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I.INTRODUCTION History of Ketchup Ketchup, a tangy, seasoned tomato sauce, is one of America's favorite condiments.

Although ketchup, also spelled catsup, is used primarily as a relish for hamburgers, hot dogs, and French fries, it is also a common ingredient for sauces, meatloaf, beans, and stews. During the mid-1990s the sales of ketchup exceeded $400 million annually. The tangy sauce originated in ancient China as a brine of pickled fish or shellfish called "ke-tsiap." Neighboring countries adopted their own variations of "kechap" consisting of fish brine, herbs, and spices. In the late 1600s, English sailors visiting Malaysia and Singapore were so impressed with the sauce that they took samples home. English cooks attempted to duplicate the spicy sauce, but without access to some of the exotic Asian ingredients, they improvised with cucumbers, mushrooms, nuts, oysters, and other variants. One hundred years later, New Englanders created the definitive tomato ketchup when Maine seamen returned from Mexico and the Spanish West Indies with seeds of an exotic New World fruit called tomato. The tangy tomato ketchup quickly became a popular sauce for codfish cakes, meat, and other foods. Making ketchup at home was a tedious, day-long process. The tomato mixture, cooked in heavy iron kettles at wood-burning stoves, required constant stirring to prevent it from burning. Scouring the preserving kettles meticulously was also no easy task. To

The classic narrow-neck design of the Heinz ketchup bottle established the norm for the industry.the relief of many homemakers. developed one of the first leading brands of mass-marketed ketchup. dipped by hand into wax to prevent aeration. . (From the collections of Henry Ford Museum & Greenfield Village) The history of ketchup and the history of advertising are inextricably intertwined. Ten years later. Glass was an ideal container because it was inert and did not react with the ketchup.J. H. when this photo was taken.J. By the 1920s. The narrow-neck bottle simplified pouring the ketchup and minimized contact with air. Plastic was not only more convenient than glass for pouring the thick sauce. in response to environmental concerns. This is especially true in the case of the H. Heinz Company. and topped with foil to further protect it from contamination. and the clear glass allowed the consumer to see the product. ketchup operations were highly mechanized. which could darken the sauce. the bottles were sealed with cork. a firm that pioneered many elements of the prepared food business and the modern advertising industry. recyclable plastic containers were also developed. screw caps provided a more convenient closure. Initially. In the 1980s. Heinz Co. ketchup became commercially available in the second half of the 1800s. but also safer. plastic squeezable containers revolutionized ketchup packaging and soon outsold glass containers. By the turn of the century.

Born in 1844. and motion pictures amid the displays of Heinz products and souvenirs. concerts. By his teens he was employing three women to help process garden products and bottling his mother's horseradish for distribution. when he was nine years old. at the food pavilion. seeking to bolster attendance at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. renamed it the Heinz Ocean Pier. Riding the New York elevator one day in 1892. he saw a sign advertising 21 varieties of shoes. and operated it until 1945 as a free public attraction with antique displays. The tokens were redeemable for a free Heinz souvenir. just east of Pittsburgh. Heinz distinguished his horseradish from his competitors by using clear glass bottles to emphasize the product's purity. He took the concept. New Jersey. The "pickle pin" went on to become one of the best-known corporate souvenirs in history." In 1893. He learned business practices while working as a bookkeeper for his father's brickyard and at night school. Pretzer) . with over 100 million distributed. Henry John Heinz began helping his mother with her gardens along the Allegheny River. a watch charm in the shape of a pickle. came up with a figure of 57 because he thought it was a memorable number. lectures. (William S. and created the catch phrase "Heinz 57 Varieties. Heinz was operating another family food processing firm. In 1898. Heinz bought the Iron Pier in Atlantic City. which was soon overrun with visitors. Twenty years later. Heinz distributed thousands of small tokens throughout the fair grounds.

. Physical Properties Tangy. This refers to the ability of the ketchup to retain its liquid in suspension. Consistency. Its natural colour is brownish. The amount of solids used in the production of the ketchup. vinegar and spices. Chemical Properties pH. The flavour of the sauce is usually tangy or there is a mixture of sweet and spicy taste. due to lack of tomatoes and a comparatively high production of bananas. Concentration. Orosa (1893– 1945) is credited with inventing a banana ketchup recipe. where the basis for the color of the ketchup is the fruit used for making it. the color of the ketchup is red. They are recognized as Grades A through C with its specific concentration. Traditionally. Colour. tomato. sugar. Banana ketchup was made when there was a shortage of tomato ketchup during World War II. so it is often dyed red to resemble tomato ketchup. Filipino food technologist Maria Y. THE PRODUCT Banana Ketchup Banana ketchup or banana sauce is a popular Philippine condiment made from mashed banana. Acidity of ketchup preserves the sauce.II.

It is exported to countries where there is a considerable Filipino population (United States. In Filipino households. examples for them are Menudo. Escabeche. ketchups are one of the seasonings of the main dishes for its unique blend of sweetness and spice that is perfectly matched with these foods.Orosa (1893. Today. With the help of the Filipino food technologist. United Kingdom. Hong Kong. It still has a hint of sweetness. Switzerland. Australia and New Zealand). Caldereta. She invented Banana Ketchup with the same flavour and taste of the Tomato Ketchup that traditionally used by the people at that . more and more food dishes were invented for the efficiency and satisfaction of the tastes of the Filipinos. etc. fish and other meats. banana ketchup is also a vital and distinct ingredient in Filipino-style spaghetti (sweeter than the traditional Italian spaghetti).Uses and Application Banana ketchup is a type of condiment used to enhance the flavour of the food. There is also a "hot" version made by the same company (Jufran). Availability and Cost In the Philippines. burgers. fries. the demand for ketchup was very high where there were lacks of tomatoes and the availability of the production of bananas were comparatively high. Sausi Arabia. Meat balls with Sauce. Kuwait. hot dogs. For Filipino dishes. Canada.omelettes (torta).1945) found a way to overcome this crisis. at the time of World War II. But for some other applications. Maria Y. this ubiquitous condiment is used usually on foods especially dry dishes like . Now. coupled with spicyhot taste. France.

5 L of banana ketchup. Product Safety The quality of ketchup is insured by taking samples of the product during various stages of production.time. once the containers are opened. about 200 Php will be spent for 2. as time flows. For homemade banana ketchup. Inspection is necessary of the tomatoes. but de-aeration of the sauce during manufacture can prevent this problem. ingredients. flavor. oxidation may still occur. and quality. Therefore. . With great abundance of the availability of the bananas here in the Philippines having a tropic climate where bananas can grow well at this environment. and of all processing equipment which comes into contact with the product. manufacturers recommend that once containers are opened they should be refrigerated to prevent deterioration of the ketchup color. Tomato growers must comply with regulations set by the Environmental Protection Agency and the Food and Drug Administration regarding the use of fertilizers and pesticides. more and more banana ketchup production and industries were developed. However. Oxidation of ketchup can darken the color of ketchup. plus the spices being used for making banana ketchup can help the manufacturing industry to lessen the cost of its product. Increasing concern in the closing decades of the 20th century led to increased use of natural fertilizers and pesticides. Although the acidity of ketchup preserves the sauce.

the higher the grade of the ketchup. The ketchup Grades A through C must conform to specific concentrations. or body. which refers to the ability of the ketchup to retain its liquid in suspension.To maintain consistency in color and flavor. set Grades A and B at flow rates at less than 4 inches (10 cm) in 30 seconds at 68°F (20°C). recommended by the USDA. manufacturers determine the concentration of tomato solids in the mixture. Product Data Sheet: Banana Ketchup . since about one-third of the ketchup's acidity and sugar content depends on the amount of solids. The quality of the ketchup can be measured by its physical consistency. The slower the rate. the Bostwick Consistometer. For instance.

which occurs with changes in growing conditions and types of tomatoes. The white vinegar. The various brands of ketchup have slightly different formulas.II. which vary primarily in the amounts of spices or flavorings. . sweeteners. and/or garlic. spices. ginger. cloves. which are easier to use but more expensive. RAW MATERIALS The main ingredients of ketchup are tomatoes/bananas. and paprika. cassia. helps to preserve the ketchup. Some manufacturers believe that whole spices produce a superior. salt. Other sweeteners include dextrose or liquid sugar in the form of corn or glucose syrup. vinegar. Whatever the form. The spices commonly used to enhance the flavour of the tomatoes are allspice. Thicker consistencies require a greater ratio of sugar and spices relative to the tomato juice. onion. mustard. spices must be of a high quality. pepper. more mild flavour than ground spices or spice oils. flavorings. The types of sweetener used are usually granulated cane sugar or beet sugar. cayenne. cinnamon. commonly 100-grain distilled. More modern processes use premixed or encapsulated spices. Occasionally formulas must be slightly adjusted according to variations in the acid and sugar content of tomatoes.

as slight variations in tomato characteristics could alter the flavor and color of the finished product. texture. Ketchup manufacturers must seek out the best quality tomatoes for their product.Material Safety In accordance to the product safety standards. The . flavor. The sterility of the working place is very important in the manufacturing of the banana ketchup in order to avoid contamination of the product and its high quality. Consistency is an important factor. or an inclined channel. Preparing tomatoes 2. The U. the general preferences of using banana fruit (saba) is strictly followed. The water method washes the tomatoes and protects them from bruising while they pass from the truck to the factory. The fruit is commonly conveyed by water from the trucks into a flume. Tomatoes are harvested mechanically between June and July. The quality of banana alters the taste and quality of the product. MANUFACTURING PROCESS Industrial Scale ( Tomato Ketchup Production Process ) Developing quality tomatoes 1. Tomato varieties are developed which are superior in color. Department of Agriculture or state inspectors approve and grade tomatoes to meet initial requirements. III. and yield.S.

placed in a separate bag. Pulping 3. The mixture cooks for 30-45 minutes and is circulated by rotating blades installed in the cookers. To avoid excessive evaporation. in stainless steel vats preserves the tomatoes and destroys bacteria. . and stems from the pulp. Most spices are added early in the cooking process. or scaling. salt. precooking. Next. volatile spice oils and vinegar must be mixed in later. spices. The chopped and precooked tomatoes are pumped into pulping machines. Precise amounts of sweeteners. and flavorings are added to the tomato pulp. Salt and sugar may be added at any stage of cooking though it is better to add sugar later to prevent burning. which creates a flat body. washed. but can be corrected with antifoaming compounds or compressed air. The pulp is pumped into cooking tanks or kettles and heated to boiling. The temperature must be carefully regulated to insure absorption of the ingredients without overcooking. or chopped and added to the pulp. Onions and garlic can be mixed in with the spices. though some may be stored in a paste for use later in the year. The pulp and juice are filtered through screens and processed further into ketchup. and chopped. skins. which separate seeds.tomatoes are sorted. vinegar. Adding ingredients and cooking 4. Foaming may occur if fresh tomato pulp is used. or cyclones.

6. and single-serve packets.Finishing 5. Removing air 7. bottles. Excess air might also create unattractive air pockets and impede the closure process. The ketchup passes to a holding tank before further processing. The containers are filled with the ketchup and immediately sealed to retain the freshness of the product. To prevent contamination. room-service sizes. The ketchup may be milled at higher temperatures and pressures to achieve a smoother consistency. including 14-oz. the ketchup passes from the receiving tanks to the filling machines at a temperature not lower than 190°F (88°C). the ketchup mixture passes through a finishing machine. creating a smoother consistency. No. pouch packs. Once the cooking is complete. 10 cans. Finishers remove excess fiber and particles through screens. . Ketchup containers come in various sizes and shapes. The ketchup must be de-aerated to prevent discoloration and growth of bacteria. Filling 8.

Finally. which occurs when ketchup stays at high temperatures after cooking is complete. The entire process of ketchup manufacturing generally takes two to three hours. Containers of ketchup may be cooled in cold air or cold water. The bottled ketchup may be inspected again before shipping. including ingredients. date and location of manufacture. The containers must be cooled to prevent flavor loss through stack burning. and shelflife. Labeling and packing 10.Cooling 9. Traditional Making of Tomato Ketchup at Industrial Scale . the ketchup containers are labeled and coded with product information.

Packaging technology continues to improve as consumers demand safer. . Tomato hybrids are also engineered to improve resistance to disease and rot. and recyclable containers. and firmness. more convenient. flavor. ketchup manufacturers created low-calorie. in response to consumer demand for more healthful foods.Present way of Making Tomato Ketchup Ketchup manufacturers continue to improve the quality of ketchup by developing tomato strains that are superior in color. low-salt ketchup alternatives. thus decreasing the reliance on chemical pesticides. The increasing popularity of Spanish salsas and marinades also influenced manufacturers to develop salsa-style ketchups which were lower in sugar content. In the 1990s.

Schematic Diagram for the Production of Tomato Ketchup in an Industrial Scale .

) pepper. powdered (medium) 1 gram (1 clove) garlic. labuyo 5 grams (1 pc) onion.) refined salt . powdered (big) 10 grams (2 tsp.Small Scale ( Banana Ketchup Production Process ) Ingredients: cavendish (saba) bananas (Boiled) 100 grams (7 tbsp.) vinegar 1 gram (3 pcs.

and grind rare ripe bananas (80% yellow and 20% green).8 gram (1/2 tsp.) water Procedure: 1. .) red dye (no.) cinnamon 200 mL (14 tbsp. 2. Weigh the ground pulp and add an equal amount of water. 2) 2.7 gram (1/2 tsp. peel. 5) 5 grams (1 tsp.) sugar 2.) yellow dye (no.80 grams (6 tbsp. Cook.

While catsup is hot. Adjust the pH of the puree to 4. 4. .3. Cook the mixture for 10 minutes at 75-85˚C. Adjust the pH of the vinegar to 4. sterilized bottle. 9.5% of puree) and /or sodium hydroxide.3.3 by adding citric acid (0. 5.0. 6. 8. stirring continuously to prevent scorching.0-4. Grind the spices and dissolve them in vinegar.4. pour it in clean. 7. Blend in warring blender for one minute. Add coloring and continue heating to desired consistency. Add them to the puree.

Schematic Diagram for Homemade Banana Ketchup Preparation of the Materials and Ingredients Boiling (banana fruit) Peeling Cooking Agitation of the mixture via Manual or Blender Grinding of the Banana and Spices Addidtion of Seasonings Cooling Storage .