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HENRIK WENTZEL

Dept. of Solid Mechanics

Royal Institute of Technology (KTH)

(SE-100 44 Stockholm) Sweden

Email: henrik.wentzel@scania.com

Telephone : ++46+8 553 807 39

Introduction

of the joints, in particular the force-displacement relation for tangential

loading. Much research has been focused on this area triggered both by the

automotive industry’s need for shortened development cycles and by the

aeronautic/military industry’s need to reduce costly physical testing. It is a

challenging subject where non-linearities arise from different physical

phenomena such as friction, chatter and impact.

vehicle structures that otherwise would grow large and create fatigue

damage and/or noise. For example heavy vehicles with leaf-springs

suspension show desirable high damping characteristics compared to air-

spring suspended vehicles, which often makes the use of additional shock

absorbers unnecessary in the former (Johansson, 2005). On occasion friction

is unwanted in rotating machinery equipment as it increases energy losses

and destabilizes the system (Mottershead, 1997) or adds noise and chatter

(Ibrahim, 1994). Indeed, friction is an important factor for damping and may

account for up to 90% of the total damping in joined structures

(Padmanabhan, 1990).

in 1959 (Goodman, 1959) and Ungar two more exhaustive studies on the

subject in 1964 and 1973 (Ungar, 1964) and (Ungar, 1973). The surveys

conclude that dry friction in joints only creates damping when the applied

forces are shearing the joint. Indeed, an experimental set-up consisting of

dozens of dry steel plates stacked on top of each other did not show any

measurable damping when loaded with a force normal to the contact area.

Shearing forces that are not sufficiently large to create global sliding will

still create some energy dissipation due to micro-slip in the joint. Shearing

forces create a difference in normal strains in the tangential direction in the

plates of the joint that results in a relative tangential motion. The frictional

1

forces oppose this motion and so energy dissipates. Figure 1 illustrates the

phenomenon. In (Earles, 1966) it was found that the maximum damping

capacity ratio for a riveted joint is obtained if all the shearing forces are

transferred via friction such that the rivet carries no shearing force. The

theories used in (Goodman, 1959), (Ungar, 1973), and (Earles, 1966) are

clearly comparable to Johnson’s theory on contact and sliding between

spherical objects (Johnson, 1990) and based on the assumption that

Coulomb friction governs the tangential interaction in the contact area.

well defined area and uni-axial loading, the analytical theories fail to predict

the quantity of the energy loss. Part of the explanation is that a homogenous

contact pressure over a well-defined area is very rare in reality, particularly

so for bolted or riveted joints (Cullimore, 1964). However, the analytical

theories do yield valuable results as to how the energy dissipation ∆W varies

with Young’s modulus E, clamping force Fclamp, coefficient of friction μ and

amplitude

the amplitude of the applied force Fapplied . Both analytical and

experimental results show that the energy dissipation is influenced by these

parameters in the following way:

(

ΔW = ΔW E , Fclamp , μ , Fapplied

amplitude

)

∂ΔW ∂ΔW ∂ΔW ∂ΔW

< 0, < 0, < 0, >0

∂E ∂Fclamp ∂μ amplitude

∂Fapplied

Increasing the Young’s modulus makes all members of the joint stiffer,

thereby reducing the magnitude of all displacements including the relative

tangential slip responsible for energy loss. Increased clamping force and

increased coefficient of friction also makes the joint stiffer thereby

decreasing the amount of slip, but at the same time the slip that remains is

restrained by larger frictional forces, something that increases the energy

2

dissipation. However both analytical and experimental investigations show

that the overall result when increasing the clamping force or the coefficient

of friction is a decrease in energy loss. Finally the dissipation is strongly

influenced by the magnitude of the applied force in a positive way.

proportional to the amplitude of the applied force raised to the power of 3.

In physical testing of actual joints this exponent is found to be closer to 2.5

(Ibrahim, 2005), (Gregory, 1999), (Smallwood, 2000) but still fairly

constant within some regions of the applied load amplitude. Extended

analytical studies by Song et al. (Song, 2005) show that the exponent 3 is

valid only for homogenous contact pressure but that other exponents apply

to other contact pressure distributions. A number of analytical and

experimental studies of bolted beam structures indicate that for a specific

load case there exists an optimal clamping force which maximises the

energy loss and hence the damping (Earles, 1966), (Beards, 1983), (Beards,

1985), (Ferri, 1995), (Ren, 1994), (Wentzel, 2005). Most presented studies

treat simple shear joints subjected to unidirectional shear and have not

investigated complicated load cases involving rotation of the joint, although

this type of loading may create much larger energy dissipation (Beards,

1977), (Wentzel, 2005).

Friction models

and has experimentally been validated for global sliding between two rigid

bodies. For a sliding velocity v and a normal force FN the frictional force Ff

is:

F f = − sgn(v) ⋅ μ ⋅ FN

Coulomb friction is the most widely used model for sliding but also for

micro-slip (Gaul, 2001), and several modified friction models have been

derived from it. Stribeck investigated roll bearings and noted that the

coefficient of friction decreases at the onset of sliding until a certain

velocity before it increases again (Stribeck, 1902). This behaviour is called

the Stribeck effect.

behaves similar to the Coulomb model but has a higher value of friction at

zero velocity (sticking) than in the sliding regime. In rubber tire applications

experimentally validated models with a coefficient of friction that strongly

depends on the velocity in a complex way are commonly used (Thorvald,

1998), (Gipser, 1990). These models are a mixture of friction and tire

models because some of the velocity dependence is caused by the relative

tangential deformations in the tire to ground contact and not by the local

tangential interaction in the contact surface (Deur, 2004). For low frequency

3

excitation of joined structures the velocities are low so the Stribeck effect is

rarely noticeable.

tribology see for example (Hagman, 1993) or (Olofsson, 1995). The basic

assumption is that the (spherical) asperities on the contact surfaces interact

and deform elastically according to Hertz theory. The distribution and the

radii of asperities determine the coefficient of friction. There exist several

variants on this theory, notably the bristle-model (Haessing, 2001) where

the tangential interaction is seen as an interaction between bristles

populating the contact surfaces.

It has been noted that the energy dissipation in joints with machined contact

surfaces is influenced by the machined lay orientation (Rogers, 1975),

(Murty, 1982). Asperities are subject to plastic deformation and wear and

the influence of asperities is likely to change over time, this was measured

in (Padmanabhan, 1991) where the energy dissipation per cycle stabilized

after a couple of hundred load cycles.

Finite Element (FE) codes. ABAQUS (HKS, 1998) offers the possibility to

enforce the Coulomb friction model by means of Lagrange multipliers,

which sometimes is theoretically satisfactory but tends to create numerical

problems so that the solution does not easily converge. The stiction model

and other velocity dependent models are also widely available. Many FE

codes (HKS, 1998), (LS-Dyna, 1997) also include an elastic-slip friction

model where the surface interaction is elastic for small deformations. This

avoids the numerical difficulties of Lagrange multipliers and speeds up the

analysis considerably.

performed with hydraulic or electric shakers, or with the aid of an impact

hammer. The dynamic properties of structures are often visualised and

evaluated with Frequency Response Functions (FRF), which is the

equivalent of the systems transfer function. Commonly used FRFs are

admittance, mobility, and acellerance (Ewins, 1994). They are all based on

the Fourier transform of the response signal (u or u& or u&& ) divided by the

Fourier transform of the exciting force.

ℑ(u )

admittance:

ℑ(F )

ℑ(u& )

mobility:

ℑ(F )

ℑ(u&&)

accelerance:

ℑ(F )

4

A commonly used technique is to estimate the damping by using the half-

power points of the FRF. The damping as fraction of critical damping, ζ is

defined as the ratio between the dissipated energy per cycle and the peak

kinetic energy during vibration (times 4π). For a single Degree Of Freedom

(DOF) system with viscous damping it may be extracted from the mobility

plot as:

Δf

ζ = ,

2 fn

where Δf is the distance between the half-power points around the peak at

the natural frequency fn. This method also provides a good estimation of the

equivalent viscous damping for other types of damping and for multiple

DOF systems if the damping is small (ζ < 10 %) and the natural frequencies

are well isolated (Ewins, 1994).

usually involve the minimization of the error between a model FRF and a

measured FRF, (Balmes, 2005):

J = FRFmeasured (ω ) − FRFmodel (ω ) ,

2

where the following three parameter model FRF may be used for SDOF

systems,

A

FRFmodel (ω ) = 2 .

ωn − ω + 2iζωω n

2

FRF of a multi DOF model may be written in the polynomial Laplace form

as

A(s )

FRFmodel (s ) = with

B (s )

2

function may also be used to estimate joint model parameters instead of

global system parameters. Ren and Beards assumed a linear visco-elastic

joint model described by mass, stiffness and damping matrices and

developed a general methodology to extract these matrices from

experimental FRF data (Ren, 1995). Ratcliffe and Lieven assumed the same

linear joint model and enhanced the parameter identifying methodology

(Ratcliffe, 2000). Inamura has proposed a method for joint model parameter

identification that not only uses the FRF but also the mode shapes (Inamura,

5

1979). There are numerous other published studies on this approach, see for

example the review paper by Ibrahim (Ibrahim, 2003).

For linear systems the FRF is a system property and the same regardless of

which time history force is applied to the system. However, because of the

non-linear behaviour of joints and the increase in energy dissipation as

function of applied load amplitude, joined systems have signal dependent

FRF’s, i.e. for different input signals different FRF’s are obtained see for

example (Ewins, 2000).

were performed on a system consisting of two blocks of steel connected

with a single bolt lap joint. The entire system was suspended with weak

springs and excited with a sine-sweep signal by means of an electric shaker.

In that particular study different amplitudes of the excitation signal resulted

in different Frequency Response Functions, Figure 2.

Figure 2. Frequency Response Functions for a system with a bolted joint for different levels

of harmonic excitation (Gaul, 1993).

response increases so does the equivalent viscous damping. The figure also

reveals that the stiffness decreases as the amplitude increases, because the

deformation in the joint increases with the amplitude. This is probably an

inherent property of systems with frictional joints. For a treatise on non-

linear systems in general and their FRF’s refer to (Thompson, 1993).

Hartwigsen used a 3-piece beam structure forming a bolted double lap joint,

which was suspended in weak elastic cords in the experimental study

6

(Hartwigsen, 2004). The structure was excited with an impact hammer and

the FRF was measured for different levels of excitation. The equivalent

viscous damping was extracted from the FRF for several modes of vibration

and it was presented in an amplitude-of-vibration to damping diagram,

Figure 3.

experimental setup (Hartwigsen, 2004).

Locally in the joint the rate of energy dissipation increases rapidly with

increased amplitude of motion and globally this is observed as an increase

of the damping.

As the length of the slip region in the joint increases the stiffness of the joint

decreases (refer to Figure 1). For the global system this is seen as a

reduction of the resonance frequency for higher amplitudes.

method to estimate the reliability of the damping measurements and

predictions. Padmanabhan performed quasi-static measurements on a

machine joint and varied the normal pre-load and the level of excitation of

the joint. The energy dissipation is described as a polynomial function of the

level of excitation and the clamping force, Figure 4. From the surface

gradient it is apparent how the energy dissipation varies with the clamping

force and the applied load amplitude.

7

Figure 4. Energy dissipation per cycle as a surface function of clamping force, P, and

amplitude of excitation, Tm (Padmanabhan, 1992).

1993) and (Hartwigsen, 2004) are imperative to include in a joint model.

Joint modeling

A good joint model should be as simple as possible and still capture all the

important physical properties of the actual joint. The important properties

considered here are the force-displacement behaviour, the resulting

hysteresis loop i.e. the damping, and the influence of velocity. The wear

aspect will not be considered at this stage nor will the possibility to create

failure criteria for the joint be investigated.

Six different joint modelling techniques from the scientific literature are

presented here together with a brief description:

system such that the viscous energy dissipation equals the expected dynamic

frictional dissipation in the joints. This is by far the most widely used

technique.

the global system such that the energy dissipation equals the expected

dynamic frictional dissipation in the joints. This technique has with some

8

success been used to model high-frequency vibration and acoustics in the

frequency plane.

Iwan networks model, a network of springs and sliders replaces the actual

joint. The network is calibrated to produce the desired quasi-static or

dynamic force-displacement characteristics (including the dissipation) of the

actual joint.

model replaces the actual joint. The parameters in the equation are

calibrated to produce the desired quasi-static or dynamic force-displacement

characteristics of the actual joint.

of the state variables replaces the actual joint. The parameters are chosen to

produce the desired quasi-static or dynamic force displacement

characteristics of the actual joint.

the joint and calibrated to produce the quasi-static force displacement

characteristics of the actual joint.

following.

frictional joints is to use a linear elastic joint model for the stiffness in

combination with viscous Rayleigh-damping. The value of Rayleigh

damping is chosen such that approximately the same amount of energy is

dissipated viscously as the frictional losses in the joints would amount to.

Thus the dissipation is not localized in space but evenly distributed in the

structure; see (Pavic, 2005) for a theoretical discussion on the validity of

this approach. The joint parameters are the linearized stiffness for each joint

and the global systems modal damping. The linearized stiffness is often

computed with FEM while the global systems modal damping is estimated

with rules of thumb (Chang, 1964) or measured in physical testing see for

example (Ellison, 1972) or (Fischer, 2000). This modelling technique is

unable to capture neither the variations in damping nor the changes of

stiffness in the joint region discussed in the previous section. It is uses a

damping force that is proportional to the velocity in order to model the

frictional forces which are in general only marginally dependent of velocity.

Despite the method’s theoretical limitations it is very popular in the

automotive industry and has also been used successfully in the aerospace

industry see for example (Chang, 1969), (Ellison, 1972).

9

In order to estimate the energy loss during vibration and hence the damping

Ellison and Jones used substructure testing of satellites transported by the

Saturn rocket (Ellison, 1972). Modal damping for mode r is defined as

ΔWr

ζr = ,

4π ⋅ Trpeak

where Trpeak is the peak kinetic energy contained in mode r and ΔWr is the

energy loss per cycle of mode r.

relation. The energy dissipations in the individual joints are measured

experimentally for typical load cases of typical amplitudes. In this way a

relation between the energy dissipation and the applied load amplitude F is

obtained for each joint i

ΔW i = ΔW i ( F i ) .

Each mode shape r contribute with a force on each joint i proportional to the

amplitude of that mode qr as

F i = ∑ a ri q r ,

r

where the coefficient ari depends on the geometry and the mode shape.

Thus when the structure vibrates at a single mode r the energy loss is given

by the expression

ΔWr = ∑ ΔW i = ∑ ΔW i (a ri q r ) .

i i

Recognising that for vibration at the resonance frequency the peak kinetic

energy is well determined if the amplitude of motion is known,

1 1

Trpeak = ∫ u&&2 dm = qr2ωr2 ∫ φr2 dm ,

2 mass 2 mass

where the last integral is unity if the mode shapes are normalized with

respect to the modal mass.

Since the energy loss for each mode is known as a function of the modal

coordinate the energy equivalent modal damping is obtained with the

relation

10

∑ ΔW (a q )

i i

r r

ζr = i

.

2πq r2ω r2

The method of using substructure testing and then computing the modal

forces may work on systems with low damping. However, Bowden showed

that for highly damped systems this approach leads to erroneous results,

(Bowden, 1988). For lightly damped systems the method does produce a

damping that is energy equivalent to the dissipation in the joints when the

structure vibrates at a single mode at specific amplitude. It is not calibrated

for and is not likely to produce correct damping for vibrations at several

simultaneous modes or for dynamic processes of varying amplitude.

visco-elastic element. In this way a simple frequency analysis of the

structure gives not only the natural frequencies and the mode shapes but

also a corresponding modal damping. The damping is largest for the modes

that create the largest relative velocities in the joint region. For highly

damped systems this model may be used in large-displacement analyses in

the actual coordinates (without transformation to the modal space).

The joint parameters are the stiffness and the viscosity of the joint material

model or the spring dashpot. In (Baraco, 1981) joints of sheet metal were

experimentally characterised by the number of bolts, clamping force and the

way the loading was applied. Different local energy equivalent viscous

damping coefficients were computed for different joints and load cases.

Coefficients that later mat be used for linear dynamic FE simulations. A

similar approach is used in (Dubigeon, 1982) for bending of bolted joints,

resulting in very simple viscous models that are treated analytically. In

(Bowden, 1988) the joints are modelled with a parallel spring and dashpot.

For any modal vibration a joint participation factor is computed which is a

measure on how much the joints are exercised during vibration.

date in the scientific literature it remains the most common tool in the

industry. One of the reasons for its popularity is that dynamic analyses of

large structures are generally performed in modal coordinates for which

linear viscous damping is very easily incorporated.

Young’s modulus in the material model of the joints. Complex eigenvalue

solvers are commercially available and permit the extraction of complex

eigenvalues (Neumark, 1969). The approach permits the computation of a

deformation dependent modal damping, where the modes that create the

11

largest strain in the joint region are damped the most. In the frequency

domain the FRF of a complex stiffness problem may be formulated as:

1

FRF (ω ) =

− ω M + (1 + iγ sgn (ω ))K

2

equation does automatically fulfil causality, see (Inaudi, 1995), and complex

stiffness models are indeed generally used exclusively in the frequency

domain for acoustic applications. The method is not restricted to usage of an

imaginary stiffness that is proportional to the real stiffness although this

guarantees that the modal vectors are unchanged. Also for this approach it

remains to define the magnitude of the complex stiffness such that the

energy dissipation corresponds to the actual dissipation in the joints, a task

equally challenging as that of defining a viscous damping. The energy

equivalent viscous damping for a specific mode of vibration excited at the

natural frequency is related to that mode's corresponding complex

eigenvalue with the relation:

Re(λ )

ζr =

Im(λ )

the amplitude of motion increases, but it has with some success been used

for high frequency analysis of engine components (Fischer, 2000), and for

analysis of break squeal (Lou, 2004).

Many joint models are derived from friction or material models that include

plasticity. Iwan’s material model (Iwan, 1967) consisting of a network of

spring and slider elements is currently the basis for many joint models.

These models are simplifications of the joint but permit some liberty in the

design of the force-displacement characteristics.

elements that implement the Coulomb friction model with a predetermined

normal force and coefficient of friction resulting in a break-free force fi.

12

Figure 5. Schematics of parallel Iwan networks.

relationship is given by:

n

F (u ) = ∑ k i (u − xi ) ,

i =1

where xi is the current displacement of slider i. The above relation results in

the hysteresis curve depicted in Figure 6, where n = 4.

13

Figure 6. Force displacement hysteresis loop of a discrete parallel Iwan network of four

spring-slider units with stiffness 1 and break-free forces 1,2,3, and 4 respectively.

spring-slider units where all the springs have the same stiffness k. The

computation is performed using a population distribution ρ(f) of the break-

free force of the slider elements. For such a network the force displacement

relationship is written (Iwan, 1967):

∞

F (u ) = ∫ ρ ( f )k [u − x( f )]df ,

0

where x(f) is the current displacement of all sliders with break-free force f.

Segalman proposes the use of the moments of distribution (Segalman, 2001)

of ρ(f) to facilitate the computation. The moments of distribution are defined

as:

θ

Λ n (θ ) = ∫ ρ ( f ) f n df

0

ρ ( f ) = Rf χ ,

amplitude F depends as:

14

ΔW ∝ F 3+ χ

where it was experimentally shown that this exponent, ( 3 + χ ) may be

somewhere between 2.5 and 3 indicating a negative value of χ.

Song et al. (Song, 2004) developed a finite element based on Iwan networks

labelled the Adjusted Iwan Beam Element (AIBE) that was used for dynamic

simulation of a joined structure. The Iwan network consisted of an infinite

number of spring-slider units all with the spring stiffness k. The break-free

forces of the spring-slider units are defined by the population distribution:

β

ρ( f ) =

2 fy

[

H ( f − (1 − β ) ⋅ f y ) − H ( f − (1 + β ) ⋅ f y ) ]

In addition, the network is adjusted by adding an extra spring with stiffness

kextra = k α without a slider in series (or, equivalently, a slider with break-

free force f = ∞). Thus, the initial stiffness of the network is k(1+α). The

AIBE element consists of two such networks, Figure 7, and can transfer

both shear forces and bending moment. It is an eight parameters model with

the parameters:

{k , α , f

1 1 y1 , β1 , k 2 , α 2 , f y 2 , β 2 }

If the initial stiffness is known in both directions the model is reduced to six

parameters, and if in addition β = 1, which implies that micro-slip occurs for

15

infinitesimal small loading the model is further reduced to four parameters.

Song et al. trained a neural network to identify the four parameters from

hammer excitation loading. Pettit used the AIBE element to model

variability in joints (Pettit, 2004) and developed a method to identify the

parameters from harmonic loading (Pettit, 2005). Comparison of simulated

data to experimental results showed good agreement, particularly for the

envelopes of the signals.

dissipation behaviour and can interpolate any energy dissipation that

increases convexly with the applied force (Schindler, 2005). It is a static

model where the energy dissipation and stiffness are independent of

frequency and velocity. Furthermore Iwan networks are relatively easy to

handle numerically when the number of spring-slider units is small or

described by a few parameter population distribution.

intended to unify the kinematic and the isotropic hardening models. Lenz

and Gaul used this model to reconstruct measured force-displacement

characteristics of a dynamically excited lap-joint (Lenz, 1995), (Gaul,

1997). The governing equation of the model they used is the first order

differential equation:

⎡ λ ⎤

E 0 x& ⎢1 + sgn ( x& ) (Et x − F )⎥

⎣ E0 ⎦,

F& =

λ

1 + κ sgn ( x& ) (Et x − F )

E0

where E0, Et, λ, and κ are constants and model parameters.

Just like the Iwan model the Valanis model fulfils what is sometimes

referred to as the Masing hypothesis (Segalman, 2006): the force-

displacement characteristics during cyclic loading may be obtained from

reflection, translation and scaling of the force-displacement characteristics

during monotonic loading.

The Valanis model seems able to capture some of the non-linear phenomena

in the joint transfer behaviour and is clearly easily implemented in existing

FE-codes.

16

The Bouc-Wen model

Wen has developed a model to describe the restoring force in a system with

hysteresis (Wen, 1976), (Wen, 1980) based on a model first introduced in

(Bouc, 1967). According to the model the following relation describes the

total restoring force in a hysteretic system:

The value of z is governed by a first-order differential equation:

n −1 n

z& = Ax& − α ⋅ x& ⋅ z − β ⋅ x& ⋅ z , with z(0)=0

corresponds to the initial stiffness of the joint and the other parameters

govern the shape of the hysteresis loop. Wen concluded that this

mathematical model may be used to describe a very wide range of hysteretic

behaviours. Oldsfield studied a particular case, rotation of an isolated joint,

and used this model to describe hysteretic behaviour (Oldsfield, 2003).

several attempts have been made to model the physics in joints with detailed

FE-models. Notably the contact pressure distribution and the stick-slip state

in the contact surface during loading may be studied with detailed FE

models. In theory this permits computation of the frictional dissipation.

publications. Generally these models correlate well with the analytical

theories of two dimensional frictional problems and some of the

experimentally investigated non-linearities may be predicted. See for

example Lobitz numerical study (Lobitx, 2001) of the experimental

investigations conducted by (Gregory, 1999) and (Smallwood, 2000) or

(Gaul, 1993), where slip regions and power-law dissipation for a simple

jointed resonator are correctly predicted. The two dimensional models are

however of limited practical interest since so few real joints exhibit the

plane stress or strain state and furthermore it is required that the load is

applied in particular directions. The two dimensional models generally fail

to quantify the dissipation even for very simple joints.

17

Three dimensional models including friction have been used in order to

investigate the ultimate failure of open bolted joints (Bursi, 1997) and

regular lap joints (Chung, 2000). These authors found acceptable agreement

in force-displacement characteristics under monotonic loading up to the

point of maximum force. Pratt studied a conical-head bolted lap joint with

three dimensional finite element models and compared force-displacement

characteristics with experiments during cyclic loading (Pratt, 2002) using a

rather coarse mesh but still obtaining seemingly good results. The three

authors use three different solvers with slightly different numerical

implementation of the frictional interaction and they all stress the

importance of correctly choosing the analysis parameters. This is clearly an

area of ongoing research.

Figure 8. a) Details of the finite element model used by Bursi, (Bursi, 1997). b) Details of

the finite element model used by Chung, (Chung, 2000). c) Details of the finite element

model used by Pratt, (Pratt, 2002).

many of the important physical phenomena in the joints the extensive

demand of computational resources is a restraint, particularly so for analysis

of dynamic processes.

To overcome this problem studies have been made to use the detailed FE-

models in quasi-static simulation to compute simplified joint model

parameters. Oldsfield studied a detailed FE-model of an isolated joint and

used the results from static FE-simulations to design a parallel Iwan-

network and a Bouc-Wen model with similar properties, (Oldsfield, 2003).

Wentzel used a detailed FE-model to compute the energy dissipation in

joints during loading and computed an equivalent modal viscous damping

for the global structure (Wentzel, 2005).

dynamic processes. Distinction is made between cases where only the

steady-state solution to a particular harmonic loading is sought for and cases

where the actual time history of a long dynamic process is to be determined.

18

Steady state solutions can be computed analytically for systems with a very

limited number of DOF's and Coulomb friction (Nosonovsky, 2004). This is

of limited interest in vehicle systems where steady state but rarely is reached

and the models considered often are complex with many degrees of

freedom.

reduction method. One reduction technique is Gyuan reduction (Gyuan,

1965) where the mass of the internal points is neglected and only the

external points of the structure are retained. A more common variant is

Component Mode Synthesis (CMS), (Bampton, 1968), (Hurty, 1971). The

CMS method retains a few internal DOFs such that the lowest internal mode

shapes are retained, thus not completely neglecting the mass of the internal

points. The method makes use of a transformation matrix composed by the

local eigenvectors. The constituting parts of the global system that are

approximately linear are reduced so that only the external (and a few

internal if CMS is used) DOFs are retained. A linear model (constant

stiffness and mass matrices) denoted linear substructure is replacing the

reduced parts. The different linear substructures may be interconnected to

each other via non-linear joint models such as the Iwan-, Valanis-, or Bouc-

Wen-model. It has also been envisaged to connect linear substructures to a

detailed (not simplified) joint model (Gaul, 1993). However, not much is

gained with this approach since it is the computation of the dynamic

frictional interaction that is computationally expensive. In the foreseeable

future it remains interesting to model the complex joint mechanics with

simplified models. This is particularly important for applications where the

actual joint is not the primary aim of the study, but where the force-

displacement characteristics are needed in order to compute the structural

response. This may for example be time-domain dynamic analyses of large

joined structures.

Of particular interest in the future are applications where multiple modes are

excited simultaneously. Multiple mode vibration complicates joint

mechanics even more and has scarcely been treated at all. Another area

where the industry demands improvement is in the parameter estimation of

the simplified models. Most of the authors in the scientific literature on joint

models use experimental data to find suitable model parameters. Some

attempts have been made to extract parameters for simplified models from

detailed FE-models, (Oldsfield, 2003), (Wentzel, 2005). This approach will,

if proven successful, have substantial impact in the industry.

19

Concluding remarks

role in the dynamic behaviour of joined structures. Depending on the

available test resources and knowledge of the system different joint models

are available. In general, for simulations where the primary interest is to

model the dynamics far from the joint, a phenomenological description of

friction or damping is generally apt to provide satisfactory results. However

it is necessary to further investigate the behaviour of these simplified

models in systems with multiple simultaneous modes of vibrations.

during static or quasi-static loading. If these detailed models may be used to

estimate parameters for simplified joint models much is won. The ongoing

research on simplified joint models has so far provided several interesting

alternatives of which Iwan networks is perhaps the most promising. The

need for predictive joint models in the industrial product development phase

and simplified joint models for dynamic simulations will continue to drive

the development for years to come.

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25

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