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Chapter 10: Managing a Wireless LAN TRUE/FALSE 1.

Almost all WLAN vendors provide utilities to assist in monitoring the wireless network. ANS: T REF: 326

2. Acquiring data, such as error statistics and packets received, from each access point and each wireless device across the network is normally a quick and easy task. ANS: F REF: 332

3. A wireless network is a static system. ANS: F REF: 335

4. Antenna adjustment may require the existing antennas to be reoriented or placed on a pole or mast for better transmission and reception. ANS: T REF: 339-340

5. Information security weaknesses can never be entirely eliminated. ANS: T MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. In the Windows operating system, what window provides basic tools for monitoring a WLAN? a Wireless Adapter Information c Access Point Utilities . . b Wireless Network Connection Status d Network Monitor . . REF: 349


REF: 327

2. It is important for wireless system administrators to maintain a(n) ____ log that contains a record of all problems, solutions, and configuration changes. a manual c network . . b event d AP . .


REF: 330

3. What tool(s) are used most often as “standard” network monitoring tools? a AP Monitor and Simple Network Management Protocol . b WLAN Logger and Remote Monitoring

. . ANS: B REF: 339 c . modify throughput validate coverage area 7. a Firmware c RMON . ____ is a nonvolatile storage chip used in computers and other devices. b documenting changes . What is the last step in RF site tuning? a adjust channel settings . a v1 c v3 . The current version of SNMP (____) addresses security and remote configuration. b effective loss . . a multicast c broadcast . . ANS: D REF: 335 6. d . d All of the above . the Receiving AP must be able to hear the IP ____ issued by the Distribution AP. ANS: C REF: 333 5. free space loss signal loss 8. ANS: C REF: 332 4. . What is another name for propagation loss? a transmission loss . c Simple Network Management Protocol and Remote Monitoring . ANS: A REF: 338 c . b unicast d netcast . . b v2 d v4 . .. b SNMP d EEPROM . d . When updating firmware in an enterprise-level access point.

. . a bidirectional c unidirectional . . a greater than zero c greater than ten . not external objects? a Refraction c Voltage Standing Wave Ratio . ANS: D REF: 343 14. . . a panel c sectorized . .ANS: C REF: 340 frequency of the link All of the above 9. b path length d . Most vendors illustrate their radiation patterns by splitting the three-dimensional donut into two perpendicular planes called ____ and elevation. A ____ antenna is most typically used on a WLAN. b horizontal d azimuth . b Scattering d Absorption . the link budget must be ____ dB. Which type of RF loss is caused by the equipment itself. . . A(n) ____ amplifier boosts the RF signal before it is injected into the device that contains the antenna. ANS: A REF: 341 11. For a proper WLAN performance. . What information is required for a link budget? a power of the transmitter c . b rod d beam steering . . b greater than five d less than ten . . ANS: D REF: 340 10. ANS: B REF: 341 13. . a donut c plain . ANS: C REF: 341 12.

a Variable-loss c Bidirectional . Vulnerabilities that are ranked as ____ are events that would cause the organization to cease functioning or be seriously crippled in its capacity to perform. ____ should determine vulnerabilities. a RF attenuator c lightning arrestor . internal ANS: A REF: 344 15. . d . . . a major c significant . . A ____ limits the amplitude and disturbing interference voltages by channeling them to the ground. ____ attenuators are the only type permitted by the FCC for WLAN systems. . b catastrophic d small impact . a risk assessment c impact analysis . . The first step in creating a security policy is ____. ANS: C REF: 345 17. ANS: A REF: 346 18. When conducting a security audit. b Fixed-loss d Unidirectional . ANS: B REF: 345 16. . b security auditing d documentation .b pre-injection . . b splitter d phase modulator . a a highly-paid consultant . c a junior administrator . ANS: D REF: 348 19. b a wireless system administrator employed by the company . d a team with diverse backgrounds . .

which attempts to determine the nature of the risks to the organization’s assets. . ANS: agent REF: 332 2. a Physical c Hardware . ____________________ is software that is embedded into hardware to control the device. d undercover work by network administrators . They are designed to be used in installations where aesthetics and high performance are key factors. In order to use SNMP. b documentation . What technique(s) is/are most effective for defeating social engineering attacks? a physical and software security . The first step in the security policy cycle is to perform a(n) ____________________. a software ____________________ is loaded onto each network device that will be managed using SNMP. ANS: A REF: 350 21.ANS: B REF: 349 20. A(n) ____________________ antenna is typically used in outdoor areas. b Practical d Social . . ANS: Firmware REF: 335 3. steal. . c education and policies . or vandalize it. ____ security protects the equipment and infrastructure itself. and has one primary goal: to prevent unauthorized users from reaching the equipment in order to use. ANS: C COMPLETION REF: 350 1. ANS: panel REF: 342 4.

ANS: E 3. a link budget f RF site tuning b Remote g effective receiving Monitoring sensibility c beam steering h software agent d firmware i attenuator e splitter . ANS: A 5. antenna gain (dBi) less cable loss (dB) at the receiver and receiver sensitivity (dBm) 1. ____________________ engineering relies on tricking or deceiving someone to give a hacker access to a system. device that has a single input connector and multiple output connectors 3. decreases interference by attenuating unwanted sources of interference 9. ANS: D 2. ANS: Social REF: 350 MATCHING Match each term with the correct statement below. ANS: H 4. rough calculation of all known elements of the link to determine if the signal will have the proper strength when it reaches the other end of the link 5. part of SNMP that monitors network traffic and stores that information in its management information base 4. attempting to readjust the settings of the AP after a firmware upgrade 8. 1.ANS: risk assessment REF: 346 5. device that decreases the RF signal 6. software that is embedded into hardware to control the device 2. SNMP-based tool used to monitor LANs that are connected through a wide area network 7. ANS: I REF: 335 REF: 345 REF: 332 REF: 340 REF: 345 .

ANS: B 7. The final type of information regards the connection to the wired Ethernet network. it cannot be used to warn of an impending wireless issue. such as devices associating with the access point. What is Remote Monitoring? ANS: Remote Monitoring (RMON) is an SNMP-based tool used to monitor LANs that are connected through a wide area network (WAN). RMON uses SNMP but also incorporates a special database for remote monitoring that includes different groups of statistics. RMON allows a remote network node to gather network data at almost any point on a LAN or a WAN. What are they? ANS: The first is a record of events (usually called an event log). The second type of information is statistics on wireless transmissions. It can also compare these statistical samples to previously configured thresholds. ANS: . Timeliness—Unless a person is constantly monitoring this data.6. Although data from the access point and devices can be beneficial. ANS: C 9. The statistics gathered can contain data measured for both the wired LAN and the wireless LAN interfaces. REF: 330 2. REF: 332 3. List and describe three RF tuning settings. Many enterprise-level access points provide utilities that offer three types of information. Rather. Data collection—Acquiring data from each access point and each wireless device across the network can be a labor and time-intensive task. the data can only be used after a problem occurs when trying to identify what may have caused it. If the monitored variable crosses a threshold. ANS: G SHORT ANSWER REF: 335 REF: 339 REF: 343 REF: 340 1. REF: 335 4. but there is not always the facility for creating a large repository for that data. What are the drawbacks? ANS: Retention of data—Data gathered from the access point and devices is collected in real time. ANS: F 8. an event alarm can be generated. Without the ability to retain the data it is difficult to establish a baseline. there are drawbacks to relying solely on these sources of information.

What are they? ANS: Absorption—Certain types of materials can absorb the RF signal. Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) is caused by the equipment itself. REF: 342 . Reflection—Instead of the signal being “soaked up” by absorption it is “bounced back” by reflection. Adjust channel settings—It may be necessary to restore the channel settings to their original configuration. REF: 339 5. and modulation corrections. The edited entries should include channel selection. maps should be created that offer a visual representation of the RF coverage cells and AP placement. REF: 340 6. it is important to re-determine the perimeter of each AP’s RF coverage area. throughput rates and proper cellular overlap may need to be determined and changes made as necessary. the signal actually bends instead of traveling in a straight line. Refraction—Refraction occurs when an RF signal moves from one medium to another of a different density. Scattering—Scattering of the signal is caused by small objects or rough surfaces. firmware version. Document changes—Any changes should be clearly documented. it may be necessary to readdress the power settings on all APs. cellular overlap. ANS: A sectorized antenna “cuts” the standard 360-degree pattern into four quarters. South. During this process additional configuration adjustments may be required on different access points. Once the original channel plan is restored. Modify integrity and throughput—Once the RF coverage cells have been determined. Each quarter has its own transmitter and antenna. Propagation loss—This is the free space loss (in dB). Describe a sectorized antenna. with additional power given to different quarters as necessary. A radio frequency link between the sender and receiver consists of three basic elements. What are they? ANS: Effective transmitting power—This is the transmitter power (measured in dBm) less any cable or connector loss (db) plus the antenna gain (dBi). Diffraction—Diffraction is caused by an object in the path of the transmission. and adjusted radio power settings. and West transmissions. East. Diffraction occurs when an object with rough surfaces is in the path of the RF signal and causes it to bend. There are several factors that may result in RF loss. channels may be adjusted based on adjacent channels. Effective receiving sensibility—The effective receiving sensibility is the antenna gain (dBi) less cable loss (dB) at the receiver and receiver sensitivity (dBm). In this way the radiation pattern can be specialized for North. Voltage Standing Wave Ratio—Unlike the previous examples in which external objects caused RF signal loss.Adjust radio power levels on all access points—Because firmware upgrades may increase the RF coverage areas. power settings. Additionally. Each AP should be measured independently of all other access points and then the overall coverage of the WLAN should be measured. Validate coverage area—As a part of the RF site tuning. REF: 341 7.

RF amplifiers can be of two types. REF: 350 . or vandalize it. response. REF: 344 9. Describe them. ANS: Baseline practices establish the benchmark for actions using the wireless network. there are several elements that should be considered. Most RF amplifiers for WLANs are bidirectional. Baseline practices may be different for different organizations due to the needs of the wireless network. and reporting be clearly outlined. more often it is necessary to “boost” a signal to compensate for loss of power. What is an RF amplifier? ANS: An RF amplifier is a device that amplifies or increases the amplitude of an RF signal.8. What are the factors that should be considered in determining the relative value of assets? ANS: How critical is this asset to the goals of the organization? How much profit does it generate? How much revenue does it generate? What is the cost to replace it? How much does it cost to protect it? How difficult would it be to replace it? How quickly can it be replaced? What is the security impact if this asset is unavailable? REF: 347 10. Physical security protects the equipment and infrastructure itself. Although gain can occur unintentionally when an RF signal bounces off an object and combines with the original signal to amplify it. A unidirectional amplifier increases the RF signal level before it is injected into the transmitting antenna. The positive difference in amplitude between two signals is known as gain. Once baseline practices are identified they can be used for creating design and implementation practices. Design and implementation practices form the foundation of what conduct on the wireless LAN is acceptable. or it could be due to the length of cable from a wireless device to its antenna (as when an external antenna is attached to an AP). This loss may be the result of the distance between the AP and the wireless device. steal. and has one primary goal: to prevent unauthorized users from reaching the equipment in order to use. Physical security is a major challenge with wireless LANs because the RF signal cannot be contained within the four walls of a building. For a WLAN this would be the access point or wireless device. A bidirectional amplifier boosts the RF signal before it is injected into the device that contains the antenna. A security policy must specifically identify physical security. When creating a functional (working) security policy. With a wireless security policy it is critical that monitoring.