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Nama : ……………………………….. Kelas :…………………….. 6355/1

SULIT 6355/1 English for Science and Technology Kertas 1 September 2009 1¼ jam

MAKTAB RENDAH SAINS MARA

PEPERIKSAAN PERCUBAAN SIJIL PELAJARAN MALAYSIA 2009

ENGLISH FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
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Kertas 1 Satu jam lima belas minit JANGAN BUKA KERTAS SOALAN INI SEHINGGA DIBERITAHU
Arahan For Examiner’s Use 1. 2. 3. 4. Tuliskan nama dan kelas anda pada ruang yang disediakan. Kertas soalan ini mengandungi dua bahagian : Bahagian A dan Bahagian B. Jawab semua soalan. Tuliskan semua jawapan anda untuk Bahagian A dan Bahagian B di ruangan yang disediakan. Anda dinasihatkan supaya mengambil masa 30 minit untuk menjawab soalan dalam Bahagian A dan 45 minit untuk menjawab soalan dalam Bahagian B. Marks Question 1 A Question 2 B TOTAL 10 30 50 10

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Instructions
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Write your name and class in the space provided. This question paper consists of two sections : Section A and Section B. Answer all questions. Write all your answers for Section A and Section B in the space provided. You are advised to spend 30 minutes to answer the questions in Section A and 45 minutes on the questions in Section B Kertas soalan ini mengandungi 8 halaman bercetak [Lihat sebelah 6355/1 ©2009 Hak Cipta Bahagian Pendidikan & Latihan (Menengah) MARA SULIT

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http://banksoalanspm.blogspot.com/ SULIT 2 Section A [20 marks] [Time suggested : 30 minutes] Question 1 Read the following text and complete the given task. 6355/1

Insects first appeared over 400 million years ago. Today, scientists have recorded over 900,000 species of insects, more than all other plants and animals. The typical insect structure, comprising a head, thorax and abdomen with six legs and a set of wings, is particularly mobile and robust. As a general rule insects get a very bad press. Over the centuries, insects have been responsible for spreading terrible diseases such as malaria, sleeping sickness and plague. Insects such as locusts have also consumed crops before they are harvested, causing famine and starvation. However, despite such damning evidence, perhaps it is now time to restore the balance and consider life without insects. Insects are primary food source for the majority of reptiles, amphibians and birds. Deprived of their food source, such animals would quickly die out. Without insects, flowering plants would not be pollinated and would fail to reproduce. In addition, insects are nature’s most effective recyclers. Without insects to recycle the nutrients in dead animals and plants, the earth would swiftly cease to contain essential nutrient. Eventually, if there were no insects, only wind-pollinated plants would survive and the land would be inhabited by only a sparse and meagre animal life. There are a number of explanations for the amazing success of insects. Insects are capable of changing form, or metamorphosing, and consequently are able to exploit separate forms of food and habitat whether on land or in the water.

(Adapted from: Just English Vol 2. Issue 3)

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______________________________________________ [10 marks] 6355/1 [Lihat sebelah SULIT www.com ._______________________________________________ 5.banksoalanspm. complete the table below._______________________________________________ 7._______________________________________________ USEFULNESS 8. INSECTS 1._______________________________________________ 4._______________________________________________ 3._______________________________________________ THREATS 6.com/ SULIT 3 6355/1 Based on the information from the text.blogspot.blogspot._______________________________________________ TYPICAL STRUCTURE 2._______________________________________________ ABILITIES 10._______________________________________________ 9.http://banksoalanspm.

The brain’s hemispheres are not so simplistically split into two neat divisions. Unfortunately. Many people assume that music is mediated solely in the right brain. whereas the right brain is supposed to be creative and emotional.com . When Roger Sperry examined patients whose connection between the two hemispheres . both hemispheres participate in almost all our mental activities. Both hemispheres are involved in our mental activities which are in constant communication to make sense out of life. they found it to be divided into two hemispheres. (Adapted from: Refining Composition Skills) 6355/1 SULIT www. The right hemisphere tends to recognise sameness. both hemispheres process the information. Both hemispheres are in operation when we reason. Whenever we use language. Many investigators have studied the differences between the functions of the two hemispheres and have found their relationship to be quite complex. It appears that the left hemisphere is dominant when it comes to understanding grammar and syntax. which are nearly identical in appearance.http://banksoalanspm. most people have tended to over-generalise.was severed. The brain is not totally divided about music.the corpus callosum . The left hemisphere is also involved in music. The two hemispheres act as partners in language and communication. requires the brain to make judgments about sequencing and rhythm and for this the left hemisphere lends its services. but when it comes to interpreting emotions in communication. such as bluegrass. Fast music.com/ SULIT Question 2 Read the following text and complete the given task. The left hemisphere is dominant in recognising abstract differences. however. he found that the two sides of brain seemed to have different functions. the right brain excels.blogspot. rational and analytical.blogspot. mirroring each other just as the two sides of the body do. The left brain is supposed to be logical. That is not so. 4 6355/1 When scientists first examined the human brain.banksoalanspm. In fact. It is true that the right brain recognises chords and melodies and seems to mediate pure and slow tones.

com/ SULIT 5 6355/1 Based on the information from the text._________________________ Musical abilities 10. complete the graphic organiser below.____________________ 6.blogspot.com .___________________ [10 marks] 6355/1 [Lihat sebelah SULIT www.____________________ 4.____________________ 3.banksoalanspm.____________________ 8._________________________ Reasoning abilities Recognising sameness Language and Communication abilities 5.blogspot.http://banksoalanspm.____________________ Common assumptions 7._______________________________ Logical Right Hemisphere 2._________________________ 9. BRAIN Left Hemisphere connected by 1.

6355/1 SULIT www. you must: • • • use all the information given elaborate by giving relevant information provide any other additional information Your report should not be less than 200 words.blogspot. Burning of fossil fuels Deforestation Open burning Disposing of waste in landfills Rising sea levels Droughts and intense rainstorms Loss of plants and animal species Health problems 6355/1 Write a report on the causes and effects of global warming.com .banksoalanspm.http://banksoalanspm.blogspot.com/ SULIT 6 Section B [30 marks] [Time suggested : 45 minutes] Read the information given and complete the task. In your report.

http://banksoalanspm.banksoalanspm.blogspot.com/ SULIT 7 6355/1 ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 6355/1 [Lihat sebelah SULIT www.blogspot.com .

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4. iaitu A. Hitamkan semua jawapan anda untuk Bahagian A dan Bahagian B di dalam kertas jawapan yang disediakan. Choose only one answer. 2.banksoalanspm.blogspot. C and D. 4. Kertas soalan ini mengandungi 15 halaman bercetak dan 1 halaman tidak bercetak 6355/2 ©2009 Hak Cipta Bahagian Pendidikan & Latihan (Menengah) MARA [Lihat sebelah SULIT www. Questions in this question paper are followed by four options. A. Soalan-soalan yang dikemukakan dalam kertas soalan diikuti oleh empat pilihan jawapan. Answer all questions. C dan D.blogspot. Shade all your answers for Section A and Section B on the answer sheet provided.com . Jawab semua soalan. B. Pilih satu jawapan sahaja Instructions 1. B.http://banksoalanspm.com/ SULIT 6355/2 English for Science and Technology Kertas 2 September 2009 1 jam 6355/2 MAKTAB RENDAH SAINS MARA PEPERIKSAAN PERCUBAAN SIJIL PELAJARAN MALAYSIA 2009 ENGLISH FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Kertas 2 6 3 5 5 2 Satu jam JANGAN BUKA KERTAS SOALAN INI SEHINGGA DIBERITAHU Arahan 1. 2. This question paper consists of two sections and 30 questions. Kertas soalan ini mengandungi dua bahagian dan 30 soalan. 3. 3.

the wave may hardly be noticed. Tsunamis are caused by A B C D shallow waters near a coast giant waves of 30 metres or more wave movements in the open ocean earthquakes under the ocean floor Chalk is a mineral usually found on the seabed and seaside cliffs.http://banksoalanspm. Study the information carefully and choose the best answer.blogspot. In the open ocean. the wave may rise to heights of 30 metres or more. This mineral is formed from very fine grains of calcium carbonate that have separated from seawater and settled to become white. muddy sediment on the sea floor.blogspot. The sediment is made up of A B C D tiny pieces of chalk calcium carbonate grains seawater and chalk grains mud and calcium carbonate 6355/2 SULIT www.com . the sediment hardened to form chalk. Over millions of years. 2. When an earthquake takes place beneath the sea bed. it may produce a wave in the sea. But if it reaches shallow water near a coast. These giant waves are called tsunamis.banksoalanspm.com/ SULIT 2 6355/2 Questions 1 – 25 are based on the given stimuli. 1.

6355/2 [Lihat sebelah SULIT www. Viruses. contain protein and nucleic acid. viruses do not repair.http://banksoalanspm. Both viruses and cellular organisms A B C D contain protein and nucleic acid. unlike cellular organisms.blogspot. many viruses kill the host cell. However.blogspot.banksoalanspm.com/ SULIT 3 6355/2 Questions 3 – 4 are based on the following text. like all living cellular organisms. Viruses exhibit some but not all the characteristics of living things. need a living cell to multiply. or respond to stimuli. cellular organisms do not necessarily need a host to reproduce. But when placed in solutions. they become active again. The word they refers to A B C D viruses crystals solutions organisms 4. viruses can be solidified into crystals. Unlike cellular organisms. called a host cell. can be turned into crystals. During reproduction.com . can respond to stimuli. 3. Viruses can reproduce only within a living cell. However. grow.

Then. secondary and tertiary.blogspot. Which of the following shows the stages of the primary phase of wastewater treatment? A screening B screening C screening D screening digesting grinding digesting grinding drawing off organic matter removing of inorganic matter removing of inorganic matter drawing off organic matter removing of inorganic matter drawing off organic matter drawing off organic matter removing of inorganic matter grinding digesting grinding digesting drying drying drying drying 6355/2 SULIT www. organic materials are drawn off for disposal. The final stage is drying where the digested sludge is dried and converted into fertiliser. Then it is further treated in a closed tank in a process called digestion. In the primary phase. Next. In a grit chamber.com .banksoalanspm. in a sedimentation tank.blogspot. it is passed through a grinder where organic materials are reduced in size.com/ SULIT 4 6355/2 Wastewater treatment is essential in providing clean and safe water consumption. inorganic matters are removed.http://banksoalanspm. There are three basic phases of wastewater treatment in a treatment plant: primary. the first stage is screening where vertical metal bars remove bulky debris or objects. 5.

and wastes can pass over to the mother’s blood and be carried away. without ever mixing maternal and foetal blood. and oxygen can pass across from mother to child. The placenta is a specialised organ within the womb of the mother that brings the bloodstream of the foetus into close contact with the blood stream of the mother.http://banksoalanspm. helping to calm the mind.banksoalanspm. The placenta is attached to the umbilical cord. nourishing them by a placenta. 6.blogspot. Both gingko and linden can cure headaches because they work on the patient’s A B C D tensions migraines body circulation circulatory system 6355/2 [Lihat sebelah SULIT www. 7. The circulatory system in the body can be boosted by gingko as well and it is a good option in the treatment of circulation headaches. Linden relieves tensions and sinus headaches. and give birth to live young. Food.blogspot. A placenta within the womb of female mammals serves as A B C D the potential internal organs for the foetus the bloodstream for the foetus and the mother a passage for the supply of nourishment for the foetus a medium for close contact of the foetus and the mother Gingko may be effective in treating ailments associated with decreased blood flow to the brain. water. Also. females carry their young in the uterus during the development. linden flowers improve the overall functioning of the circulatory system and researchers believe it could cure migraine as well.com . It serves as the provisional lungs. intestines and kidneys of the embryo.com/ SULIT 5 6355/2 In most mammal species.

however. scientists have successfully cloned a wide variety of farm animals and cloning procedures have become increasingly efficient. 9.http://banksoalanspm. force has to be applied to oppose the friction caused. It can hinder the motion of an object or prevent an object from moving at all. the surfaces must be in contact with each other. Almost none survive to live a normal life span. In order for objects to be moved A B C D their weight has to be the same.com .com/ SULIT 6 6355/2 Since Dolly’s birth in 1997.banksoalanspm. Many become oversized.blogspot. The strength of frictional force depends on the nature of the surfaces that are in contact and the force pushing them together. Only a small fraction of the transplanted embryos survive to term. This force is usually related to the weight of the object or objects. enough friction has to be forced upon the objects. Friction results from two surfaces rubbing against each other or moving relative to one another. 6355/2 SULIT www.blogspot. 8. a condition known as large offspring syndrome. Cloned farm animals A B C D will all become oversized are unable to live an expected life span develop normally as they reach adulthood have largely been successful to survive to term Friction is a type of force that opposes the motion of an object when the object is in contact with another object or surface. Those that survive to be born usually die soon thereafter. with most dying late in pregnancy. as their development into adults tends to go unexpectedly haywire. The few cloned offspring that reach childhood face an uncertain future.

banksoalanspm. The honey bees or Apis mellifera evolve more slowly than other insects and have more genes related to smell. Where does the truck apply its maximum speed? A B C D W X Y Z [Lihat sebelah SULIT 6355/2 www.http://banksoalanspm.. honey bees have a well-developed sense of smell because A B C D they are mentally well-developed their genetic code is more complex they have more smell-related genes their development is similar to others Velocity / ms-1 10 . uncovering clues about their complex social behaviour and their heightened sense of smell. they display mental prowess and can discern a flower’s shape.blogspot..com . colour and scent quite skilfully.com/ SULIT 7 6355/2 Scientists have mapped the genetic code of honey bees. 10.-W 8 6 4 2 0 Z I 2 X Y I 4 I 6 I 8 I 10 I 12 I 14 time (sec) 11. Even though the honey bees have tiny brains.. The graph shows a velocity – time graph of a truck moving in a straight line. Compared to other insects.blogspot..

12. The entire computer frame that you see. printer and disk the parts of a computer that can be seen only when it is switched on Food and water are the most common sources of parasite transmission. mouse. is the hardware. It consists of all the parts of the computer which you can actually touch.http://banksoalanspm.blogspot. Since most of us eat three times a day and drink water frequently throughout the day.banksoalanspm. Tap water has been found to be contaminated with parasitic organisms. including the keyboard. monitor.blogspot. Based on the description in the above text. regardless if the computer is switchedoff.com/ SULIT 8 6355/2 Hardware includes all the components used to make a computer. People are easily exposed to contamination because A B C D people consume food and water many times a day sanitary measures are followed in restaurants food is left exposed all the time all water is contaminated 6355/2 SULIT www. Many restaurants have less than sanitary conditions ranging from food preparation and storage to the utensils and servers’ hands. printer and disk. 13.com . monitor. our exposure to these sources is constant. plastic or fibre. mouse. Hardware is usually made of metal. hardware is A B C D mainly made of metal and plastic the physical parts of a computer a set of keyboard.

Which of the following is the correct order of the process? A B C D Washing ------. Man-made fibres are also spun: cotton polyester is a mix of natural and synthetic fibres.knitting Cleaning ------.weaving Earth’s Seasons Sun 15. During the September Equinox the south experiences Summer.mixing Washing ------.com .http://banksoalanspm. Knitting is a different process that entwines loops of yarns in a wax. Natural fibres must undergo a number of processes before being turned into cloth.knitting Cleaning ------. The Earth’s rotation around the Sun determines the different seasons.spinning ------. 6355/2 [Lihat sebelah SULIT www. for example.spinning ------. Not all fabrics are made by weaving. The yarn is then woven into cloth.banksoalanspm.weaving ------. Which statement is true from the diagram above? A B C D The Sun changes position during every Equinox.blogspot. 14.blogspot.washing ------.com/ SULIT 9 6355/2 Natural fibres must be cleaned or washed before being spun (twisted) into long threads of yarn. Winter is experienced by the Northern Hemisphere in December and June.

com . 17. Mechanical energy is produced by objects or machines changing their positions. but it is about to move.blogspot.com/ SULIT 10 6355/2 Kinetic energy is energy in motion. This is why blood types must be matched before blood transfusion can take place. Potential energy is stored energy.banksoalanspm.blogspot. • A person with Type A blood can donate blood to a person with Type A or Type AB • A person with Type B blood can donate blood to a person with Type B or Type AB • A person with Type AB blood can donate blood to a person with Type AB only • A person with Type O blood can donate blood to anyone.http://banksoalanspm. Chemical energy is released when substances are broken down. Anything that is moving or changing has kinetic energy. which type of blood can be given to a patient with an unknown blood type? A B C D Type A Type B Type O Type AB 18. The word clump can best be replaced with A B C D mix clot stick react 6355/2 SULIT www. 16. Something has potential energy when it is not moving. In case of emergency. Which of the following would be an example of the energy in a wound-up spring? A B C D Kinetic energy Chemical energy Potential energy Mechanical energy Two different blood types cannot be mixed together as the blood cells may clump together which can cause fatality.

blogspot. need more effective treatment compared to anorexics. a result from the fact that the eye is not able to focus light rays further back. losing the calories acquired. 20. At the same time.banksoalanspm. despite maximum flattening of its lens.http://banksoalanspm. lose lesser weight compared to anorexics. Which of the following diagrams illustrates short-sightedness? light light A B light light C D People with bulimia often go on eating spree (binge) and secretly vomit. people with bulimia are often not noticed because their weight varies slightly from their normal weight.blogspot.com/ SULIT 11 6355/2 People with short-sightedness (myopia) are not able to see objects that are far away.com . It is true that bulimics A B C D openly vomit the food they consume. Short-sightedness mainly affects a person’s ability to look at distant objects where the light rays come straight or parallel into the eyes. 19. weight gain and how they appear to others. Unlike those with anorexia. This is because light rays focus in front of the retina. 6355/2 [Lihat sebelah SULIT www. treatment is more effective for bulimia rather than anorexia. It is estimated that about 3% of females are bulimic. care less about their physical appearance. People with bulimia are also obsessed with their body.

many birds and some mammals thrive in this area. the upper parts of most of the trees. Insects. In the diagram. On the other hand.http://banksoalanspm. is full of life. Most of the understory of a rainforest has so little light that plant growth is limited. the understory is labelled as A B C D W X Y Z 6355/2 SULIT www. especially insects and arachnids plus large animals. It houses many birds and insects while the forest floor is teeming with animal life.com/ SULIT 12 6355/2 W X Y Z Strata of the Tropical Rainforest The emergents consist of the tops of the tallest trees. which are much higher than the average canopy height (ranging up to 270 feet or 81 m). arachnids.blogspot.com . The understory is a dark. cool environment that is under the leaves but over the ground. 21.blogspot.banksoalanspm. the canopy.

com . lightweight and portable. Some of them are more powerful than some of the older.blogspot. because when a person gets older. Their ruggedness makes them more suited than microcomputers and minicomputers to handle the mechanical shock and vibration. we can conclude that A all senior citizens experience this problem B old people tend to suffer from presbyopia C presbyopia can be overcome by wearing sunglasses D the elderly’s eye lenses lose the ability to contract and relax 6355/2 [Lihat sebelah SULIT www. salt spray. larger mainframe computers and minicomputers. Presbyopia occurs gradually over a number of years and is usually noticeable by age 40-45. The suitable computer to be used in a submarine is A B C D Minicomputer Microcomputer Portable computer Mainframe computer Questions 23 – 24 are based on the following text. 23. It is a condition that occurs as part of normal aging. Mainframe computers are physically the largest computers you will maintain. rigid flexible dynamic movable From the text.http://banksoalanspm. The muscles in the ciliary body also lose their ability to contract and relax. 22. one’s eye lenses become harder and less elastic. The word elastic can be substituted by A B C D 24.Presbyopia is corrected by wearing glasses with bifocal lenses to see near and far objects clearly.banksoalanspm.blogspot. temperature and humidity.com/ SULIT 13 6355/2 Microcomputers or personal computers are small. The term presbyopia means ‘old eye’ and is a vision condition involving the loss of the eye’s ability to focus on both near and far objects.

blogspot.banksoalanspm. It is an extremely hard substance that can cut through many materials. The finest diamonds are cut and polished for jewellery.com . 25.com/ SULIT 14 6355/2 The crystals of about eighty special minerals are known as ‘gemstones’.http://banksoalanspm. we can conclude that A carbon can be used to cut through many materials B diamond is the only gemstone suitable as jewellery C diamonds can slice through almost all common materials D carbon is used in the manufacture of drilling and cutting tools 6355/2 SULIT www. The most valuable gemstone is diamond. It is a crystal of carbon. Industrial diamonds are used in the manufacture of drilling and cutting tools. Based on the text above.blogspot. Many gemstones are used just for making jewellery while others have less glamourous uses.

6355/2 [Lihat sebelah SULIT www. 26. 29.com/ SULIT 15 6355/2 Questions 26 – 30 are based on the following passage. Sometimes the rock is deformed too rapidly so that the limit of its ____29____ is reached.banksoalanspm. and it breaks. This causes vibration that is transmitted from rock to rock for thousands of miles. 30. The vibration of an earthquake is felt most strongly along the fault line at the epicenter. flow or creep. but positively. It appears that ____27____ forces at these levels cause rocks to slowly. but none come from a greater depth than 450 miles. Choose the most appropriate answer from the options given. Some are deeper.blogspot. A B C D A B C D A B C D A B C D A B C D derive evolve originate commence central surface underneath underground bent broken twisted twirled power strength condition resilience spilled released confined absorbed 27. 28.com .blogspot. adjusting gradually to the great pressure. The rocks behave as a spring being ____28____.http://banksoalanspm. The majority of earthquakes seem to ____26____ at the depths of 10 to 20 miles below the epicenter. Some of the vast energy of the deforming forces is ____30____ by one rock mass rubbing on another.

Most studies focus on the period up to 2100. Global surface temperature increased 0.[7] The continuing retreat of glaciers.com/ Global warming From Wikipedia. species extinctions and changes in agricultural yields.blogspot. Other likely effects include shrinkage of the Amazon rainforest and Boreal forests.0 to 11.[1] and that natural phenomena such as solar variation and volcanoes probably had a small warming effect from pre-industrial times to 1950 and a small cooling effect afterward.74 ± 0. and the use of differing estimates of future greenhouse gas emissions.1 to 6. increases in the intensity of extreme weather events.com . However. warming is expected to continue beyond 2100 even if emissions stop. because of the large heat capacity of the oceans and the long lifetime of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. permafrost and sea ice is expected.[5][6] Increasing global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation.18 °C (1.4 °C (2.http://banksoalanspm.banksoalanspm.33 ± 0.[1]A[›] The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes that anthropogenic greenhouse gases are responsible for most of the observed temperature increase since the middle of the twentieth century.B[›] including all of the national academies of science of the major industrialized countries.32 °F) during the last century.5 °F) during the twenty-first century.[4] Climate model projections summarized in the latest IPCC report indicate that global surface temperature will probably rise a further 1.[2][3] These basic conclusions have been endorsed by more than 40 scientific societies and academies of science. Global mean surface temperature anomaly relative to 1961–1990 Mean surface temperature anomalies during the period 1999 to 2008 with respect to the average temperatures from 1940 to 1980 Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of the Earth's near-surface air and oceans since the mid-twentieth century and its projected continuation. with the Arctic region being particularly affected.blogspot. Some other uncertainties include how warming and related changes will vary from region to region around the globe. probably including expansion of subtropical deserts. search For past climate change. see paleoclimatology and geologic temperature record.[1] The uncertainty in this estimate arises from the use of models with differing climate sensitivity. www.

human use of fossil fuels is the main source of excess greenhouse gases. Rise of sea levels by at least 25 meters (82 feet) by the year 2100. The total annual power of hurricanes has already increased markedly since 1975 because their average intensity and average duration have increased (in addition. By driving cars. there has been a high correlation of hurricane power with tropical sea-surface temperature). the level of atmospheric methane has risen by 151 percent. using electricity from coal-fired power plants. Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming While many greenhouse gases occur naturally and are needed to create the greenhouse effect that keeps the Earth warm enough to support life. because fewer trees means less carbon dioxide conversion to oxygen. Amounts and patterns of precipitation are changing. adaptation to reduce the damage caused by warming. more speculatively.banksoalanspm. we release carbon dioxide and other heat-trapping gases into the atmosphere. and. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide accummulate in the atmosphere and trap heat that normally would exit into outer space.com/ Political and public debate continues regarding the appropriate response to global warming.http://banksoalanspm. the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide has increased by 31 percent. More details about the effects of global warming : Increasing global temperatures are causing a broad range of changes.com . mostly from agricultural activities such as raising cattle and growing rice. Question: What Causes Global Warming? Answer: Scientists have determined that a number of human activities are contributing to global warming by adding excessive amounts of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. www.blogspot. geoengineering to reverse global warming. Most national governments have signed and ratified the Kyoto Protocol aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Sea levels are rising due to thermal expansion of the ocean. During the 150 years of the industrial age. Effects of global warming There are two major effects of global warming: • • Increase of temperature on the earth by about 3° to 5° C (34° to 41° Fahrenheit) by the year 2100. The available options are mitigation to reduce further emissions. Deforestation is another significant source of greenhouse gases. Over the same period.blogspot. in addition to melting of land ice. or heating our homes with oil or natural gas.

com . heat waves. species extinctions.blogspot.banksoalanspm. warming is expected to continue past then because carbon dioxide (chemical symbol CO2) has an estimated atmospheric lifetime of 50 to 200 years. duration. further glacial retreat. reduced summer stream flows. www. Although global warming is affecting the number and magnitude of these events. and intensity of other extreme weather events. Other effects of global warming include higher or lower agricultural yields. such as floods. As a further effect of global warming. and tornadoes.http://banksoalanspm. droughts.com/ Changes in temperature and precipitation patterns increase the frequency. diseases like malaria are returning into areas where they have been extinguished earlier. Although most studies focus on the period up to 2100.blogspot. it is difficult to connect specific events to global warming.