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FIRST RESPONDER (FR) – are members of the PNP or other law enforcement agencies who are mandated and expected

to be the first to respond to calls for assistance in cases of incidents of crime. They generally refer to police officers who have jurisdiction of the area where the incident or crime has taken place and will proceed to the crime scene to render assistance to the victim and to protect and secure the incident scene Crime Scene Response involves particular police procedures:  First responder’s responsibility –responsible in the protection and preservation of the crime scene, identification and assistance to injured persons, and call for emergency assistance.  Second, Investigator’s-on-case responsibility – to determine cause or motive of the crime, identification and interview of witnesses, and possible arrest of suspects.  Third, Crime Laboratory’s Scene of Crime Operation – for the search, recognition, collection, handling, preservation, and documentation of physical evidences that will support the successful prosecution in court.

However, in areas where no SOCO Team would be readily available, the investigator should assume the responsibilities of the scene of crime operatives. Functions and responsibilities of the First Responders during Crime Scene Investigation as stated in SOP No. ODIDM-2011-003  The first Police Officers to arrive at the scene are the FRs who were dispatched by the local police stations/unit concerned after receipt of incident/flash/alarm report;  Immediately, the FR shall conduct a preliminary evaluation of the crime scene. This evaluation should include the scope of the incident, emergency services required, scene safety concerns, administration of life-saving measures, and establishment of security and control of the scene.  The FR is mandated to save and preserve life by giving the necessary first aid measures to the injured and their medical evacuation as necessary. The FR shall likewise secure and preserve the crime scene by cordoning the area to prevent unauthorized entry persons;  The FR shall take the dying declaration of severely injured person/s, if any. The FR shall make the initial assessment on whether a crime has actually been committed and shall conduct the preliminary interview of witnesses to determine what and how the crime was committed.  If and when there is a suspect present in the area, the first responder shall arrest, detain and remove the suspect from the area; and  The FR, upon the arrival of the IOC, shall turn-over the crime scene to the duty investigator/IOC after the former has briefed the investigator of the situation. The FR shall prepare and submit the CSI Form “1” – First Responders Report to the IOC and prepared to assist the IOC in the investigation.  Duties of the First Responder at the Crime Scene:  1. Evaluate the situation.  2. Save and Preserve life and provide emergency first aid for those injured at the scene.  3. Prepare to take Dying Declaration of severely injured person, if any.  4. Arrest, detain, and remove any suspect present if more than one (1),  isolate.

 5. Cordon the crime scene with whatever materials like ropes, straws,  human barricade, police line if available.(To secure and preserve the crime

names and addresses of witnesses. The First Responder shall also check the condition of the victim while other members of the first responders shall simultaneously secure the area by putting a police line or any material (like rope. 3.) A. then follow-up should be done. Recording of pertinent information such as time.  That the declaration relates to facts which the victim is competent to testify to. Rule 130 of the Rules of Court).  That the declaration refers to the cause and surrounding circumstances of such death. Photograph and make a sketch of the victim (if the victim is dead). Prepare to brief the investigators of the situation upon their arrival. (Section 37. 2. and. once reduced into writing. if necessary (ask 3 questions) a) Ano ang pangalan at address mo? b) Kilala mo ba ang gumawa nito sayo? c) Sa pakiramdam mo ba ay ikamamatay mo ang tinamo mong sugat? However. Requisites of a “Dying Declaration  The death is imminent and the declarant is conscious of that fact. 2.)  6. Get the dying declaration. 3.  (Turn-over the crime scene to the investigator)  Duties of the First Responder at the Crime Scene:  Other Considerations:         1. scene. straw and etc. Prevent entry of unauthorized persons within the cordoned area. date and place of incident. shall be duly signed by or with thumbmark of the victim.  7. Conduct preliminary evaluation at the crime scene and interview   witnesses to determine what and how crime was committed and write down details.  8. The statement. If in serious condition 1. Note the position of the victim upon arrival/ discovery of the victim. weather condition. Bring the victim immediately to the nearest hospital using emegency services. .  That the declaration is offered in a case wherein the declarant’s death is the subject of inquiry. Take note the identity of person/s who entered the crime scene prior to the arrival of the investigator and the SOCO. if there is still a chance to ask more questions.

B. To apprehend the perpetrator. If the suspect volunteers any statement. To secure the crime scene. If not in serious condition 1. Preserving and Protecting the Crime Scene Means:  keeping the site of the crime in the same physical condition as it was left by the criminal. Bring the victim immediately to the nearest hospital using emergencyservices. Get the names of the persons who turned. Anyone who comes in contact with the crime scene must prevent the obliteration or deterioration of tangible clues. separate all witnesses so that independent statements can be obtained later. prevent unauthorized persons from entering the crime scene or disturbing it in any manner Entering the Crime Scene Refrain. precedence over evidence  . take note of the time. 5. retain (if possible) all persons at the scene 4. 5. Wait for the investigator to interview the suspect.over or arrested the suspect. Aide the victim – (a victim’s care takes consideration) 3. identify and retain for questioning the person who first notified 2. 4. unless for the following limited purposes: 1. If the suspect is arrested at the crime scene: 1. Preserving and Protecting the Crime Scene Means: Crime scene protection starts with the initial responding officer and must continue throughout the entire time that the crime scene is under the control of the police and involves every member of the of the police department as well as others that may come in contact with the crime scene. Get the identity of the victim. location and circumstances of the statements. 2. determine the perpetrator by direct inquiry or observation if identity is not immediately apparent 3. 4. 2. 3. First Responder’s responsibility 1. NOTE: The other member/s of the first responders shall remain at the crime scene to secure the premises. Isolate the arrested suspect/s and separate them from any probable witness of the incident. 5. Record what time the suspect was arrested. 3. C. Get initial interview from the victim. Determine that the crime was committed 2.

condition of the weather. 3. while a member of the team of someone must call for ambulance from the nearest hospital. whether he is still alive or already dead. Secure the crime scene by installing crime scene tape or rope (police line). 5. Before touching or moving any object of the crime scene. Designate a member of the team or summon other policemen or responsible persons to stand watch and secure the scene and permit only those authorized persons to enter the same. After the victim is removed and brought to the hospital for medical attention. measures. Separate the witnesses in order to get independent statements.  Physical Evidence – Encompasses any and all objects that can establish that a crime has been committed or can provide a link between a crime and its victim or a crime and its perpetrator. documentation. NAPOLCOM Resolution Nr 96-058 in 1996. and other possible witness. Touching or moving objects and walking on. If the victim is alive. and examination of all physical evidence. gathering information. Determine the assailant through inquiry or observe him if his identity is immediately apparent. Record time/date of arrival at the scene. collection. Chapter 3. 4. and arrest of perpetrator(s) for prosecution. 6. location of the scene. 2. the investigator should exert effort to gather information from the victim himself regarding the circumstances of the crime. Forensic Science – Is the application of science to a law. .             DEFINITION OF TERMS  Scene of Crime Operation – is a forensic procedure performed by trained personnel of the PNP Crime Laboratory through scientific methods of investigation for the purpose of preserving the crime scene.   STEPS TO BE FOLLOWED UPON ARRIVAL AT THE SCENE: 1. Arrest him if he is in the vicinity. Identify and retain for questioning the person who first notified the police. 2. condition and type of lighting. 7. Crime Scene Investigation – is a comprehensive inquiry of a crime by conducting systematic procedure of various investigative methodologies which involves recovery of physical and testimonial evidence for the purpose of identifying the witnesses. or otherwise disturbing footprints or items of evidence will destroy the value and reliability of evidence.  Legal Authority in Conducting SOCO 1. sketch and photograph.  Crime the place from which most physical evidence associated with crime will be obtained. determine first the status of the victim. paragraph c and Section 35 of RA 6975 as amended by RA 8551. direction of wind and visibility. Only a STEPS TO BE FOLLOWED UPON ARRIVAL AT THE SCENE: coroner or a medical examiner shall remove the dead body unless unusual circumstances justified its immediate removal. Section 24.

Theory of transfer  Materials transferred in this way are normally referred to as trace evidence.EXPERT TESTIMONY IN COURT 13. Two types of Responses 1. they frequently leave behind traces of themselves and take with them traces of any objects touched. FORENSIC PHOTOGRAPHY 8. however. 5.  i. RA 9165 The Comprehensive Dangerous Drug Act of 2003. Thus. PHYSICAL IDENTIFICATION AND EXAMINATION 4. Theory of transfer  “When two objects come into contact. The term trace evidence is usually very loosely defined.DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (DNA) TESTING . COMPOSITE CRIMINAL ILLUSTRATION 10. FIREARMS IDENTIFICATION AND EXAMINATION 7. FORENSIC CHEMISTRY 3. MEDICO-LEGAL EXAMINATION 2. Scene of Crime Operations (SOCO) 2. most often it is applied to minute or microscopic bits of materials that are not immediately apparent to even a trained investigator.01-08 dated May 1. something from A is transferred to B and vice versa. there will frequently be a transfer of small amounts of material from one to the other.e. This also applies to police officers and crime scene specialists”. 6. Rule 13 Special “Procedures” of PNP Operational Procedures. “every contact leaves a trace”. 2008 FUNCTIONS/CAPABILITIES 1. 12.Human identification through analysis and classification of cellular components. FINGERPRINT EXAMINATION AND IDENTIFICATION 6. POLYGRAPH OR LIE DETECTOR TEST 9.FORENSIC RESEARCH AND TRAINING Locard’s Law or Principle Locard’s Principle summarizes the two way transfer of trace evidence as:  When A comes into contact with B. 1995 4. PNP CLSO # 01-95 dtd November 16. Field Laboratory Works SOCO Assistance: . CL Circular Number .SCENE OF CRIME OPERATION (SOCO) 11.3. DOCUMENT EXAMINATION AND ANALYSIS 5. when suspects come in contact with the victim and objects at the crime scene.

Collection of ashes and debris in relation to arson cases. and prominent leaders of religious organization OTHER SOCO RESPONSES • Collection of paint fragments. Lifting of latent prints in relation to simple theft and robbery cases. Macro-etching examination on defective/tampered chassis/engine numbers of motor vehicles at the compound of the requesting party. Casting and molding of tool marks.  Elected Public Officials (Brgy Captain up to President of the RP)  Appointed public officials with the rank of commissioner. footmarks and footwear impressions at the crime scene. Tri-media practitioners. Collection of physical evidence at the crime scene in relation to bombing incidents. sports stars. robbery in car and/or carnapping. Homicide. B. professionals. hairs. tire marks. prominent businessman. If the situation involves a clandestine drug laboratory. ambuscade. SENSATIONAL CASES FOR SOCO RESPONSES– if any of the following are victims or perpetrators of crime. A. • • • • • Field Laboratory Works (FLW) 1. . secretary. and undersecretary  Foreign diplomat  Any Foreigner  PNP/AFP personnel  Ex-high ranking government officials  Other prominent figures such as movie stars. the Scene of the Crime Operation (SOCO) specialists of the Crime Laboratory shall be requested. the appropriate agency should be contacted prior to entering the scene. Rape with Homicide B.A. fibers and glass fractures at the crime scene in cases of vehicular accidents. Arson. In cases where the crime scene needs special processing due to its significance or because of its sensational nature. SIGNIFICANT CASES FOR SOCO RESPONSES  Bombing incident  CT initiated terrorist activities Raid. Bullet trajectory examination of motor vehicles at the crime scene or other objects involved in shooting incidents. liquidation  KFR case  Armed Robbery of Banks and other Financial institution  Calamity/Disaster  Massacre  Heinous crimes (as the law defines) Murder. radiological or chemical threats. biological weapons.

Fingerprint examination in the place of the requesting unit. Preliminary Crime Scene Survey with IOC. Firearms Examiner d. Evidence Log Recorder/Custodian 5. Sketcher 4. Forensic Specialists (as required) a. Conduct document examination in the place of the requesting party. Driver/Security 6. 12. Withdrawal of fired bullet embedded in the body of the car or in the wall of a building after the crime. 11. Fingerprint Examiner c. Medical Examiner b. Evidence Processor/Collector 7. 5. SOCO TEAM ORGANIZATION 1. 4. Conduct autopsy at the PNP accredited funeral parlor. Paraffin examination of suspects and victims of shooting incidents who are confined in hospitals or in the office of the investigating unit. Photographer 3. Preparation prior to the conduct of SOCO. 10. 7. Bringing of bulky evidence in court. 3. Photographing of evidence related to document examination cases and other forensic fields where physical evidence could not be removed or brought out of the office. 2. Crime Scene approach. SOCO Team Leader 2. .2. Exhumation of cadavers to determine the cause of death. 9. 8. 3. 6. Polygraph examination at the office of the investigator if the name of the suspect is highly confidential. Forensic Chemist The SOCO Process General SOCO Procedure 1. Examination of fake products in cases of unfair trade competition in the office of the requesting party. Conduct of drug test in private or government offices.

8.Submit result of SOCO to Investigator-on. Crime Scene Photography/Videography.4. Narrative Description of the Crime Scene. Final Crime Scene Survey with IOC 11. Evaluation of Physical . 10. Sketch of Crime Scene. 9. Detailed Crime Scene Search. Physical Evidence Recording & Collection. 7. 5. . 6.