Differentiation – SIMPLE TO COMPLEX.110 GIFTED CHILD  > 130 IQ level BASIC DIVISIONS OF LIFE  Prenatal o Conception to birth  Infancy o Neonatal  first 28 days o Formal Infancy  29th – 1 year  Early Childhood o Toddler  1 – 3 y/o o Preschool  4 – 6 y/o  Middle Childhood o School Age  7 – 12 y/o  Late Childhood o Pre – adolescent  11 – 13 y/o o Adolescent – 12 – 13 y/o to 21   Lymphatic System (Lymph Nodes) o Grows rapidly during infancy and childhood o Provide protection against infection o TONSIL reach its adult proportion @ 5 years Reproductive o Grows rapidly during puberty PRINCIPLES OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT  Growth and development is a continuous process (WOMB TO TOMB PRINCIPLE)  begins from conception and ends with death  Not all parts of the body grows at the same time or at the same rate (ASSYCHRONOUS GROWTH)  Each child is unique  Growth and development occurs in a regular direction reflecting definite and predictable patterns or trends Directional Terms Cephalocaudal/ Head to Tail . BROAD TO REFINED Sequential Trend -Involves a predictable sequence of growth and development to which the child normally passes Locomotion Creeps  Stands  Walks  Run Language and Social Skills Cry  coo Secular Trend.Develop at the same direction at the same time and at the same rate Mass – Specific .IQ= [Mental Age/ Chronological Age] x 100 Normal IQ = 90 . mouth and eye movemens and precedes control over upper body torso and legs Proximo – Distal/ Centro – Distal.Progressing from center of the body to the extremities Symmetrical/ Each side of the Body.Refers to the worldwide tend of maturing earlier and growing larger as compared to succeeding generation BEHAVIOR  most comprehensive indicator of developmental stages act @ your age PLAY  universal language A great deal of skills is learned by practice There is optimum time for initiation of experience or learning Neonatal reflexes must be lost first before development can proceed persistent primitive infantile reflexes is a possible case of cerebral palsy PATTERNS OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT  Renal  digestive  circulatory  musculoskeletal o childhood  Brain  CNS  Neurologic Tissue  rapidly grows with in 1 – 2 years o Brain achieves its adult proportion @ 5 years o Rapid growth and development of brain from1 – 2 years o Malnutrition may result to Mild Mental Retardation RATES OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT  Fetal and Infancy o Period of most rapid growth and development o Prone to develop anemia  Toddler o Period of slow growth and development  Toddler and preschool o Period of alternating rapid and slow growth and development  School Aged o Slower growth and development o Least to develop anemia  Adolescent o Period of rapid growth o Secondary prone to anemia Two Primary Factors Affecting Growth and Development  Heredity o Race o Sex o Intelligence o Nationality  Environment o Quality of Nutrition o Socio Economic Status o Health o Ordinal Position in the family o Parent – Child Relationship .

Genital   Latent Phase 7 – 12 yrs. irresponsible Mother Wins o Letting go o Child turns to be kind. – 3 yrs. obedient. School aged    Genital Phase 12 – 18 yrs Genitalia  May show exhibitionism Have or increase knowledge of 2 sexes Period of suppression No obvious development.  The successful achievement of which will provide a foundation for the accomplishments of the future tasks SIGMUND FREUD’S PSYCHOSEXUAL THEORY  1856 – 1939  An Austrian Neurologist  Founder of Psychoanalysis  1st to introduce Personality Development Age Phase Oral Phase 0 – 18 mos. antisocial. OCs. Mistrust  0 – 18 months  TRUST is the foundation of all psychosocial tasks  Theme: Give and Receive  Trust is developed via . responsible  Phallic Phase 4 – 6 yrs. Trust vs. unreliable. Site of Gratification Mouth      Activities Task Anal Phase (stage where OC are developed) 19 mos.THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT Developmental Task  A skill or growth responsibility arising at a particular time in the individual’s life. stubborn. Anus Biting Crying Sucking (enjoyment and release of tension) Elimination Retention/ Defecation of Feces       Provide oral stimulation even if baby is place NPO (use pacifier)CBQ Never discourage thumb sucking Help the child achieve bowel and bladder control even if the child is hospitalized Principle of holding on and letting go Mother wins or child wins Child Wins o Holding on o Child turns to be hardheaded. reliable. slower growth Child’s energy or Libido is diverted into more concrete type of thinking Achieve sexual maturity and learn to establish satisfactory relationship with the opposite sex      Accept the child fondling his own genetalia as normal area of exploration Divert attention from masturbation Answer the child’s question directly Human sexuality Help the child achieve (+) experiences so that he’ll be ready to face the conflicts of adolescents  Give opportunity to relate to opposite sex ERIK ERICKSON’S STAGES OF PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY  Former student of Freud  Stresses the importance of culture and society to the development of one’s personality  “environment” 1. perfectionist o Meticulous.

Schema 1: Neonatal Reflex o 1 month o Early reflexes 2. 8. Role Confusion  12 – 18 or 20 years old  Learns who he is or what kind of person he will become by adjusting to new body image and seeking EMANCIPATION/ freedom from parents Intimacy vs.2. Schema 6: Invention of New Means thru Mental Coordination o 18 – 24 months o Symbolic representation o Transitional phase to the pre-operational thought period 2. Schema 5: Tertiary Circular Reaction o 12 – 18 months o use trial and error to discover characteristic of places and events o “Invention” of new means o capable of space and time perception 6. Pre-operational Thought 1. 4. Schema 3: Secondary Circular Behavior o 4 – 8 months o Activities not related to the body o Discover person and object’s permanence o Memory traces are present and anticipate familiar events 4. kisses. Shame & Doubt  18 mos. Inferiority  7 – 12 years old  Learns how to do things well  Give appropriate short assignments and projects  Unfinished project will develop inferiority Identity vs. static thinking o CBQ EGOCENTRIC – unable to view anothers viewpoint . offer choices  Encourage the child to make decision rather than judge  Parents has a moral obligations to set limits Initiative vs. touch. Schema 2: Primary Circular Reaction o 1 – 4 months o Activities related to body. Isolation  18 – 25 or 30 years old  Career focus  Looking for a lifetime partner Generativity vs. soft music Autonomy vs. 3. 5. 6. Despair  45 years old and above o o o JEAN PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT  Reasoning powers  Swiss Psychologist  Genetic Epistemologist 1. 7. to 3 years  Theme: independence and self – government  Give opportunity for decision making. Sensorimotor  0 – 2 years old  Also called Practical Intelligence o words and symbols are not yet available o communication through senses 1. Schema 4: Coordination of Secondary Reaction o 8 – 12 months o Exhibit goal directed behavior o  sense of permanence and separateness o Play activities: Throw and retrieve 5. Guilt  4 – 6 years old  Learns how to do BASIC things  Give opportunity exploring new places and events  Right time for amusement park and zoos  Activity recommended: modeling clay and finger painting  Enhances creativity and imagination and facilitates fine motor development Industry vs. literal. Stagnation  30 – 45 years old Ego Integrity vs. Satisfying needs of infants on time Care must be consistent and adequate Give experiences that will add security  Hugs. repetition of behavior  Example: thumbsucking 3. eye to eye contact. Pre – conceptual Thought o 2 – 4 years old o Concrete.

Formal Operational o 12 years old and above o Period when cognition achieve its final form o Can solve hypothetical problem with SCIENTIFIC REASONING o Can deal with past. o CBQ (-) REVERSIBILITY – in every action there is opposite reaction. present and future o Capable of ABSTRACT. 1 2   PUNISHMENT/ OBEDIENCE/ ORIENTATION o Heteronomous morality o Child does right because PARENT tells him to and to avoid punishment INDIVIDUALISM o Instrumental purpose and exchange o Carries out action to satisfy own needs rather than society o Will do something for another if that person does something for the child CONVENTIONAL (Level II) ORIENTATION TO INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS OF MUTUALITY o Child follows rules because of need to be a “good person” in own eyes and eyes of others MAINTAINANCE OF SOCIAL ORDER.2. cause and effect o Concept of time is only now and concept of distance is only as far as they can see o CBQ ANIMISM – consider inanimate object as alive Intuitive Thought o Beginning of causation 3. 3 4   POST – CONVENTIONAL (Level III) Older than 12 5  SOCIAL CONTRACT. FIXED RULES AND AUTHORITY o Child finds following rules satisfying o Following rules of authority figures as well as parents in an effort to keep the “system” working 4 – 10 yrs. UTILITARIAN LAW – MAKING PERSPECTIVE o Follows standards of society for the good of the people 6  UNIVERSAL ETHICAL PRINCIPLE ORIENTATION o Follows internalized standards of conduct o Only few people achieved this level o Only saints and holy . focus on opinions and current events KOHLBERG’S THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT   Stages of Moral Development o Infancy o Premoral o Amoral o Pre-religious Age Stage Descritption PRECONVENTIONAL (Level I) 0 – 3 yrs 4 – 7 yrs. Concrete Operational o 7 – 12 years old o SYSTEMATIC REASONING as solution to problems o Concept of (+) reversibility o Concept of Conservation – constancy despite of transformation o Activity recommended: Collecting and Classifying 4. mature thought and formal reasoning o Activity recommended: talk time. 10 – 12 yrs.

Temporary teeth complete 20 decidous teeth POSTERIOR MOLAR --> last to appear Time to go to Dentist Begins to brush teeth 3 years 6 years Tooth brushing with minimal supervision Tooth brushing alone Temporary teeth begins to fail 1st permanent teeth  1st MOLAR Last to appear  WISDOM TOOTH BOWEL/ BLADDER CONTROL Bowel Control Day Time Bladder Control Night Time Bladder Control  18 months / 1 ½ years  2 years  3 years MILESTONES Infancy  Solitary play o Consider when choosing a play  Safety  Age appropriateness  Hygiene  Fear: Stranger Anxiety o Begins: 6 – 7 months o Peaks: 8 months o Diminishes: 9 months Neonate  Complete head lag  Largely reflex visual fixation for human face  Hands fisted with thumbs in  Cries without tears because lacrimal glands are not fully developed 1 month  Dance reflex disappears  Looks at mobile. pat a cake.DEVELOPMENTAL MILESTONES  Major marker of growth and development  Determines developmental delays  Grasp and tonic neck reflexes are fading  Reaches for familiar people or object  Anticipates feeding 4 months  Head control complete  Turns front to back. probes with forefinger  Finger feeds. Babbling sound  Babinski Reflex disappears 5 months  Turn both ways (roll over)  Teething rings. cries with tears. follows object past midline . since they can clap 11months  Cruising. regards face 2 months  Holds head up when in prone  Social smile. cooing sound  Closure of posterior fontanel (2-3 months)  Head lag when pulled to sitting position  No longer clinches fist tightly  Follows object past midline  Recognizes parents 3 months    Holds head and chest up when in prone Holds hands open at rest Hand regard. comes when called  Follows one – step command and gesture  Uses mature pincer graps. combine 2 syllables “mama & dada” 10 months  Pulls self to stand  Understand the word no  Respond to name  Peek – a – boo. cooperates in dressing  Says two words other than mama and dada  Pots & pans. stand with assistance  Walking while holding to his crib’s handle  One word other than mama and dada 12 months  Stands alone  Walk with assistance  Drink from cup. handless bottle well  Recognizes strangers 7 months  Transfer objects from hand to hand (6 – 7 months)  Likes objects that are good sized for transferring 8 months  Sits without support  Peak of stranger anxiety  Plantar reflex disappear (6-8 months) 9 months  Creeps or crawls.up  Sits with support  Puts feet in mouth in supine position  Eruption of first temporary teeth ( Lower 2 central incisors)  Vowel sounds “ah. handles rattle well  Moro reflex disappears (5 – 6 months)  Enjoys looking around environment 6 months  Reaches out in the anticipation of being picked. pull toys and nursery rhymes  Imitates actions. need space for creeping  Neat pincer grasp reflex. Eruption of first temporary teeth 2 LOWER CENTRAL INCISORS 30 mos. follows midline  Alert to sound. throws objects Toddlerhood  Parallel Play – 2 toddlers playing separately  Provide 2 similar toys for 2 toddlers  Toys o Squeaky frogs to squeeze o Waddling ducks to pull o Trucks to push o Building blocks o Pounding peg  Fear: Separation Anxiety o Begins: 9 months o Peaks: 18 months o 3 stages TEETH QUESTIONS 6 mos. needs space to turn  Laughs aloud. eh”  Uses palmar grasp.

typically places both feet on one step before advancing  Names one body part 24 months TERRIBLE TWOS Turns pages one at a time. aggressive and stormy  Buttons button  Copy square  Catches ball. copy triangle  Imaginary playmates  2100 words  Identification with same sex  Attachment to opposite sex School – Aged  Competitive Play: Tug of war  Fears o School Phobia  orienting child to his new environment o Displacement from school o Death  Significant Person o Teacher o Peer of same sex  Stoppage of height coincide with the eruption of wisdom tooth  Prone to fracture: Common Green stick  Mature vision o 20/200 legal blindness  They’ll Cheat  can’t afford to lose . still using feet on the same step at same time  Daytime Bladder Control  CBQ best time to bring the child to dentist: 2 – 3 years or when temporary teeth is complete 30 months  Makes simple lines or stroke or crosses with pencil  Can jump down from chair  Knows full name. holds spoon well. learns how to share Knows full name and sex Speaks fluently. etc Can open doors by turning door knobs. creative. removes shoes. ritualistic and stereotyped  Ritualistic – way to gain mastery  Temper Tantrums o Stomping of feet o Holding breath o Screaming o Head banging o NC: Ignore the behavior  Scaphoid abdomen – underveloped abdominal muscle  Physiologic Anorexia  food fad. pants. skips  Alternates feet going downstairs  CBQ LACES SHOES  Vocabulary of 1500. food jag that last for a short period of time due to the preoccupation to environment 15 Months  Plateau stage  CBQ WALKS ALONE – lateness in walking is a sign of mild mental retardation  Puts small pellets into small bottle  Creep upstairs  4 – 6 words  Scribbles voluntarily with pencil.o    Prevent:    Protest Despair Denial Do not prolong goodbye Say goodbye firmly Say when you’re back Toddler Characteristic Traits  Negativistic: says no most of the time  Saying no – way of developing independence  Limit questions. holds up finger to show age  Copy a circle  CBQ Temporary teeth complete (posterior molar: last to erupt)  CBQ 20 deciduous teeth  CBQ tooth brushing: 2 – 3 years 36 months         TRUSTING THREES Tooth brushing with little supervision Unbutton buttons Draws a cross. seat self in a chair 18 Months  Height of POSSESIVENESS – favorite word MINE  Bowel control achieved  No longer rotates a spoon  Can run and jump in place  Walks up and downstairs holding on to a person’s hand or railing. unscrew lids 50 – 200 words (2 word sentences). jumps. knows 5 body parts Walk upstairs alone. knows the basic color  Says song or poem from memory 5 years old  FRUSTRATING FIVES  Jumps over low obstacles  Spreads with a knife  Draws 6 part man. imaginative and imitative Preschooler’s Characteristic Traits  Telling tall tales  Imaginary friend  way of relieving tension and anxiety  Sibling rivalry jealousy to a newly delivered baby  Regression o Signs: bedwetting o Thumbsucking o Baby talk o Fetal position  Masturbation o Sign of boredom o Divert attention o Offering toy 4 years old  FURIOUS FOUR  Noisy. offer choices  Rigid. 200 – 900 words NIGHTIME BLADDER CONTROL achieved Rides tricycle      Preschoolers  Cooperative play – playhouse  Role playing is usual  Fears: o Castration/ Body Mutilation o Dark places and witches o Thunder and lightning o Ghost  Curious.